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Sample records for intake colostrum production

  1. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    PubMed

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low blood concentrations of adiponectin and placental transfer of adiponectin to the bovine fetus is unlikely. In conclusion, colostrum intake is essential for the postnatal increase of circulating adiponectin in newborn calves. PMID:26277307

  2. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P<0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P<0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected neither CI nor CY, but the prefarrowing diet with coconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the new mechanistic predictive model for CI suggests that the previous empirical predictive model underestimates CI of sow-reared piglets by 30%. It was also concluded that nutrition of sows during gestation affected CY and colostrum composition. PMID:25367518

  3. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition, particularly with energy-rich concentrates, can improve colostrum production, help meet the energy and immunological requirements for new-born lambs, and improve lamb survival. PMID:25556391

  4. Effect of human colostrum on interleukin-2 production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, L.; Straussberg, R.; Notti, I.; Bessler, H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of human colostrum on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and on natural killer (NK) cell activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in 50 healthy women. At concentrations as low as 0.5%, human colostrum stimulated IL-2 production; at a higher concentration (10%), IL-2 secretion was inhibited. A time and dose dependent inhibitory effect of colostrum on NK cytotoxicity was also observed. This inhibition could be reversed by the addition of human recombinant IL-2 (hrIL-2). The stimulation of IL-2 production induced by human colostrum might compensate for its inhibitory effect on NK cell activity. These findings suggest an additional mechanism by which breast feeding may affect the neonatal immune system. PMID:7583615

  5. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis?L. essential oils supplementation on digestion, colostrum production of dairy ewes and lamb mortality and growth.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Joy, Margalida; Hajji, Hadhami; Alabart, José Luis; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary essential oils (REO) and the forage nature on ewes' performances, immune response and lambs' growth and mortality. Forty-eight dairy ewes (Sicilo-Sarde) were fed oat-hay or oat-silage supplemented with 400?g of concentrate during pregnancy and 600?g during postpartum. The experimental concentrate contained the same mixture as the control (barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement) more 0.6?g/kg of REO. Two groups were obtained with each forage (Hay groups: H-C and H-REO; Silage groups: S-C and S-REO). REO increased the dry matter (DM) intake, the nitrogen intake and retention being higher with the silage groups (P?colostrum which was higher with hay (P?=?0.002). REO decreased lamb mortality (P?intake and tended to ameliorate colostrum production; it could be a natural additive to improve ewes' performances. PMID:25597515

  6. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...colostrum immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...colostrum immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast...

  8. Determination of soluble immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum products by Protein G affinity chromatography-turbidity correction and method validation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Patrick T; Cargill, Anne; Selwood, Andrew I; Arnold, Kate; Krammer, Jacqueline L; Pearce, Kevin N

    2011-05-25

    Immunoglobulin-containing food products and nutraceuticals such as bovine colostrum are of interest to consumers as they may provide health benefits. Commercial scale colostrum products are valued for their immunoglobulin G (IgG) content and therefore require accurate analysis. One of the most commonly used methods for determining total soluble IgG in colostrum products is based on affinity chromatography using a Protein G column and UV detection. This paper documents improvements to the accuracy of the Protein G analysis of IgG in colostrum products, especially those containing aggregated forms of IgG. Capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) analysis confirmed that aggregated IgG measured by Protein G does not contain significant amounts of casein or other milk proteins. Size exclusion chromatography identified the content of soluble IgG as mainly monomeric IgG and aggregated material MW > 450 kDa with small amounts of dimer and trimer. The turbidity of the eluting IgG, mainly associated with aggregated IgG, had a significant effect on the quantitative results. Practical techniques were developed to correct affinity LC data for turbidity on an accurate, consistent, and efficient basis. The method was validated in two laboratories using a variety of colostrum powders. Precision for IgG was 2-3% (RSD(r)) and 3-12% (RSD(R)). Recovery was 100.2 ± 2.4% (mean ± RSD, n = 10). Greater amounts of aggregated IgG were solubilized by a higher solution:sample ratio and extended times of mixing or sonication, especially for freeze-dried material. It is concluded that the method without acid precipitation and with turbidity correction provides accurate, precise, and robust data for total soluble IgG and is suitable for product specification and quality control of colostrum products. PMID:21524111

  9. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  10. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by study conclusion was not different for animals originally fed HT (68.0%) versus FR (71.7%) colostrum. Although a previous study showed that feeding HT colostrum (60°C for 60min) produces short-term benefits, including improved passive transfer of IgG and reduced morbidity in the preweaning period, the current study found no benefit of feeding HT colostrum on long-term outcomes including risk for transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production in the first and second lactation, and longevity within the herd. PMID:26074228

  11. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after childbirth. (b)...

  12. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk production and longevity in Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled clinical trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. ...

