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1

2009. Journes Recherche Porcine, 41, 1-x. Predicting sow colostrum production by weighing piglets twice within 48 hours.  

E-print Network

2009. Journées Recherche Porcine, 41, 1-x. Predicting sow colostrum production by weighing piglets colostrum intake by new-born piglets and hence colostrum production of the sows. Results were obtained hours of age is closely related to colostrum production, this method might be of interest to estimate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED AXENIC *  

E-print Network

THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED AXENIC * AND GNOTOXENIC CALVES REPRODUCTION EXPERIMENTALE DE LA DIARRHEE CHEZ DES VEAUX AXENIQUES OU GNOTOXENIQUES PRIVES DE COLOSTRUM, PAR UN veaux gnotoxéniques privés de colostrum avec deux sérotypes d'E. coli Ent' K991, un rotavirus et un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

1. -HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production  

E-print Network

1. - HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production in newborn sur 1'Elevage des Porcs, Centre de Rennes-Saint-Gilles, F 35590 L'Hermitage Colostrum consumption.8 p. 100 more colostrum than at 18-20 °C (290 and 212 g/day, respectively). Similarly, rectal

Boyer, Edmond

4

The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

2014-01-01

5

Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g = -106 + 2.26 WG + 200 BWB + 0.111 D - 1,414 WG/D + 0.0182 WG/BWB (R(2) = 0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n = 500, mean = 437 g, SD = 153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean = 305 g, SD = 140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P < 0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P < 0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected neither CI nor CY, but the prefarrowing diet with coconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the new mechanistic predictive model for CI suggests that the previous empirical predictive model underestimates CI of sow-reared piglets by 30%. It was also concluded that nutrition of sows during gestation affected CY and colostrum composition. PMID:25367518

Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Srensen, M T

2014-12-01

6

PHYSIOLOGY OF COLOSTRUM PRODUCTION 1.N.R.A., Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Lactation,  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGY OF COLOSTRUM PRODUCTION C. DELOUIS 1.N.R.A., Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Lactation, C.N.R.Z., 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Résumé. PHYSIOLOGIE DE LA PRODUCTION DU COLOSTRUM. &horbar sécrétion du colostrum et la montée laiteuse surviennent alors que des équilibres endocriniens particuliers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking into account the birth weight, and parity order of sows. Colostrum intake from birth to 24h after birth was estimated in 300 piglets each from primiparous and multiparous sows. The piglets were cross-fostered in 25 primiparous and 25 multiparous sows at 25.90.09 h after farrowing. The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined in the sows after the end of farrowing and in the piglets before cross-fostering (24h after farrowing), at 10 and 20 days of age. For high birth weight piglets (HBW - >1.3-1.7 kg) the probability of death was low regardless of their colostrum intake. Intermediate birth weight (IBW - >1.2-1.3 kg) and low birth weight (LBW - 1.1-1.2 kg) piglets had the same probability of death compared to HBW piglets, when colostrum intake reached 200 and 250 g, respectively. The probability of low performance (<9.5 kg) was lower in HBW than in LBW and IBW piglets, regardless of colostrum intake. HBW piglets had higher weight at 14, 20, 28 and 42 days of age (P<0.05) than LBW piglets, and higher weight than IBW piglets at 28 and 42 days. Colostrum intake >250 g increased (P<0.05) the weight of piglets at 28 and 42 days of age, regardless of their birth weight. Piglets from primiparous biological dams consumed less colostrum (P<0.003) than piglets from multiparous dams, but their serum IgG concentrations at 24h after birth and their performance were similar (P>0.05). Piglets suckled by primiparous foster sows showed lower weight (P<0.05) at 20, 28 and 42 days than piglets suckled by multiparous sows. Piglets that died before 42 days of age had lower (P<0.05) birth weight, colostrum intake and serum IgG at 24 h after birth compared to surviving piglets, and lower values were also observed in piglets with low performance compared to high (>9.5 kg) performance piglets. There were no differences in serum IgG concentrations at 10 and 20 days of age (P>0.05) between high and low performance piglets. In conclusion, both colostrum intake and birth weight are important for survival and growth of suckling piglets. LBW and IBW piglets are more dependent on colostrum intake than HBW piglets to assure higher survival and better development up to 42 days of age. Piglets suckled by multiparous sows have better development than those suckled by primiparous sows. PMID:24674020

Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

2014-06-01

8

Effect of bovine colostrum intake on growth, reproductive parameters and survival in red kids.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frozen Azawak colostrum supplementation on body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), reproductive parameters (mean age at first parturition, fertility, fecundity, prolificacy) and mortality rate among red kids. The study was conducted at the goat farm secondary centre of Maradi in Niger from September 2010 to September 2011. The control animals (n = 20) were left with their mother, while the treatment animals (n = 20) received in addition 50 ml/animal/day of bovine colostrum at birth and 15 ml/animal/day from d2 to d15. Weight was measured weekly from birth to d365. Mortalities were also recorded over the same period. For reproductive parameters, observations began at weaning (d197). Growth rate was higher (p < 0.001) in supplemented animal, and the treatment effects on ADG were observed up to 150 day after the end of supplementation. A similar long-lasting trend was also observed in relation to the mortality rate (25% for ColG vs. 55% for ConG; p = 0.05). The age at first kidding tended to be lower in the treated group (13.8 0.7 vs. 14.1 0.8 month; p < 0.1). In conclusion, mild bovine colostrum supplementation induces a long-lasting positive impact on growth rate and to a lower extent on reproduction parameters and survival rate. PMID:25356485

Abdou, H; Marichatou, H; Beckers, J-F; Dufrasne, I; Issa, M; Hornick, J-L

2014-10-01

9

Nutrition and colostrum production in sheep. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses to different energy sources in the final stages of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Lupins and maize, with similar concentrations of metabolisable energy, should produce similar responses in colostrum production at parturition when fed during the last week of pregnancy, but, in the present study, we tested the proposal that the physical form of whole lupins would restrict intake and, therefore, the response compared with cracked lupins or maize. Fifty-five twin-bearing ewes were divided into four groups: in the last 15 days of pregnancy, 14 were fed whole lupins, 13 were fed cracked lupins, 14 were fed cracked maize and 14 received no supplement. The cracked supplements were fed in increasing amounts for 6 days to avoid acidosis. The whole lupins were fed only from Day -8. All supplementary grains increased the intake of metabolisable energy by >35%, but only ewes eating maize accumulated significantly more colostrum at parturition: control, 207 g; cracked maize, 452 g; cracked lupins, 206 g; whole lupins, 231 g (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations were extremely high (approximately 10 mmol L(-1)) for both groups eating lupins and approximately double those of control ewes or those receiving maize ( P < 0.05). We conclude that gut distention is not a cause of a poor response to lupins, but the ammonia associated with near-toxic concentrations of plasma urea may be affecting the production of colostrum. PMID:15740687

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R

2004-01-01

10

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

11

INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT IMMUNITY OF PIGLETS A. MILON performed on 3 samples of colostrum after 0, 12 and 24 h following the birth of the first piglet in the birth weight in favour of mature piglets as well as an increased colostrum intake: 315 vs an average

Boyer, Edmond

12

Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.  

PubMed

Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24?h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves. PMID:24990486

Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fbio P Leivas

2014-11-01

13

Endocrine and metabolic factors involved in the effect of nutrition on the production of colostrum in female sheep.  

PubMed

We investigated the physiological relationship between diet during pregnancy and colostrum production in ewes to test the hypothesis that for ewes that are in low body condition, with low fat reserves, the food supply will be the main source of energy for colostrum synthesis. To this end, we measured the amount of colostrum accumulated by ewes under two levels of nutrition. We also measured the circulating concentrations of metabolites and hormones associated with lactogenesis (beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, progesterone, prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, leptin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I) Ewes were either under-fed at 70 (n = 15) or well-fed at 110% (n = 10) of their daily metabolisable energy requirement during the last two months of pregnancy. Colostrum accumulation up to parturition was 168 +/-48 g for under-fed ewes and 451 +/-103 g for well-fed ewes. After birth, under-fed ewes produced less colostrum than well-fed ewes but the difference was no longer significant. The level of nutrition also influenced the plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites related to lactogenesis. Progesterone concentrations decreased before lambing in all animals but in under-fed ewes the fall appeared to be too small to initiate the onset of colostrum production. Beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were higher in under-fed than in well-fed ewes, suggesting that the under-fed ewes were mobilising more adipose tissue but they still did not meet their ME requirements for colostrum production. We concluded that, in underfed ewes, there are insufficient nutrients for adequate lactation and the hormone regime is inappropriate for good udder development and colostrum synthesis. PMID:16824452

Banchero, Georgett E; Perez Clariget, Raquel; Bencini, Roberta; Lindsay, David R; Milton, John T B; Martin, Graeme B

2006-01-01

14

Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

Korhonen, H J

2013-01-01

15

Effect of supplementation of ewes with barley or maize during the last week of pregnancy on colostrum production.  

PubMed

The experiment tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding of barley just before lambing would be as effective as maize in stimulating early production of colostrum. Both grains are high in starch, and should provide a substrate for lactose which, in turn, promotes lactogenesis. Thirty-five Corriedale ewes bearing single foetuses and 25 bearing twin-foetuses from a synchronised mating were fed on pasture during most of gestation. Fourteen days before the expected time of lambing the single- and twin-bearing ewes were allocated to three treatments and fed (1) a basal diet of lucerne hay to meet their nutrient requirements, (2) the basal diet plus a supplement of whole barley; or (3) the basal diet plus a supplement of cracked maize. The twin-bearing control ewes accumulated more colostrum than the single-bearing control ewes at birth (292 v. 190g). However, supplementation with barley or maize increased the colostrum at birth to 360 and 541g in singles and 648 and 623g in twins. We conclude that barley is a good alternative to maize to stimulate production of colostrum especially in twin-bearing ewes whose lambs are the most likely to benefit from the supplement. PMID:22444419

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Vazquez, A; Gigena, F; La Manna, A; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

2007-05-01

16

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

17

Nutrition and colostrum production in sheep. 1. Metabolic and hormonal responses to a high-energy supplement in the final stages of pregnancy.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with cracked maize during the last week of pregnancy would provide ewes with a substrate for glucose and enhance the synthesis of lactose and, consequently, their production of colostrum. Thirty single- and 30 twin-bearing ewes were fed lucerne hay and half of each group was supplemented daily with 0.75 kg per head cracked maize during the last week of pregnancy. Colostrum production and the endocrine patterns in the animals were investigated. Supplementation with maize more than doubled the mass of colostrum available at birth in unsupplemented ewes: 339 v. 145 g in single-bearing ewes and 536 v. 197 g in twin-bearing ewes (P < 0.001). The total colostrum produced in the 10 h after birth was also significantly increased by supplementation: 730 v. 475 g in single-bearing ewes and 1259 v. 631 g in twin-bearing ewes (P < 0.01). The colostrum in the supplemented ewes was also more liquid with a viscosity score of 5.8 compared with 5.7 and 4.5 in unsupplemented single- and twin-bearing ewes (P < 0.01). Supplemented ewes had higher concentrations of lactose in their colostrum at parturition (2.6% v. 1.8% in single-bearing ewes and 2.5% v. 1.4% in twin-bearing ewes; P < 0.01). The plasma concentrations of progesterone and growth hormone in supplemented ewes were lower, whereas those of IGF-I and insulin were higher, all consistent with a higher capacity to produce colostrum. It is concluded that a high-energy supplement, like maize, fed to ewes in the last week of gestation increases their capacity to produce colostrum for their lambs, particularly for ewes bearing twins. PMID:15740686

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Martin, G B; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

2004-01-01

18

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance...pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after...

2010-04-01

19

ColoPlus, a new product based on bovine colostrum, alleviates HIV-associated diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. HIV-associated diarrhoea occurs in nearly all patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developing countries. Diarrhoea is caused by the HIV-related immune dysfunction and is pivotal in the decrease of the helper T-cell (CD4? \\/) population. Enteric pathogens in HIV-associated diarrhoea are, for example, Cryptosporidium, Amoeba and Campylobacter species. Bovine colostrum is the first milk the suckling calf

Claes-Henrik Florn; Sonny Chinenye; Lidia Elfstrand; Conny Hagman; Ingemar Ihse

2006-01-01

20

Carotenoids of human colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum, the initial postpartum secretion of the breast, ordinarily has a distinct yellow color due to carotenoids of its\\u000a fat globules. This pigmentation progressively diminishes as milk production increases during the first week of lactation.\\u000a Identity of these cartenoids was investigated by means of thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography\\u000a and spectral analysis. ?- and ?-carotene, lycopene and ?-cryptoxanthin were

Stuart Patton; Louise M. Canfieldb; Gail E. Huston; Ann M. Ferris; Robert G. Jensen

1990-01-01

21

COW-CALF AND SOW-PIGLET BEHAVIOUR IN RELATION TO COLOSTRUM INGESTION  

E-print Network

COW-CALF AND SOW-PIGLET BEHAVIOUR IN RELATION TO COLOSTRUM INGESTION D.M. BROOM Department an adequate amount of colostrum by 6-12 h and piglets to do so by 4-8 h. In cattle, suckling attempts may is occasionally a serious problem. Amongst dairy cattle, the major factor leading to inadequate colostrum intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Effect of colostrum redox balance on the oxidative status of calves during the first 3 months of life and the relationship with passive immune acquisition.  

PubMed

New-born calves depend upon colostrum intake for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and other beneficial substances. However, colostrum is also a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intrinsic production of ROS also increases after birth, so the combination of colostral and intrinsic ROS could overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of the calf leading to oxidative stress (OS), a condition that has been shown to play a key role in the initiation and development of several pathological conditions. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effects of the redox balance of colostrum on the oxidative status of calves and on passive immune transfer. Serum samples were taken from 20 calves on their day of birth, every week during their first month of life and at 2 and 3 months of age, and the concentrations of ROS and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC) assayed. The oxidative/anti-oxidative profile and IgG content of the colostrum were also assessed. The redox balance of the colostrum had a significant effect on both calf oxidative status and on passive immune transfer (as measured by calf serum IgG concentration), which indicates that the oxidative/antioxidative profile of colostrum should be measured when colostrum quality is assessed. The highest risk of OS during the study period was found to be when the calves were fed artificial milk replacer; this suggests that calves should be supplemented with antioxidants during this period in order to minimize any harmful consequences of high ROS generation. PMID:24332736

Abuelo, Angel; Prez-Santos, Mara; Hernndez, Joaqun; Castillo, Cristina

2014-02-01

23

Quantitative analysis of gangliosides in bovine milk and colostrum-based dairy products by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (m/z 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams. PMID:24024650

Lee, Hyeyoung; German, J Bruce; Kjelden, Randy; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

2013-10-01

24

A pre-partum lift in ewe nutrition from a high-energy lick or maize or by grazing Lotus uliginosus pasture, increases colostrum production and lamb survival.  

PubMed

This experiment tested the hypothesis that a lift in the nutrition of ewes, before lambing, to increase colostrum production would enhance lamb survival. In all, 261 mature Corriedale ewes, each with a single fetus from a synchronised mating, grazed native pasture to day 130 after mating; at which point they were weighed, condition scored and allocated to graze either native pasture or a pasture dominant with Lotus uliginosus. Five days later (14 days before the expected start of lambing) the ewes were allocated to one of four treatments and fed: (i) native pasture alone, (ii) native pasture plus a commercial high-energy lick, (iii) L. uliginosus pasture alone or (iv) L. uliginosus pasture plus whole maize. The weight, viscosity and concentration of components and immunoglobulin G in the colostrum that had accumulated at parturition, were measured for 10 ewes in each treatment. The lambs that survived to 20 days of age from the 221 ewes that were not milked, were recorded. The ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain and those that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone accumulated two to three times more colostrum at birth than the ewes that grazed native pasture alone (396, 635 and 662 g v. 206 g; P < 0.01). The colostrum from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was more viscous (lower score) than that from the ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain or the ewes that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone (scores of 4.1 v. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.4, P < 0.001) and, not surprisingly, the concentration of lactose in the colostrum of the ewes fed only native pasture was also much lower (1.1% v. 3.0%, 2.8% and 2.6%; P < 0.001)he survival of lambs from the ewes fed only native pasture was less than that of the lambs from ewes fed native pasture plus the commercial lick (81.8% v. 95.5%; P < 0.05) or the L. uliginosus pasture alone (92.4%, P < 0.05), and also tended to be lower than that for lambs born to ewes fed L. uliginosus pasture plus maize (91.8%, P = 0.08). The concentration of glucose in the blood of the lambs from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was lower than that of the other lambs (42.1 v. 60.2 ng/ml, P = 0.012). We conclude that the marked increase in colostrum production associated with the lift in ewe nutrition, just prior to lambing, enhanced lamb survival. PMID:22444848

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

2009-08-01

25

Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product  

PubMed Central

Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

Chamorro, Manuel F.; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P.; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

2014-01-01

26

Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.  

PubMed

Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

2014-04-01

27

Effects of housing and colostrum feeding on serum immunoglobulins, growth, and fecal scores of Jersey calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

At birth, 96 Jersey calves were allowed to nurse the dam for 3 days or were separated from the dam and fed 1 litre of colostrum in nipple-bottles twice daily until 3 days of age. Calves were housed in individual fibreglass hutches or individual pens in an unheated calf barn. Intake of colostrum by calves allowed to nurse the dam

Quigley J D III; K. R. Martin; David A Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; Craig R Reinemeyer; Rohrbach Barton W; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar

1995-01-01

28

Influence of bovine colostrum on restoration of intestinal mucosa in weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate post-weaning period characterized by reduced feed intake induces gut structural alterations. A rapid mucosa restoration is essential for an optimal growth recovery in piglets. Bovine colostrum has been shown to prevent villous atrophy in mice and to stimulate mucosal healing in patients suffering from inflammatory gut disease. Therefore we evaluated the influence of bovine colostrum on mucosa restoration

A. Huguet; L. Le Normand; J. Fauquant; B. Kaeffer; I. Le Hurou-Luron

2007-01-01

29

Effects of oral supplementation with bovine colostrum on the immune system of weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance,

C. Boudry; A. Buldgen; D. Portetelle; A. Collard; A. Thwis; J.-P. Dehoux

2007-01-01

30

Colostrum yield and piglet growth during lactation are related to gilt metabolic and hepatic status prepartum.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that colostrum production could be influenced by sow peripartum endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic status. The plant extract silymarin was shown to influence endocrine and hepatic status in several species. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of silymarin intake during late pregnancy on sow hormonal and hepatic status and to determine whether relations exist between sow hepatic and metabolic status during the peripartum period and colostrum yield and piglet performances during lactation. From d 107 of pregnancy until farrowing, nulliparous sows were either fed 12 g/d of silymarin (SIL; n = 15) or no treatment (Control; n = 12). Piglet BW was recorded directly after birth, 24 h after birth of the first piglet, and at 7, 14, and 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 107 and 109 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of pregnancy until d 2 of lactation, and on d 7 and 21 of lactation. They were assayed for endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic variables. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of farrowing. Silymarin did not influence colostrum yield (3.7 0.3 kg) or gross composition (P > 0.10), nor did it affect serum prolactin concentrations or plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17?, or cortisol (P > 0.10). Mean litter BW gain was lower (P < 0.05) during the first week and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower during the second week of lactation in litters from SIL sows. Silymarin had no effect on plasma concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase, or total cholesterol (P > 0.10). Colostrum yield was positively correlated with urea (r = 0.50; P = 0.01) and creatinine (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) concentrations in sows on the day before farrowing. Mean litter BW gain over 2 wk was negatively correlated with concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (r = -0.50; P = 0.01) and ?-GT (r = -0.42; P = 0.03) on the day before farrowing and was positively correlated with urea concentrations on the day before farrowing (r = 0.54; P = 0.01). In conclusion, at the dose of 12 g/d, silymarin did not influence prolactin concentrations or the hepatic status of sows, had no impact on colostrum production, and decreased litter BW gain in early lactation. Colostrum yield and litter performance during lactation were correlated with some markers of sow metabolic and hepatic status measured during the prepartum period. PMID:24802036

Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

2014-07-01

31

Health factors in colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 24 days. Colostrum is very important part\\u000a of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones\\u000a in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to

B. R. Thapa

2005-01-01

32

Feeding Colostrum Replacers UNH EXTENSION  

E-print Network

Colostrum is essential to calf health and nutrition. Through colostrum, the calf receives IgG, fat, lactose, minerals, vitamins, and water. Although colostrum provides the calf's first antibodies against disease, it also can be the source of its first exposure to bacteria and other pathogens. Many serious conditions

New Hampshire, University of

33

Impact of hot environment on colostrum and milk composition.  

PubMed

Under hot and warm environments productivity and reproduction efficiency of farm and wild animals are negatively affected. The negative effects of hot environments on animal health are responsible for the alteration of colostrum and milk production in term of quantity and quality. Colostrum and milk are nutrient-rich fluids secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals after giving birth and during growth and development of the young. Multiple factors influence the production and the composition of colostrum and milk, including species, breed, health status, feeding practices and environmental conditions. Colostrum and milk are not only a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients, but contains many biologically-active constituents. Colostrum and milk of various species differ widely in amounts and proportions of their principal constituents, especially comparing monogastric with ruminant animals because of the difference between their physiology and digestion. The interspecies variations in part reflect different adaptive strategies to environmental conditions and selective pressures of various species during the evolution. A limited number of studies documented the effects of hot condition on modification of colostrum and milk quality, in particular referred to nutrients and immunoglobulin composition, but no information are available on the effects of hot environment on nutraceutical properties and bioactive molecules content of colostrum and milk. PMID:24200022

Bernabucci, U; Basiric, L; Morera, P

2013-01-01

34

Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

Gapper, Leyton

2013-01-01

35

Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

2011-01-01

36

Residues in colostrum following antibiotic dry cow therapy.  

PubMed

Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxacillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum samples were collected from each cow at first milking after parturition. Samples were screened for residues by Delvotest P. Colostrum samples positive by Delvotest also were tested by Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Four of 186 colostrum samples from cows treated with antibiotics at drying off were positive for residues by Delvotest. Only one was confirmed positive by disc assay following heat treatment. All colostrum samples from 48 cows not treated were negative. Samples of first marketable milk also were collected. Over 96% of milk samples from cows treated at drying off and 100% of milk samples from cows not treated were negative for residues by Delvotest. If manufacturer's recommendations are followed, antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy with products in our study should not be a significant problem. PMID:6530498

Oliver, S P; Duby, R T; Prange, R W; Tritschler, J P

1984-12-01

37

REVIEW OF NONSPECIFIC ANTIMICROBIAL FACTORS IN COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF NONSPECIFIC ANTIMICROBIAL FACTORS IN COLOSTRUM Bruno REITER National Institute SPECIFIQUES DU COLOSTRUM : REVUE BIBLIO- GRAPHIQUE. - Les principaux facteurs antimicrobiens non anticorps du colostrum et du lait sont passés en revue dans cet article, en particulier le lysozyme, la lactoferrine, et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Evaluation of methods for dehydration of bovine colostrum for total replacement of normal colostrum in calves  

PubMed Central

Different methods for the dry preservation of colostrum to be used as a total replacement for bovine colostrum were evaluated. Pooled colostrum from the first and second postpartum milkings from multiparous dairy cows containing immunoglobulin in excess of 40 g/L was freeze-dried, microwave vacuum evaporated, and spray-dried. Spray-drying produced a dried colostrum in which immunoglobulin quantity and function were preserved and was the most cost-effective. Other dehydration methods, although effectively conserving immunoglobulins, were too slow and costly to be used to produce a bovine colostrum replacer. Newborn, colostrum-deprived, dairy calves fed spray-dried colostrum containing 126 grams of immunoglobulin reconstituted in three liters of water as their sole source of immunoglobulin achieved normal mean serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Spray-dried colostrum with high concentrations of immunoglobulin may be produced economically and used as an effective and convenient colostrum replacer in newborn calves. PMID:17424250

Chelack, Brian J.; Morley, Paul S.; Haines, Deborah M.

1993-01-01

39

Evaluation of methods for dehydration of bovine colostrum for total replacement of normal colostrum in calves.  

PubMed

Different methods for the dry preservation of colostrum to be used as a total replacement for bovine colostrum were evaluated. Pooled colostrum from the first and second postpartum milkings from multiparous dairy cows containing immunoglobulin in excess of 40 g/L was freeze-dried, microwave vacuum evaporated, and spray-dried. Spray-drying produced a dried colostrum in which immunoglobulin quantity and function were preserved and was the most cost-effective. Other dehydration methods, although effectively conserving immunoglobulins, were too slow and costly to be used to produce a bovine colostrum replacer. Newborn, colostrum-deprived, dairy calves fed spray-dried colostrum containing 126 grams of immunoglobulin reconstituted in three liters of water as their sole source of immunoglobulin achieved normal mean serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Spray-dried colostrum with high concentrations of immunoglobulin may be produced economically and used as an effective and convenient colostrum replacer in newborn calves. PMID:17424250

Chelack, B J; Morley, P S; Haines, D M

1993-07-01

40

Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian  

E-print Network

Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian Latent-Variable Approach May 1, 2008 1 #12;1 Abstract Pesticide risk assessment for food products involves combining information from consumption and concentration data sets to estimate a distribution for the pesticide intake

Theobald, Chris

41

Enhanced Intake and Production of Cows Offered Ensiled Alfalfa with Higher Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was,to determine,the effect of forage fiber digestibility as part of a total mixed,diet on intake,and,production,of cows,with intakes that were likely limited by rumen fill, using treatments that were not confounded by fiber source, concentrate, or ratio of forage , time of feeding. ( Key words: fiber digestibility, intake, neutral deter- gent fiber, forage quality)

R. G. Dado; M. S. Allen

1996-01-01

42

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866...Immunological Test Systems 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a...

2012-04-01

43

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866...Immunological Test Systems 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a...

2011-04-01

44

Chitotriosidase Activity in Goat Blood and Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investi- gated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this ac- tivity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking

A. Argello; N. Castro; M. Batista; I. Moreno-Indias; A. Morales-delaNuez; D. Sanchez-Macias; E. Quesada; J. Capote

2008-01-01

45

Presence of osteoinductive factors in bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

New approaches in the treatment of skeletal defects may benefit from the use of soluble biological factors. We previously standardized a derivative of bovine colostrum (SBCD), deprived of casein and fat and rich in cytokines. In the present study, we tested its possible use as an adjuvant in bone healing. SBCD contained factors involved in stromal cell stimulation and differentiation and induced cytokine production from stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vitro, SBCD promoted proliferation, migration and, in association with osteogenic factors, osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic and MSCs. In in vivo experiments of subcutaneous Matrigel injection in mice, SBCD plus hydroxyapatite, but not hydroxyapatite nor SBCD alone, induced recruitment of macrophages and stromal cells. After 60 days, plugs containing SBCD and hydroxyapatite were densely calcified and diffusely positive for osteocalcin, supporting the occurrence of an early osteogenic process. These results indicate that SBCD is a rich source of factors with osteoinductive properties. PMID:25036965

Mussano, Federico; Bartorelli Cusani, Alberto; Brossa, Alessia; Carossa, Stefano; Bussolati, Gianni; Bussolati, Benedetta

2014-01-01

46

TRYPSIN INHIBITOR IN SOW COLOSTRUM AND ITS FUNCTION  

E-print Network

TRYPSIN INHIBITOR IN SOW COLOSTRUM AND ITS FUNCTION P.T. JENSEN The State Veterinary Serum Laboratory, Bulowsvej 27, DK-1870 Copenhagen V, Denmark Résumé L'INHIBITEUR DE LA TRYPSINE DANS LE COLOSTRUM colostrum de truie. On a centré l'intérêt sur les variations physiologiques dans le colostrum et le lait, et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Newborn calf intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum  

E-print Network

Newborn calf intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum J.-F. GRONGNET, colostrum immunoglobulin absorption was compared with absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum. Introduction. It is well known that copious ingestion of colostrum prevents sanitary pro- blems in newborn

Boyer, Edmond

48

Animal nutrition and lipids in animal products and their contribution to human intake and health.  