  13. Association between Endocrine Disrupting Phenols in Colostrums and Maternal and Infant Health.

    PubMed

    Yi, B; Kim, C; Park, M; Han, Y; Park, J Y; Yang, M

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) are well-known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may threat the next generations' health. We performed biomonitoring of these phenols in colostrums to assess risk of the phenols in breast-fed neonates. Study subjects were the lactating mothers who delivered babies within 2 weeks (N = 325; 30.67 ± 3.45 years) and their neonates (N = 326; embryonic period, 39.1 ± 1.5 weeks). BPA, nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) in colostrums were quantified with LC/MS/MS. Information for environmental exposure sources of the phenols was obtained by questionnaires. As results, median level of BPA in colostrums was 7.8?ng/mL, while most NP or OP was not detected. Regarding health risks of phenols, levels of total NP in colostrums were elevated among sick mothers with toxemia, thyroid disorders, gastritis, and so forth than health mothers (3.51 ± 4.98 versus 2.04 ± 3.71?ng/mL, P = 0.02). Dairy products intake and detergents use were positively correlated with total BPA levels (Ps < 0.05). In conclusion, we estimate most neonates who are exposed to BPA rather than NP or OP via colostrums and recommend continuous biomonitoring of the phenols to clarify their suspected health risk on neonates and pregnant or gestation mothers. PMID:23737772

  14. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  15. Heat-treatment of Colostrum on Commercial Dairy Farms: Effects on Colostrum Characteristics and Calf Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Colostrum provides immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may be a source of exposure to significant pathogens including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Pilot studies have suggested that heat-treatment of colostrum...

  16. Colostrum composition of Santa Inês sheep and passive transfer of immunity to lambs.

    PubMed

    Alves, A C; Alves, N G; Ascari, I J; Junqueira, F B; Coutinho, A S; Lima, R R; Pérez, J R O; De Paula, S O; Furusho-Garcia, I F; Abreu, L R

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Inês ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 40±15 min (mean±SE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS)<2.75, but did not differ between primiparous and multiparous with BCS?2.75 (interaction parity and BCS). The IgG concentration and fat, protein, lactose, and defatted dry extract percentages were not affected by the BCS of the ewe at lambing or by the parity. The total solids percentage in the colostrum was higher in ewes with BCS<2.75 (interaction BCS and time). The production and the protein, total solid, and defatted dry extract percentages showed quadratic behavior, the fat percentage decreased linearly, and the lactose percentage increased linearly with time postpartum. The IgG concentration in the colostrum was not correlated with the ewe's weight or BCS at the time of lambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of absorption was 38.10%, with values between 0.02% and 98.80%. The serum IgG concentration was correlated with the total protein concentration (according to the enzymatic colorimetric method), the gamma-globulin concentration, and the absorption efficiency. The extreme variation on apparent efficiency of absorption may have an effect on the success of PIT. Lambs should consume at least 30 g of IgG in the first 24 h of life to ensure adequate PIT. PMID:25828655

  17. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet. PMID:23365360

  18. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  19. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products. PMID:26102159

  20. Feeding corn during the last 12 days of gestation improved colostrum production and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vera, S; Terrazas, A; Delgadillo, J A; Serafín, N; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Hernández, H

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to investigate if partial substitution of a grazing diet with a supplemental high-starch feed during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goat does grazing semi-arid rangeland. For the first objective, 25 pregnant does were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) grazing only (control; n = 11), and 2) grazing plus 0.6 kg/d of supplemental corn (as fed), a high starch feed, during the last 12 ± 1.0 d before parturition (SC; n = 14). Colostrum was collected at parturition and again at 1, 3, 6, and 10 h postpartum for yield and composition. In all goats, blood concentrations of glucose and plasma progesterone were determined. Total colostrum yield/10 h was greater (P = 0.002) in the SC does (1,102 ± 144 g) than in control does (405 ± 50 g). From 6 to 10 h postpartum, contents of colostrum protein and solids not fat were less (P ? 0.012) whereas lactose contents were greater (P = 0.035) in the SC does than in control does. Concentration of glucose in the blood at parturition was greater (P = 0.037) in the SC does (160 ± 13 mg/dL) than in control does (115 ± 12 mg/dL). A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in plasma progesterone concentrations occurred 1 d before parturition in control does, whereas the decrease (P = 0.008) occurred 3 d before parturition in SC does. For the second objective, 20 does (10 per group) and their single kids were randomly assigned to the same treatments as above for evaluation of dietary treatment on neonatal activity. Kid activity was assessed using videos recorded during the first 90 min after birth. Frequency of low-pitched bleats was greater (P < 0.001) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Frequencies and durations of teat seeking from 30 to 90 min after birth and of suckling activity were greater (P ? 0.015) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Duration of parturition was longer (P = 0.001) in control does (58 ± 10.2 min) than in SC does (21 ± 2.8 min). Finally, percentage of fetal malpresentation was greater (P = 0.036) in control does (33.3%) than in SC does (9.0%). We conclude that partial substitution of the grazing diet with a high-starch feed, corn, during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland. PMID:22266993

  1. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    PubMed

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    Colostrum provides newborn piglets with energy and passive immunity and is essential for survival of the piglets. The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in piglets is dependent on several factors, most importantly the concentration of IgG in sow colostrum (colostrum IgG). The main aims of this study were to investigate the variation in concentration of colostrum IgG between herds and the individual sows within herd and to investigate factors associated with plasma IgG concentrations in piglets (piglet IgG). From 4 herds (A to D), 876 piglets from 62 sows were included in the study. Colostrum was sampled from sows immediately after expulsion of the first piglet and before the first suckling (t1), midway through farrowing (just after the sixth piglet was born; t2), and after the last piglet was born (t3). At d 1, 0.5 mL blood from piglets was collected in tubes containing EDTA, and IgG concentrations were analyzed. Mean colostrum IgG concentration across all herds was 53.9 g/L. Herd A had mean colostrum IgG of 38.3 g/L, whereas the other 3 herds (B,C, and D) had mean colostrum IgG of 47.4, 60.4, and 67.8 g/L, respectively. Colostrum IgG at t1, t2, and t3 across all herds was 56.2, 53.7, and 42.5 g/L, respectively. Mean concentration of piglet IgG across all samplings was 21.7 g/L. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed with piglet IgG (g/L) as outcome. In this model, the herd effect accounted for 9% of the total variance and 34% of the variance resided at sow level. Piglet IgG was associated with herd, birth order (), body mass index (BMI) > 17 (kg/m), and colostrum IgG at t1 (g/L) with an overall -value < 0.01. Herd D had the highest predicted mean level of piglet IgG. The main model predicted that piglet IgG decreased linearly by 0.4 g/L with each piglet born ( < 0.01). The model also predicted an increase by 0.1 g/L for each gram per liter extra colostrum IgG in colostrum ( = 0.03). Piglets with a BMI above 17 kg/m had a greater piglet IgG (+4.5 g/L) than those with a BMI at 17 kg/m or below ( < 0.01). Concentrations of colostrum IgG varied largely between herds and between sows. The largest variation of piglet IgG was mainly on the piglet level, supporting the complex nature of IgG production and uptake. However, the strong association between colostrum IgG and piglet IgG shows that increased IgG level in colostrum will improve the levels of IgG in piglets and potentially increase survival of the piglets. PMID:26440345

  2. Fat intake reverses the beneficial effects of low caloric intake on skeletal muscle mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production.

    PubMed

    Garait, Blandine; Couturier, Karine; Servais, Stéphane; Letexier, Dominique; Perrin, David; Batandier, Cécile; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Rey, Benjamin; Leverve, Xavier; Favier, Roland

    2005-11-01

    Food restriction is the most effective modulator of oxidative stress and it is believed that a reduction in caloric intake per se is responsible for the reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation and oxygen consumption (O(2)) by skeletal muscle mitochondria were determined in a peculiar strain of rats (Lou/C) characterized by a self-low-caloric intake and a dietary preference for fat. These rats were fed either with a standard high-carbohydrate (HC) or a high-fat (HF) diet and the results were compared to those measured in Wistar rats fed a HC diet. H(2)O(2) production was significantly reduced in Lou/C rats fed a HC diet; this effect was not due to a lower O(2) consumption but rather to a decrease in rotenone-sensitive NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity and increased expression of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3. The reduced H(2)O(2) generation displayed by Lou/C rats was accompanied by a significant inhibition of permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. H(2)O(2) production was restored and PTP inhibition was relieved when Lou/C rats were allowed to eat a HF diet, suggesting that the reduced oxidative stress provided by low caloric intake is lost when fat proportion in the diet is increased. PMID:16214040

  3. Farrowing induction induces transient alterations in prolactin concentrations and colostrum composition in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

    2011-10-01

    Hormonal changes involved in the farrowing process partly control the initiation of lactation. Inducing farrowing by injection of PG may alter the normal prepartum hormonal cascade. The aim of the study was to investigate the consequences of farrowing induction on colostrum yield and composition, as well as newborn piglet growth. Gilts were treated with 2 mg of alfaprostol on d 113 of gestation (induced farrowing, IF, n = 9) or were injected with 1 mL of a saline solution (natural farrowing, NF, n = 11). Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition, based on piglet BW gains. Colostrum samples were collected during the 36 h after the onset of parturition. Blood samples were collected from sows as of d 112 of pregnancy until d 2 postpartum (d 0 being the day of parturition). Piglet blood samples were obtained at birth, on d 1, and on d 21. Litter size and litter weight at birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.10). Farrowing induction did not influence (P > 0.10) colostrum yield (3.96 ± 0.20 kg) or piglet BW gain during d 1 postpartum (116 ± 8 g). At the onset of farrowing (T0), lactose content in colostrum was greater in IF sows than in NF sows (P < 0.05), whereas colostrum ash and protein contents were less (P < 0.05) in IF sows. Concentrations of IgG in colostrum were similar in both groups of sows, whereas concentrations of IgA at T0 were less in IF than in NF sows (P < 0.01). Overall, endocrine changes in blood from d -2 until d 2 (cortisol, prolactin, progesterone, and estradiol-17?) were not altered by farrowing induction (P > 0.10), but 1 h after the injection of alfaprostol, IF sows had greater circulating concentrations of prolactin (P < 0.01) and cortisol (P < 0.10) than NF sows. The greater concentration of lactose in colostrum from IF sows could be attributed to this transient increase in prolactin and cortisol. At birth, concentrations of white blood cells were less in piglets born from IF sows (P < 0.01). On d 1 and 21, piglets from IF sows had similar IgG concentrations in plasma to piglets from NF sows (P > 0.1). In conclusion, farrowing induction at 113 d of pregnancy induced transient hormonal changes in sows and alterations in colostrum composition, without significantly affecting colostrum yield. It also modified some hematological variables of piglets at birth. PMID:21531845

  4. Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.