PubMed

Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow's diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450-500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed. PMID:22253968

Givens, Ian

2009-01-01

49

INTAKE ENERGY, ENERGY RETENTION AND HEAT PRODUCTION IN LAMBS FROM BIRTH TO 24 WEEKS OF AGE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Intake energy (IE), metabolizable energy in- take (MEI), energy retention (ER) and heat production (HP) were estimated in twelve male and six female suckling lambs from birth to 4 wk of age and in nine of these male lambs after weaning from 9 to 24 wk of age. Intake energy and MEI were estimated from the milk intake and

A. A. Degen

2010-01-01

50

Original article Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment  

E-print Network

. / cryptosporidiosis / oocyst / hyperimmune bovine colostrum / gecko * Correspondence and reprints Tel.: ( 1 ) 410 614 and efficacious in clinical and sub- clinical cryptosporidiosis in snakes [ 1 3 we The high morbidity and frequent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Detection of cytokines in bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum contains factors that are protective for the neonate and may be a source of immunomodulary molecules that positively influence the immune status of the neonate. To confirm that colostrum contains a variety of cytokines with immunomodulatory properties, we established a bovine cytokine specific ELISA and five cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, INF-? or IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) in the whey

Katsuro Hagiwara; Satoshi Kataoka; Hitoki Yamanaka; Rikio Kirisawa; Hiroshi Iwai

2000-01-01

52

Effects of supplemental fats on intake, production, and heat stress in lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

temperature cause a rise in body temperature (35). A rise in body temperature is a consequence of the failure of other cooling methods to maintain homeo- thermy. Thus, the animals are under heat stress. The increases in body temperature and respiration... of the animal is widely accepted as a major negative influence on milk production (9). According to the NRC (35), lactating cows under heat stress begin to show a decline in feed intake at environmental tempera- tures of 25 to 27 C, with intakes declining...

Saunders, Richard Glynn

2012-06-07

53

Factors influencing milk and milk product consumption in young and elderly women with low calcium intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to investigate factors influencing milk and milk product consumption in young and elderly women consuming less than two-thirds of the RDA for calcium. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 71 women over 70 years and 22 women aged 1923 years. Questions addressed changes in milk and milk product intake, and reasons for changes; perceptions

Caroline C. Horwath; Christine H. Govan; A. John Campbell; Wendy Busby; Vicky Scott

1995-01-01

54

Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.  

PubMed

The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal piglets. The present study showed that the physiology of piglets in the colostrum period was affected by IUGR status at birth and their intermediary metabolism was altered due to different colostrum intakes. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the head shape of newborn piglets is a good selection criteria for identifying piglets that need oral supplementation during the neonatal stage. PMID:24085405

Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

2013-12-01

55

Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.  

PubMed

Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 /kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 /kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving interval (9%) and mature weight of cows (11%) in strategy A and B, respectively. The sums of the relative economic weights over categories for RFI were 6 and 7% in strategy A and B, respectively. Under production conditions in 2011, the relative economic weights for the studied feed efficiency traits were low. However, it is possible that the relative importance of feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal will increase in the future due to increasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. PMID:24342692

Hietala, P; Wolfov, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

2014-02-01

56

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT? PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM SUR L'?VOLUTION DE LA PESTE PORCINE transmise par le colostrum a permis de mettre en évidence chez r8 porcelets, de 20 à 25 kg, issus de truies transmise par le colostrum. Les applications qu'entraînent ces observations font l'objet de la discussion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM FOR THE NEWBORN CALF  

E-print Network

ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM FOR THE NEWBORN CALF H. FRERKING Therese AEIKENS School Hannover 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Résumé. A PROPOS DE L'IMPORTANCE DU COLOSTRUM POUR LE VEAU NOUVEAU averaged 5-6 hours. Every calf got the colostrum ad libitum from its own mother, which had no antibodies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN COLOSTRUM OF DIFFERENT RUMINANT SPECIES  

E-print Network

TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN COLOSTRUM OF DIFFERENT RUMINANT SPECIES AT VARIOUS POST-PARTUM INTERVALS. llaly. Résumé. TENEUR EN OLIGOELEMENTS DU COLOSTRUM DE DIVERSES ESPECES DE RUMINANTS A DIFFERENTS INTERVALLES POST PARTUM. ― Des échantillons de colostrum ont été prélevés en novembre-décembre, 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Feeding Colostrum to Calves Education Center and Info Line  

E-print Network

Feeding Colostrum to Calves Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F · 9 AM - 2 PM W · 5 - 7:30 PM Colostrum is essential from colostrum. At birth the calf's small intestine is referred to as "open." This means that nutrients

New Hampshire, University of

60

Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone loss and hemobiochemistry indexes that bovine milk and its basic proteins, and bovine colostrums (BC) and their extracts have positive effects hazard on blood lipids of rats under present experimental condition. bovine colostrum / acid protein

Boyer, Edmond

61

THE INFLUENCE OF COLOSTRUM ON NEONATAL ROTAVIRAL INFECTIONS  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF COLOSTRUM ON NEONATAL ROTAVIRAL INFECTIONS D.R. SNODGRASS P.W. WELLS Animal are most susceptible, so ingestion of colostrum is likely to have an important influence on the outcome secreted in high titre in first-day colostrum, but is absent within 3 days of parturition in cows and ewes

Boyer, Edmond

62

COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY  

E-print Network

COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY AND WITH THE COLOSTRUM QUALITY OF THEIR FEMALE OFFSPRING Jacqueline DARDILLAT* G. TRILLAT* P. LARVOR* I, 63110 Beaumont, France. Résumé. CONCENTRATION EN IMMUNOGLOBULINES DU COLOSTRUM DES VACHES : RELATION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Performance of Calves Fed Fermented Colostrum or Colostrum with Additives During Warm Ambient Temperatures[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials during warm ambient tempera- tures determined the feeding value of colostrum, either naturally fermented or with additives, for Holstein calves. During a preliminary trial, calves fed whole milk gained two-fold more weight the first 4 wk than calves fed fermented colostrum, thus promoting a subsequent trial to eval- uate additives for colostrum preservation. Calves were fed either 3.64 kg

L. D. Muller; F. C. Ludens; J. A. Rook

1976-01-01

64

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia.  

PubMed

Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606

Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

2007-06-01

65

S100B concentration in colostrums of Burkinabe and Sicilian women  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences. The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with commercial immunoluminometric assay. The production of colostrums was significantly higher in Burkinabe women, where the colostrums S100B levels in the first day of lactation showed to be at 24 h higher than those of Sicilian mothers (672.21 256.67 ng/ml vs 309.36 65.28 ng/ml) and progressively decreased reaching the values of Sicilian mothers in the second and third day (204.31 63.25 ng/ml and 199.42 45.28 ng/ml, respectively). Correlation was found between the level of S100B and the length of stage II (duration of expulsive phase of delivery), but the correlation with pain was found only in Burkinabe women. The S100B level in colostrums of Burkinabe mothers differs from that of Sicilians only in the first day of lactation, and in consideration that Burkinabe women produce more colostrums, their newborns receive, during the first days of life, an higher amount of S100B. The elevated quantity of S100B ingested by Burkinabe newborn in the first days of life could promote the physiological postnatal brain adaptation and maturation in the precarious delivery condition of African infants. PMID:18498658

Musumeci, Maria; Betta, Pasqua; Magro, Emanuela; Isaia, Teresa; Simpore, Jacques; Romeo, Domenico MM; Musumeci, Salvatore

2008-01-01

66

A Survey of Bovine Colostrum Composition and Colostrum Management Practices on Pennsylvania Dairy Farms1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum composition and management were sur- veyed via sample and data collection from 55 dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Colostrum samples were ana- lyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, ash, Ig, lacto- ferrin, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals. Mean percentages of fat, protein, and lactose in colos- trum were 6.7, 14.9, and 2.5, respectively. Concentra- tions of IgG1, IgG2,

S. I. Kehoe; B. M. Jayarao; A. J. Heinrichs

2007-01-01

67

Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven  

SciTech Connect

Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

1987-09-01

68

Dietary intake of persistent organic pollutants and potential health risks via consumption of global aquatic products.  

PubMed

The concentration levels of typical persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global aquatic products from major producing countries were summarized. Daily intakes of these compounds via consumption of various aquatic products for global consumers were also estimated based on available literature data. Risk assessment based upon existing criteria for OCPs and PBDEs shows that there is minimal risk to global consumers from consumption of aquatic products, with the exception of products from specific regions located around known heavy-point sources. Exposure to dioxins through consumption of aquatic products, excluding marine fish, is also in the range of the acceptable level, lower than 4 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ)/kg bw/d; however, dioxin intake via marine fish may cause hazards to human health, especially for Europeans. Regarding PCBs, there is cancer risk for global consumers via consumption of aquatic products, especially marine fish, based on cancer and noncancer hazard ratio assessment. Generally, European consumers have higher exposure levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, while Americans and Asians have relatively higher exposure levels of OCPs and PCBs. In contrast, all global populations are found to have lower exposure levels of PBDEs, which may be attributed to its relatively shorter history of use compared with PCBs and OCPs. Finally, the estimated total amounts of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs stored in global aquatic products constitute only a small portion of the total amount that has been used, and the majority obviously occurs in other environmental media or even remains in commercial products. PMID:20872674

Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Eddy Y

2010-10-01

69

Use of limited daily access to food in measuring the heat production associated with food intake in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the heat production associated with food intake in laying hens allowed access to food for one (experiment 2) or two hours (experiment 1) daily.2. In experiment 1, heat production in the fed state was measured for two successive days after 46 h of food deprivation. The rate of heat production in the

Yuzhi Li; Toshio Ito; Sadaki Yamamoto

1991-01-01

70

Original article Digestion of colostrum by the preruminant calf  

E-print Network

Original article Digestion of colostrum by the preruminant calf: digestibility and origin -- Digestion du colostrum chez le veau préruminant : digestibilité et origine des frac- tions indigérées à la étaient du colostrum de première traite additionné d'eau (DC) ou 443Lait 81 (2001) 443­454 © INRA, EDP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.  

PubMed

Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

Skrbi?, B; Predojevi?, Z

2008-05-01

72

Bovine colostrum enhances natural killer cell activity and immune response in a mouse model of influenza infection and mediates intestinal immunity through toll-like receptors 2 and 4.  

PubMed

Oral administration of bovine colostrum affects intestinal immunity, including an increased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells. However, effects on NK cell cytotoxic activity and resistance to infection as well as a potential mechanism remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bovine colostrum (La Belle, Inc, Bellingham, WA) on the NK cytotoxic response to influenza infection and on toll-like receptor (TLR) activity in a primary intestinal epithelial cell culture. We hypothesized that colostrum would increase NK cell activity and that TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking would reduce interleukin 6 production by epithelial cells in response to contact stimulation with colostrum. Four-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 1 g of colostrum per kilogram of body weight before and after infection with influenza A virus (H1N1). Animals were assessed for weight loss, splenic NK cell activity, and lung virus titers. Colostrum-supplemented mice demonstrated less reduction in body weight after influenza infection, indicating a less severe infection, increased NK cell cytotoxicity, and less virus burden in the lungs compared with controls. Colostrum supplementation enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity and improved the immune response to primary influenza virus infection in mice. To investigate a potential mechanism, a primary culture of small intestine epithelial cells was then stimulated with colostrum. Direct activation of epithelial cells resulted in increased interleukin 6 production, which was inhibited with TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking antibodies. The interaction between colostrum and immunity may be dependent, in part, on the interaction of colostrum components with innate receptors at the intestinal epithelium, including TLR-2 and TLR-4. PMID:24774068

Wong, Eric B; Mallet, Jean-Franois; Duarte, Jairo; Matar, Chantal; Ritz, Barry W

2014-04-01

73

EXPERIMENTAL ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED LAMBS  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED LAMBS Marion DUCHET-SUCHAUX, Anne Escherichia coli (ETEC), is an important cause of mortality in calves, lambs and piglets. ETEC strains) élevés conventionnellement sans colostrum ont été inoculés par voie orale avec 1,7 à 3,1 x 108 E. coli B

Boyer, Edmond

74

Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is the first natural food produced by female mammals during the first 2436h directly after giving birth. Chemically, colostrum is a very complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. In cows the antibodies provide passive immunity to the new born calf, whereas the growth factors especially stimulate the growth of the gut. The other antimicrobial components of

R. Pakkanen; J. Aalto

1997-01-01

75

Appearance of Specific Colostrum Antibodies after Clinical Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum and serum antibodies to Salmonella typhimurium have been found in three patients after clinical gastrointestinal infection during pregnancy. High levels of colostrum IgA agglutinins were directed specifically against both the flagellar and somatic antigens of the infective organism. The levels of colostrum agglutinating activity exceeded those found in the patients sera, while control colostrum gave negative results.

R. A. Allardyce; D. J. C. Shearman; D. B. L. McClelland; K. Marwick; A. J. Simpson; R. B. Laidlaw

1974-01-01

76

Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident CVD.  

PubMed

Evidence for cardioprotective effects of lycopene is inconsistent. Studies of circulating lycopene generally report inverse associations with CVD risk, but studies based on lycopene intake do not. The failure of dietary studies to support the findings based on biomarkers may be due in part to misclassification of lycopene intakes. To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident outcomes were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models using logarithmically transformed lycopene intake adjusted for CVD risk factors and correlates of lycopene intake. HR were interpreted as the increased risk for a 27-fold difference in lycopene intake, a difference approximately equal to its interquartile range. Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 083, 95% CI 070, 098). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 074, 95% CI 058, 094). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence. The present study of lycopene intake and CVD provides supporting evidence for an inverse association between lycopene and CVD risk; however, additional research is needed to determine whether lycopene or other components of tomatoes, the major dietary source of lycopene, are responsible for the observed association. PMID:23317928

Jacques, Paul F; Lyass, Asya; Massaro, Joseph M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B

2013-08-28

77

Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review. Part I: biotechnological standards, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and principles of treatment.  

PubMed

Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some other animal species, most immunoglobulins are obtained from the colostrum, the first milk after birth, via the gut but in humans the majority of immunoglobulins, and those of the IgG-class in particular, are acquired from the mother by placental transport in the weeks prior to parturition. It has long been known that the consumption of bovine colostrum by humans has therapeutic effects e.g. in gastrointestinal infections, but only since the second half of the last century has it been possible to prepare stable, standardized preparations of colostrum. These biologics are administered to patients in combination with standard therapies as so-called balanced supportive diets. Investigations with standardized colostrum preparations in animal models of human disease and estimates of bovine IgG activity in the human GI-tract, described in this review, have provided preclinical data supporting the use of bovine colostrum in human diseases. On the other hand, the number of bovine colostrum products with a sufficiently large and reliable database is limited and the precise nature of the therapeutic targets is still being evaluated. PMID:17474538

Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

2007-04-01

78

Rumen Acid Production from Dairy Feeds. 2. Effects of Diets Based on Corn Silage on Feed Intake and Milk Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to evaluating feeds has been devel- oped based on in vitro estimates of rumen acid load (acidogenicity value). The present work was conducted to establish effects of rumen acid load on dry matter intake and milk production of early-lactation dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. The effects of diet acidogeni- city were investigated independently of ingredient com-

D. Wadhwa; L. P. Borgida; M. S. Dhanoa; R. J. Dewhurst

2001-01-01

79

Dietary therapy with Lactobacillus GG, bovine colostrum or bovine immune colostrum in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: Evaluation of effect on gut defence mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary therapy with a human Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103), bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum with specific antibodies against anaerobic intestinal\\u000a bacteria on gut defence mechanisms were studied in juvenile chronic arthritis. Thirty patients with juvenile chronic arthritis\\u000a were randomly allocated to receive a freeze-dried powder of Lactobacillus GG, or bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum,

M. Malin; P. Verronen; H. Korhonen; E.-L. Syvoja; S. Salminen; H. Mykknen; H. Arvilommi; E. Eerola; E. Isolauri

1997-01-01

80

Character and Allotypy of an Immune Globulin in Rabbit Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

RABBIT serum beta2-macroglobulin and its relation to gamma-globulin have been previously described1. This communication describes the demonstration and characterization of a third immune globulin, found in rabbit colostrum.

Arnold Feinstein

1963-01-01

81

Relationships among ewe milk production and ewe and lamb forage intake in Targhee ewes nursing single or twin lambs.  

PubMed

Targhee ewes with single or twin lambs were used in four trials during early lactation through weaning to evaluate ewe milk production (MP), kilograms of lamb weaned, and forage intake by ewes and lambs. During Trial 1, ewes with lambs were individually penned, fed .45 kg of barley-ewe-1.d-1 and allowed ad libitum access to chopped alfalfa hay. Trials 2, 3, and 4 were conducted on three different types of Western range environments. Forage intake of ewes in Trials 2, 3, and 4 and of lambs in Trials 3 and 4 was estimated using chromic oxide. Estimates of milk production were obtained by hand-milking. Average lamb age was 4, 50, 78, and 106 d at the beginning of Trials 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Milk production was greater (P = .01) for ewes nursing twins than for those nursing singles at d 4 and 14 in Trial 1. In Trials 2, 3, and 4, all ewes had similar (P > .18) milk production. Ewe DMI during Trials 1 and 2 was greater (P < .05) for ewes nursing twin lambs than for those nursing singles. There was no difference (P > .88) in DMI between ewes with single and those with twin lambs in Trials 3 and 4. Forage DMI by twin lambs, expressed as either kilograms.ewe-1.day-1 or percentage of lamb BW, was higher (P = .01) than intake by single lambs in Trials 3 and 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8014144

Ramsey, W S; Hatfield, P G; Wallace, J D; Southward, G M

1994-04-01

82

VOLUTION DE LA COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE DU COLOSTRUM CHEZ LA TRUIE  

E-print Network

?VOLUTION DE LA COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE DU COLOSTRUM CHEZ LA TRUIE E. SALMON-LEGAGNEUR L. GUEGUEN J, moins nombreux, ou plus inégaux sur la composition du colostrum de cette même espèce. Or, précisément différences que l'on observe par rapport à certaines espèces, comme l'espèce bovine. De ce fait, certaines

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules  

PubMed Central

In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W.; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G.; Bastian, Max

2014-01-01

84

Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules.  

PubMed

In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G; Bastian, Max

2014-01-01

85

Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

Rathe, Mathias; Mller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

2014-04-01

86

Relationships Among Ewe Milk Production and Ewe and Lamb Forage Intake in Targhee Ewes Nursing Single or Twin Lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targhee ewes with single or twin lambs were used in four trials during early lactation through weaning to evaluate ewe milk production (MP), kilograms of lamb weaned, and forage intake by ewes and lambs. During Trial 1, ewes with lambs were individually penned, fed .45 kg of barley-ewe-l-d-l and allowed ad libitum access to chopped alfalfa hay. Trials 2, 3,

W. S. Ramsey; P. G. Hatfields; J. D. Wallace; G. M. Southward

2010-01-01

87

Effects of pre?lamb shearing on feed intake and associated productivity of May? and August?lambing ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pre?lamb shearing on feed intake and wool\\/lamb production of May (autumn)? and August (spring)?lambing ewes were examined. Mixed age Border Leicester x Romney ewes mated to lamb in May or August (60 ewes\\/ lambing policy) were divided at random into two groups (balanced for pregnancy status and liveweight). One group was shorn on Day 118 of pregnancy

N. Dabiri; S. T. Morris; M. Wallentine; S. N. Mccutcheon; W. J. Parker; G. A. Wickham

1996-01-01

88

Clinical parameters, intestinal function, and IGF1 concentrations in colostrum-deprived and colostrum-fed newborn pony foals.  

PubMed

Colostrum (COL) contains cytokines and growth factors that may enhance intestinal development in neonates. The hypothesis of this study was that besides providing immunoglobulins, COL is important for intestinal function and meconium release in foals. Newborn foals were either fed COL (n = 5) or an equal amount of milk replacer (MR, n = 7) during the first 24 hours of life. To ensure passive immunity, all foals received 1 L plasma. Postnatal development, meconium release, intestinal motility, white blood cell count, insulin-like growth factor 1, and intestinal absorptive function (xylose absorption test) were evaluated. Clinical findings and meconium release were not affected by feeding of COL or MR. Ultrasonography revealed a slightly larger jejunum and stomach in group COL versus MR (P < 0.05). The percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was higher in foals of group MR versus group COL (P < 0.05) and the percentage of lymphocytes was lower in MR compared with COL foals (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 concentration increased during the first 14 days after birth in both groups. A xylose absorption test on Day 5 revealed similar increases in plasma xylose concentrations after oral intake. In conclusion, feeding of COL versus MR was without effect on meconium release and intestinal absorptive function. Differences between foals fed COL and MR with regard to intestinal function are apparently without clinical relevance. In foals that have not received maternal COL, there is no major risk of intestinal problems if they are fed MR and provided with immunoglobulins by transfusion of plasma. PMID:24054551

Palm, F; Nagel, C; Bruckmaier, R M; Aurich, J E; Aurich, C

2013-12-01

89

Alternative and classical complement pathway activity in sera from colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal pigs.  

PubMed Central

Haemolytic assays were used to compare alternative and classical complement (C) pathway activities in sera obtained from neonatal pigs reared on porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet. Dramatic increases in immunoglobulin concentrations were noted in the colostrum-fed animals during the first day of life, but there was not a concurrent, marked increase in either classical or alternative C pathway activity. Whether fed on homologous or heterologous colostrum, neonatal pigs had a similar gradual increase in alternative and classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period. If direct passive absorption of C components occurs in newborn pigs, it has only a minor influence on functional levels of alternative and classical C pathway activity in their sera. In pigs fed homologous and heterologous colostrum there was, respectively, an 83% and 80% increase in classical pathway activity, but only a 13% and 12% increase in alternative pathway activity during the first 3 days of life. Pigs fed the immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet had a 37% increase in classical C and a 24% increase in alternative C pathway activity. Part of the increase in classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period may be caused by a stimulating factor in colostrum. Most if not all of the increase in alternative C pathway activity and some of the increase in classical C pathway activity is most likely caused by normal humoral homeostatic mechanisms in the neonatal pig. PMID:7429550

Renshaw, H W; Gilmore, R J

1980-01-01

90

Determination of Transforming Growth Factor-?2 (TGF-?2) in Bovine Colostrum Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) is the major TGF-? form in bovine colostrum. A colostrum pool of the five first milkings was made to validate an ELISA specific for human TGF-?2 for measure TGF-?2 concentration in bovine colostrum samples. According to this test >90% of total TGF-?2 (74.54.4 ng\\/ml) in colostrum pool was in a latent form that could be activated

Raimo Pakkanen

1998-01-01

91

Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains

Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

2003-01-01

92

THE EFFECT OF VACCINATION ON TITRES OF ANTIBODY TO ROTAVIRUS IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF VACCINATION ON TITRES OF ANTIBODY TO ROTAVIRUS IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK P.W. WELLS D. Résumé. EFFET DE LA VACCINATION SUR LE TITRE EN ANTICORPS ANTIROTAVIRUS DANS LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT l'accouolement avec une préparation inactivée de rotavirus d'agneau produisaient du colostrum et du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

SPECIFIC PROTECTION BY COLOSTRUM FROM COWS VACCINATED WITH THE K 99 ANTIGEN IN NEWBORN CALVES  

E-print Network

SPECIFIC PROTECTION BY COLOSTRUM FROM COWS VACCINATED WITH THE K 99 ANTIGEN IN NEWBORN CALVES, 63110 Beaumont, France. Résumé PROTECTION SPECIFIQUE CONFEREE PAR LE COLOSTRUM DE VACHES VACCINEES AVEC mesuré comparativement la protection conférée par un colostrum de vaches vaccinées par une préparation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

USE OF POLYVALENT COW COLOSTRUM IN THE PREVENTION OF ENTERIC INFECTIONS IN CALVES AND PIGLETS  

E-print Network

USE OF POLYVALENT COW COLOSTRUM IN THE PREVENTION OF ENTERIC INFECTIONS IN CALVES AND PIGLETS J Research Institute, 621 32 Brno-Medlanky, Hudcova 70, Czechoslovaquia Résumé UTILISATION D'UN COLOSTRUM; Le colostrum de vaches immunisées contre des souches entéropathogènes d'Escherichia coli protège bien

Boyer, Edmond

95

TRANSFER OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE CPD VIRUS THROUGH COLOSTRUM AND MILK  

E-print Network

TRANSFER OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE CPD VIRUS THROUGH COLOSTRUM AND MILK C. LE JAN R. L'HARIDON M Monnaie, France Résumé TRANSFERT DES ANTICORPS CONTRE L'ECTHYMA PAR LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT. - Les immunoglobulines de l'agneau sont d'origine maternelle et ne sont transmises que par le colostrum et par le lait

Boyer, Edmond

96

Colostrum de vache : composition minrale et activit de la phosphatase alcaline  

E-print Network

Colostrum de vache : composition minérale et activité de la phosphatase alcaline G. LINDEN B colostrum. Mineral composition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The correlation pattern between during the colostrum- producing period was always positive and the coefficients often high. These results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Prevention of rotavirus infection by oral administration of cow colostrum containing antihumanrotavirus antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

After immunizing 8-month pregnant Holstein cows with human rotavirus, Wa strain, cow colostrum containing neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus, designated as Rota colostrum, was obtained. After randomly grouping 13 infants from a single orphanage, 6 infants received 20 ml of Rota colostrum every morning and 7 control infants received 20 ml of market milk. One month later, rotavirus associated diarrhea

T. Ebina; A. Sato; K. Umezu; N. Ishida; S. Ohyama; A. Oizumi; K. Aikawa; S. Katagiri; N. Katsushima; A. Imai; S. Kitaoka; H. Suzuki; T. Konno

1985-01-01

98

INVESTIGATION ON FARMER'S COLOSTRUM FEEDING METHODS: HABITS AFFECTING COLOSTRAL STATUS IN NEONATAL CALVES'  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION ON FARMER'S COLOSTRUM FEEDING METHODS: HABITS AFFECTING COLOSTRAL STATUS IN NEONATAL CALVES' P. PIVONT R. GREGOIRE H. ANTOINE Colostrum Study Center, B-5406, Marloie, Belgium Résumé ?TUDE DES M?THODES DE DISTRIBUTION DU COLOSTRUM ? LA FERME: DES HABITUDES INFLUENCANT LE STATUT COLOSTRAL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

THE ABSORPTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN FROM COLOSTRUM BY BOTTLE-FED LAMBS  

E-print Network

THE ABSORPTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN FROM COLOSTRUM BY BOTTLE-FED LAMBS R. HALLIDAY M.R. WILLIAMS A. R'ABSORPTION DES IMMUNOGLOBULINES DU COLOSTRUM PAR DES AGNEAUX NOUR- RIS AU BIBERON. ― On a étudié les facteurs qui influencent l'absorption des immunoglobulines du colostrum par l'agneau nouveau-né. Des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM IN THE PIGLET A. AUMAITRE B. SEVE  

E-print Network

NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM IN THE PIGLET A. AUMAITRE B. SEVE Pig Husbandry Department - INRA 78350 Jouy en Josas - France Résumé IMPORTANCE NUTRITIONNELLE DU COLOSTRUM CHEZ LE PORCELET du colostrum nous permet d'affirmer qu'il est riche en matière sèche (30-40 °/o de plus que le lait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Preventing Bacterial Contamination and Proliferation During the Harvest, Storage, and Feeding of Fresh Bovine Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to identify control points for bacterial contamination of bovine colostrum during the harvesting and feeding processes, and to describe the effects of refrigeration and use of pot- assium sorbate preservative on bacteria counts in stored fresh colostrum. For objective 1, first-milking colostrum samples were collected aseptically directly from the mammary glands of 39 cows,

S. Stewart; S. Godden; R. Bey; P. Rapnicki; J. Fetrow; R. Farnsworth; M. Scanlon; Y. Arnold; L. Clow; K. Mueller

2005-01-01

102

Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma.  