    PubMed

    Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

  5. A survey of bovine colostrum composition and colostrum management practices on Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S I; Jayarao, B M; Heinrichs, A J

    2007-09-01

    Colostrum composition and management were surveyed via sample and data collection from 55 dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Colostrum samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, ash, Ig, lactoferrin, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals. Mean percentages of fat, protein, and lactose in colostrum were 6.7, 14.9, and 2.5, respectively. Concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin were 35.0, 6.0, 1.7, 4.3, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. Mean concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, including retinol, tocopherol, and beta-carotene, were 4.9, 2.9, and 0.7 microg/g, respectively. Mean concentrations of water-soluble vitamins were 0.34, 0.90, 4.55, 0.60, 0.15, 0.21, and 0.04 microg/mL for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine, respectively. Mean concentrations (mg/kg) of selected minerals in colostrum were also determined (Ca 4,716; P 4,452; Mg 733; Na 1,058; K 2,845; Zn 38; Fe 5.3; Cu 0.3; S 2,595; and Mn 0.1). The findings of this study revealed that the mean concentrations of most nutrients in colostrum have increased when compared with values previously reported. Results also showed that management practices have improved over time, particularly with regard to colostrum storage and feeding. Additionally, we observed that herd size influenced colostrum management and quality. It can be inferred, based on these findings, that although improvements have been made with regard to colostrum management and quality, there is still a need to educate producers on issues related to storage and timely feeding of colostrum to increase passive transfer and decrease the rate of calf morbidity and mortality. PMID:17699028

  6. Relative prolactin-to-progesterone concentrations around farrowing influence colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; van Hees, H; Quesnel, H

    2015-10-01

    In swine, colostrum production is induced by the drop of progesterone (P4) concentrations which leads to the prepartum peak of prolactin (PRL). PRL regulates mammary cell turnover and stimulates lacteal nutrient synthesis. P4 inhibits PRL secretion and downregulates the PRL receptor in the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine if the relative prepartum concentrations of P4 and PRL (PRL/P4 ratio) influence sow colostrum production. The performance of 29 Landrace × Large White primiparous sows was analyzed. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition (T0) using litter weight gains. Colostrum was collected at T0 and 24 h later (T24). Repeated jugular blood samples were collected during the peripartum period, that is, from -72 to +24 h related to farrowing and were assayed for P4 and PRL. Sows were retrospectively categorized in 2 groups according to their PRL/P4 ratio 24 h before farrowing being either <2 (low PRL/P4, n = 16) or >3 (high PRL/P4, n = 13). During the peripartum period, the circulating concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of PRL tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows. Colostrum yield was greater in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (4.11 vs 3.48 kg [root mean square error = 0.69], P < 0.05). Colostrum composition (dry matter, energy, protein, lipid, and lactose contents) and IgG and IgA concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups of sows (P > 0.10). The Na/K ratio in colostrum 24 h after the onset of farrowing was lower in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (P < 0.05). Piglet mortality between birth and T24 averaged 10.0% in low PRL/P4 litters and 7.0% in high PRL/P4 litters (P = 0.29). In conclusion, a greater PRL/P4 ratio 24 h prepartum, characterized by lower P4 concentrations and a trend for greater PRL concentrations peripartum, led to increased colostrum yield in primiparous sows. PMID:26051790

  7. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n = 106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the Yangtze River outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93  ?g g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p < 0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (-)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.33 ± 7.34 ?g kg(-1)bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01 mg kg(-1) bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:26650085

  8. Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Theobald, Chris

    Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian Latent exposure. The latent-variable models allow for both skewness and large numbers of ze- 2 #12;ros estimates of high percentiles of the exposure distribution than an empirical approach. Bayesian inference

  9. Nutritional importance of colostrum in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Aumaitre, A; Seve, B

    1978-01-01

    Suckling of colostrum by piglets is very important in order to improve the survival rate. Colostrum provides maternal antibodies, energy and protein. Rearing piglets suckling an artificial milk of a similar chemical composition to that of sow's milk failed when the animals were housed in conventional conditions although numerous research workers succeeded in rearing 90% of animals delivered and fed in sterile conditions. Studies on the chemical analysis of colostrum showed a high dry matter content (30-40% higher than that of milk) in particular a high protein level (twice that of milk). The high proportion of globulins, i.e. 38% during farrowing, drops to 12% of the protein 4 days later; conversely the casein content rather low at birth doubles over the same period. Colostrum proteins are not used to proved energetic nutrients; some of them are absorbed without hydrolysis and have a special physiological rôle. The transmission of maternal immunity by gamma globulins is well known; lactotransferrin plays an important rôle as a transporter and a bacteriostatic factor. Enzymatic proteins such as lyzozyme govern the metabolism of glycoproteins. Hydrolyzed albumins, casein and proteose-peptone fraction provide the essential amino acids for de novo protein synthesis. The fat content is relatively low during the first 24 hours and increases threefold in the 4 days after farrowing. It provides the majority of the energy required by the young animal. A high proportion of some fatty acids, mostly oleic and linoleic acids, are used preferentially as sources of energy. Other components, including enzymes of the mammary cells, were found, but their particular rôle has not been explained. Colostrum contains in addition numerous vitamins (vitamins A and E) and some particular trace elements (iodine and selenium), and their transfer from the maternal diet to the young is particularity efficient by colostrum suckling. The nutritional rôle of those nutrients is important and their levels could affect the survival rate of the piglets. Hypotheses concerning the digestion and absorption of nutrients and antibodies are summarized, and finally, recommendations are made for further research and for the minimum amount of colostrum required by each piglet for survival and efficient postnatal growth to be assessed. PMID:371502