PubMed

In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers. PMID:24534145

Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe

2014-04-15

103

Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4715h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 500%, a specificity of 495%, and a negative predictive value of 879%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk. PMID:25226021

Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-11-01

104

226 A. HOUDINIRE. -LE COLOSTRUM Enfin, dans tous les cas, l'limination de la crote entrane une  

E-print Network

(8uite) 226 A. HOUDINI?RE. - LE COLOSTRUM Enfin, dans tous les cas, l'élimination de la croûte COLOSTRUM DE VACHE Composition - Propriétés R?PERCUSSIONS EN INDUSTRIE LAITI?RE par A: HOUDINI?RE Ingénieur COLOSTRUM . L'étude colostrum appelle celle de ses constantes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Determination of minor proteins of bovine milk and colostrum by optical biosensor analysis.  

PubMed

Automated, rapid, sensitive, and label-free biosensor-based immunoassays for immunoglobulin G (IgG), folate binding protein, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase in bovine milk using surface plasmon resonance optical detection with direct binding assay format are described. Samples are prepared for analysis by direct dilution into buffer. Analysis conditions, including ligand immobilization, flow rate, contact time, and regeneration are defined and nonspecific binding considerations evaluated. The technique has been applied to the measurement of these proteins in consumer milks, colostrum, milk products, and infant formulas, and their temporal change during early bovine lactation followed. PMID:16792092

Indyk, Harvey E; Filonzi, Enrico L; Gapper, Leyton W

2006-01-01

106

Effects of Quality, Quantity, and Timing of Colostrum Feeding and Addition of a Dried Colostrum Supplement on Immunoglobulin G1 Absorption in Holstein Bull Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of quality, quantity, and timing of colostrum feeding and the administration of a dried colostrum supplement on serum Ig in Holstein bull calves. In Experiment 1, calves were fed colostrum that had low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig; 23.9 mg of IgG1\\/ml) as follows: group 1-1 (n = 6), 2 L at birth

D. E. Morin; G. C. McCoy; W. L. Hurley

1997-01-01

107

Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training  

PubMed Central

Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.

2014-01-01

108

Intake, growth and carcass traits in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.  

PubMed

Validation of economic indexes under a controlled experimental environment, can aid in their acceptance and use as breeding tools to increase herd profitability. The objective of this study was to compare intake, growth and carcass traits in bull and steer progeny of high and low ranking sires, for genetic merit in an economic index. The Beef Carcass Index (BCI; expressed in euro () and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat scores) was generated by the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation as a tool to compare animals on genetic merit for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 male suckler herd progeny, from 22 late-maturing 'continental' beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) BCI were compared under either a bull or steer production system, and slaughtered at approximately 16 and 24 months of age, respectively. All progeny were purchased after weaning at approximately 6 to 8 months of age. Dry matter (DM) intake and live-weight gain in steer progeny offered grazed grass or grass silage alone, did not differ between the two genetic groups. Similarly, DM intake and feed efficiency did not differ between genetic groups during an ad libitum concentrate-finishing period on either production system. Carcasses of progeny of high BCI sires were 14 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than those of low BCI sires. In a series of regression analyses, increasing sire BCI resulted in increases in carcass weight (P < 0.01) and carcass conformation (P = 0.051) scores, and decreases in carcass fat (P < 0.001) scores, but had no effect on weaning weight or DM intake of the progeny. Each unit increase in sire expected progeny difference led to an increase in progeny weaning weight, DM intake, carcass weight, carcass conformation score and carcass fat score of 1.0 (s.e. = 0.53) kg, 1.1 (s.e. = 0.32) kg, 1.3 (s.e. = 0.31) kg, 0.9 (s.e. = 0.32; scale 1 to 15) and 1.0 (s.e. = 0.25; scale 1 to 15), respectively, none of which differed from the theoretical expectation of unity. The expected difference in profitability at slaughter between progeny of the high and low BCI sires was 42, whereas the observed phenotypic profit differential of the progeny was 53 in favour of the high BCI sires. Results from this study indicate that the BCI is a useful tool in the selection of genetically superior sires, and that actual progeny performance under the conditions of this study is within expectations for both bull and steer beef production systems. PMID:22444765

Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

2009-06-01

109

Effect of peripartal feeding strategy on colostrum yield and composition in sows.  

PubMed

Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feedd(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feedd(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (<17 mm, n = 15), moderate (17 to 23 mm, n = 21), fat (>23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheff post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p < 0.001) but a lower concentration of protein (p = 0.040) in colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p < 0.001, C4: p = 0.016) reserves but had a greater ratio urea:NEFA (p < 0.001) and less ketone bodies (3-OH-C4: p < 0.001) compared with the L group. This indicates a more balanced entry of metabolites in the citric acid cycle and thus a better support of the maternal peripartal metabolism in the H group. Serum parameters did not differ between BC groups. Both CY and composition can be influenced by the peripartal feeding strategy and BC. The highest CY and most beneficial colostrum composition were obtained when sows entered the farrowing unit in a moderate BC and were provided a high peripartal feeding strategy. PMID:24981570

Decaluw, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J

2014-08-01

110

Oligosaccharides of milk and colostrum in non-human mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian milk or colostrum usually contains, in addition to lactose, a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides. Although the oligosaccharides of human milk have been reviewed in several recent publications, those of non-human mammals have received much less attention. This paper reviews the chemical structures and the variety of milk oligosaccharides in species other than humans, including placental mammals (e.g.

Tadasu Urashima; Tadao Saito; Tadashi Nakamura; Michael Messer

2001-01-01

111

Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobin-R is a commercial hyperimmune bovine colostrum with potent anticryptosporidial activity. It was administered to a 4 year old child with AIDS and severe diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis. There was significant clinical improvement in the diarrhoea and permanent elimination of the parasite from the gut as assessed through serial jejunal biopsy and stool specimens.

J Shield; C Melville; V Novelli; G Anderson; I Scheimberg; D Gibb; P Milla

1993-01-01

112

Altrenogest treatment during late pregnancy did not reduce colostrum yield in primiparous sows.  

PubMed

The decrease in circulating concentrations of progesterone is the lactogenic trigger in many species. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an orally active progestogen, altrenogest, administered in late gestation, on lactogenesis in sows. Gilts were treated with altrenogest (20 mg/d) from d 109 to 112 of gestation (ALT112, n = 6) or d 113 (ALT113, n = 8) or were not treated (control, n = 9). Colostrum production, estimated from the BW gains of the piglets, was measured during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition. Colostrum samples were collected at the onset of parturition until 48 h later. Jugular blood samples were taken from d -8 prepartum until d 3 postpartum. Altrenogest treatment extended the gestation length of ALT113 sows in comparison with control sows (116.3 vs. 114.7 d; P < 0.05). Litter size and litter weight at birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.1). Estimated colostrum yield was not reduced in altrenogest-treated sows compared with control sows (4.20 kg) and tended to be greater in ALT112 (4.73 kg) than in ALT113 sows (3.74 kg; P = 0.09). Altrenogest reduced endogenous progesterone concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 relative to control sows (P < 0.05), likely because luteolysis occurred earlier in relation to parturition in ALT113 sows. Altrenogest reduced estradiol-17beta concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 (P < 0.05) and ALT112 (P < 0.1) sows. Altrenogest treatment did not influence the timing of the prepartum peak of prolactin in relation to parturition. The ALT113 sows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactose in plasma and a lesser Na:K ratio in colostrum after parturition than Control and ALT112 sows, indicating that the junctions between their mammary epithelial cells were tighter. Concentrations of colostral IgG in sows that received altrenogest tended to be less than in control sows (P = 0.08). In conclusion, altrenogest administered from d 109 to 112 or 113 of pregnancy did not affect lactogenesis in sows, possibly because the treatment delayed farrowing and main hormonal changes without affecting the relative chronology of these changes. PMID:20118420

Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

2010-05-01

113

Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.  

PubMed

To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution. PMID:20163602

Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

2009-08-01

114

Properties of the Colostrum of the Dairy Cow. I. Tocopherol Levels in the Colostrum and in the Early Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the role of colostrum in the nutrition of the dairy calf suggested a study of the tocopherol concentration in this secretion. Such an investigation has received little attention. Mason (4) and Mason and Bryan (5) investigated this problem in rats by means of bioassays. The)\\

D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes

1947-01-01

115

Properties of the Colostrum of the Dairy Cow. V. Yield, Specific Gravity and Concentrations of Total Solids and its Various Components of Colostrum and Early Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable information on specific gravity and on concentrations of total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash of colostrum has been accumulated. From the early studies, many of which are referred to by Houdini~re (7), Overman and Sanmann (8) and Weber (18), there emerged a general picture of the gross composition of colostrum and a recognition of its variability. Within the

D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes; F. W. Atkeson

1950-01-01

116

Passive immunoglobin transfer in newborn calves fed colostrum or spray-dried serum protein alone or as a supplement to colostrum of varying quality.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of serum-derived immunoglobin (Ig) source and the effect of colostrum supplementation with serum-derived Ig on the attainment of passive immunity in newborn colostrum-deprived calves. In experiment 1, colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves were fed pooled colostrum (PC, n = 9), spray-dried bovine serum (BS, n = 11), or spray- dried porcine serum (PS, n = 9). All treatments were balanced to provide 45 g of IgG in a 2-L volume at birth and again 12 h later. Calves receiving BS had higher 24-h serum IgG concentrations than did calves receiving PC or PS (8.3, 5.7, and 4.2 g of IgG/L for BS, PC, and PS, respectively). In experiment 2, the effect of supplementing bovine colostrum of varying quality with BS on Ig absorption was assessed. Thirty-two colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves and four freemartin heifer calves were allotted by birth order to receive one of three treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) 2 L of pooled high quality colostrum (95.8 g of IgG, 0% from BS), 2) 2 L of pooled medium quality colostrum mixed with BS (95.2 g of IgG, 47% from BS), or 3) 2 L of low quality colostrum mixed with BS (98.8 g of IgG, 70% from BS). Serum IgG concentrations at 24 h after treatment were greater for calves receiving medium and low quality colostrum supplemented with BS (6.2, 9.6, and 9.6 g of IgG/L for high, medium, and low quality colostrum, respectively). Similarly, apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greater for calves receiving medium and low quality colostrum supplemented with BS (25, 37, and 38% for high, medium, and low quality colostrum, respectively). The results of these studies suggest that dried BS contains a concentrated source of Ig, which is efficiently absorbed by newborn calves. Supplementation of marginal or low quality colostrum with dried BS is an effective means of improving passive transfer of IgG in newborn calves. PMID:11132855

Arthington, J D; Cattell, M B; Quigley, J D; McCoy, G C; Hurley, W L

2000-12-01

117

Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

2014-02-01

118

Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

2014-04-01

119

Development of immunity to porcine rotavirus in piglets protected from disease by bovine colostrum.  

PubMed Central

Bovine colostrum with rotavirus-neutralizing activity was fed for 10 days to two groups of piglets, one of which was inoculated intranasally with a rotavirus of porcine origin. A third group, which did not receive colostrum, was also inoculated with the virus, and these piglets developed diarrhea, excreted rotavirus in the feces, and died 6 days after infection. In contrast, the infected piglets fed with bovine colostrum remained healthy, although they developed antibody to rotavirus. Twenty-seven days after the primary inoculation, piglets in the colostrum-fed groups were inoculated intranasally with virus. Those in the previously unexposed group became clinically ill and excreted rotavirus, whereas those which had experienced a previous subclinical infection (the colostrum-fed, virus-inoculated group) remained healthy. It was concluded that bovine colostrum protected piglets from the clinical effects of a porcine rotavirus and that these animals developed an immunity which prevented subsequent disease. PMID:6262251

Bridger, J C; Brown, J F

1981-01-01

120

Isoflavone content of Italian soy food products and daily intakes of some specific classes of consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western countries food products containing soybean proteins are primarily directed to some specific classes of consumers, in particular vegetarians, milk-intolerant or gluten-intolerant subjects, and hypercholesterolemic patients. The consumption of these products is associated with the presence of isoflavones, which recently have become a very controversial issue because their beneficial properties are counterbalanced by some undesirable effects. Taking into account

Sheila Morandi; Alessandra DAgostina; Francesca Ferrario; Anna Arnoldi

2005-01-01

121

Effect of treatment with formaldehyde and formic acid on immunoglobulin content of stored bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum was collected from the first postpartum milking of German Black Pied cows. Four independent pools of colostrum were made and the following preservation methods replicated in each pool, viz. formaldehyde treatment, 0.1% (F1) and 0.05% (F2); formic acid treatment, 0.5% (FA1) and 0.1% (FA2) and an untreated control (NF). All the colostrum batches were stored at an average incubation

E. W. Mbuthia; F. Klobasa; C. K. Gachuiri; A. Abate

1997-01-01

122

Synergistic antidigestion effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums in simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and

Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin

2007-01-01

123

THE EFFECT OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVELS ON CALF PERFORMANCE AND METHODS OF ARTIFICIALLY FEEDING COLOSTRUM TO THE  

E-print Network

COLOSTRUM TO THE NEW BORN CALF R.J. FALLON The Agricultural Institute, Grange, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland DISTRIBUTION DE COLOSTRUM AUX VEAUX NOU- VEAU―NES. ― Une enquête portant sur 1.250 veaux achetés au veau nouveau-né d'un colostrum de première traite, en deux repas, le premier 4 à 6 heures après la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

THE DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS SPECIFIC ANTIBODY IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK BY ELISA  

E-print Network

THE DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS SPECIFIC ANTIBODY IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK BY ELISA D.J. ELLENS P.W. DE, The Netherlands Résumé DETECTION DES ANTICORPS SPECIFIQUES DU ROTAVIRUS DANS LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT PAR LA spécifiques du rotavirus dans le colostrum. Les résultats obtenus étaient en corrélation positive avec ceux d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

THE IMPORTANCE OF MEMBRANE RECEPTORS IN THE TRANSFER OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS FROM PLASMA TO THE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

TO THE COLOSTRUM D.K. HAMMER H. MOSSMANN Max-Planck-Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, West Germany Résumé IMPORTANCE DES RECEPTEURS MEMBRANAIRES DANS LE TRANSFERT DES IMMUNO- GLOBULINES DU PLASMA AU COLOSTRUM'épithélium acinaire (AE) de la glande mammaire de la vache au cours de la formation du colostrum. Les IgG,-FcR ont été

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

THE ROLE OF COLOSTRUM ANTIBODIES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTIGENIC COMPETITION IN YOUNG LAMBS  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF COLOSTRUM ANTIBODIES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTIGENIC COMPETITION IN YOUNG LAMBS M AGNEAUX. ― De jeunes agneaux ont reçu une petite quantité d'un pool de colostrum puis une injection inattendus contre l'Ea dans le pool de colostrum reçu par les agneaux. L'expérience a été répétée avec un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Bovine colostrum fraction as a serum substitute for the cultivation of mouse hybridomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractions of bovine colostrum were prepared and their ability to support the growth of mouse-mouse hybridomas in culture was tested. Whey was prepared from defatted colostrum by removal of casein using acid precipitation. An ultrafiltrate was obtained from cleared whey by filtration through membranes with a nominal molecular mass cut-off of 100 000 Da. Colostrum ultrafiltrate contained 1.16 g\\/l protein,

Raimo Pakkanen; Ari Kanttinen; Lea Satama; Jouni Aalto

1992-01-01

128

Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.  

PubMed

A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. PMID:25036607

Ktt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

2014-09-01

129

Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.  

PubMed

Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n=183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p<.05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements in child nutrition. PMID:24606793

Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

2014-03-01

130

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage of Moringa oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in Nicaragua to determine the effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Moringa oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition. The treatments were: Brachiaria brizantha hay ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Moringa on a dry matter (DM)

Nadir Reyes Snchez; Eva Sprndly; Inger Ledin

2006-01-01

131

GRAZPLAN: Decision support systems for Australian grazing enterprisesII. The animal biology model for feed intake, production and reproduction and the GrazFeed DSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper specifies the animal biology module of a model for simulating grazing systems for ruminants on pasture. The program predicts the intake of energy and protein, allowing for selective grazing and substitution by supplementary feeds, and estimates the use of the diet for maintenance and production, according to current feeding standards. Conception and death rates are predicted from the

M. Freer; A. D. Moore; J. R. Donnelly

1997-01-01

132

Triacylglycerol structure of human colostrum and mature milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because triacylglycerol (TAG) structure influences the metabolic fate of its component fatty acids, we have examined human\\u000a colostrum and mature milk TAG with particular attention to the location of the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid\\u000a on the glycerol backbone. The analysis was based on the formation of various diacylglycerol species from human milk TAG upon\\u000a chemical (Grignard degradation) or

Jean-Charles Martin; Philippe Bougnoux; Jean-Michel Antoine; Monique Lanson; Charles Couet

1993-01-01

133

The effect of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) cysticercoids on the weight change, frass production, and food intake of the intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera).  

PubMed

Parasitism results in nutritionally related changes in hosts, often leading to altered feeding behavior. Infected hosts that increase their feeding also increase their probability of reinfection. To study this, I used a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials with food. Each beetle's weight change, food intake, and frass production were measured over 24-h periods at 3, 7, 12, and 16 days postinfection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight and produced more frass than females. Additionally, treatment had no effect on food consumption, but males had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that infection status will not alter the probability of reinfection, but males will be more susceptible to infection than females. However, despite the male's greater food intake during the experimental infection period, parasite loads did not differ between males and females. PMID:16231174

Shea, John F

2005-12-01

134

Mtabolisme protique de l'agneau nouveau-n. I. Consquences de l'ingestion de colostrum  

E-print Network

Métabolisme protéique de l'agneau nouveau-né. I. Conséquences de l'ingestion de colostrum., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Protein metabolism in the newborn lamb. /. Effect of colostrum into two groups at birth. Five of them were fed hourly with cow colostrum ; the others (unfed lambs) were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Short communication: Fractional milking distribution of immunoglobulin G and other constituents in colostrum.  

PubMed

The provision of quality colostrum with a high concentration of immunoglobulins is critical for newborn calf health. Because first colostrum may be low in overall concentration to effectively reduce the risk of newborn infections, we tested equivalent milking fractions of colostrum for possible IgG differences. The objective of this study was to determine if the fractional composition of colostrum changes during the course of milking with a focus on immunoglobulins. Twenty-four Holstein and Simmental cows were milked (first colostrum) within 4h after calving. The colostrum of 1 gland per animal was assembled into 4 percentage fractions over the course of milking: 0 to 25%, 25 to 50%, 50 to 75%, and 75 to 100%. The IgG concentration among the various fractions did not change in any significant pattern. Concentration of protein, casein, lactose and somatic cell count remained the same or exhibited only minor changes during the course of fractional milking colostrum. We determined that no benefit exists in feeding any particular fraction of colostrum to the newborn. PMID:23810595

Vetter, A; Argello, A; Baumrucker, C; Bruckmaier, R M

2013-09-01

136

Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum  

E-print Network

Short note Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum JJ Ramos T Saez JP Bueso 1993; accepted 4 February 1994) Summary ― Vitamin B!2 was measured in samples of normal ovine d. Colostrum obtained within 24 h of lambing contained high concentrations of vitamin B!2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Blood-Stained Colostrum and Human Milk during Pregnancy and Early Lactation.  

PubMed

Blood-stained colostrum occurs occasionally during pregnancy and lactation due to a conspicuous increase in lobuloalveolar growth. We report on a case of bilateral frank blood-stained colostrum secreted during pregnancy and early postpartum, emphasizing the transitory nature of this condition and the need to reinforce breastfeeding. PMID:24925862

Barco, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Barco, Jos; Badia, Angels; Piqueras, Merc; Garca, Antonio; Pessarrodona, Antoni

2014-11-01

138

Chemical Changes in Bovine Colostrum Preserved with Formalin or by Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh bovine colostrum from second and third milkings postpartum was inoculated with either a yogurt culture or Streptococcus lactis or preserved with 1% formalin in two separate experiments. There was a rapid decrease in pH of the fermented samples which corresponded to decreased lactose concentrations and increased lactate and titratable acidity. Titratable acidity in the fermented colostrums increased further

R. S. Bush; R. E. McQueen; J. W. G. Nicholson

1980-01-01

139

Concentrations of Sialyloligosaccharides in Bovine Colostrum and Milk during the Prepartum and Early Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates in colostrumandmilkareregardedtobeimportantbiolog- ical components with respect to be source of brain gan- gliosides in infant and to be antiinfectional components for the attack by the pathogenic bacteria and virus. Severalacidicoligosaccharideshavebeencharacterised inbothbovineandhumanmilkorcolostrum.Thesialyl- oligosaccharide content of human colostrum and milk has been extensivelystudied, whereas that ofcows milk andcolostrumhasreceivedless attention.Inthisstudy, the concentrations of three sialyloligosaccharides of bo- vine colostrum and

T. Nakamura; H. Kawase; K. Kimura; Y. Watanabe; M. Ohtani; I. Arai; T. Urashima

2003-01-01

140

Promoting Effect of Colostrum on the Phagocytic Activity of Bovine Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum contains a variety of essential nutrients, antibodies, cytokines, hormones, and growth factors that are important for nutrient supply, host defense, growth and for general neonatal adaptation. We have investigated the effect of bovine colostrum on the phagocytic activity for latex particles by normal peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes using flow cytometric analysis. The phagocytosis promoting effect was observed in

H. Sugisawa; T. Itou; T. Sakai

2001-01-01

141

EXPERIMENTAL ROTAVIRUS DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES: ASSAY OF TREATMENT BY ADMINISTRATION  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL ROTAVIRUS DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES: ASSAY OF TREATMENT. ― Sept veaux nouveau-nés privés de colostrum ont été inoculés oralement, dans les 24 heures suivant la naissance, avec du rotavirus bovin. Trois d'entre eux ont reçu des injections intramusculaires d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

The Relationship of the Prepartum Diet to the Carotene and Vitamin A Content of Bovine Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper was to determine the relationship of the prepartnm diet to the carotene and vitamin A content of bovine colostrum. The literature revealed scanty information concerning the effect of the feed of the dry cow upon the carotene a~ld vitamin A content of colostrum. Kramer et al. (5) reported values of 25

A. A. Spielman; J. W. Thomas; J. K. Loosli; F. Whiting; C. L. Norton; K. L. Turk

1947-01-01

143

Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a casecontrol study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.761.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.961.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures. PMID:22965418

Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tj?nneland, Anne; F?ns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Par; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

2013-01-01

144

Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

1992-04-01

145

Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22965418

Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjnneland, Anne; Fns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramn Quirs, J; Gonzlez, Carlos A; Snchez, Maria-Jos; Larraaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pr; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

2013-04-15

146

Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

2014-03-01

147

The nutriceutical bovine colostrum truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes.  

PubMed

Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, "heat stroke" partially due to increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. We examined bovine colostrum, a natural source of growth factors, as a potential moderator of such effects. Twelve volunteers completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol (14 days colostrum/placebo) prior to standardized exercise. Gut permeability utilized 5 h urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose ratios. In vitro studies (T84, HT29, NCM460 human colon cell lines) examined colostrum effects on temperature-induced apoptosis (active caspase-3 and 9, Bax?, Bcl-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and epithelial electrical resistance. In both study arms, exercise increased blood lactate, heart rate, core temperature (mean 1.4C rise) by similar amounts. Gut hormone profiles were similar in both arms although GLP-1 levels rose following exercise in the placebo but not the colostrum arm (P = 0.026). Intestinal permeability in the placebo arm increased 2.5-fold following exercise (0.38 0.012 baseline, to 0.92 0.014, P < 0.01), whereas colostrum truncated rise by 80% (0.38 0.012 baseline to 0.49 0.017) following exercise. In vitro apoptosis increased by 47-65% in response to increasing temperature by 2C. This effect was truncated by 60% if colostrum was present (all P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained examining epithelial resistance (colostrum truncated temperature-induced fall in resistance by 64%, P < 0.01). Colostrum increased HSP70 expression at both 37 and 39C (P < 0.001) and was truncated by addition of an EGF receptor-neutralizing antibody. Temperature-induced increase in Bax? and reduction in Bcl-2 was partially reversed by presence of colostrum. Colostrum may have value in enhancing athletic performance and preventing heat stroke. PMID:21148400

Marchbank, Tania; Davison, Glen; Oakes, Jemma R; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Patterson, Michael; Moyer, Mary Pat; Playford, Raymond J

2011-03-01

148

Colostrum feeding behaviour and initiation of breast-feeding in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Human breast milk is primarily colostrum immediately following birth. Colostrum gradually changes to mature milk over the next several days. The role of colostrum in fighting infections and promoting growth and development of the newborn is widely acknowledged. This role is mediated by differences across cultures in the acceptability of colostrum and the prevalence of colostrum feeding. This study examined the prevalence of colostrum feeding and time to initiation of breast-feeding in 143 rural Bangladeshi women in Matlab thana. Structured interviews were collected during a 9-month prospective study conducted in 1993. Women were usually interviewed within 4 days of giving birth and were asked about whether or not they fed their child colostrum and the number of hours until they began breast-feeding the baby. Ninety per cent of the mothers reported feeding their newborn colostrum. A logistic regression found no effect on the prevalence of colostrum feeding from the following covariates: mother's age, parity, history of pregnancy loss, child's sex, mother's self-report of delivery complications, and the time from birth to interview. Fifty-nine per cent of mothers initiated breast-feeding within 4 h, and 88% within 12 h of parturition. Survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of covariates on the time from delivery to initial breast-feeding. Time to initial breast-feeding was delayed slightly, but significantly, for older mothers, for male infants, and by mothers who did not report delivery complications. The percentage of mothers who fed their child colostrum was higher, and times to initial breast-feeding were shorter, than almost all previous reports from South Asia. These findings might be explained, in part, by methodological differences among studies, but it is suggested that recent changes towards earlier initiation of breast-feeding have taken place in rural Bangladesh. PMID:11316392

Holman, D J; Grimes, M A

2001-01-01

149

Separation of Lactoferrin-a and -b from Bovine Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine lactoferrin was separated into lactoferrin-a and lactoferrin-b from bovine colostrum. Lactoferrin-a was eluted at 0.38 M NaCl and lactoferrin-b was eluted at 0.43 M NaCl by carboxymethyl cation-exchange chro- matography at pH 7.7, 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The molecular weights were estimated at 84,000 for lacto- ferrin-a and 80,000 for lactoferrin-b. Lactoferrin-a con- tents were 258.0 mg\\/L and lactoferrin-b

S. Yoshida; Z. Wei; Y. Shinmura; N. Fukunaga

2000-01-01

150

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility\\u000a and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (SD) live weight of 19.8 (1.06) kg,\\u000a were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp

Ajebu Nurfeta

2010-01-01

151

Influence of S. babylonica extract on feed intake, growth performance and diet in vitro gas production profile in young lambs.  

PubMed

An experiment was completed to determine the effect of Salix babylonica (SB) extract supplementation to the diet of growing lambs. Eighteen Katahdin Pelibuey male lambs (14??2 kg live body weight) were divided randomly in individual cages into three groups and fed three diets varying in SB: a control group was fed on total mixed ration (TMR) without SB (SB0), an SB25 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 25 mL/lamb/day, and an SB50 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 50 mL/lamb/day on dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, and in vitro gas production (GP) in lambs fed on TMR. In vitro GP of the TMR fed to lambs was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mL extract per gram of DM. Addition of SB extract at low and high doses improved the DMI of lambs by 59.9 and 33.2 %, respectively. Relative to the control, low and high extract doses achieved greater lamb ADG during the experimental period. The asymptotic GP increased (P?

Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Olivares, Misael; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Mellado, Miguel; Arece, Javier

2014-01-01

152

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea (Desvaux) O. Kuntze to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition was studied in the dry tropics in Nicaragua. The treatments were sorghum silage ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Cratylia on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos indicus cows of the Creole Reyna breed, with a mean body weight of 386 (SD 19) kg were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Supplementation with Cratylia increased (p < 0.05) DM intake from 6.6 to 7.8 and 8.7 kg DM/day and milk production from 3.9 to 5.1 and 5.7 kg/day for sorghum silage alone and supplementation with 2 kg and 3 kg DM of Cratylia, respectively. Milk fat, total solids and crude protein and organoleptic characteristics (smell, taste and colour) were not significantly different among diets. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were not affected significantly by supplementation with Cratylia. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility increased (p < 0.05) in the diets supplemented with Cratylia compared to sorghum silage alone. In conclusion Cratylia given as a protein supplement to a low-quality diet improved DM intake and CP digestibility of the diet and increased milk production, but did not affect milk composition. PMID:17137136

Snchez, N R; Ledin, I

2006-05-01

153

Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review--Part II: clinical studies.  

PubMed

The value of bovine colostrum as a biologic in medicine is documented in clinical trials and supported by relatively large databases containing case reports and anecdotal findings. The main actions include an antibacterial effect and modulation of the immune response. The ability of bovine colostrum concentrates (BCC are polyvalent bovine colostrum concentrates produced from the colostrums of several 100 cows) to neutralize lipopolysaccharides, i.e. endotoxins arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and to inhibit enterogenic endotoxemia in animal models as shown in the last review to have its counterpart in patient therapy. Clinical trials with BCC provide evidence that oral application reduces the influx of LPS from the gut and this appears to be a major mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock; data from two well-controlled clinical studies with a total of 100 surgical patients have shown that the inhibition of intestinal LPS absorption measured after the application of BCC not only reduced the LPS levels in the peripheral blood but also inflammatory parameters like IL-6 and CRP were found to be diminished. The usual daily dose of the commercially available BCC preparation, LactobinA (LC1) is 10 20 g daily, but higher doses can be used in the majority of patients because of the low incidence of intolerance problems. In chronic diarrhea involving severe forms of secondary immunodeficiencies, patients receiving LC1 were disease-free for about 4 weeks but the response may be lower in patients with AIDS. BCC is effective in infants with hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by infections with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and reduces the likelihood of the disease progressing to a hemolytic uremic syndrome. The safety of newer BCC products obtained from BSE-free regions seems now beyond contention. In the case of LC1, which was used as a commercial dietary foodstuff in Germany until 1992 and tested in three Phase 1 and 5 clinical studies (two trials in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies, one in surgical patients with gastrointestinal disorders, one in patients undergoing open heart surgery and one in pediatric patients with EHEC infections), there were no cases of BSE-associated disease such as the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Side effects of clinical relevance are limited to possible intolerance to lactose and sensitivity to milk proteins as these are also present in many commonly used foodstuffs. Important synergistic actions with conventional drug therapies have been observed with BCC including a reduction in LPS plasma levels in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections treated with bactericidal antibiotics. In healthy persons there are only small concentrations of LPS detectable in peripheral blood (normal values: 3 10 pg/ ml plasma, i.e. approximately 0.1 EU/ml). In contrast, elevated systemic levels with concentrations > 300 pg/ml are common in patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. Raised LPS levels occur mainly in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections who have been treated with bacteriocidal antibiotics. The LPS-lowering effects of BCC are probably due to the numerous active components present in BCC which have their origin in the innate humoral and adaptive immune system of their biologic source, the cow. PMID:18538107

Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

2008-05-01

154

Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (SD) of 6.2 1.4 kg/d, 187 38 L/d, and 30.4 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (SD) of 34 4.6, 238 37, 357 45, and 471 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (SD) of 3.8 2.6 mm, 5.4 3.8 mm, and 61 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r SE) with DMI (0.65 0.02), MY (0.72 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r SE) with DMI (-0.02 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0.01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering. PMID:25349368

Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

2014-11-01

155

Immunoglobulins, growth factors and growth hormone in bovine colostrum and the effects of processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colostrum collected 080h postpartum the contents of immunoglobulins (Igs), transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-?2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) were analysed. Colostrum initially contained 90mgmL?1 IgG1, 2.8mgmL?1 IgG2, 1.6mgmL?1 IgA, 4.5mgmL?1 IgM, and these concentrations declined by 92%, 87%, 93% and 84%, respectively, in the samples collected later. Of the growth factors, colostrum initially contained 289310ngmL?1

Lidia Elfstrand; Helena Lindmark-Mnsson; Marie Paulsson; Lena Nyberg; Bjrn kesson

2002-01-01

156

Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Pitrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 0.06 to 0.40 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P excretion levels. To conclude, new selection indexes including RFI can be envisaged to efficiently disentangle the responses to selection on growth rate and body composition from those on feed efficiency, with favorable impacts on N and P excretions, particularly in sire pig breeds. However, the switch from FCR to RFI in selection indexes should not resolve the genetic antagonism between feed efficiency and meat quality. PMID:23482579

Saintilan, R; Mrour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

2013-06-01

157

Immunomodulatory effects of bovine colostrum in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Human and bovine colostrum (BC) contain a remarkable amount of bioactive substances, including antibodies towards many common pathogens of the intestinal and respiratory tract as well as growth factors, vitamins, cytokines and other proteic, lipidic and glucidic factors. In this study we investigated whether BC had any immunomodulatory effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors. To this aim we focused on the production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma, cytokines involved in the Th1 polarization required for a successful immune response towards intracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. BC induced a dose-dependent production of IL-12 by CD14+ monocytes, but was unable to induce IFN-gamma production. However, BC differentially affected stimuli-induced IFN-gamma production: it enhanced IFN-gamma in response to weak antigenic stimulation and it inhibited IFN-gamma in response to strong antigenic stimulation. These effects were not dose-dependent. We also measured PBMC proliferation, which was substantially unaffected by BC. Our data suggest that the Th1-promoting activity of BC could contribute, together with the antibodies, to the protective effect of BC on the offspring. BC could also represent an inexpensive therapeutic tool in prevention and treatment of several human microbial infections, including influenza. PMID:18080681

Biswas, Priscilla; Vecchi, Andrea; Mantegani, Paola; Mantelli, Barbara; Fortis, Claudio; Lazzarin, Adriano

2007-10-01

158

Effects of refrigeration, freezing-thawing and pasteurization on IgG goat colostrum preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of refrigeration, several different methods of thawing, and pasteurization on the concentration of IgG in goat colostrum. Three different experiments were designed to analyse these effects. In the first of these, 50 samples of goat colostrum were stored in a cold-storage room at a temperature of 4C for a 3-month

A Argello; N Castro; J Capote; R Gins; F Acosta; J. L Lpez

2003-01-01

159

Inhibition of HEp2 Cell Invasion by Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli by Human Colostrum IgA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that human colostrum can inhibit the invasion of HEp-2 cells by enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) of serotypes O28:H and O29:H, and that IgA antibodies mediate the inhibitory process. Seventy three of 77 (95.9%) colostrum samples prevented invasion of HEp-2 cells by E. coli O28:H. Most of these samples contained high levels of IgA reactive to EIEC in

Solange B. Carbonare; Lourdes M. Silva; Luiz R. Trabulsi; Magda M. S. Carneiro-Sampaio

1995-01-01

160

Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for arthritis but cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a rich source of growth factors and is marketed as a health food supplement.AIMSTo examine whether spray dried, defatted colostrum or milk preparations could reduce gastrointestinal injury caused by indomethacin.METHODSEffects of test solutions, administered orally, were examined using an indomethacin restraint rat model of gastric

R J Playford; D N Floyd; C E Macdonald; D P Calnan; R O Adenekan; W Johnson; R A Goodlad; T Marchbank

1999-01-01

161

Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-i levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We investigated whether supplementation with 60 g\\/d of bovine colostrum affects blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to doping testing. Nine endurance-trained men ingested 60 g\\/d of bovine colostrum for 4 wk.METHODS:Blood and urine were sampled before starting supplementation. After 4 wk urine and blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and

Harm Kuipers; E van Breda; G Verlaan; R Smeets

2002-01-01

162

Oral administration of bovine colostrum stimulates intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes to polarize Th1-type in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th1 stimulus for Th2-skewed immune response during infancy is important for reduction of incidence of allergic diseases. We examined effects of oral administration of bovine colostrum on local immunity in intestine in adult mice. C57BL\\/6 mice were orally given bovine colostrum or control milk for 1, 3 or 6 months and intestinal microflora, fecal IgA, and lymphocyte population of gut-associated

Yasuko Yoshioka; Satsuki Kudo; Hitoshi Nishimura; Toshiki Yajima; Kenji Kishihara; Kimika Saito; Tatsuo Suzuki; Yumiko Suzuki; Shinsuke Kuroiwa; Yasunobu Yoshikai

2005-01-01

163

The Gastric CB1 Receptor Modulates Ghrelin Production through the mTOR Pathway to Regulate Food Intake  

PubMed Central

Over the years, the knowledge regarding the relevance of the cannabinoid system to the regulation of metabolism has grown steadily. A central interaction between the cannabinoid system and ghrelin has been suggested to regulate food intake. Although the stomach is the main source of ghrelin and CB1 receptor expression in the stomach has been described, little information is available regarding the possible interaction between the gastric cannabinoid and ghrelin systems in the integrated control of energy homeostasis. The main objective of the present work was to assess the functional interaction between these two systems in terms of food intake using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. The present work demonstrates that the peripheral blockade of the CB1 receptor by rimonabant treatment decreased food intake but only in food-deprived animals. This anorexigenic effect is likely a consequence of decreases in gastric ghrelin secretion induced by the activation of the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway in the stomach following treatment with rimonabant. In support of this supposition, animals in which the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway was blocked by chronic rapamycin treatment, rimonabant had no effect on ghrelin secretion. Vagal communication may also be involved because rimonabant treatment was no longer effective when administered to animals that had undergone surgical vagotomy. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first to describe a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism that influences gastric ghrelin secretion and food intake through the mTOR pathway. PMID:24303008

Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Pardo, Maria; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Amil, Maria; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Gabellieri, Enrico; Leis, Rosaura; Dieguez, Carlos; Pagotto, Uberto; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

2013-01-01

164

Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Research Design and Methods Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula into the lateral (LV) or third (3V) ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v.) injection of Tran35S (100 Ci) followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW), enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF), synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF) or vehicle (aCSF), or an i.v. injection of PYY336 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS) or vehicle (PBS). Results Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively). NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY336 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. Conclusion In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species. PMID:23460782

Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

2013-01-01

165

Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.  

PubMed

Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum. PMID:24582452

Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

2014-05-01

166

Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

Kilic, Devrim; ak?ro?ullar?, Gl elik; Uar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

2011-07-01

167

Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ?OCPs content was 3.87 ng g? fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ?PCBs value was 3.93 ng g? fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g? lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodrguez-Hernndez, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Surez, Norberto; Almeida-Gonzlez, Maira; Henrquez-Hernndez, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

2013-10-01

168

[The effect of linoleic acid intake on its concentration and resultant products in individual plasma lipids in humans].  

PubMed

Dietary linoleic acid enrichment in different plasma lipids was investigated in six healthy females. They were given formula diets (FD) containing no arachidonic acid, and providing a linoleic acid supply of 0% (FD0), 4% (FD4) or 20% (FD20) of total energy intake. At the end of each two weeks FD period fatty acid distribution was determined in cholesterol esters (CE) and in lecithin of LDL and HDL. The increase of linoleic acid in CE was twice that found in the lecithin of LDL and HDL. Comparing FD0 and FD20 the increase of linoleic acid in CE of LDL and HDL was 34%, and in lecithin 15%. Simultaneously oleic acid was lowered in CE (-17%) and in lecithin (-8%) of LDL and HDL. Comparing FD0 and FD20 arachidonic acid, which derives from linoleic acid, was lowered with increased linoleic acid intake in LDL-CE (-5%) and in HDL-lecithin (-8%), while no effect was found in LDL-lecithin. Our results demonstrate that dietary linoleic acid enrichment occurs preferentially in CE of LDL and HDL, but does not lead to an increase of arachidonic acid in plasma lipids. However, a decrease was found for arachidonic acid in HDL-lecithin, while in LDL-lecithin no effect could be observed. From this it is concluded that incorporation and metabolism of linoleic acid in different plasma lipids is not identical, although lipid exchange and lipid transfer have been shown for most lipoprotein fractions. PMID:4096032

Adam, O; Wolfram, G; Zllner, N

1985-12-01

169

Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of ?-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and ?-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7g/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1533.8g/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8681.8g/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, ?-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5372.7g/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4531.5g/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Camara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emilia N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

2014-01-01

170

Effects of dietary energy intake during gestation and lactation on milk yield and composition of first, second and fourth parity sows.  

PubMed

In order to determine the effects of a varied level of dietary energy intake during pregnancy and lactation on milk yield and composition, first, second and fourth parity sows (Large White x German Landrace) were provided with energy at a level of either: (i) 100% of ME requirement (MEreq) during pregnancy and lactation, (ii) 120% MEreq during pregnancy and 80% during lactation, and (iii) 80% MEreq during pregnancy and 120% during lactation. In spite of equal target levels feed analysis revealed that gestating first parity sows with 120/80 treatment combination and lactating sows of 80/120 treatment combination received 25, and 11-17% more digestible N than in the respective 100/100 treatment combination. Irrespective of this 120/80 sows responded with the highest milk DM, fat, and energy contents, and the lowest lactose concentrations whereas protein levels where not affected, irrespective of parity (p < 0.05). Milk yield of sows in 1st and 4th lactation was 85 and 106% of that in 2nd lactation, respectively. Average milk composition was 18.1% DM, 4.9% protein, 6.8% fat, 5.6% lactose, and 0.8% ash. Milk composition changes ceased at day 7 of lactation with a reduction of milk GE and protein, and an increase of lactose content. Concentrations of threonine, arginine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, cystine, and tryptophan, as well as stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid were higher in colostrum than in milk at later lactation stages. In contrast, laurine, myristic, palmitic, and palmitoleic acids were lower concentrated in colostrum. In conclusion, these results illustrate the importance of body reserve mobilization for milk production in sows and indicate that low energy supply during gestation cannot be compensated by higher energy supply during lactation. PMID:18069617

Beyer, Manfred; Jentsch, Werner; Kuhla, Siegfried; Wittenburg, Hildegard; Kreienbring, Fred; Scholze, Helmut; Rudolph, Paul E; Metges, Cornelia C

2007-12-01

171

Effect of stocking rate and calving date on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score in spring-calving, grass-fed dairy cows.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and calving date (CD) on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and milk production efficiency over 4 consecutive years (2009 to 2012). Two groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with different mean CD were established from within the existing research herd at Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland). Animals were assigned to either an early calving (mean CD February 14) treatment or a late calving (mean CD March 2) treatment. Animals within each CD treatment were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments: low (LSR; 2.51 cows/ha), medium (MSR; 2.92 cows/ha), and high (HSR; 3.28 cows/ha), and animals remained on the same farmlet for the duration of the study. Individual animal DMI was estimated 3 times per year at grass using the n-alkane technique in March (spring), May (summer), and September (autumn), corresponding to, on average, 45, 132, and 258 d in milk, respectively. A total of 138 spring-calving dairy cows were used during each year of the study. The effects of SR, CD, season, and their interaction were studied using mixed models. Individual animal milk production, body weight, body condition score, and the efficiency of milk production were significantly decreased as SR increased due to a reduction in herbage availability. The existence of CD SR season interactions for production, DMI, and EB indicate that delaying the herd mean CD can be an effective strategy to minimize the reduction in animal performance, particularly in spring at higher SR. This study further confirms the benefits of a new approach to the evaluation of herbage allowance known as the individual herbage allowance, which encompasses the 3 main factors restricting DMI in rotational grazing; namely, the average daily herbage allowance of the group, the intake capacity of the individual animal within the group, and the relative intake capacity of the animal within the competing herd. PMID:24440250

McCarthy, J; McCarthy, B; Horan, B; Pierce, K M; Galvin, N; Brennan, A; Delaby, L

2014-03-01

172

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

173

Levels of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in canned liquid infant formula products in Canada and dietary intake estimates.  

PubMed

A method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in liquid infant formula. In this method, instead of trying to isolate and measure each individual form of the molecules, hydrolysis of BADGE, BFDGE, BADGE x H2O, and BFDGE x H2O was forced to completion to their stable forms, BADGE x 2H2O and BFDGE x 2H2O, before extraction. The method LODs were 2.0 ng/g for BADGE and 3.0 ng/g for BFDGE. Extraction recoveries were 61-91% for BADGE, and 55-82% for BFDGE over the concentration range of 10 to 50 ng/g. The method was used to analyze samples of 21 canned liquid infant formula products for BADGE and BFDGE. BADGE was detected in samples of all products at levels ranging from as low as 2.4 ng/g to as high as 262 ng/g. BFDGE was detected in only one product (40 ng/g), and this product also had the highest BADGE level (262 ng/g). HPLC/MS/MS with a similar LOD was also used to confirm the results. The probable daily intakes (PDI) of BADGE and BFDGE due to consumption of canned liquid infant formula were estimated for infants from premature to 12-18 months of age. The maximum PDI of BADGE was 22 microg/kg body weight/day for the 12-18 months old with the maximum formula intake. The maximum PDI of BFDGE was < 3.4 microg/kg body weight/day. PMID:20166597

Cao, Xu-Liang; Dufresne, Guy; Clement, Genevieve; Blisle, Stphane; Robichaud, Andr; Beraldin, Franca

2009-01-01

174

Compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus between blood and colostrum in infected goats.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) subtype A (Maedi-Visna virus) and B (caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) variants was analyzed in colostrum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four naturally infected goats. Sequence analysis of DNA and RNA encompassing the V4-V5 env regions showed a differential distribution of SRLV variants between the two compartments. Tissue-specific compartmentalization was demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis in three of the four cases. In these animals colostrum proviral sequences were clustered relative to the blood viral sequences. In one goat, the blood and colostrum-derived provirus sequences were intermingled, suggesting trafficking of virus between the two tissues or mirroring a recent infection. Surprisingly, the pattern of free virus variants in the colostrum of all animals corresponded only partially to that of the proviral form, suggesting that free viruses might not derive from infected colostral cells. The compartmentalization of SRLV between peripheral blood and colostrum indicates that lactogenic transmission may involve specific viruses not present in the proviral populations circulating in the blood. PMID:17719071

Pisoni, Giuliano; Moroni, Paolo; Turin, Lauretta; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-12-01

175

The Impact of System Level Factors on Treatment Timeliness: Utilizing the Toyota Production System to Implement Direct Intake Scheduling in a Semi-Rural Community Mental Health Clinic  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and childrens treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.

2013-01-01

176

Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.  

PubMed

Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 ?g of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense. PMID:24650098

Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

2014-07-01

177

Bovine colostrum supplementation during running training increases intestinal permeability.  

PubMed

Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 4.7 yr; mean SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 140%) compared with WP (21 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (-7 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980

Buckley, Jonathan D; Butler, Ross N; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D

2009-02-01

178

The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. The studies were done in the fall-winter season on 20 pregnant sows (Polish Landrace) divided into four groups, five animals each. The sows were clinically healthy and unvaccinated. Group I received isoprinosine, group II (TFX), group III (HMB), and group IV served a control. The immunostimulants were applicated 4-6 weeks before the expected date of delivery. The following parameters were determined in colostrum taken from sows after completed delivery: specific gravidity; total proteins, lysozyme activity, IgG level. It was found that the nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows increased in colostrum the level of IgG, total protein content and lysozyme activity. PMID:12052346

Krakowski, Leszek; Krzyzanowski, Jan; Wrona, Zygmunt; Kostro, Krzysztof; Siwicki, Andrzej K

2002-08-01

179

Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in ?-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of ?-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6532.4g/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6708.5g/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0790.7 and 1,327.2655.0g/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the ?-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0575.4g/dL, compared to 869.5532.1g/dL and 1,039.6477.5g/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence ?-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased ?-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence ?-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

Grilo, Evellyn Camara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

2013-01-01

180

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

181

Are reductions in population sodium intake achievable?  

PubMed

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

182

A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (PP=0.0341).

Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki

2007-01-01

183

Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:3543. PMID:25356286

Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

2013-01-01

184

The impact of dietary counselling during pregnancy on vitamin intake and status of women and their children.  

PubMed

We aimed here to assess the impact of dietary counselling during pregnancy on dietary intake of vitamins and the vitamin status of women and their children. At the first trimester of pregnancy, 89 women from allergic families were randomized to a control group (n=45) or to receive individual dietary counselling (n=44). Women's vitamin intakes and serum concentrations were analyzed during and after pregnancy. Further, vitamin concentrations were measured from breast milk and infant serum at one month of age. The study is registered as clinical study (NCT00167000; section 3, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ). Dietary counselling resulted in a higher intake of beta-carotene and vitamin E compared to controls. Further, in women lower serum beta-carotene and higher colostrum vitamin A concentrations were found in the intervention group compared to controls. Dietary counselling during pregnancy improves women's vitamin intakes but does not provide unambiguous effects on vitamin status of women or children. PMID:23373762

Vhmiko, Sanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

2013-08-01

185

Short communication: Staphylococcus aureus isolated from colostrum of dairy heifers represent a closely related group exhibiting highly homogeneous genomic and antimicrobial resistance features.  

PubMed

In heifers, intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus affect milk production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations, and can lead to premature culling. Not much is known about Staph. aureus isolated from heifers and it is also unclear whether or not these strains are readily transmitted between heifers and lactating herd mates. In this study, we compared phenotypic characteristics, spa types, and DNA microarray virulence and resistance gene profiles of Staph. aureus isolates obtained from colostrum samples of dairy heifers with isolates obtained from lactating cows. Our objective was to (1) characterize Staph. aureus strains associated with mastitis in heifers and (2) determine relatedness of Staph. aureus strains from heifers and lactating cows to provide data on transmission. We analyzed colostrum samples of 501 heifers and milk samples of 68 lactating cows within the same herd, isolating 48 and 9 Staph. aureus isolates, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus strains from heifers, lactating herd mates, and an unrelated collection of 78 strains from bovine mastitis milk of mature cows were compared. With 1 exception each, characterization of all strains from heifers and lactating cows in the same herd yielded highly similar phenotypic and genotypic results. The strains were Staphaurex latex agglutination test negative (Oxoid AG, Basel, Switzerland) and belonged to agr type II, CC705, and spa types tbl 2645 and t12926. They were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. In contrast, the strains from mature cows in other herds were spread across different clonal complexes, spa types, and SplitsTree clusters (http://www.splitstree.org/), thus displaying a far higher degree of heterogeneity. We conclude that strains isolated from colostrum of heifers and mastitis milk of lactating cows in the same herd feature highly similar phenotypic and genomic characteristics, suggesting persistence of the organism during the first and potentially subsequent lactations or transmission between heifers and mature herd mates. PMID:24881795

Stalder, Ueli; Stephan, Roger; Corti, Sabrina; Bludau, Maren; Maeschli, Ariane; Klocke, Peter; Johler, Sophia

2014-08-01

186

The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<005) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<005) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<005) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

2014-02-01

187

Protection against Loss of Innate Defenses in Adulthood by Low Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) Intake: Role of the Antiinflammatory AGE Receptor-1  

PubMed Central

Context: Increased oxidant stress and inflammation (OS/infl) are linked to both aging-related diseases and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGER1) reduces OS/infl in animals, this has not been assessed in normal humans. Objective: The objectives of the study were to determine whether AGER1 correlates with AGEs and OS/infl and a reduction of dietary AGEs (dAGEs) lowers OS/infl in healthy adults and chronic kidney disease (CKD-3) patients. Design: This study was cross-sectional with 2-yr follow-up studies of healthy adults and CKD-3 patients, a subset of which received a reduced AGE or regular diet. Setting: The study was conducted at general community and renal clinics. Participants: Participants included 325 healthy adults (1845 and >60 yr old) and 66 CKD-3 patients. Intervention: An isocaloric low-AGE (3050% reduction) or regular diet was given to 40 healthy subjects for 4 months and to nine CKD-3 patients for 4 wk. Main Outcome: Relationships between age, dAGEs, serum AGEs, peripheral mononuclear cell AGE-receptors, and OS/Infl before and after reduction of dAGE intake were measured. Results: AGEs, oxidant stress, receptor for AGE, and TNF? were reduced in normal and CKD-3 patients after the low-AGE diet, independently of age. AGER1 levels in CKD-3 patients on the low-AGE diet resembled 18- to 45-yr-old normal subjects. Dietary, serum, and urine AGEs correlated positively with peripheral mononuclear cell AGER1 levels in healthy participants. AGER1 was suppressed in CKD-3 subjects, whereas receptor for AGE and TNF? were increased. Conclusions: Reduction of AGEs in normal diets may lower oxidant stress/inflammation and restore levels of AGER1, an antioxidant, in healthy and aging subjects and CKD-3 patients. AGE intake has implications for health outcomes and costs and warrants further testing. PMID:19820033

Vlassara, Helen; Cai, Weijing; Goodman, Susan; Pyzik, Renata; Yong, Angie; Chen, Xue; Zhu, Li; Neade, Tina; Beeri, Michal; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tansman, Laurie; Striker, Gary E.; Uribarri, Jaime

2009-01-01

188

A randomized controlled trial on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifers fed a lacteal-derived colostrum replacer or pooled maternal colostrum  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8L of pooled MC or two doses (200g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value?=?0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR?=?1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value?=?0.974 ), omphalitis (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value?=?0.956), or mortality (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value?=?0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd. PMID:23965249

2013-01-01

189

Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research  

PubMed Central

The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research. PMID:24082397

Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M.; Harding, John C.S.