  10. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  11. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving interval (9%) and mature weight of cows (11%) in strategy A and B, respectively. The sums of the relative economic weights over categories for RFI were 6 and 7% in strategy A and B, respectively. Under production conditions in 2011, the relative economic weights for the studied feed efficiency traits were low. However, it is possible that the relative importance of feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal will increase in the future due to increasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. PMID:24342692

  12. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

  13. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...

  15. Short communication: Changes in the composition of yak colostrum during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mi, J D; Zhou, J W; Ding, L M; Wang, L; Long, R J

    2016-01-01

    Although the great interest has been paid to colostrum utilization for calves, no systematic studies evaluating the compositional changes of yak colostrum during the first week after parturition have been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate such postpartum nutritional changes. Colostrum samples from 12 multiparous (2-7 lactations) yaks, grazed on alpine pasture, were collected at exactly 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168h postpartum. Gross composition (fat, total solids, protein, and ash) were measured, as well as fat and water-soluble vitamins, fatty acid and mineral composition, and IgG. The colostrum, collected 1h postpartum, had the highest concentrations of crude protein, total solids, ash, vitamin A and E, ?-carotene, and most minerals (Na, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe). These components decreased rapidly within 24h. Similarly, at 24h postpartum, IgG content decreased to 7.5% of the value (87.78mg/mL) at 1h postpartum. In contrast, the concentration of vitamin C increased from 1 to 24h and then decreased consistently thereafter to the lowest value at 168h. Phosphorus and Ca contents showed an increasing trend from 24 to 168h after calving. Lactose content increased from 2.88% at 1h to 4.96% at 48h postpartum and was steady to 168h. Total n-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3-to-n-6 fatty acid ratio were proportionally similar as a percentage of total fatty acid methyl esters during the first 168h of milk production. However, the proportion of total n-6 fatty acid content to total fatty acid methyl esters decreased from 3.07% at 1h to 2.60% at 24h. In summary, experimental results indicate colostrum should be provided to yak calves as soon as possible after birth to provide nutrients and enhance passive immunity. PMID:26547651

  16. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  17. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  18. Heat-treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms: Effects on colostrum characteristics and calf health and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to describe the effect of heat-treatment, at 60 deg C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and IgG concentration, and describe the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on preweaning calf health and performance. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical tri...

  19. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  20. Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season. Specific feeding in the summer season (on pasture) did lead in more concentrated colostrum in dry substance, fatty acids and cholesterol. PMID:23442377

  1. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurélien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milène; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8±8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42±32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs. PMID:26186389

  2. Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone. PMID:26123777

  3. Performance and metabolic responses of Holstein calves to supplemental chromium in colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 ± 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr × time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood ?-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099

  4. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-11-01

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait. PMID:25601813

  5. Experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in sheep: Occurrence of transplacental transmission and mice infection by parasite present in the colostrum and milk of infected ewes.

    PubMed

    Campigotto, Gabriela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Volpato, Andreia; Balzan, Alexandre; Radavelli, Willian M; Soldá, Natan M; Grosskopf, Hyolanda M; Stefani, Lenita M; Bianchi, Anderson E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Weiss, Paulo H E; Miletti, Luiz C; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2015-09-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate vertical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi in sheep experimentally infected, in addition to the mammary transmission by colostrum or milk of these infected sheep to mice. Three pregnant sheep were used: one uninfected, four months pregnant (Sheep A); and two (Sheep B and C) infected intravenously by T. evansi trypomastigotes (4.6×10(6) per animal) on the third (Sheep C) and fourth (Sheep B) month of pregnancy. Both infected sheep developed low and oscillating parasitemia measured by blood smears. Hemogram was performed at seven day intervals, showing anemia, leukocytosis, and lymphocytosis on sheep B and C. Three sheep had twins, where sheep A delivered healthy lambs and both infected sheep had delivered at least one stillborn. Additionally, lambs from sheep B and C died 24 and 72h post-partum, respectively. Before colostrum intake, four lambs from infected sheep were positives for T. evansi according to blood smear evaluation, serology (CATT/T. evansi), and PCR. Sheep colostrum and milk samples collected from the first four days post-partum were positives for T. evansi on PCR, and these samples were able to infect seven mice (out of 10) orally (n=4/5) and intraperitoneally (n=3/5). Therefore, we conclude that the vertical transmission of T. evansi occurs in pregnant sheep, in addition to a strong possibility of the transmission by colostrum and milk. PMID:26223153

  6. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIETARY METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN LEVEL AND DRY MATTER INTAKE ON SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION TRAITS IN PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous h...

  7. Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

  8. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  9. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  10. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries. PMID:26387688

  11. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  12. HEAT TREATMENT OF BOVINE COLOSTRUM. I: EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G LEVEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of Temperature on Viscosity and Immunoglobulin G Concentration After Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. By McMartin et al. Heat-treating colostrum may represent one management tool to reduce pathogen exposure to dairy calves. However pasteurizing colostrum at conventional temperatures can...