2013-01-01

190

Effects of colostrum versus formula feeding on hepatic glucocorticoid and ?1- and ?2-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves and their effect on glucose and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Neonatal energy metabolism in calves has to adapt to extrauterine life and depends on colostrum feeding. The adrenergic and glucocorticoid systems are involved in postnatal maturation of pathways related to energy metabolism and calves show elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines during perinatal life. We tested the hypothesis that hepatic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ?1- and ?2-adrenergic receptors (AR) in neonatal calves are involved in adaptation of postnatal energy metabolism and that respective binding capacities depend on colostrum feeding. Calves were fed colostrum (CF; n=7) or a milk-based formula (FF; n=7) with similar nutrient content up to d 4 of life. Blood samples were taken daily before feeding and 2h after feeding on d 4 of life to measure metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism in blood plasma. Liver tissue was obtained 2h after feeding on d 4 to measure hepatic fat content and binding capacity of AR and GR. Maximal binding capacity and binding affinity were calculated by saturation binding assays using [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-CGP-12177 for determination of ?1- and ?2-AR and [(3)H]-dexamethasone for determination of GR in liver. Additional liver samples were taken to measure mRNA abundance of AR and GR, and of key enzymes related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Plasma concentrations of albumin, triacylglycerides, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones changed until d 4 and all these variables except leptin and thyroid hormones responded to feed intake on d 4. Diet effects were determined for albumin, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones. Binding capacity for GR was greater and for ?1-AR tended to be greater in CF than in FF calves. Binding affinities were in the same range for each receptor type. Gene expression of ?1-AR (ADRA1) tended to be lower in CF than FF calves. Binding capacity of GR was related to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas ?2-AR binding capacity was negatively associated with glucose metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicate a dependence of GR and ?1-AR on milk feeding immediately after birth and point to an involvement of hepatic GR and AR in postnatal adaptation of glucose and lipid metabolism in calves. PMID:25108854

Schff, C T; Rohrbeck, D; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Kanitz, E; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Hammon, H M

2014-10-01

191

Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products.  

PubMed

The use of caffeine-containing energy products has increased worldwide in recent years. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in these products. Research shows that caffeine-containing energy products can improve cognitive and physical performance. Presumably, individuals consume caffeine-containing energy products to counteract feelings of low energy in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia, and the time-on-task effect as causes of low energy and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment in healthy adults who had 3 nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2-hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. The review concludes with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

2014-10-01

192

Protection of calves against cryptosporidiosis with immune bovine colostrum induced by a Cryptosporidium parvum recombinant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine if immunization with a recombinant protein (rC7) of Cryptosporidium parvum would induce immune bovine colostrum that protected calves against cryptosporidiosis following oral challenge with C. parvum oocysts. Late gestation Holstein cows with low titers of antibody to the p23 antigen of C. parvum were immunized three times with 300 ?g affinity purified

Lance E Perryman; Sushila J Kapil; Michael L Jones; Elaine L Hunt

1999-01-01

193

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

194

Pathogenesis of porcine circovirus; experimental infections of colostrum deprived piglets and examination of pig foetal material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of virus and antigen distribution following experimental infection of colostrum deprived pigs with pig circovirus (PCV) by oral\\/nasal and intravenous routes are reported. PCV and antigen were detected using virus isolation and indirect immunofluorescence on cryostat sections respectively. PCV antigen was detected in tissues throughout the body but primarily in spleen thymus, and lung. No PCV antigen or

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. P. Cassidy; G. A. C. Reilly; B. Adair; W. A. Ellis; M. S. McNulty

1995-01-01

195

Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters in neonatal calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newborn calves are characterised by marked cardio-respiratory, metabolic and endocrine changes which continue during ensuing weeks and months. Thus, although the somatotrophic axis is basically functioning in neonatal calves, it is not yet mature. The speed of the adaptations of the various traits differs widely. The ability to digest colostrum and milk requires specific structures and functions of the gastrointestinal

J. W Blum; H Hammon

2000-01-01

196

The effect of fermented liquid feeding on the faecal microbiology and colostrum quality of farrowing sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB):Coliform (L:C) ratio in the faeces of farrowing sows and the quality of sow colostrum. Eighteen multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments for approximately 2 weeks prior to farrowing and for 3 weeks after parturition. The three dietary treatments were

V Demeckov; D Kelly; A. G. P Coutts; P. H Brooks; A Campbell

2002-01-01

197

Sour Colostrum Dilutions Compared to Whole Milk for Calves[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials with Holstein calves com- pared various dilutions of sour colostrum with whole milk fed to weaning at 5 wk. Colostral milk was collected for the first six milkings postpartum, allowed to fer- ment naturally, and stored for an average of 10.5 days before feeding. In Trial 1, 59 calves were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 3.63

R. B. Rindsig

1976-01-01

198

Modulation of human humoral immune response through orally administered bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized into two treatment groups and consumed liquid prepackaged bovine colostrum whey and placebo for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. The circulating antibody secreting cells and the expression of phagocytosis receptors of the subjects before and

Fang He; Elina Tuomola; Heikki Arvilommi; Seppo Salminen

2001-01-01

199

A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective, open, uncontrolled study 25 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with chronic refractory diarrhea and either confirmed cryptosporidiosis (n=7) or absence of demonstrable pathogenic organisms (n =18) were treated with a daily oral dose of 10 g of an immunoglobulin preparation from bovine colostrum over a period of 10 days. Among the 7 patients with cryptosporidiosis,

A. Plettenberg; A. Stoehr; H.-J. Stellbrink; H. Albrecht; W. Meigel

1993-01-01

200

A comparative study of milk serum proteins in camel ( Camelus dromedarius) and bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camel (Camelus dromedarius) whey proteins were detected and compared to bovine whey proteins using size exclusion chromatography columns on HPLC. Camel whey proteins such as serum albumin and ?-lactalbumin appear to possess molecular weights similar to the respective bovine whey proteins. Camel whey lacks ?-lactoglobulin and consists of large amount of serum albumin, compared to bovine whey. Camel colostrum is

U Merin; S Bernstein; A Bloch-Damti; R Yagil; C van Creveld; P Lindner; N Gollop

2001-01-01

201

INTERFERON RESPONSE IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES INFECTED WITH BOVINE ROTAVIRUS  

E-print Network

INTERFERON RESPONSE IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES INFECTED WITH BOVINE ROTAVIRUS : ITS veau à l'infec- tion virale. Rotavirus is very often associated with neonatal calf diarrhoea (Pastoret and in the serum of experimentally infected animals (La Bonnardidre et al., 1981). However, a functional role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Relationships among ewe milk production and ewe and lamb forage intake in Suffolk and Targhee ewes nursing single or twin lambs.  

PubMed

Suffolk and Targhee ewes (30 each) with single or twin lambs were used in four periods beginning in late gestation and continuing through weaning to evaluate breed differences in milk production, lamb BW, and DMI by ewes and lambs. In Periods 1 (late gestation) and 2 (early lactation), ewes (Period 1) and ewes with lambs (Period 2) were individually penned, fed .45 kg of barley x ewe(-1) x d(-1) and allowed ad libitum access to chopped alfalfa. Ewes and lambs grazed native range in Periods 3 and 4. Grazed forage DMI was estimated using chromic oxide. Estimates of milk production were obtained by handmilking. Average lamb age was 4, 45, and 73 d at the beginning of Periods 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Milk production tended (P = .20) to be greater for Suffolk than for Targhee ewes. Targhee ewes produced 85% more (P = .001) wool than Suffolk ewes. From 33 d prepartum to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk ewes consistently weighed more (P = .001) than Targhee ewes. Suffolk ewe BW loss (-.15 kg/d) was greater (P = .01) than Targhee ewe BW loss (-.02 kg/d) from 33 d prepartum to 6 d postpartum. From 6 to 89 d postpartum BW gain did not differ (P = .69; .05 kg/d) between breeds. From birth to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk lambs consistently weighed more than Targhee lambs (P = .003). From birth to 89 d postpartum, ADG was greater for Suffolk than for Targhee lambs (P = .006). Targhee ewes consumed 25% more (P = .01) feed over the course of the study than did Suffolk ewes. Grazed forage DMI by Targhee lambs was 26% greater (P = .01) than DMI by Suffolk lambs. When meat production is the primary income from sheep, one potential advantage of Suffolks compared with Targhees is more rapid gain with less feed intake. PMID:9621929

Ramsey, W S; Hatfield, P G; Wallace, J D

1998-05-01

203

Effects of undegraded intake protein supplementation on milk production, calf weight gain and reproductive performance in Brahman cows  

E-print Network

milk production, the cows were placed into a squeeze chute, restrained, given an injection of oxytocin (30 IU, i. v. ), and then hand-milked to empty the udder. After the udder was emptied, cows were placed into a holding pen with access to water... and the calves remained separated from the cows during the 4 hour waiting period. After 4 hours, the cows were placed into the chute, restrained, given oxytocin (30 IU, i. v. ), and then hand-milked again until the udder was empty. The milk obtained after...

Triplett, Brian Lee

2012-06-07

204

Effect of fermented soybean product (Cheonggukjang) intake on metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

As a nontargeted metabolomics approach, we investigated changes in the plasma metabolite levels in a mouse model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet and fermented soybean product diet. We analyzed the plasma samples by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the present study, the animals were divided into four groups according to the diet type; normal fat diet control group (ND), high-fat diet control group (HD), high-fat diet plus 30% cooked soybean power (HD + S), and high-fat diet plus 30% 72-h fermented Cheonggukjang powder (HD + CGJ). To examine the changes in plasma metabolite levels because of high-fat diet feeding, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the HD + S and HD + CGJ groups than in the ND group. According to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), major metabolites contributing to the discrimination between each group were assigned as lipid metabolites in plasma, e.g., lyso-phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Therefore, diets containing soy-based food products, which are rich sources of isoflavonoids, might be helpful for controlling the lipid metabolism under high-fat diet conditions. PMID:23609950

Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Choi, Joo Hee; Cha, Youn Soo; Muthaiya, Maria John; Lee, Choong Hwan

2013-10-01

205

Effects of Housing and Colostrum Feeding on the Prevalence of Selected Infectious Organisms in Feces of Jersey Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Neonatal Jersey calves (n = 96) were used to evaluate effects of housing,(in- dividual hutches,or wooden,pens in a barn) and colostrum feeding (calves were separated from the dam,and fed 2 L of colostrum in nipple-bottles or allowed to nurse the dam for 3 d) on the prevalence of selected organisms,in feces. Preva- lence of Cryptosporidium and,Eimeria were reduced, and

J. D. Quigley III; K. R. Martin; D. A. Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; C. R. Reinemeyer; B. W. Rohrbach; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar

1994-01-01

206

Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems  

SciTech Connect

In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stoney Brook, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

207

Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination and decreased the proportion of nonpregnant cows after 150 d in milk. In light of these findings, we suggest that a short DP be applied for its economic and physiological benefits. This is highly relevant to dairy herds located in regions such as Israel, Spain, and Florida that suffer from reduced milk production during the hot season. PMID:24630671

Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

2014-05-01

208

Effects of dietary scFOS on immunoglobulins in colostrums and milk of bitches.  

PubMed

Fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) are prebiotic ingredients that improve protection against pathogens probably through promoting the growth of gastrointestinal bacteria-like Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli: this stimulation may lead to a better development of immune repertoire and/or stimulation of the local immune response. According to the existence of the immune entero-mammary link, we were wondering if the dietary supplementation with scFOS could enhance the mucosal immunoglobulin level in mammary secretions. Results in this study show that bitches supplemented with scFOS exhibit higher colostrum and milk IgM content without concomitant effect on IgG1, IgG2 and IgA. In addition, intranasally immunized puppies exhibited a trend to higher Bordetella bronchiseptica-specific IgM immune response. The dietary supplementation with scFOS increased the IgM level in colostrums and milk of bitches by mechanisms which remain to be elucidated. PMID:17516936

Adogony, V; Respondek, F; Biourge, V; Rudeaux, F; Delaval, J; Bind, J-L; Salmon, H

2007-06-01

209

Affinity liquid chromatography method for the quantification of immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders.  

PubMed

An affinity liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG), using protein G coupled to an agarose support, was modified to permit the quantification of IgG in colostrum-based powders. Sample preparation included pH adjustment to 4.6 to precipitate casein and denatured whey protein. The method was applied to a range of colostrum powders and was compared with the alternative independent methods of surface plasmon resonance immunoassay, radial immunodiffusion, and reversed-phase LC. The method was rapid, and performance parameters included a working range of 10-150 microg IgG and precision relative standard deviation values of <10%. PMID:17042172

Copestake, David E J; Indyk, Harvey E; Otter, Don E

2006-01-01

210

Effects of Corn Silage Derived from a Genetically Modified Variety Containing Two Transgenes on Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Composition, and the Absence of Detectable Transgenic Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Milk in Holstein Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theobjectivesweretocomparethechemicalcomposi- tion, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages con- taining 2transgenes (2GM: herbicidetolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy

S. Calsamiglia; B. Hernandez; G. F. Hartnell; R. Phipps

2007-01-01

211

Effects of Feeding Silage and Grain from Glyphosate-Tolerant or Insect-Protected Corn Hybrids on Feed Intake, Ruminal Digestion, and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composi- tion, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to Euro- pean corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt- MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole

S. S. Donkin; J. C. Velez; A. K. Totten; E. P Stanisiewski; G. F. Hartnell

2003-01-01

212

DNA-hydrolysing activity of immunoglobulin G from bulk bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the first report of DNA-hydrolysing activity of IgG fraction from bulk bovine colostrum. Ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, protein G affinity chromatography and dialysis were used to obtain the IgG fraction, which was isolated and finally purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. pBR322 DNA in the incubated mixture with the IgG fraction, which was subjected to electrophoresis in 0.8%

Jinsong Cao; Changhong Guo; Xiaoqin Wang; Chunyan He; Pingtai Zhang

2008-01-01

213

Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

2014-04-01

214

Development of a method for isolating bovine colostrum mononuclear leukocytes for phenotyping and functional studies.  

PubMed

The present study reports a method for isolating bovine colostrum mononuclear cells (CMC) for phenotyping and functional studies. As well as being an important source of immunoglobulins, colostrum also contains leukocytes that may be of greater importance for passive immunity than has previously been thought. Different protocols have been reported for isolating leukocytes from bovine colostrum, although none of these have been validated, and phenotypic analysis of cell populations has not always been performed. In this study, bovine CMC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using antibodies against selected bovine cell surface markers and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. The mean cell count of isolated CMC was 3??10(4) and 1??10(5) per mL colostrum for the samples used in the flow cytometric assay and the proliferation assay, respectively. A mean of 25.4??17.1% CMC were identified as T lymphocytes, 2.9??3.0% as B lymphocytes and 32.7??13.7% as macrophages. In terms of proliferation, the mean counts per minute were 4.3??10(3) and 1.8??10(4) for cells cultured in medium only or in the presence of concanavalin A, respectively, showing that CMC are viable and capable of responding to mitogen stimulation. Isolation of CMC and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the different subpopulations were repeatable, with agreement indices varying between 0.5 and 1.0. Agreement indices for the proliferation assay were estimated at 0.8. PMID:24679458

Meganck, Vanessa; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Stuyven, Edith; Piepers, Sofie; Cox, Eric; Opsomer, Geert

2014-05-01

215

IgA with ``Secretory Piece'' in Bovine Colostrum and Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have shown that in bovine colostrum and saliva there is a secretory IgA with a sedimentation, coefficient of 11S and a secretory piece, previously unknown and comparable with the 11S IgA described in human and rabbit external secretions. These secretory IgA contain molecules of 7S IgA with an additional protein segment called the transport or secretory piece1-5. Furthermore, the

J.-P. Mach; J.-J. Pahud; H. Isliker

1969-01-01

216

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

217

Exercise and exposure to heat following bovine colostrum supplementation: a review of gastrointestinal and immune function.  

PubMed

Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammalian mothers and is essential for the health and survival of the newborn. Bovine colostrum (BC) has greater concentrations of the bioactive components (i.e. immune and growth factors) than those found in human colostrum. As a result, BC supplementation has been recently adopted by many sport competitors as a means of enhancing immune function as well as improving performance. Improvements in physical performance associated with BC supplementation may stem from the ability of BC to maintain gastrointestinal (GI) integrity by decreasing GI permeability. During exercise in the heat, blood flow to the GI tract is reduced that leads to endotoxin leakage into circulation. Endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide, can trigger an inflammatory cascade leading to physiological strain that, in turn, increases heat storage and decreases time to exhaustion. GI permeability is lessened during passive heat stress following BC supplementation, but the influence of BC supplementation on GI function during exercise heat stress remains to be determined. The implications of endotoxemia during exercise in the heat is a matter of growing importance and warrants further study given the global increase in ambient temperatures during sport competitions. PMID:24200023

Carrillo, A E; Koutedakis, Y; Flouris, A D

2013-01-01

218

[Salt intake in children].  

PubMed

Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2014-05-01

219

Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele. Results Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 45 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection. Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapie-affected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests. Conclusions Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test. PMID:23651710

2013-01-01

220

The effects of purified alcohol extracts from soy products on feed intake and growth of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of purified alcohol extracts (PAES) from soybean meal (PAES I) and soy protein isolate (PAES II) on feed intake, growth and intestinal mucosa of chinook salmon and rainbow trout. The PAES were prepared by an extraction process aiming at the isolation of soyasaponins. In the first study, a series of diets were

Dominique P Bureau; Andrew M Harris; C Young Cho

1998-01-01

221

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

222

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

223

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

224

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

225

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

226

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

227

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

228

Gastrointestinal and body growth in colostrum-deprived piglets in response to whey, casein or soy protein diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cow's milk stimulates growth in neonates and supplementation with specific milk proteins may benefit immuno-compromized neonates exhibiting poor growth. We investigated the effects of specific milk proteins (casein and whey) and plant protein (hydrolysed soy) on body and organ growth and bone mineralization in colostrum-deprived newborn pigs. Six days after birth, both casein and whey increased body and small intestinal

C. R. Bjornvad; T. Thymann; A. Z. Budek; D. H. Nielsen; C. Mlgaard; K. F. Michaelsen; P. T. Sangild

2007-01-01

229

IMPORTANCE OF DIET OF DAM AND COLOSTRUM TO THE BIOLOGICAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PARENTERAL IRON TOLERANCE OF THE PIG 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen second-parity sows were used to determine the importance of vitamin E (E) and seleni- um (Se) supplementation of the sow's diet and colostrum consumption by the neonatal pig on tolerance to parenteral iron. Selenium (.1 ppm) and E (50 IU\\/kg) supplementation of the diet of the sow increased plasma tocopherol and Se concentrations, but did not increase plasma glutathi-

M. J. Loudenslager; P. K. Ku; P. A. Whetter; D. E. Ullrey; C. K. Whitehair; H. D. Stowe; E. R. Miller

230

Composition of Colostrum from Dairy Heifers Exposed to High Air Temperatures During Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the

A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi

1997-01-01

231

Therapeutic efficacy of hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment against clinical and subclinical Cryptosporidium serpentis infections in captive snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum (HBC) (raised against Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy cows immunized during gestation) was tested for heterologous efficacy in subclinical and clinical infections of 12 captive snakes with C. serpentis. Six gastric HBC treatments of 1% snake weight at 1-week intervals each, have histologically cleared C. serpentis in three subclinically infected

T. K Graczyk; M. R Cranfield; P Helmer; R Fayer; E. F Bostwick

1998-01-01

232

Identification and Partial Purification of a Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Derived from Bovine Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum that had been collected up to 6 h postpartum was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and various fractions were examined for basic fibroblast growth factor activity. Activity that stimulated cell growth was detected in the cream fraction, which was purified by isoelectric focusing and heparin affinity chromatography. Three peaks were eluted from the heparin affinity column at ap-

T. Hironaka; H. Ohishi; T. Masaki

1997-01-01

233

Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and

Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

2005-01-01

234

Neonatal levels of plasma thyroxine in male and female calves fed a colostrum or immunoglobulin diet or fasted for  

E-print Network

immunoglobulins and the rest mostly bovine serum albumi slightly accelerated by mild traction on the forelimbs of the calf after they appeared outside the vulva of immunoglobulins (29 g/kg of body weight/meal) extracted from bovine colostrum by a process described elsewhere

Boyer, Edmond

235

Methane emissions from grazing Angus beef cows selected for divergent residual feed intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production, such as growth of beef cattle and milk production in dairy cattle. RFI has been shown to be linked with a reduction in CH4 emissions in studies that used grain based diets. Our study quantified CH4 emissions from 48 Angus

F. M. Jones; F. A. Phillips; T. Naylor; N. B. Mercer

2011-01-01

236

Possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats. METHODS: Female rats were fed a standard diet and received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception. In study 1, neonatal rats were randomly subjected to blood tests to investigate autism. In study 2, the 1st group was fed by the mother after an injection of interferon-? (IFN-?) and administration of gliadin. The pups in the 2nd group were prevented from accessing maternal milk, injected IFN-?, administered gliadin, and hand-fed human colostrum. The normal littermates fed by the table mothers were injected with physiological saline and served as normal controls in this study. RESULTS: The protein concentration was higher in group 2 than in group 1 in the duodenum (161.6 9 and 135.4 7 mg/g of tissue, respectively, P < 0.01). A significant increase (P < 0.001) in body weight was detected in human colostrum-treated pups on post natal day (PND) 7 and 21 vs suckling pups in group 1. A delay in eye opening was noticed in the treated rats in group 1 on PND 13 compared with the control group and group 2. Administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception resulted in significantly reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in study 1 compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). However, human colostrum uptake inhibited increases in the level of transglutaminase antibody in autistic pups with coeliac disease. CONCLUSION: The effects of early-life nutrition and human colostrum on the functional maturation of the duodenal villi in autistic rats with coeliac disease that might limit or prevent the coeliac risk with autism. PMID:23745030

Selim, Manar E; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

2013-01-01

237

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

238

Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.  

PubMed

Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness. PMID:23521162

Teimouri Yansari, A

2014-02-01

239

A multifactorial test of the effects of carotenoid access, food intake and parasite load on the production of ornamental feathers and bill coloration in American goldfinches.  

PubMed

It has been well established that carotenoid and melanin pigmentation are often condition-dependent traits in vertebrates. Expression of carotenoid coloration in birds has been shown to reflect pigment intake, food access and parasite load; however, the relative importance of and the potential interactions among these factors have not been previously considered. Moreover, carotenoid and melanin pigmentation have been proposed to signal fundamentally different aspects of individual condition but few data exist to test this idea. We simultaneously manipulated three environmental conditions under which American goldfinches (Cardeulis tristis) grew colorful feathers and developed carotenoid pigmentation of their bills. Male goldfinches were held with either high or low carotenoid supplementation, pulsed or continuous antimicrobial drug treatment, or restricted or unlimited access to food. Carotenoid supplementation had an overriding effect on yellow feather coloration. Males given more lutein and zeaxanthin grew yellow feathers with hue shifted toward orange and with higher yellow chroma than males supplemented with fewer carotenoids. Parasites and food access did not significantly affect yellow feather coloration, and there were only minor interaction effects for the three treatments. By contrast, bill coloration was significantly affected by all three treatments. Carotenoid supplementation had a significant effect on yellow chroma of bills, drug treatment and food access both had a significant effect on bill hue, and food access had a significant effect on the yellow brightness of bills. Neither the size nor blackness of the black caps of male goldfinches was affected by any treatment. These results indicate that pigment intake, food access and parasite load can have complex and variable effects on color displays, and that feather and bill coloration signal different aspects of male condition. PMID:19329755

Hill, Geoffrey E; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2009-04-01

240

Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA) in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model. PMID:23458564

2013-01-01

241

Synergistic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and bovine colostrums on the immunological function of mouse in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums on the immunity of mice in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Eight- to ten-week-old mice were used\\u000a for two series experiments; one part of mice were immunocompromised by intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide. In\\u000a series I, immunocompromised mice were continuously fed with diet A (L. rhamnosus ZDY114 5??107CFU\\/kg), B (bovine colostrums

Hua Wei; Yang Xu; Bocai Cheng; Yonghua Xiong

2007-01-01

242

Dogs shed Neospora caninum oocysts after ingestion of naturally infected bovine placenta but not after ingestion of colostrum spiked with Neospora caninum tachyzoites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of Neosporacaninum for dogs. For this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived N.caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledonary tissue from N.caninum seropositive cows. One dog served as a negative control during the

Th Dijkstra; M Eysker; G Schares; F. J Conraths; W Wouda; H. W Barkema

2001-01-01

243

Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Adhesion to HeLa Cells by Human Colostrum: Detection of Specific slgA Related to EPEC Outer-Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colostrum and a high molecular weight colostrum fraction (HMWF; > 14,000D) prevented the adhesion of localized adherent (LA+) O111:Henteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to HeLa cells. This effect was abolished after absorption with an O111:HLA+ EPEC strain, but absorption with a LA- strain of same serotype had no effect on the process. A low molecular weight fraction (< 14,000 D),

Lilia M. Camara; Solange B. Carbonare; Lourdes M. Silva; Magda M. S. Carneiro-Sampaio

1994-01-01

244

Lipid peroxidation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase in hepatoma and glioma cells grown in bovine colostrum-supplemented medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe growth stimulating properties of bovine serum and colostrum were compared in rat hepatoma (HTC) and glioma (C6) cell cultures.\\u000a A colostrum concentration of 2% was optimal for HTc cells, which then reached a terminal density 40% of that in serum-supplemented\\u000a medium. The corresponding figures for C6 cells were 10 and 81%, respectively. After 4 d in culture, levels of

Lena Odland; Stefan Wallin; Erik Walum

1986-01-01

245

Determination of Transforming Growth Factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) in Bovine Colostrum Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth factors in bovine colostrum are transforming growth factor-?s (TGF-?1 and TGF-?2) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2). Recently, TGF-?2 content of bovine colostrum was measured using a TGF-?2 specific ELISA (1) and now we have validated ELISAs for for bovine TGF-?1 and IGF-1. The concentrations of IGF-1 and TGF-?1 in the first milking after calving were

Vasudeva Ginjala; Raimo Pakkanen

1998-01-01

246

Bovine Colostrum Increases Pore-Forming Claudin-2 Protein Expression but Paradoxically Not Ion Permeability Possibly by a Change of the Intestinal Cytokine Milieu  

PubMed Central

An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-?, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-? remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-? expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23717570

Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg

2013-01-01

247

Effect of colostrum on gravity separation of milk somatic cells in skim milk.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine if immunoglobulins play a role in the gravity separation (rising to the top) of somatic cells (SC) in skim milk. Other researchers have shown that gravity separation of milk fat globules is enhanced by IgM. Our recent research found that bacteria and SC gravity separate in both raw whole and skim milk and that heating milk to >76.9 C for 25s stopped gravity separation of milk fat, SC, and bacteria. Bovine colostrum is a good natural source of immunoglobulins. An experiment was designed where skim milk was heated at high temperatures (76 C for 7 min) to stop the gravity separation of SC and then colostrum was added back to try to restore the gravity separation of SC in increments to achieve 0, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. The milk was allowed to gravity separate for 22 h at 4 C. The heat treatment of skim milk was sufficient to stop the gravity separation of SC. The treatment of 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins was successful in restoring the gravity separation of SC as compared with raw skim milk. Preliminary spore data on the third replicate suggested that bacterial spores gravity separate the same way as the SC in heated skim milk and heated skim milk with 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. Strong evidence exists that immunoglobulins are at least one of the factors necessary for the gravity separation of SC and bacterial spores. It is uncertain at this time whether SC are a necessary component for gravity separation of fat, bacteria, and spores to occur. Further research is needed to determine separately the role of immunoglobulins and SC in gravity separation of bacteria and spores. Understanding the mechanism of gravity separation may allow the development of a continuous flow technology to remove SC, bacteria, and spores from milk. PMID:24342686

Geer, S R; Barbano, D M

2014-02-01

248

Fumonisin intake of the German consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to calculate the dietary fumonisin intake of the German consumer, a large survey was carried out on a variety of\\u000a potentially contaminated products in the period between December 1998 and July 2001. A total of 1960 food samples comprising\\u000a all known relevant groups of products were analysed for fumonisins. Furthermore, 272 of these samples were also analysed for

I. Zimmer; E. Usleber; H. Klaffke; R. Weber; P. Majerus; H. Otteneder; M. Gareis; R. Dietrich; E. Mrtlbauer

2008-01-01

249

Intake and food sources of ascorbic acid in China.  

PubMed

Investigating differences in the intake of nutrients is of potential importance in characterizing diet-disease relationships and determining the level of intake necessary for optimal health. The intake and food sources of ascorbic acids were examined in an ecologic study of 64 rural counties in the People's Republic of China and compared with data reported for the United States. The mean ( SEM) and median individual intakes of ascorbic acid for all counties combined were 140 ( 88) and 128 mg/day, respectively (range 6-429 mg/day). This compares to a mean intake of 99 mg/day for adult men and 84 mg/day for adult women in the United States. The foods that contributed the most to ascorbic acid intake were sweet potatoes (37.2%), cabbages (23.9%), leafy green vegetables (10.6%), radishes (8.8%), and hot peppers (6.5%). In contrast to the US, where fruits supply 43% of ascorbic acid to the diet, fruits contributed a relatively small amount to overall ascorbic acid intake in rural China ( 1%). The wide range of ascorbic acid intake among counties resulted, in part, from differences in the availability of fresh produce which is grown and consumed locally. Despite this, the mean intake was still greater than the US because of the large contribution of plant products (approximately 90%), especially tubers and other vegetables, to the diet. PMID:24351205

Hensrud, D D; Heimburger, D C; Chen, J; Li, M; Wang, G

1994-03-01

250

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as tobacco-free alternatives for the health conscious user. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that herbal waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

251

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a healthier option stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 1930) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the actual intakes (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

252

Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium intakes in Japanese children aged 3 to 5 years.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164

Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru

2008-01-01

253

Bovine IL?18 ELISA: Detection of IL?18 in Sera of Pregnant Cow and Newborn Calf, and in Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the concentration of bovine IL?18 in the sera of pregnant cows, their fetuses and newborn calves, and in colostrum in order to examine the role of IL?18 in bovine pregnancy and the neonatal period. A sandwich?ELISA to quantify bovine IL?18 was established using anti?porcine IL?18 monoclonal antibodies, which cross?reacted with bovine IL?18, and used it

Yoshihiro Muneta; Kazuhiro Yoshihara; Yu Minagawa; Reiko Nagata; Yasuyuki Mori; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Kazuaki Takehara

2005-01-01

254

Elevated extrahepatic expression and secretion of mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) into colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) was secreted at highly elevated levels in bovine, equine and ovine colostrum and found at lower levels in milk 4 days postparturition. N-terminal sequencing of the mature M-SAA3 protein from all the three species revealed a conserved four amino acid motif (TFLK) within the first eight residues. This motif has not been reported to

Thomas L. McDonald; Marilynn A. Larson; David R. Mack; Annika Weber

2001-01-01

255

Serum and colostrum antibody responses induced by jet-injection of sheep with DNA encoding a Cryptosporidium parvum antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15\\/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb

Mark Jenkins; David Kerr; Ronald Fayer; Robert Wall

1995-01-01

256

Hyperimmune bovine colostrum specific for recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum antigen confers partial protection against cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparturient cows were immunized three times over a six-week period with recombinant plasmid DNA encoding the Cryptosporidium parvum CP15\\/60 antigen by injecting the DNA in the mammary gland. Serum was collected at each immunization and first colostrum was collected after parturition; all were assayed for Cryptosporidium-specific antibodies (Ab). A serological response to C. parvum sporozoite and oocyst antigen was detected

M. C Jenkins; C O'Brien; J Trout; A Guidry; R Fayer

1999-01-01

257

Bovine colostrum, training status, and gastrointestinal permeability during exercise in the heat: a placebo-controlled double-blind study.  

PubMed

Heat stress can increase gastrointestinal permeability, allowing ingress of gram-negative bacterial fragments and thus potentially inflammation and ultimately endotoxemia. Permeability may rise with intense exercise, yet some data indicate that endotoxemia may be mitigated with bovine colostrum supplementation. Using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested whether bovine colostrum (COL; 1.7 gkg(-1)day(-1) for 7 days) would attenuate physiological strain and aid exercise capacity in the heat, especially in untrained individuals. Seven trained men (T; peak oxygen uptake 64 4 mLkg(-1)min(-1)) and 8 untrained men (UT, peak oxygen uptake 46 4 mLkg(-1)min(-1)) exercised for 90 min in 30 C (50?% relative humidity) after COL or placebo (corn flour). Exercise consisted of 15-min cycling at 50?% heart rate reserve (HRR) before and after 60 min of running (30 min at 80?% HRR then 30-min distance trial). Heart rate, blood pressure (Finometer), esophageal, and skin temperatures were recorded continuously. Gastrointestinal permeability was assessed from urine (double-sugar model, using high-performance liquid chromatography) and blood (intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP). The T group ran ?2.4 km (35%) further than the UT group in the distance trial, and I-FABP increased more in the T group than in the UT group, but physiological and performance outcomes were unaffected by colostrum supplementation, irrespective of fitness. Circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were higher following exercise, but were not modulated by fitness or COL. Despite substantial thermal and cardiovascular strain incurred in environmental conditions in which exertional endotoxemia may occur, bovine colostrum supplementation had no observable benefit on the physiology or performance of either highly trained endurance athletes or untrained individuals. PMID:25068884

Morrison, Shawnda A; Cheung, Stephen S; Cotter, James D

2014-09-01

258

Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.  

PubMed

The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production. PMID:24663203

Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

2014-05-01

259

Food production and wastage in relation to nutritional intake in a general district hospitalwastage is not reduced by training the staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: To assess the amount of food produced in a hospital kitchen and the amount wasted. To assess the amount of food eaten by patients in relation to their energy needs. To assess whether the food production and wastage could be reduced by training members of the staff.Methods: The study was carried out in a general district hospital

T ALMDAL; L VIGGERS; A. M BECK; K JENSEN

2003-01-01

260

Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

Refractometry using a Brix refractometer has been proposed as a means to estimate IgG concentration in bovine maternal colostrum (MC). The refractometer has advantages over other methods of estimating IgG concentration in that the Brix refractometer is inexpensive, readily available, less fragile, and less sensitive to variation in colostral temperature, season of the year and other factors. Samples of first-milking MC were collected from 7 dairy farms in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut (n=84) and 1 dairy farm in California (n=99). The MC was milked from the cow at 6.1 5.6h postparturition and a sample was evaluated for Brix percentage by using an optical refractometer. Two additional samples (30 mL) were collected from the milk bucket, placed in vials, and frozen before analysis of total IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) using commercially available plates and by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). The second sample was analyzed for total bacterial counts and coliform counts at laboratories in New York (Northeast samples) and California (California samples). The Brix percentage (mean SD) was 23.8 3.5, IgG concentration measured by RID was 73.4 26.2g/L, and IgG concentration measured by TIA was 67.5 25.0 g/L. The Brix percentage was highly correlated (r=0.75) with IgG analyzed by RID. The Brix percentage cut point to define high- or low-quality colostrum (50 g of IgG/L measured by RID) that classified more samples correctly given the proportion of high- (86%) and low-quality (14%) samples in this study was 21%, which is slightly lower than other recent estimates of Brix measurements. At this cut point, the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 92.9, 65.5, 93.5, 63.3, and 88.5%, respectively. Measurement of IgG by TIA correlated with Brix (r=0.63) and RID (r=0.87); however, TIA and RID methods of IgG measurement were not consistent throughout the range of samples tested. We conclude that Brix measurement of total solids in fresh MC is an inexpensive, rapid, and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration. A cut point of 21% Brix to estimate samples of MC >50 g/L was most appropriate for our data. Measurement of IgG in MC by TIA differed from measurement by RID. PMID:23200468

Quigley, J D; Lago, A; Chapman, C; Erickson, P; Polo, J

2013-02-01

261

Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?  

PubMed Central

Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 2.5?kcal/100?mL), transitional milk (57.7 4.2?kcal/100?mL), and mature milk (65.2 1.1?kcal/100?mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67?kcal/100?mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 0.2?g/100?mL) and transitional milk (1.7 0.1?g/100?mL) was higher than formula (1.4?g/100?mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 0.1?g/100?mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity. PMID:23056929

Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

262

Detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in serum and colostrum by indirect ELISA.  

PubMed

An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) G ELISA based on the S1 portion of the spike protein was validated and compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. In serum samples from experimentally infected pigs (n?=?35), anti-IgG PEDV antibodies were detected as early as 7 days post-infection. In field serum samples (n?=?239), the diagnostic sensitivity of the S1 ELISA was 100% and the diagnostic specificity was 94%. The S1 ELISA showed no cross-reactivity with antibodies against other porcine coronaviruses. Colostrum samples (n?=?133) were also tested for anti-PEDV IgG and IgA. The diagnostic sensitivity was 92% for IgG and 100% for IgA, and the diagnostic specificity was 90% for IgG and 99.4% for IgA. These data suggest that the S1 ELISA is a sensitive and specific test that could also be used to evaluate PEDV colostral immunity. PMID:25135339

Gerber, Priscilla F; Gong, Qiaoling; Huang, Yao-Wei; Wang, Chong; Holtkamp, Derald; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-10-01

263

Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine  

PubMed Central

Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2013-01-01

264

Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine.  

PubMed

The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOSs) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOSs was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by cHMOSs, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOSs attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/2 and IL-1?), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. In all, 3'-, 4-, and 6'-galactosyllactoses of cHMOSs account for specific immunomodulation of polyinosinic:polycytodylic acid-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOSs attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

He, Y; Liu, S; Leone, S; Newburg, D S

2014-11-01

265

Dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries.  

PubMed

School age and adolescence is a dynamic period of growth and development forming a strong foundation for good health and productive adult life. Appropriate dietary intake is critical for forming good eating habits and provides the much needed nutrients for growth, long-term health, cognition and educational achievements. A large proportion of the population globally is in the school age or adolescence, with more than three quarters of these groups living in developing countries. An up-to-date review and discussion of the dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is suitable to provide recent data on patterns of dietary intake, adequacy of nutrient intake and their implications for public health and nutrition issues of concern. This review is based on literature published from 2000 to 2014 on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents aged 6-19 years. A total of 50 studies from 42 countries reporting on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents were included. The dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is limited in diversity, mainly comprising plant-based food sources, but with limited intake of fruits and vegetables. There is a low energy intake and insufficient micronutrient intake. At the same time, the available data indicate an emerging trend of consumption of high-energy snacks and beverages, particularly in urban areas. The existence of a negative and positive energy balance in the same population points to the dual burden of malnutrition and highlights the emerging nutrition transition in developing countries. This observation is important for planning public health nutrition approaches that address the concerns of the two ends of the nutrition divide. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341871

Ochola, Sophie; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

2014-01-01

266

Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).  

PubMed

Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

2014-08-01

267

Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gapthe daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditureassociated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean

K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker

2008-01-01

268

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

269

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

270

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

271

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

272

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

273

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

274

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

275

Usual Intake of Total dairy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

276

Caffeine daily intake from dietary sources in Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey on the potential intake of caffeine was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, in the summer of 1993. The survey was based on a representative sample of 600 individuals, 9-80 years old, who were asked about their habitual usage of coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages. Caffeine levels in the products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-visible detector at 254 nm. Individual daily intakes (mg/kg b.w.) of caffeine were calculated from the consumption data generated by the survey and the caffeine content of the analysed products. Of all those interviewed, 81% consumed soft drinks regularly, 75% coffee, 65% chocolate products and 37% tea. Of the analysed products, coffee showed the highest amount of caffeine. The average and median potential daily intake of caffeine by the studied population were, respectively, 2.74 and 1.85 mg/kg b.w. Coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages accounted for median individual daily intakes of 1.90, 0.32, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg b.w., respectively. These data show that coffee is the most important vehicle for caffeine intake within the studied population. PMID:10435077

Camargo, M C; Toledo, M C; Farah, H G

1999-02-01

277

Projected Aspartame Intake: Daily Ingestion of Aspartic Acid,  

E-print Network

The safety assessment of any food additive requires a knowledge of the pharmacology and toxicology of the additive and information regarding exposure. Population exposure is generally difficult to determine for a new compound and cannot be accurately established before its introduction. For this reason it is important to ensure that estimates of exposure be conservative. Usually this means consciously overestimating rather than underestimating intake exposure. Elsewhere in this volume there is extensive discussion of the metabolism and toxicology of aspartame and its degradation products phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methanol, and diketopiperazine. These extensive studies demonstrate that high doses of aspartame are well tolerated. However, it is important to estimate the probable range of aspartame intake that might be anticipated. We have used two approaches to estimate exposure to aspartame or its metabolites. The simplest involved the assumption that aspartame would replace the apparent per capita sugar intake. The per capita caloric sweetener intake was calculated, on the basis of disappearance, to be 156 g/day (1). Using a sweetener ratio of 180:1, this yields a daily estimated aspartame intake of 867 mg/day. Actual intake would be somewhat lower, since it is recognized that disappearance data overestimate consumption and not all of the sweetener applications can be replaced by aspartame. The second approach used to project aspartame intake involved developing a menu containing generous amounts of added sugars and assuming the substitution of aspartame for the added sweeteners. This menu is shown in Table 1. In Table 2

Roberta Roak-foltz; Gilbe Rt A. Leveille

278

The impact of cow nutrition in the dry period on colostrum quality and immune status of calves.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of energy contents in a dry period diets in "7+1" feeding strategy of dry cow including 7 weeks of the dry period (far-off) and 1 week of a close-up period, on colostrum quality and the immune status of calves. Forty Holstein multiparous cows were dried at 56d before the expected date of calving and were assigned to the higher energy diet group (HE; 0.69 UFL/kg DM, NDF 52% DM), or the lower energy diet group (LE; 0.61 UFL/1kg DM, NDF 56% DM). From -7d to the expected calving date up to 21 d of lactation, all cows were fed the same fresh, lactation diet. Samples of colostrum were collected within 2h after parturition and its density, dry matter content and concentrations of immunoglobulins, fat, protein, lactose, urea and somatic cell counts were measured. Calves were weighed 2 h after calving and on the 21d of life. On 3d and 21d of calves' life blood samples were collected and the concentration of IgG, IgA, IgM, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as well as total protein and albumin concentrations were determined. Treatments had no significant effect on composition of colostrum and serum immunoglobulins and IGF-1 concentration. In both groups the weight of calves at birth was similar, still daily body weight gain during 21 day of rearing period in HE group was higher than in the LE group (P=0.05). PMID:22708361

Nowak, W; Miku?a, R; Zachwieja, A; Paczy?ska, K; Pecka, E; Drzazga, K; Slsarz, P

2012-01-01

279

Effect of prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E on serum Se, IgG concentrations and colostrum of heifers and on hematology, passive immunity and Se status of their offspring.  

PubMed

Forty heifers at the late stage of gestation were randomly assigned into five groups. Heifers were balanced for age, weight, and time of calving in each group. Four and 2weeks before expected time of calving, the heifers were injected with 0ml (C), 10ml (T1), 20ml (T2), 30ml (T3), and 40ml (T4) Se and VE supplements, respectively. Each milliliter of the supplement contained of 0.5mg Se as sodium selenite and 50IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Blood samples were collected from the heifers 4weeks before expected calving and at calving day and from the calves at birth and 7days of age. The serum Se and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations, white blood cell and differential leukocyte counts were measured. The Se concentrations in the sera of the heifers before the injections of Se and VE supplements were the same among the groups (P?>?0.05), but after calving were significantly increased in the treated heifers (P?colostrums of the heifers were affected by treatments (P?Colostrum and daily milk productions at 8-week lactation were increased in treated heifers compared with the controls (P??0.05). The white blood cell counts were higher in calves of heifers in groups T3 and T4 compared with the control group at 7days of age (P?

Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Kiani, Amir; Mikaeili, Elham; Shabankareh, Hamed Karami

2011-12-01

280

Concentrated bovine colostrum proteinsupplementation reduces the incidenceof self-reported symptoms of upperrespiratory tract infection in adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.Background: Anecdotal\\u000areports suggest that bovine\\u000acolostrum may prevent upper respiratory\\u000atract infection (URTI).\\u000aThere is scant evidence to support\\u000asuch claims, although salivary IgA\\u000aprotects against URTI, and it was\\u000arecently shown that bovine\\u000acolostrum increases salivary IgA.Aim of the study: The present invesigation examined whether concentrated\\u000abovine colostrum protein\\u000a(CBC) affected the incidence or duration\\u000aof self-reported symptoms

Grant D. Brinkworth; Jonathan D. Buckley

2003-01-01

281

Introduction to dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference standards used for planning and assessing the diets of apparently healthy Canadians and Americans. The development of DRIs reflects a joint initiative by the United States and Canada to update, expand on, and replace the former Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Americans. DRIs include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The EAR is the average daily intake level that meets the requirement of 50% of healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group, whereas the RDA is set at a level that will meet the requirements of almost all (97%-98%) individuals in that life stage and gender group. An AI is a recommended intake level that is thought to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals, and is set when there are insufficient data to establish an EAR (and therefore an RDA). The UL represents a threshold above which adverse effects of excessive intake may increase. In addition to these DRIs, macro nutrients have an Acceptable Macro nutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) and, for energy, an Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is described. PMID:16604144

Barr, Susan I

2006-02-01

282

Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women1-5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Western diet may be a risk factor for osteoporo- sis. Excess acid generated from high protein intakes increases cal- ciumexcretionandboneresorption.Fruitandvegetableintakecould balance this excess acidity by providing alkaline salts of potassium. Algorithms based on dietary intakes of key nutrients can be used to approximatenetendogenousacidproduction(NEAP)andtoexplore the association between dietary acidity and bone health. Objective: We investigated the relation between dietary

Helen M Macdonald; William D Fraser; Marion K Campbell; David M Reid

283

Dietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40 K in eighteen food categories by Japanese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40K were estimated by Japanese subjects using a market basket study. High concentrations of most nuclides were found in 4 categories among 18 categories (nuts and seeds, bean products, seaweeds, and fishes and shellfishes). The main contributors were rice, bean products, and fishes and shellfishes. Daily intakes were estimated (in mg) as follows: sodium

K. Shiraishi

2005-01-01

284

Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males.  

PubMed

Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training loadSD, 50.528.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515

Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen

2014-07-01

285

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

286

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10  

Cancer.gov

We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

287

[Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey].  

PubMed

In nutritional epidemiological studies high consumption of fruits and vegetables was shown to be an important preventive measure to reduce the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, and cataracts. These effects cannot be explained completely and in a sufficient way by the intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Other carotenoids differing in their antioxidative and biological properties are also provided with fruits and vegetables in significant amounts. Because data for other carotenoids than beta-carotene are not considered in computerized German food database and food composition tables, representative carotenoid intake calculations for the German population are missing. Therefore a carotenoid database, containing alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin values for different fruits, vegetables, and other carotenoid-containing foods, was developed. With this database the carotenoid intake of the German population--stratified by sex and age--was evaluated on the basis of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS). The mean total carotenoid intake amounts to 5.33 mg/day. The average intake lutein was 1.91 mg/day, beta-carotene intake amounts to 1.81 mg/day, lycopene intake was 1.28 mg/day, alpha-carotene intake was 0.29 mg/day, and cryptoxanthin intake was 0.05 mg/day. Tomatoes and tomato products provide most of the lycopene. Green salads and vegetables are the most important contributors of lutein in Germany. Zeaxanthin is mainly consumed with maize but also with spinach and other vegetables like cabbage; alpha- and beta-carotene are mainly consumed with carrots. Peppers, oranges, and orange-juice are the most important cryptoxanthin sources. PMID:9894680

Pelz, R; Schmidt-Faber, B; Heseker, H

1998-12-01

288

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

289

Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

Brender, Jean D.; And Others

1985-01-01

290

Effect of weight and adiposity at conception and wide variations in gestational dietary intake on pregnancy outcome and early postnatal performance in young adolescent sheep.  

PubMed

Nutritional backgrounds prior to pregnancy may interact with subsequent gestational intake to influence pregnancy outcome, particularly in young, growing adolescents. To investigate this interaction, singleton pregnancies were established in two groups of adolescent sheep of identical age but different initial weight and adiposity score, classified as good (G) and poor (P) body mass index (BMI). Thereafter, ewes were offered either an optimal control (C) intake to maintain adiposity throughout pregnancy, undernourished (UN) to maintain weight at conception but deplete maternal body reserves, or overnourished (ON) to promote rapid maternal growth and adiposity, resulting in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Gestation length was independent of BMI and reduced in ON dams. Average placental and lamb birth weights were influenced by initial BMI (G > P) and gestational intake (C > UN > ON), with the highest incidence of growth restriction in ON groups. Metabolic challenges at two thirds of gestation revealed enhanced insulin insensitivity in ON dams (higher glucose postinsulin challenge and higher insulin postglucose challenge), but nevertheless fetal growth was constrained. Initial colostrum yield, total IgG, and nutrient supply were reduced in ON groups, but these low-birth-weight lambs exhibited rapid catch-up growth to weaning. Thus, both maternal BMI at conception and gestational intake have a profound influence on pregnancy outcome in young, putatively growing adolescent sheep and may have implications for the nutritional management of pregnant adolescent humans. PMID:19794151

Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P

2010-02-01

291

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

292

Calcium Intake and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level

K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders

2000-01-01

293

Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk  

SciTech Connect

Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

1987-05-01

294

Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

2013-11-01

295

Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.

Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers

2006-01-01

296

Generation of bovine immune colostrum against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and its effect on glucose uptake and extracellular polysaccharide formation by mutans streptococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to potential side-effects of active immunization by cariogenic mutans streptococci, oral administration of passively-derived antibodies could be a more acceptable way to reduce colonization and virulence of these microorganisms in human dentition. The aim of this study was to produce antistreptococcal immunoglobulins into bovine colostrum and explore the possible antibacterial mechanisms of these immunoglobulins against mutans streptococci. Specific serum

V. Loimaranta; J. Tenovuo; S. Virtanen; P. Marnila; E.-L. Syvoja; T. Tupasela; H. Korhonen

1997-01-01

297

Binding of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) to human intestinal Caco-2 cells and the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum on this VLP binding.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs), which cannot be grown in cell culture, are a major infectious agent of gastroenteritis. An in vitro assay system was established for the evaluation of NoV binding to enterocytes using virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in a baculovirus system expressing a NoV VP1 capsid protein. After confirmation of the purity by MS analysis, VLPs were incubated with human intestinal Caco-2 cells. NoV VLPs were detected clearly by confocal laser microscopy only on a certain population of Caco-2 cells, and were semi-quantified by immunoblotting of cell lysates. Then the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum was analyzed on the VLP binding to Caco-2 cells by immunoblotting. The colostrum reduced VLP binding in a dose-dependent manner, at about 50% suppression with 12.5 microg of the colostral proteins. Furthermore, the colostrum contained IgG antibodies reacting to VLPs, suggesting that cross-reactive antibodies in the bovine colostrums block human NoV binding to intestinal cells. PMID:20208365

Murakami, Kosuke; Suzuki, Sayaka; Aoki, Naohito; Okajima, Tetsuya; Nadano, Daita; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tsukasa

2010-01-01

298

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6??8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9??31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpo, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Luclia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cludia Nunes

2013-12-01

299

Milk production during the colostral period is not related to the later lactational performance in dairy cows.  

PubMed

In dairy cows, milk yield increases rapidly after parturition until a peak at around wk 6 of lactation. However, the description of the shape of the lactation curve is commonly based on weekly average milk yields. For a more detailed analysis of the milk production curve from the very beginning of lactation including the colostral period and the effect of colostrum yield on further lactational performance, the first 10 milkings after parturition, daily milk yields from d 1 to 28 of lactation, and the cumulative milk production on d 100 to 305 of lactation were investigated in 17 primiparous and 39 multiparous cows milked twice daily. Milk yield at the first milking after parturition (colostrum) ranged from 1.3 to 20.7kg (?=19.4kg) in multiparous and from 1.8 to 10.9kg in primiparous animals (?=9.1kg). At the tenth milking, milk production ranged from 9.2 to 21.5kg (?=12.3kg) in multiparous and from 7.0 to 15.2kg (?=8.2kg) in primiparous animals. Immediately after parturition, daily milk production increased rapidly, but after approximately 1wk in lactation, the slope of the daily milk production curve flattened and continued more linear. A nonlinear regression equation was used to determine this timely change, which occurred earlier in primiparous (d 6.90.3) than in multiparous cows (d 8.20.2). The correlation between the amount of first colostrum and milk production during further lactation decreased already from 0.47 on d 5 to 0.32 on d 14. In multiparous cows, the correlation between total milk production of the previous 305d standard lactation and the amount of first colostrum was not significant (correlation=0.29), whereas the correlation with the daily production increased from 0.45 on d 5 to 0.69 on d 14. However, in primiparous animals, correlations between first-colostrum yield and daily milk yields up to d 28 of lactation were not significant, possibly due to the smaller sample size compared with multiparous animals. First-colostrum yield and cumulative milk production of 100, 200, and 305 lactation days were not significantly correlated in multiparous and primiparous cows. In conclusion, the milk production during the first few milkings is widely independent from the overall production level of a cow. Potentially, genetic selection toward lower milk yield during the very first days after parturition at a simultaneously high lactational performance may be a tool to ensure sufficient colostrum quality and to reduce the metabolic load around parturition. PMID:24485686

Kessler, E C; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J

2014-04-01

300

Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 4080 y (average 57 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg ?-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p < 0.05). Adjusted covariance analysis showed a positive association between DTH and age. Separate analysis of younger and older age groups indicated that it was the older population that benefited from micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a generally good immune and nutritional status is limited and that improvement of immune function in this population may be difficult. PMID:17118191

Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud

2006-01-01

301

PRL-Releasing Peptide Reduces Food Intake and May Mediate Satiety Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) administered centrally inhibits food intake and body weight gain. To elucidate the role of PrRP, its actions were compared with those of a homeostatic regulator of food intake, the satiety factor, cholecystokinin (CCK), and a nonhomeostatic regulator, lithium chloride (LiCl), which reduces food intake due to visceral illness. Im- munohistochemical analysis of the protein product of the

CATHERINE B. LAWRENCE; KATE L. J. ELLACOTT; SIMON M. LUCKMAN

2002-01-01

302

[Arterial hypertension and salt intake].  