  13. Pasteurization of Colostrum Reduces the Incidence of Paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding colostrum from infected dams to neonatal calves is one mode of transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease). Recent studies have demonstrated improved morbidity and mortality rates in calves fed colostrum replacers or pasteurized colostrum. In the present study, the potential benefit...

  14. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. PMID:23890355

  15. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

  16. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030). PMID:25412019

  17. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk production responses compared with perennial ryegrass. PMID:26409973

  18. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  19. Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

    2003-01-01

    Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains…

  20. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on ruminal starch digestion are dependent upon dry matter intake for lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Allen, M S; Ying, Y

    2012-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate ruminal digestion responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) supplementation and to determine if responses are influenced by voluntary feed intake. Fifteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows with a wide range in preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI; 20.1 to 31.0 kg/d) measured during a 14-d preliminary period were used in a crossover design experiment. Treatments were SCFP and control (a mix of dry ground corn and soybean meal), top-dressed at the rate of 56 g/d per head. The base diet contained 28% NDF, 30% starch, and 16.5% CP and included corn silage, alfalfa silage, high-moisture corn, protein supplement, and a mineral and vitamin supplement. Treatment periods were 28 d, with the final 8d used for sample and data collection. Voluntary dry matter intake was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period. Ruminal digestion kinetics were determined using the pool-and-flux method. Main effects of SCFP treatment and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. An interaction was detected between SCFP treatment and pDMI for ruminal digestion rate of starch; SCFP increased the rate of starch digestion compared with the control for cows with pDMI below 26 kg/d and decreased it for cows with higher pDMI. This resulted in an interaction between treatment and pDMI for turnover rate of starch in the rumen and true and apparent ruminal starch digestibility because passage rate of starch from the rumen was not affected by treatment (mean=24.3%/h). Ruminal pH (mean=6.0), dry matter intake, milk yield and component percentages were not affected by treatment or its interaction with pDMI. Supplementation of SCFP reduced the rate of ruminal starch digestion for cows with higher feed intake, which could help stabilize the ruminal environment when large amounts of starch are consumed to support higher milk production. PMID:22921617

  1. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n=37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile=617.55±81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile=356.65±72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected as a consequence of increasing milk yield and similar significant reduction of QCO2/milk. The results raise challenging questions regarding the rumination patterning of grazing dairy cows and alternatives to reduce ruminant methane emissions in grazing dairy cows. PMID:26254528

  2. Glycome characterization of immunoglobulin G from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum.

    PubMed

    Bhanu, L S Mamatha; Amano, M; Nishimura, S-I; Aparna, H S

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a major glycoprotein in ruminant colostrum. First day buffalo colostrum protein was purified on Sephadex G-100 and its mass was determined by MALDI-TOF as 147.848 KDa. The PMF data of protein subunits revealed its homology to IgG, which was supported by the identification of peptide sequences LLIYGATSR and VYNEYLPAPIVR corresponding to light and heavy chains of IgG by CID MS/MS analysis. The N-glycan microheterogeneity was established based on chemoselective glycoblotting technique with the identification of high mannose, neutral complex/hybrid and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans. A complete structural assignment of 54 N-linked oligosaccharides were identified and the ratio of sialyl oligosaccharides was found to be higher compared to neutral saccharides. The fucosylation observed in more than 20 oligosaccharides, high mannose and trisialyl oligosaccharides were present in diminutive amount. The high non-fucosyl and sialyl oligosaccharides in buffalo colostrum IgG provide ample scope for its utilization in targeted therapies to elicit effective ADCC and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:26239923

  3. Effect of Feeding Raw Versus Heat-treated Colostrum on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction The importance of timing, volume and quality of colostrum fed has long been understood, but the improvement of colostrum quality via on farm heat-treatment is a concept developed only within the last few years. Bacterial contamination of colostrum is not only a potential source of patho...

  4. An investigation of the impacts of supplementing cattle finishing rations with winery by-products on feed intake, meat characteristics, fecal microbiology

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Louis A.

    ! ! An investigation of the impacts of supplementing cattle finishing rations with winery by of the impacts of supplementing cattle finishing rations with winery by-products on feed intake, meat of supplementing cattle finishing rations with winery by-products (WB), mainly wine lees, at a feedlot in the South

  5. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-wk old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 o...