PubMed

More than 25% of adult population worldwide and according to the EHUH study 37% of the adult population of Croatia have hypertension. In the last decades, a dramatic increase has been recorded in the prevalence of hypertension, and it is predicted that this trend will lead to an even higher prevalence in the near future. This could primarily be explained by strong influence of environmental factors. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have proved that high salt intake is one of the most important risk factors. High salt intake increases total peripheral vascular resistance, induces oxidative stress and inflammation, thus accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Independently of the effects on blood pressure, salt intake promotes left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria and increases the risk of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that salt intake reduction is associated with lower blood pressure and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake in daily meals should be the main measure in primary prevention of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and it should be repeatedly emphasized not only to hypertensive patients, but also to the population at large. PMID:20649075

Jelakovi?, Bojan; Vukovi?, Ivana; Reiner, Zeljko

2010-05-01

303

Effect of feeding tamarind ( Tamarindus indica) seed husk as a source of tannin on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and production performance of crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk (TSH) as a source of tannin on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, N balance, milk yield and milk composition was studied in crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation. The study included lactation and metabolism trials. The lactation trial was conducted using nine multiparous cows in mid-lactation in a switchback design. The cows

R Bhatta; U Krishnamoorthy; F Mohammed

2000-01-01

304

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

305

Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Meat intake has been associated with risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer, but previous fi ndings have been inconsistent. This association has been attributed to both the fat and cholesterol content of meats and to food preparation methods. We analyzed data from the prospective Multiethnic Cohort Study to investigate associations between intake of meat, other animal products, fat, and cholesterol

Ute Nthlings; Lynne R. Wilkens; Suzanne P. Murphy; Jean H. Hankin; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

306

Economic Policies for Healthier Food Intake: The Impact on Different Household Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) experience the highest increase in fiber intake from

Jonas Nordstrm; Linda Thunstrm

2009-01-01

307

Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P < .01) villus circumferences, areas, and heights in total small intestine and especially in the duodenum than calves fed only milk replacer. Furthermore, villus circumferences and areas in total small intestine were greater (P < .05) in calves fed colostrum once than in calves fed no colostrum. Villus size in total small intestine was smaller (P < .05) in rbGH-treated than in control calves; jejunum villus circumferences and heights were especially reduced (P < .05). Crypt depths in ileum were greater (P < .05) in rbGH-treated calves. In conclusion, prolonged colostrum supply significantly enhanced small intestinal villus size in neonatal calves. In contrast, Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

Bhler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

1998-03-01

308

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Antigen-Binding Activity of Anti-Peroxidase Immunoglobulins in Bovine Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT After intramammary,immunization,with horserad- ish peroxidase, bovine colostrum containing anti- peroxidase,immunoglobulins,(Ig) was,obtained. Thermoresistance,of the,antigen-binding,region,of these,Ig was,studied,using,a,direct,competitive ELISA. This technique,is based,on,the competition between,the anti-peroxidase,IgG coated,to the plate and,the anti-peroxidase,IgG contained,in the colos- trum to bind peroxidase, the antigen, and the enzyme responsible,for development,of the color of the assay. Thus, the degree of denaturation of the antigen- binding,region in the IgG molecule,can

E. Dominguez; M. D. Perez; M. Calvo

1997-01-01

309

Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h lightdark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An understanding of simultaneous changes in meal size and meal number

Michael M Meguid; Serguei O Fetissov; Madhu Varma; Tomoi Sato; Lihua Zhang; Alessandro Laviano; Filippo Rossi-Fanelli

2000-01-01

310

Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

2014-09-01

311

Amylinergic control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylin is a pancreatic B-cell hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of nutrient fluxes. As such, amylin reduces food intake in laboratory animals and man, slows gastric emptying and it reduces postprandial glucagon secretion. Amylin deficiency which occurs concomitantly to insulin deficiency in diabetes mellitus, may therefore contribute to some of the major derangements associated with this

Thomas A. Lutz

2006-01-01

312

water intake Water sampling site  

E-print Network

x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

313

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

314

Food intakes of adult Melbourne Chinese.  

PubMed

Food intake patterns of 545 adult Melbourne Chinese were studied in 1988 and 1989 using a 220-item food-frequency questionnaire appropriate for Chinese eating practices. Men and women were compared, adjusting for age, time in Australia and education. Men consumed more rice and alcoholic beverages as energy. In women, the energy intake was derived from foods of traditional Chinese types. There were two types of consumption patterns: in the first group were those who acculturated towards an Australian way of eating by replacing some traditional Chinese foods, such as rice, pork, leafy green and cruciferous vegetables, soups and tea, with 'new foods', such as wheat products, red meats and coffee; in the second were those who limited their intake to a handful of traditional Chinese foods as the major source of energy. The educated, the professional and those with an administrative profession, the Australian-born and those with a longer length of stay fitted into the first group, and were more acculturated towards Australia than those born in the People's Republic of China or Vietnam and who migrated at an older age. The first group may benefit from the best of both worlds, but may risk the diseases of an industrialised society. The second group may be trapped at a cultural crossroads and may be unable to make appropriate food choices. Public health efforts in Australia, where one in every five is overseas-born, should provide for nutrition and health education for new and aged migrants of non-European cultural backgrounds. PMID:8616204

Hsu-Hage, B H; Ibiebele, T; Wahlqvist, M L

1995-12-01

315

Tips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content and choose the product that is lower in  

E-print Network

Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 What Sodium doeS in the Body · Helps maintain water balance · RegulatesTips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe 1 2 3 4 5 Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content at the table. Sodium: The Facts By Beth H. Olson, Ph.D., MSU Extension Nutrition Specialist, Department of Food

316

Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging  

PubMed Central

Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

2012-01-01

317

Control of Food Intake in the Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

2001-01-01

318

Intake and Assessment: CETA Program Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this monograph, methods and models for revising or developing intake and assessment activities, facilitating enrollee success, and offering other program benefits are presented. The report, divided into four chapters, describes intake and assessment in chapter 1. Intake is defined as any process controlling the enrollee's flow into a program at

Bruno, Lee

319

Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg\\/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions

Richard W. Foltin; Thomas H. Kelly; Marian W. F

1995-01-01

320

Changes in colostrum composition and in the permeability of the mammary epithelium at about the time of parturition in the goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary1. Changes in milk composition and in mammary permeability to labelled sucrose and monovalent ions have been studied in late\\u000a pregnancy and at the time of parturition. These data have been compared with those obtained previously in lactating goats.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Colostrum contained more sodium, chloride, protein, immunoglobulins and less potassium and lactose than milk. The composition\\u000a of the aqueous phase

J. L. Linzell; M. Peaker

2009-01-01

321

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

322

Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.  

PubMed

Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

2009-02-01

323

Determination of immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum and milk powders, and in dietary supplements of bovine origin by protein G affinity liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

PubMed

An AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate an affinity LC procedure for measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) in selected dairy powders. The powders were extracted with 0.15 M sodium chloride solution and the pH was adjusted to 4.6 to precipitate caseins, which would otherwise lead to an overestimation of IgG. The analyte was then bound to a commercially available Protein G affinity cartridge and selectively eluted with a glycine buffer at pH 2.5. Detection was at 280 nm and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which this assay will find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders; milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Eleven laboratories provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of six materials. The repeatability RSD values ranged from 2.1 to 4.2% and the reproducibility RSD values ranged from 6.4 to 18.5%. The Protein G method with casein removal has adequate reproducibility for measuring IgG in colostrum-derived powders that are traded on the basis of IgG content as a colostral marker. PMID:20480910

Abernethy, Grant; Otter, Don; Arnold, K; Austad, J; Christiansen, S; Ferreira, I; Irvine, F; Marsh, C; Massom, L R; Otter, D; Pearce, K; Stevens, J; Szpylka, J; Vyas, P; Woollard, D; Wu, C

2010-01-01

324

Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery123  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. Objective: We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Design: This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks). Analyses were adjusted for the covariates of parity, maternal educational level, and physical activity. Results: Pregnancies that resulted in spontaneous preterm delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Conclusion: Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:20980489

Myhre, Ronny; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Hakon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

2011-01-01

325

Pemphigus erythematosus relapse associated with atorvastatin intake  

PubMed Central

Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Herein we report the case of a 70 year-old man who developed a relapse of pemphigus erythematosus, a syndrome with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus, after atorvastatin intake. PMID:25258514

Lo Schiavo, Ada; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Romano, Francesca; Cozzi, Roberto

2014-01-01

326

Farming practices in Sweden related to feeding milk and colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials to dairy calves  

PubMed Central

Background Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed. Results Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns. Conclusions Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy farms. Future work should focus on the effect of waste milk feeding on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves intestinal microbiota. PMID:23837498

2013-01-01

327

Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapec, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.31.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

2014-01-01

328

Calcium intake and serum calcium status in Mongolian children.  

PubMed

Dietary calcium intake in relation to calcium status in Mongolian children was investigated. This survey was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 835 children were randomly selected from 4 economic regions and Ulaanbaatar city. Information on dietary intake was collected from 835 children in the 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 year old groups by a 24-h recall method. The average daily intake of calcium from diet was calculated for individuals. Blood samples were collected from 104 children. The mean of daily calcium intakes as 27330.0mg in 1-3-year old children, 309.030.0mg in 4-7 year old children, and 317.031.0mg in 8-14 year old children, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in calcium intakes between the age groups 1-3 years, 4-7 years, and 1-3 years, 8-14 years of children (p<0.001). Calcium intakes in all studied children of all age groups were lower (39%, 30.9%, and 24.4%) than the recommended level of calcium intakes. In 22.1% of studied children, the serum total calcium concentration levels were below the normal range. Based on the total serum calcium, the prevalence of hypocalcemia was higher among children in the age group 8-14 years (27.6%) than the prevalence among children in the age group <1 year (p<0.05). Based on the corrected serum calcium values, the prevalence of hypocalcemia was higher (52.4%, 63.6%, and 51.1%) among children in the age groups 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 years. The mean level of corrected serum calcium were low (2.020.04, 2.050.73, and 1.990.64mg) in children in the age groups 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 years. These findings suggest that low dietary calcium intakes may be reflected by hypocalcemia in Mongolian children. In conclusion, there is a need to improve a consumption of milk, dairy products in Mongolian children. In addition, there is need to use a vitamin D supplementation with a calcium supplementation in children with severe vitamin D deficiency rickets. This article is part of a Special issue entitled "16th Vitamin D Workshop". PMID:24681400

Uush, Tserendolgor

2014-10-01

329

Characteristics of energy intake under-reporting in French adults.  

PubMed

Energy intake under-reporting (UR) is a concern in nutritional epidemiological studies, as it may distort the relationships between dietary habits and health. Although UR is known to be associated with certain characteristics, few studies have investigated them in France. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of UR in French adults. UR was defined according to Goldberg's classification. A sample of 1567 adults was drawn from the nationally representative French dietary survey (Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2 2006-7). Food intake (7 d record), dietary habits, socio-economic status, region of residence, sedentary behaviour and weight perception variables were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between UR and a number of covariates. The overall prevalence of UR was 22.5%, similar in men and women. In both sexes, UR was positively associated with overweight and protein intake and inversely associated with age. In women, UR was associated with eating lunch in the office, poor perception of diet quality and sedentary behaviour and was inversely associated with educational level, residence in the Paris region, cereal product intake and eating lunch in a friend's or family member's home. In men, UR was positively associated with a history of slimming and inversely associated with dairy product intake and eating lunch at a staff canteen. In conclusion, UR is prevalent in French adults and is associated with several different characteristics. It is important to take account of UR when investigating diet-disease associations in adults. PMID:24330816

Berta Vanrullen, Isabelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Bertaut, Aurlie; Dufour, Ariane; Dallongeville, Jean

2014-04-14

330

Regulation of fat intake in the absence of flavour signalling  

PubMed Central

Animals, including humans, can achieve precise regulation of caloric intake by adjusting consumption in response to covert changes in energy density. It remains unknown, however, whether the presence of flavour cues are required for the ability to maintain constant caloric intake. Also unknown are the brain circuits that may function as the central calorie monitors that control adaptive adjustments in energy intake. Here we show that mice trained to lick a dry spout in order to receive intra-gastric infusions of a fat emulsion maintained constant hourly caloric intake by adjusting the number of dry licks in response to changes in caloric density. Animals also increased dry licking according to hunger levels, and developed conditioned preferences for dry sippers associated with high calorie infusions. Importantly, striatal dopamine levels were closely associated with the amount of calories ingested, rather than with the number of dry licks produced. Dopamine levels in dorsal and ventral striatum also reflected caloric density in mice passively receiving intra-gastric infusions of fat emulsions. Consistent with the above, systemic administration of the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol markedly increased the production of dry licks needed to obtain high-calorie infusions, as if the caloric density of the infusions had been diluted. Conversely, haloperidol markedly decreased the production of dry licks needed to obtain low-calorie infusions. Taken together, our results support the proposition that brain dopamine circuits function as one central sensor of calorie ingestion, since (1) extracellular striatal dopamine levels fluctuate in proportion to the caloric density of nutrients infused in the gut; and (2) inhibiting dopamine receptor signalling disrupts the animals ability to maintain constant caloric intake across experimental sessions. PMID:22219333

Ferreira, Jozelia G; Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

2012-01-01

331

Infection of Cesarean-Derived Colostrum-Deprived Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Swine Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important pathogens for porcine respiratory disease complex, which is economically significant worldwide. The pathogenesis of PCV2SIV coinfection is unknown. In this study, we focused on establishing a challenge model for PCV2 to determine whether SIV influences PCV2 replication and increases the severity of PCV2-associated disease. Cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intratracheally with cell culture medium only (negative control group), PCV2 only, or PCV2 followed 1 wk later with SIV H1N1. Two pigs from each group were necropsied at 12, 21, 28, and 35 d after inoculation. Coinfection with SIV did not increase the number of PCV2 genomic copies in serum or target tissues or the severity of microscopic lesions associated with PCV2 in lung or lymph node. The antibody titer to PCV2 did not differ significantly between PCV2SIV- and PCV2-infected groups. In conclusion, SIV H1N1 did not influence PCV2 replication in dually infected pigs in this study. PMID:20158948

Wei, Huiling; Lenz, Stephen D; Alstine, William G Van; Stevenson, Gregory W; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Pogranichniy, Roman M

2010-01-01

332

Enterocin C, a class IIb bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum.  

PubMed

Enterocin C (EntC), a class IIb bacteriocin was purified from culture supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum. Enterocin C consists of two distinct peptides, named EntC1 and EntC2, whose complementary action is required for full antimicrobial activity. The structural genes entC1 and entC2 encoding enterocins EntC1 and EntC2, respectively, and that encoding the putative immunity protein (EntCI) are located in the 9-kb plasmid pEntC, harboured by E. faecalis C901. The N-terminal sequence of both antimicrobial peptides revealed that EntC1 (4284 Da) is identical to Ent1071A, one of the two peptides that form enterocin 1071 (Ent1071), a bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis BFE 1071. In contrast, EntC2 (3867 Da) presents the non-polar alanine residue at position 17 (Ala(17)) instead of the polar threonine residue (Thr(17)) in Ent1071B, the second peptide constituting Ent1071. In spite of peptide similarities, EntC differs from Ent1071 in major aspects, including the complementary activity among its constitutive peptides and its wider inhibitory spectrum of activity. Different amphiphilic alpha-helical conformations between EntC2 and Ent1071B could explain both, acquired complementary activity and increased antimicrobial spectrum. PMID:19501421

Maldonado-Barragn, Antonio; Caballero-Guerrero, Beln; Jimnez, Esther; Jimnez-Daz, Rufino; Ruiz-Barba, Jos L; Rodrguez, Juan M

2009-07-31

333

The Determinants of the food Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAn analysis of the determinants of the food intake is made on the basis of the personal experience of the author in attempting\\u000a to control his own food intake. Hunger and appetite are distinguished as factors serving different functions in the food intake.\\u000a Hunger is regarded as the desire to eat which impels one to seek food, try things as

Frederick Hoelzel

1951-01-01

334

Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals  

E-print Network

as important as forage quality, especially when quality is marginal. Forage intake in a rangeland environment is influenced by a num- ber of important factors, including: ? Herbivore species and size. ? Foraging behavior. ? Physiological status. ? Animal... intake associated with declining leaf material. Bite size also has a great influence on forage intake. While bite size declines as leaf material becomes less available, animals temporarily com- pensate by increasing bite rate and grazing time. However...

Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

1999-02-08

335

The endocrinology of food intake.  

PubMed

Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes. PMID:23877425

Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

2013-10-01

336

Intake device of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An intake device is described for an internal combustion engine having an intake port, an intake valve and a valve guide projecting downwardly from the upper wall of the intake port. The device comprises: a rotary valve mounted for rotation in the intake port and having a substantially vertically extending valve shaft. The valve shaft is offset relative to the longitudinal axis of the intake port. The rotary valve has a valve plate positioned in the intake port; an actuator connected to the valve shaft for rotating the rotary valve from a closed position to a fully opened position in which the valve plate extends substantially parallel to the axis of the intake port; and a projecting wall projecting downwardly from the upper wall of the intake port and having an air-flowing-guiding portion which extends from the valve guide toward the rotary valve. The air-flow-guiding portion has its width gradually decreasing in a direction toward the rotary valve and terminating in an end which is positioned downstream of the valve plate and which is aligned with the valve plate and adjacent to the downstream end of the valve plate when the rotary valve is in the fully opened position.

Sakurai, K.; Hattori, K.

1987-10-20

337

Regulation of protein intake in adult dogs.  

PubMed

To determine whether adult dogs are able to regulate their intake of protein, 2-year-old female Beagles were allowed self-selection from 2 diets that differed in concentration of protein. Such a feeding regimen permitted the dogs to select for protein without affecting energy intake. Within the 1st week of the 4-week study, the dogs had established their pattern of protein intake. They selected approximately 30% of metabolizable energy from protein. Adult female rats offered the same diets also selected 30% of metabolizable energy from protein. The results indicated that adult dogs are able to regulate protein and energy intake. PMID:6822458

Romsos, D R; Ferguson, D

1983-01-01

338

Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 343 g/day to 464 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

2012-12-01

339

Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 343 g/day to 464 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O'Sullivan, Therese A.

2012-01-01

340

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

341

The Impact on Different Household Types of Economic Policies Designed to Increase the Fiber Intake from Grain Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) experience the highest increase in fiber intake from

Jonas Nordstrm; Linda Thunstrm

2009-01-01

342

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of isoflavonoids after soy intake.  

PubMed

Soy is the major source of dietary exposure to isoflavonoids (IFLs). Accumulating evidence supports a role for soy and IFLs in the protection against many chronic diseases including cancer. After soy intake we found a biphasic IFL appearance pattern in plasma as well as in urine that we suggest to be due to IFL absorption in the small intestine (ca. 10%) during the first 2h after intake and IFL absorption in the large intestine (ca. 90%) 4-6 h after intake. While each IFL disappears from the circulation at different times excellent correlations between urinary and circulating IFL values were discovered and algorithms to convert urinary excretion values into circulating levels were established. We suggest the term 'apparent bioavailability' when using urinary data to describe IFL exposure. The IFL bioavailability was found to be influenced by gut bacteria, oral antibiotic treatment (OABX), and an individual's age and health status. While daidzein (DE) and genistein start to be absorbed minutes after intake, equol (EQ) appears in plasma only after a minimum of 8h following soy intake owing to the required transit time of DE to the colon where the conversion of DE to EQ takes place by intestinal microbiota. We have also shown that the apparent IFL bioavailability is higher in children than adults, higher in healthy versus non-healthy individuals, and decreased in children but increased in adults during OABX. Finally, we propose to use a urinary EQ/DE ratio of 0.018 with a DE threshold to identify EQ producers. With this cutoff definition we observed that EQ production is inconsistent over time in 5-30% of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:24946051

Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M

2014-10-01

343

Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. PMID:25064655

Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C

2014-10-01

344

Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions of feed intake, the increase in prediction error of all models was generally less than when compared with previous period animal data combined with current feed data. Milk yield as a model input in intake predictions can be substantially affected by current dietary factors. Milk yield can be used as model input when formulating rations aiming to sustain a given milk yield, but can generate large errors in estimates of future feed intake and milk production if the economically optimal diet deviates from the current diet. PMID:24508436

Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Hjer, A; Huhtanen, P

2014-04-01

345

On the Structure of Steady Flow Through Dual-Intake Engine Ports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of intake port design on the flow field in a dual-intake valve engine was investigated using computational fluid dynamics, in order to study the effect of inlet port design on the in-cylinder flow. A detailed 3D computational grid incorporating all the features of the Ford Zetec production engine inlet ports, valves and cylinder head was initially created and

Z. Mahmood; A. Chen; M. Yianneskis; G. Ganti

1996-01-01

346

Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs: Occurrence in food and dietary intake in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination data in food products consumed in France collected from national monitoring programmes (200104) and representing analytical results for almost 800 individual food samples were combined with food consumption data from the French national dietary survey to estimate PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs dietary intakes, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs). The mean PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs intakes were estimated as

A. Tard; S. Gallotti; J.-C. Leblanc; J.-L. Volatier

2007-01-01

347

Economic policies for healthier food intake: the impact on different household categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers fiber intake\\u000a from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich\\u000a productsi.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)experience\\u000a the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they

Jonas Nordstrm; Linda Thunstrmb

2011-01-01

348

Quantification of Food Intake in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis- extension, validated by short-term measurements

Richard Wong; Matthew D. W. Piper; Bregje Wertheim; Linda Partridge

2009-01-01

349

Quantification of Food Intake in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of

Richard Wong; Matthew D. W. Piper; Bregje Wertheim; Linda Partridge; Nigel E. Raine

2009-01-01

350

Central nervous system control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its

Michael W. Schwartz; Stephen C. Woods; Daniel Porte Jr; Randy J. Seeley; Denis G. Baskin

2000-01-01

351

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

. depression, anxiety. mood swings, cravings for carbohydrate-rich foods, sleep dis- turbances, and somatic craving. Calorie and nutrient intakes were measured directly. The subjects with premenstrual syndrome failed to change, whereas intake of fat, a fixed constituent of all of the test foods, rose in proportion

Wurtman, Richard

352

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

353

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

354

FEED INTAKE BEHAVIOR AND IMPLICATIONS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of feed intake has been greatly facilitated by the recent development of computerized systems that monitor the feed intake of individual animals within a group. Such equipment was originally designed for use by breeding stock supply organizations in the performance testing of pigs in group situations. The majority of selection programs for pigs place considerable emphasis on feed

Mike Ellis

355

Influence of Calcium Intake on Gestational Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium intake during the third trimester of pregnancy was determined in 82 pregnant women by recording the consumption of foods over a 5-day period and by calculation of the quantity of this element provided by dietary supplements. For each subject, blood pressures were measured once per week using an aneroid sphygmomanometer, to detect and analyze differences in calcium intake between

Rosa M. Ortega; Rosa M. Martnez; Ana M. Lpez-Sobaler; Pedro Andres; M. Elena Quintas

1999-01-01

356

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

357

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

358

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

359

Bovine colostrum ultrafiltrate supplemented with adult bovine serum and transferrin: An effective fbs substitute for cultivation of vero and CHO-K1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA mixture containing an ultrafiltrate fraction (UF) of bovine colostrum (6.7%), adult bovine serum (BS) (1%), and human holo-transferrin\\u000a (hTF) (5 mg\\/liter) was developed for cultivation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and African green monkey kidney cells\\u000a (Vero). The growth-supporting activity of the mixture (UF\\/BS\\/hTF) was comparable to that of 1 to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)\\u000a and considerably

Raimo Pakkanen

1994-01-01

360

Dietary lead intake of preschool children  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.

1983-07-01

361

Influence of calcium intake on gestational hypertension.  

PubMed

Calcium intake during the third trimester of pregnancy was determined in 82 pregnant women by recording the consumption of foods over a 5-day period and by calculation of the quantity of this element provided by dietary supplements. For each subject, blood pressures were measured once per week using an aneroid sphygmomanometer, to detect and analyze differences in calcium intake between those with normal blood pressure and those suffering from gestational hypertension (7.3%). Calcium intake was significantly lower amongst subjects with high blood pressure (757.7 +/- 154.5 compared to 986.4 +/- 502.3 mg/day in normotensive subjects). The relationship between calcium intake and blood pressure was independent of other variables such as body mass index, number of previous pregnancies, weight gain, subject age or hematocrit levels. Though further investigation is needed, the results obtained seem to support the idea that pregnant women should try to maintain an optimal calcium intake. PMID:10364629

Ortega, R M; Martnez, R M; Lpez-Sobaler, A M; Andres, P; Quintas, M E

1999-01-01

362

Intake of Probiotic Food and Risk of Preeclampsia in Primiparous Women  

PubMed Central

Probiotics have been suggested to modify placental trophoblast inflammation, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure, all potentially interesting aspects of preeclampsia. The authors examined the association between consumption of milk-based probiotic products in pregnancy and development of preeclampsia and its subtypes. The study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using a prospective design in 33,399 primiparous women in the years 20022008. The intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli was estimated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Preeclampsia diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intake of probiotic milk products was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. The association was most prominent in severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.96). With probiotic intakes divided into categories representing no, monthly, weekly, or daily intake, a lower risk for preeclampsia (all subtypes) was observed for daily probiotic intake (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). Lower risks for severe preeclampsia were observed for weekly (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.98) and daily (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.89) intakes. These results suggest that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women. PMID:21821542

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Haugen, Margaretha; Myking, Solveig; Sengpiel, Verena; Magnus, Per; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2011-01-01

363

Dietary intake of ochratoxin A from conventional and organic bread.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) was extracted from 100 bread samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Bread samples were bought from different bakeries and supermarkets, 74 of non-organic and 26 of organic bread. The incidence of OTA varied between 20.3% and 23.0% for non-organic and organic bread, respectively. The highest values were obtained with non-organic versus organic products, five samples exceeded the European maximum permitted limit of OTA (3 ng/g) for this product. Estimated daily intake of OTA in this study was 1.6 ng/kg b.w./day. This value represents 32% and 10% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) according to the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission and the FAO/WHO Committee of Experts on Food Additives, respectively. The daily intake estimated from this study reflects the necessity to take a vigilant attitude to guarantee food safety. PMID:17610975

Gonzlez-Osnaya, L; Soriano, J M; Molt, J C; Maes, J

2007-08-15

364

The response of newly born mice to odors of murine colostrum and milk: unconditionally attractive, conditionally discriminated.  

PubMed

It is a general rule that milk conveys chemosensory cues that are attractive to mammalian neonates. This study investigated whether compositional fluctuations in milk along lactation induce variations in newborn mouse pups' (Mus musculus, strain BALB/c) attraction to milk odor. Pups differing in suckling experience were exposed to the odor of milk sampled from females varying in lactational stage. Immediately after birth, suckling-inexperienced (P0) and suckling-experienced (P0suck ) pups were assayed in a series of paired-choice tests contrasting murine milk [of lactation days 0, 3, 15 (abridged L0, L3, L15, respectively)] and a blank (water) to evaluate olfactory detection and attraction of milk odor. Preference tests further paired these milk two-by-two to assess their relative attraction. Results showed first that P0 and P0suck pups detect and positively orient to any milk odor. When L0 is presented against L15 milk, P0 pups orient for a similar duration towards these odor stimuli, whereas P0suck pups spend more time toward the odor of L0 than of L15 milk. Finally, P0suck pups orient similarly to odors of L0 milk collected before/after the first suckling episode (L0 and L0suck , respectively), but the odor of L0 milk was more attractive than that of L3 milk. Thus, mouse pups' positive orientation toward the odors of murine colostrum (assumed to correspond to L0/L0suck milk) and later-lactation milk appears unconditional of previous suckling experience, whereas their ability to discriminate or display preference between milk differing in lactation stage appears conditional on postnatal exposure effects. PMID:24798460

Al An, Syrina; Mingioni, Mathieu; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

2014-09-01

365

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2013-07-01

366

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2010-07-01

367

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2014-07-01

368

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2012-07-01

369

Analysis of bovine immunoglobulin G in milk, colostrum and dietary supplements: a review.  

PubMed

The immunoprotective properties of bovine milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) have led to a recent proliferation of nutritional products incorporating this protein. It has therefore become critical that reliable analytical techniques for the measurement of the IgG content in such products are available. This literature review surveys current methods of analysis for IgG, including separation-based or immuno-based concentration analysis. The review also discusses nutraceutical applications, regulatory issues, stability of IgG and the significance of primary reference material in IgG analysis. PMID:17579844

Gapper, Leyton W; Copestake, David E J; Otter, Don E; Indyk, Harvey E

2007-09-01

370

Fat intake and injury in female runners  

PubMed Central

Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 20 vs. 80 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 5 vs. 30 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women. PMID:18173851

Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

2008-01-01

371

Food intake in women two years or more after bariatric surgery meets adequate intake requirements.  

PubMed

Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)<50; 50?75; = 75. The habitual energy and nutrient intakes were determined by a 24-hour recall over two days and the probability of adequate intake was based on the Dietary Reference Intake. The mean total estimated energy requirement (EER) as well as energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intakes did not differ among the groups. Only the %EWL<50 group had an intake equal to their EER, but they presented a higher number of inadequacies, such as low levels of magnesium, folic acid and vitamins C and E. Calcium and dietary fiber intakes were extremely low in all three groups. In conclusion, weight loss after surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. PMID:22652372

Novais, Patrcia Ftima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flvia Andria; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

2012-05-01

372

Higher dietary lycopene intake is associated with longer cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. Methods This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 ?g/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Results Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ? 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). Conclusion These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake. PMID:23076979

Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry

2012-01-01

373

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hpital Gnral de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

374

Does personality affect dietary intake?  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported. PMID:24607300

Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

2014-04-01

375

Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (?(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the ?(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance ?(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

2014-05-01

376

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly fluids and liquid food diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (6081104) ml/day, with 355 (194579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 913. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 913 and 8.4% among boys of 913. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

377

Pilot Study to Assess Isoflavone Intake in Middle-Aged Italian Subjects  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of isoflavone (IF) intake in Western populations is scarce, primarily because data about the content of these compounds in non-soy derived foods are incomplete or unavailable. The aims of this study were 1) to enrich the data available in literature about the IF content in traditional Italian foods, 2) to estimate daidzein (D) and genistein (G) intake in an Italian population sample. Eighteen Italian foods have been selected and analysed for IF content by GC-MS; the assessment of IF intake was performed in sixty healthy middle-aged Italian subjects after investigation of their dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean IF intake was 171 261 ?g/die (26-1415 ?g/die). The mean G intake was greater than D (98 131 ?g/die vs 76 131 ?g/die). As expected, soy products, even though poorly consumed (27%), resulted the main contributor to IF intake (IF intake was 473.4 440 ?g/die vs 75 38 ?g/die in soy consumers and non soy consumers respectively p<0.001). Among Mediterranean foods, the main contributor resulted fresh bread that is widely consumed (97%). The percentage contribution of the cereal group to mean IF intake was 91%; the legume, fruit and vegetables groups brought a low contribution (3%, 2% and 4% respectively). The total daily IF intake found was low and probably not sufficient to produce biological effects. However more studies are necessary to investigate whether low exposure to IF for a long time could have positive effects on human health. PMID:23675065

Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Ravelli, Laura; Foti, Paola; Erba, Daniela; Testolin, Giulio; Battezzati, Alberto

2008-01-01

378

Calcium intake is not related to breast cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women.  

PubMed

There is experimental evidence that calcium protects against breast cancer development. Prospective epidemiologic studies supporting a protective effect of calcium on breast cancer risk have mainly been limited to Western populations. We examined the association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large population-based prospective cohort. Calcium intake and supplement use was assessed by in-person interviewer using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 14.23.5 years, 823 cohort participants developed invasive breast cancer. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were fitted to examine the associations between calcium intake and breast cancer risk. Vegetables were the primary food source of calcium in this study population, followed by dairy products, grains and soy foods. Calcium intake was not associated with breast cancer risk, comparing highest quartile (>345.6 mg/1,000 kcal/day) to lowest quartile (<204.5 mg/1,000 kcal/day) of intake. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, body mass index, dietary vitamin D or stage of disease at diagnosis. Our findings do not support a hypothesis for calcium in breast cancer chemoprevention, contrary to findings from previous studies among Western populations with higher calcium intake primarily from dairy products and supplements. PMID:23319293

Li, Jingmei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Ai-Zhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C; Butler, Lesley M

2013-08-01

379

Evaluation of dietary intake of lactating women in China and its potential impact on the health of mothers and infants  

E-print Network

as the lactating women, except that egg intake was higherlactating women. (19% ~ 23%), poultry ( 6% ~ 11%), eggs (7%eggs, milk and milk products in lactating mothers than in the con- trol group of women (

Chen, Haijiao; Wang, Ping; Han, Yaofeng; Ma, Jing; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

2012-01-01

380

30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany...trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product wastes) likely to be generated by...

2013-07-01

381

30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany...trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product wastes) likely to be generated by...

2012-07-01

382

Dietary calcium intake and overweight in adolescence  

E-print Network

Recent research has shown an association between low dietary calcium intake and obesity in adults as well as overweight in young children; however, this relationship has not been investigated in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine...

Gerges, Amira Sami

2005-02-17

383

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

384

OSU Breastfeeding Support Initiative Intake Form  

E-print Network

OSU Breastfeeding Support Initiative Intake Form Name ______________________________________ Date hours More than 20 hours What breastfeeding support services are you aware of? How did you hear about breastfeeding plans: Nursing (baby present) exclusively, including while at work or school. Breastfeeding

Escher, Christine

385

Sea water intake, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... water and supplying water to research aquariums. Water is drawn through a vertical well pipe which ... intake well was constructed when the quay was extended in order to draw water from a point farther ...

386

Caffeine intake may modulate inflammation markers in trained rats.  

PubMed

Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. PMID:24763113

Barcelos, Rmulo Pillon; Souza, Mauren Assis; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Stefanello, Silvio Terra; Bresciani, Guilherme; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Soares, Flix Alexandre Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda

2014-04-01

387

Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers  

PubMed Central

This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

2011-01-01

388

Caffeine Intake May Modulate Inflammation Markers in Trained Rats  

PubMed Central

Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. PMID:24763113

Barcelos, Romulo Pillon; Souza, Mauren Assis; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Stefanello, Silvio Terra; Bresciani, Guilherme; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Barbosa, Nilda de Vargas

2014-01-01

389

Optimal dietary intake for cardiovascular risk reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthful dietary intake and physical activity are advocated as first-line prevention and treatment of many diseases. Dietary\\u000a intake plays a major role in preventing and promoting the leading cause of death in the United States: cardiovascular disease.\\u000a Despite continually growing evidence on the relationship between nutrition and cardiovascular risk, many Americans consume\\u000a an atherogenic diet resulting in a proinflammatory and

Wendy M. Miller; Katherine E. Nori Janosz; Kerstyn C. Zalesin; Peter A. McCullough

2009-01-01

390

Maternal Calcium Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Few data exist on the intergenerational influence of calcium intake during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Methods and Results As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy. We used mixed models to estimate effects of maternal calcium intake on offspring systolic blood pressure. MeanSD daily total maternal calcium intake was 1494523 mg, consisting of 1230486 mg from foods and 264191 mg from supplements. MeanSD 6-month blood pressure was 89.912.9 mm Hg. From bottom to top quartile of dietary calcium from foods adjusted for energy intake and measurement conditions, mean infant systolic blood pressures were 91.0, 90.2, 90.9, and 90.2 mm Hg (trend P=0.62). From calcium supplements only, the values were 91.5, 90.2, 90.4, and 88.4 mm Hg (trend P=0.006). After further adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, dietary, social, and economic variables, the decrease in 6-month systolic blood pressure was ?3.0 mm Hg (95% CI, ?4.9 to ?1.1) for each 500-mg increment of maternal supplemental calcium intake during pregnancy. We did not find evidence of effect modification by maternal vitamin D or potassium intake or by infant body mass index. First-trimester calcium intake was not associated with offspring blood pressure. Conclusions These observational data suggest that supplementing maternal midgestational calcium intake may lower offspring blood pressure, thus helping to prevent hypertension in the next generation. PMID:15451777

Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

2007-01-01

391

Inconsistencies in the assessment of food intake.  

PubMed

Many peptides and other compounds that influence metabolism also influence food intake, and numerous hypotheses explaining the observed effects in terms of energy homeostasis have been suggested over the years. For example, cholecystokinin (CCK), a duodenal peptide secreted during meals that aids in digestion, also reduces ongoing food intake, thereby contributing to satiation; and insulin and leptin, hormones secreted in direct proportion to body fat, act in the brain to help control adiposity by reducing energy intake. These behavioral actions are often considered to be hard-wired, such that negative experiments, in which an administered compound fails to have its purported effect, are generally disregarded. In point of fact, failures to replicate the effects of compounds on food intake are commonplace, and this occurs both between and within laboratories. Failures to replicate have historically fueled heated debate about the efficacy and/or normal function of one or another compound, leading to confusion and ambiguity in the literature. We review these phenomena and their implications and argue that, rather than eliciting hard-wired behavioral responses in the maintenance of homeostasis, compounds that alter food intake are subjected to numerous influences that can render them completely ineffective at times and that a major reason for this variance is that food intake is not under stringent homeostatic control. PMID:23074241

Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

2012-12-15

392

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

393

Nutrient intake and food restriction in children with atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

2013-01-01

394

Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese  

PubMed Central

Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

2010-01-01

395

Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese.  

PubMed

Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, nondairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components, is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men in the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food-frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index. Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/d) versus 1st (median = 211 mg/d) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.34; P for trend = 0.01) for men with a below median body mass index (22.9 kg/m(2)). Dietary calcium might be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

Butler, Lesley M; Wong, Alvin S; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C

2010-06-15

396

Relation between dietary intake and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated adherence to current dietary recommendations of children with cystic fibrosis and mild lung disease and their siblings by comparing energy intake. Fifty children (25 with cystic fibrosis) aged between 7 and 12 years completed the study. Energy intake was assessed by weighed dietary intake, resting energy expenditure was used to calculate recommended daily intakes. The children with

H Anthony; J Bines; P Phelan; S Paxton

1998-01-01

397

Comparing Intake Concerns and Goals with Career Counseling Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship among clients' intake concerns, intake goals, and career counseling concerns. Results indicate that intake goals focused primarily on resolving D. E. Super's (1957) exploration stage tasks, but concerns included education-related issues and ego dystonic emotions related to work. Intake concerns and goals were not

Niles, Spencer G.; Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Cover, Stephanie

2000-01-01

398

Comparison of effect of high intake of magnesium with high intake of phosphorus and potassium on urolithiasis in goats fed with cottonseed meal diet.  

PubMed

The effect of high intake of Mg on urolithiasis was compared with high intake of P and K in goats being fed with a cottonseed meal and rice straw diet. Eighteen wether goats were randomly allocated into group A, B and C evenly and fed with cottonseed meal and rice straw diet for three months. From day 60 onwards, KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) were provided via drinking water to goats in group B to increase the intake of P, K, and MgO to goats in group C to increase the intake of Mg. Blood and urine samples were collected to analyze the concentration of P, K, Mg and Ca, and the activity product (AP) of potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP) in urine was also calculated. The composition of calculi and urinary sedimentary crystals were examined by chemical qualitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the incidence of urolithiasis in group C (6/6) was higher than that in group A (1/6) and B (1/6) (P<0.05). The calculi were mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and partly composed of MKP. MKP presented in crystals of different phases in this experiment. The high intake of Mg contributed to a significant increase of plasma Mg, but additional P, K did not cause a further increase of plasma P, K. Urine P, K, Mg and Ca and AP of MKP in group C decreased significantly after the onset of urolithiasis. In conclusion, high intake of Mg was more important in inducing struvite calculi compared with high intake of K and P in goats under these feeding conditions. Cottonseed meal and rice straw with additional Mg is a good dietary model for inducing struvite calculi in castrated goats. PMID:19091365

Wang, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long

2009-08-01

399

Abdominal chemo- and mechanosensitivity in ruminants and its role in the control of food intake.  

PubMed

Ruminant animals have evolved a large and complex set of stomachs which allow fermentation of fibrous food by symbiotic micro-organisms. These stomachs are well innervated and generate signals which are thought to be important in the control of voluntary food intake. Tension receptors in the muscular wall of the rumen and reticulum are slowly adapting and provide a measure of distension while epithelial receptors are rapidly adapting and provide information on the fibrousness of the digesta; they are involved in the control of stomach motility and voluntary food intake in order to prevent excessive distension. The epithelial receptors are also sensitive to the chemical nature of the digesta, particularly acidity. There are mechano- and chemoreceptors in the abomasum (true stomach) and duodenum and chemoreceptors in the liver, all of which have been implicated in the control of intake. It is relatively easy to prepare and maintain ruminants with a rumen fistula and many studies have shown the effects of such manipulations as distension of balloons in the rumen on voluntary intake. With fibrous, slowly digested feeds intake is primarily limited by rumen distension. With more rapidly digested feeds, however, the products of digestion play an important role in controlling intake. Short-chain fatty acids are the main products of fermentation and infusion of their salts into the rumen depresses food intake to a much greater extent than infusion into the general circulation. Acetate or propionate given into the rumen are more effective, mole for mole, than butyrate but must be given at rates exceeding the natural rate of production in order to have a significant effect. It has been suggested that much of the effect of sodium acetate is via the increase in the osmolality of rumen fluid but there is considerable uncertainty as to the physiological significance of osmotic effects, especially when animals have free access to water and can prevent excessive increases in tonicity by increasing their water intake. Other constituents of rumen fluid have been implicated in the control of food intake, particularly lactic acid and nitrogenous compounds, especially as these can be found in fermented feeds such as silage. The omasum controls the flow of digesta to the abomasum; it is therefore well placed to control rumen fill and thus intake but there has been little study in this area and this is also true for the abomasum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1543591

Forbes, J M; Barrio, J P

1992-01-01

400

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

401

Branched Chain Fatty Acid Content of United States Retail Cow's Milk and Implications for Dietary Intake  

PubMed Central

Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 1418 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids. PMID:21293946

Ran-Ressler, R. R.; Sim, D.; Brenna, J. T.; O'Donnell-Megaro, A. M.; Bauman, D. E.; Barbano, D. M.

2011-01-01

402

Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.  

PubMed

Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

2014-12-01

403

The Association Between Different Kinds of Fat Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Women  

PubMed Central

So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products) intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk. PMID:24554986

Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

2014-01-01

404

Reconstruction of long-lived radionuclide intakes for Techa riverside residents: 137Cs.  

PubMed

Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The Sr intake function was recently improved, taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio Cs-to-Sr in river water. Intake via Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows' milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000-9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River, the Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows' milk was the main source of Cs in diet in the upper-Techa River region. PMID:23532077

Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2013-05-01

405

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

406

Flavonoid Intake and Eye Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often

Paul E. Milbury

2012-01-01

407

Effects of lysine intake during late gestation and lactation on blood metabolites, hormones, milk composition and reproductive performance in primiparous and multiparous sows.  

PubMed

Modern genotype primiparous and multiparous sows (Yorkshire x Landrace, n=48) were used to evaluate effects of dietary lysine intake during late gestation and lactation, and their interaction on reproductive performance. Sows were randomly allotted to two gestation lysine (G, 0.6% or 0.8% lysine) treatments based on parity in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, and each treatment had 12 replicates comprising 1 sow. Then all the sows were assigned to two lactation lysine (L, 1.0% or 1.3% lysine) treatments within parity and gestation treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, and each treatment comprised six replicates with 1 sow/replicate during lactation. Feeding higher lysine level during gestation increased sow body weight and backfat thickness (P=0.001) and body condition was better (P=0.001) in multiparous than that of primiparous sows. Both of the lysine levels during lactation and parity influenced sow body condition and reproductive performance (P<0.05). Higher lysine intake during lactation increased the concentrations of total solids (P=0.024), protein (P=0.001) and solids not-fat (P=0.042) in colostrum and total solids (P=0.001), protein (P=0.001), fat (P=0.001) and solids not-fat (P=0.005) in milk. Protein concentration of milk was greater (P=0.001) in multiparous sows than that of primiparous sows. Feeding of high lysine diets resulted in an increment of plasma urea N (P=0.010; P=0.047) and a decrease of creatinine (P=0.045; P=0.002) on the day of postfarrowing and weaning, respectively. Furthermore, as lysine intake increased, the secretions of insulin, FSH, and LH were increased (P<0.05) and multiparous sows showed higher (P<0.05) concentrations of FSH and LH pulses on the day of postfarrowing and weaning, respectively. These results indicated that higher lysine intake than that recommended by NRC [NRC, 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, 458 Washington, DC] could improve sow performance during late gestation and lactation. Furthermore primiparous sows need higher lysine intake than multiparous sows. Moreover, nutritional impacts on reproduction may be mediated in part through associated effects on circulating LH concentration. PMID:18547756

Yang, Y X; Heo, S; Jin, Z; Yun, J H; Choi, J Y; Yoon, S Y; Park, M S; Yang, B K; Chae, B J

2009-06-01

408

Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 1620, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in g/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results Mean dietary selenium was 5125 g/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 3614% of total dietary selenium; fish 1812%; and bread/cereal products 136%. Mean whole blood selenium was 11712 g/l (range 90208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 g/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium. PMID:22952457

Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

2012-01-01

409

Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health in neonatal dairy calves.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased, mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxins intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of the effects of clinoptilolite supplementation on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1 and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For test 1 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48h and for test 2 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth and sixth weeks of life (end of the experiment: 42 days of life) and analyzed for hematology, plasma fibrinogen and for total protein, albumin, beta and gamma globulin measurement. Performance and health of calves were also recorded during the experiment. For statistical analysis of data a repeated measures approach using ANOVA with Mixed linear models, and chi-test was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the values of hematocrit (HCT), red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), monocyte (Mono), and albumin (Alb). The values of most above parameters were significantly higher in test group 2, except MCV that was significantly lower in test group 1 than other trial groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was seen for other measured parameters, performance, and health between trial groups. PMID:18343011

Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Daraei, F

2008-06-01

410

Medium-chain fatty acids but not L-carnitine accelerate the kinetics of [14C]triacylglycerol utilization by colostrum-deprived newborn pigs.  

PubMed

The effect of L-carnitine on in vivo fatty acid utilization was determined using colostrum-deprived newborn piglets fed emulsified triglycerides (TG) composed of [1-14C]octanoate (tri-8:0) or [1-14C]octadecanoate (tri-18:1). A soy protein-based liquid diet devoid of L-carnitine was fed piglets for 1 d to allow development of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes and intestinal fat digestion and absorption before assessment of in vivo fat utilization. The radiolabeled TG were fed in isoenergetic amounts (97.7 kJ/kg(0.75)), with or without L-carnitine (1 mmol/kg(0.75)) as 30% (v/v) emulsions, using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate as an emulsifier. Expired CO(2) was quantified and specific radioactivity (Bq/micromol) was determined at 20-min intervals over 24 h. The rate (mmol ATP.kg(-0.75).min(-1)) and extent (mol ATP/kg(0.75)) of TG oxidative utilization (i.e., composite of digestion, absorption and oxidation) were calculated from the kinetics of 14CO(2) expiration. The maximal rate and extent of tri-8:0 oxidation were three and fourfold greater than those of tri-18:1, respectively (P < 0.001), and tri-18:1 delayed the time to reach 10 and 50% of maximal oxidation rate by 1.2 and 1.9 h (P < 0.01, respectively), regardless of supplemental carnitine. Collectively, these findings quantify the accelerated oxidation of medium-chain vs. long-chain triglycerides, but fail to support a need for supplemental carnitine to maximize fat oxidation in colostrum-deprived piglets. PMID:12097681

Heo, Kinam N; Lin, Xi; Han, In K; Odle, Jack

2002-07-01

411

Alcohol Intake, Smoking, and Colorectal Adenoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. Methods: A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy were included (113 cases and 255 controls) in this study. Information on alcohol intake and cigarette smoking was collected from structured questionnaires. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Alcohol intake was associated with a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma in men; compared to non-drinkers, ORs (95% CIs) were 11.49 (2.5551.89) for 1020 g/day of alcohol intake and 14.15 (3.3160.59) for 20 g/day of alcohol intake (P for trend = 0.003). There was a weaker association of alcohol intake for women than men; however, there was a suggestive increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in women. Cigarette smoking was not associated with colorectal adenoma, but we cannot rule out the possibility that this was due to low statistical power. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence to suggest that alcohol intake may contribute to colorectal adenoma in the Korean population. Our study results demonstrate that a larger epidemiologic study is needed. PMID:25337582

Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

412

Urea kinetics in healthy young women: minimal effect of stage of menstrual cycle, contraceptive pill and protein intake.  

PubMed

Urea kinetics were measured using prime/intermittent oral doses of [15N15N]urea, on five separate protocols in thirteen normal young women. Each woman underwent either two or three study protocols. Measurements were made at day 12 and day 22 of the menstrual cycle, whilst consuming their habitual protein intake in seven women not taking the contraceptive pill and in six women taking the contraceptive pill. In three women taking the pill, and three not taking the pill, urea kinetics were measured whilst taking a diet in which the intake was restricted to 55 g protein/d. There was no difference in the rate of urea production, urea excretion or urea hydrolysis between the women taking the pill and those not taking the pill at day 22. In the women not taking the pill there was no difference in any measure between day 12 and day 22. In the women taking the pill there was a significant difference in the disposal of urea N to excretion or hydrolysis on day 12 compared with day 22, with a relative decrease in excretion and enhancement of hydrolysis at day 12 compared with day 22. On the restricted diet, an intake of 55 g protein/d represented 77% of the habitual intake and urea production, excretion and hydrolysis were reduced to about 84% of the rate found on the habitual intake. In paired studies the reduction in urea production was statistically significant, and there was a statistically significant linear relationship between urea production and either intake or the sum of intake plus hydrolysis. The within-individual variability for urea production was about 10%, for excretion 15% and for hydrolysis 44%. The between-individual variability for intake was about 17% on the habitual intake. The variability for production, excretion and hydrolysis (14, 13, 36%) was less in the women not taking the contraceptive pill than in those taking the pill 23, 32, 42% respectively). The variability was reduced on the controlled low intake of 55 g protein compared with the habitual intake. These results confirm the wide variability in aspects of urea kinetics between individuals. In women this variability is not, to any large extent, accounted for by changes associated with the menstrual cycle. PMID:8813895

McClelland, I S; Jackson, A A

1996-08-01

413

Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 6696 years (BMI=274 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 /month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhauser-Berthold, Monika

2014-01-01

414

Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These

Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Tatjana Van Strien

2010-01-01

415

Biofouling potential and environmental factors of seawater at a desalination plant intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal waters have been widely used by the littoral countries of the Middle East for siting desalination and power plants to take advantage of the availability of unpolluted sea water for establishing cost effective feed intake and once through cooling system. Huge quantities of raw seawater are being withdrawn from the sea for the unimpeded production of freshwater, greatly needed

P. K. Abdul Azis; Ibrahim Al-Tisan; N. Sasikumar

2001-01-01

416

Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (age 43 and 53 years, respectively). Diet was assessed by 5-day food diaries using

A. Heraclides; G. D. Mishra; R. J. Hardy; J. M. Geleijnse; S. Black; C. J. Prynne; D. Kuh; S. S. Soedamah-Muthu

2012-01-01

417

Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI

Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

2010-01-01

418

Cost and health consequences of reducing the population intake of salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEThe aim was to estimate health and economic consequences of interventions aimed at reducing the daily intake of salt (sodium chloride) by 6 g per person in the Norwegian population. Health promotion (information campaigns), development of new industry food recipes, declaration of salt content in food and taxes on salty food\\/subsidies of products with less salt, were possible interventions.DESIGNThe

Randi M Selmer; Ivar Snb Kristiansen; Anton Haglerd; Sidsel Graff-Iversen; Hanne K Larsen; Haakon E Meyer; Kaare H Bnaa; Dag S Thelle

2000-01-01

419

Daily intake of selenium and concentrations in blood of residents of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 ?g Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 ?g Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 10(2) 30.5 ?g Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity. PMID:22270491

Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Habila, Mohamed A; Giesy, John P

2012-08-01

420

Polyamine intake, dietary pattern, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In addition to general lifestyle, a number of foods and dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), are associated with lower incidences of chronic, age-related diseases, and mortality. We have shown that increased polyamine intake decreases age-associated pathology and increases longevity in mice. Several foods in the MD, such as fruits and legumes, are foods containing high amount of polyamines. Among age-associated conditions, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and individuals who adhere to a MD have a lower incidence of CVD. The possible contribution of increased polyamine intake to CVD prevention is discussed in this manuscript. Polyamines from food are distributed to all organs and tissues, and long-term intake increases polyamine concentration in blood. Because most polyamines are associated with red and white blood cells, they act to suppress synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to help prevent CVD. Additionally, suppression of de novo polyamine synthesis results from increased polyamines intake, normally synthesized from arginine. This in turn increases availability of arginine for synthesis of nitric oxide, which plays an important role in preserving normal vascular physiology. PMID:20347532

Soda, Kuniyasu

2010-09-01

421

Haemodynamic Effects of Food Intake during Haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is some doubt whether food intake during haemodialysis (HD) is detrimental to haemodynamic stability. Methods: We studied 20 stable non-diabetic HD patients during a single session. A standard meal was given 45 min into dialysis. Relative blood volume (RBV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and extracellular fluid (ECF) resistance were monitored continuously. Total protein and albumin

Murugan Sivalingam; Anindya Banerjee; Gail Nevett; Ken Farrington

2008-01-01

422

Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on a total of 120 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Partially purified CCK was injected intraperitoneally into fasted Ss prior to food presentation. The hormone produced a large dose-related suppression of intake of solid and liquid diets. Identical doses of the synthetic terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produced identical results. An effective dose of CCK did

James Gibbs; Robert C. Young; Gerard P. Smith

1973-01-01

423

Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes  

SciTech Connect

In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

Poda, G A

1983-01-01

424

Salt intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic data revealed that a low sodium intake might have a favorable influence on blood pressure throughout an individual's lifetime. Sodium restriction was reported to lead to a modest fall in blood pressure in some studies, although a few groups of hypertensive patients experienced a rise in blood pressure. Left ventricular hypertrophy has been demonstrated to be related to cardiovascular

Alfred H. Beil; Roland E. Schmieder; Franz H. Messerli

1994-01-01

425

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been and recognizing the importance of publishing this work so it could be used by other researchers and decision

426

Dietary Flavonoids: Intake, Health Effects and Bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal studies. An estimation of the total flavonoid intake is difficult, because only limited data on food contents are

P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

1999-01-01

427

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01