  6. Detection of Bovine Leukaemia Virus Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Colostrum Replacers.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Finnegan, C; Phillips, A; Horigan, M; Pollard, T; Steinbach, F

    2015-10-01

    Great Britain has been bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) disease free since 1999. We recently reported three separate incidents of BLV seropositivity on farms with home-reared cattle due to the use of colostrum replacer rather than infection with BLV (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19, 2013, 1027). These cases were all linked via the use of the same brand of colostrum replacer. Here, we investigate further by examining multiple brands of colostrum replacer for proviral DNA and BLV antibodies. BLV antibodies were detected in 7 of the colostrum replacers tested, with PCR concurring in two cases. Thus, the use of these BLV antibody-positive colostrum replacers may also lead to false-positive serological diagnostics. PMID:24268042

  7. The effects of moderate exercise on secretory IgA production in mice depends on dietary carbohydrate intake

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Takumi; Kaburagi, Tomoko; Nagai, Ryoji; Oshiro, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is produced from intestinal mucosa and is essential in preventing infection. We analyzed the influence of moderate exercise on intestinal sIgA production and antioxidative function under different carbohydrate nutritional conditions. Thirty-six mice were fed an experimental diet for 10 weeks—a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet, a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet, or a control (C) diet. After 1 week on the experimental diets, mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (n = 6/group), where the exercise consisted of treadmill running for 30 min/day at 11 m/min for 6 days/week in 9 consecutive weeks. Intestinal sIgA levels in the exercise groups fed C or LC diets were significantly lower compared with the parallel sedentary groups, or exercise-group mice fed HC diet. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine was significantly higher in the exercise group fed a HC diet. Superoxide dismutase activity in the small intestine was higher in the exercise group than in the sedentary group, with no effects resulting from intake carbohydrate levels. Our results indicated that moderate exercise reduced the levels of intestinal sIgA depending on decreasing of carbohydrate intake, which is connected with the expression of pIgR. PMID:26236100

  8. Invited review: Dairy intake and bone health: a viewpoint from the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Poli, A; Ricotta, D; Banfi, G; Cocchi, D

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this review was to focus on the complex relationships between milk and dairy products intake and bone health, with particular emphasis on osteoporosis. The literature was extensively examined to provide an objective overview of the most significant achievements on the subject. Osteoporosis can be defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Although the major determinants of peak bone mass and strength are genetic, major factors during childhood and adolescence may affect the ability to achieve peak bone mass. These include nutrition, particularly calcium and protein intake, physical activity, endocrine status, as well as exposure to a wide variety of risk factors. The role of calcium intake in determining bone mineral mass is well recognized to be the most critical nutritional factor to achieve optimal peak bone mass. The greatest amount of dietary calcium is obtained from milk and dairy foods, which also provide the human diet with vitamin D (particularly for products fortified with vitamin D), potassium, and other macro- and micronutrients. Although studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or calcium on bone health are predominant in the literature, perplexity or discordance on this subject was expressed by some authors. Discordant data, mainly on the risk of fractures, provided limited proof of the unfavorable effect of dairy intake. More often, discordant works indicate no effect of dairy consumption on bone safety. Some considerations can be drawn from this viewpoint. Milk and dairy products are an optimal source of calcium as well as of other limiting nutrients (e.g., potassium and magnesium), with important effects on bone health. Bioactive components occurring in milk and dairy products may play an essential role on bone metabolism, as shown by in vivo and in vitro studies on colostrum acidic proteins and milk basic proteins. Calcium intake positively affects bone mass and is crucial in childhood and youth for correct bone development. In elderly people, calcium intake as well as vitamin D availability should be carefully checked. As a general conclusion, calcium is essential for bone health, although it will not prevent bone loss due to other factors; in this context, milk and dairy foods are bioavailable, relatively inexpensive sources of calcium for the human diet. PMID:22032348

  9. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

  10. Improved diet quality and increased nutrient intakes associated with grape product consumption by U.S. children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Keast, Debra R; Painter, James E; Romano, Courtney S; Wightman, JoLynne D

    2013-06-01

    Fruit contributes to dietary nutrient density and consumption of fruit in several forms (whole, dried, or 100% juice) has been reported to be associated with a healthier dietary pattern. The goal of this study was to examine the associations of the consumption of grapes (including fresh grapes, raisins, and 100% grape juice) with diet quality and food group/nutrient intake. A secondary analysis of Natl. Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003 to 2008 data was conducted to compare grape consumers (GC) with nongrape consumers (NGC) among children aged 2 to 19 y (n = 9622) and adults 20+ y (n = 12251). GC were defined as those who mentioned the consumption of fresh grapes, raisins, or 100% grape juice during 1 or both 24-h recall interviews. Compared to NGC, GC had higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores and higher intakes of total and whole fruit along with lower intakes of solid fat, added sugars, and calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). Among adults, GC also had higher intakes than NGC of total and dark green/orange vegetables. Among both age groups, GC had higher intake than NGC of several key nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Consumption of grape products is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and higher intake of key nutrients by both children and adults. PMID:23789930

  11. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  12. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A.; Deepak, D.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  13. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  14. Maternal dietary intake alters organ mass and endocrine and metabolic profiles in pregnant ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Vonnahme, K A; Neville, T L; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2013-10-01

    To determine the impacts of Se supply and maternal dietary intake on ewe organ mass and endocrine and metabolic changes throughout gestation, pregnant first parity ewes (n=77) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2×3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe; 9.5?g/kg BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 81.8?g/kg BW)] initiated at breeding and dietary intake [60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements] initiated on d 50 of gestation. Ewes were individually fed and blood samples from the jugular vein were obtained approximately every 14 d from d 50 until parturition. Maternal Se supply did not impact endocrine or metabolic status. There was a nutritional intake by day interaction for NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17? (E2). As expected, with increased maternal intake, NEFA concentrations were reduced. During the last weeks of gestation, BUN and insulin were elevated in EXC compared with RES ewes. Although the pattern of T3 and T4 differed throughout gestation within a treatment group, as maternal intake increased, circulating T3 and T4 were increased. For P4 and E2, as maternal dietary intake increased, there was a reduction in the steroid concentrations in jugular blood. There was only a main effect of maternal nutrition (P<0.001) for cortisol concentrations with EXC ewes having greater concentrations than RES and CON ewes, which did not differ. Although Se is known to influence thyroid hormone metabolism, supranutritional levels during pregnancy did not alter circulating T3 and T4 concentrations. Alterations in maternal endocrine status may have influenced placental transport of nutrients to the developing fetus, which we have shown previously is affected by maternal dietary Se and intake. In addition, the alterations in mammary gland weight that we observed may explain the impact of maternal nutrition on mammary gland function and colostrum production, thereby further impairing growth of developing neonates. PMID:23981299

  15. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  16. EFFECT OF PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY ON INTAKE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF LIVESTOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland ecology is concerned primarily with those factors influencing the composition of plant species under grazing conditions, particularly how they relate to sustaining productive plant communities. With the recent trend of livestock operations opting for less capital-intensive production syst...

  17. Chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk.

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Wen, P C; Liang, Q; Liu, H N; Zhang, W B; Wang, P J; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in the chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk. Samples were collected from 12 yaks on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 post-partum (PP). The gross composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, amino acid (AA) profile and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed. All the components decreased rapidly during the first 3 days except lactose which increased. The ratio of whey protein to casein protein decreased from 46:54 to 17:83 during the first 7 days PP. The content of all the AAs decreased, while the percentages of eight essential AAs in protein of samples increased during the study period. Monounsaturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs decreased in the first 7 days PP, whereas saturated FAs increased. In conclusion, the changes in chemical composition were remarkable during the first 3 days. The slight variations, happened during the transient period, are not negligible, which also should be taken into account in the development of yak colostrum supplements. PMID:25545664

  18. Presence of CTAK/CCL27, MCP-3/CCL7 and LIF in human colostrum and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Radillo, Oriano; Norcio, Alessia; Addobbati, Riccardo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Human colostrum and breast milk are known to contain high levels of cytokines and chemokines, which are thought to contribute to the development of the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the presence and levels of 21 soluble cytokines and chemokines in paired samples of human colostrum (day 2 after delivery) and breast milk (day 4-5 after delivery) by using the multiplex technology. Of the 21 cytokine investigated in 10 pairs of samples, only ?-NGF was absent in both colostrum and milk, while INF-?2, SCF and TNF-? were present in colostrum but not in human milk. As a general rule, colostrum contained higher concentrations of cytokines and chemokines with respect to breast milk. The majority of cytokines, detected in colostrum alone or in colostrum and human milk (IL-1?, IL-2R?, IL-3, IL-16, IL-18, GRO-?, HGF, IFN-?2, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, TNF-?, SDF-1?, TRAIL) have been described in previous studies, while for the first time we describe the presence of additional cytokines either in colostrum alone (SCF) or in both colostrum and breast milk (CTAK/CCL27, MCP-3/CCL7, LIF). Our data confirm and expand previous studies showing that some cytokines/chemokines, which might contribute to the development of the gastro-intestinal and nervous systems, are overexpressed in human colostrum and breast milk, and might contribute to the development of these systems. PMID:23040056

  19. The effect of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) cysticercoids on the weight change, frass production, and food intake of the intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Shea, John F

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism results in nutritionally related changes in hosts, often leading to altered feeding behavior. Infected hosts that increase their feeding also increase their probability of reinfection. To study this, I used a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials with food. Each beetle's weight change, food intake, and frass production were measured over 24-h periods at 3, 7, 12, and 16 days postinfection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight and produced more frass than females. Additionally, treatment had no effect on food consumption, but males had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that infection status will not alter the probability of reinfection, but males will be more susceptible to infection than females. However, despite the male's greater food intake during the experimental infection period, parasite loads did not differ between males and females. PMID:16231174

  20. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g of milk fatty acids) and conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (0.36, 1.09, 1.79, and 1.87 g/100g of milk fatty acids). Addition of DHA did not affect total emissions of CH4 (543, 563, 553, and 520 g/cow per d), nor emissions in terms of milk production (24.9, 22.1, 24.3, and 23.4 g of CH4/kg of milk), but emissions were increased with respect to total intake (22.6, 23.5, 24.5, and 24.4 g of CH4/kg of DM). These findings indicate that CH4 emissions were not reduced when dairy cows were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DHA from algal meal. PMID:23498011

  1. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best described by the nonlinear model where the maximal responses were 1.92, 1.11, and 4.82kg/d, respectively. The expected increments in DMI, milk production, and 3.5% FCM by increasing DCAD from 0 to 500mEq/kg were 1.7, 1.2, and 3.4kg/cow per day, respectively. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that DCAD has significant effects on intake, milk production and composition, digestion, and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26409960

  2. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032

  3. Studies of composition and major protein level in milk and colostrum of mares.

    PubMed

    Pecka, Ewa; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Szulc, Tadeusz; Czy?, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the changes in composition and physicochemical features (pH, density, thermostability and acidity) of mare colostrum and milk, and of protein fraction contribution (serum albumin, ?-casein, ?-casein, ?-lactalbumin, G class immunoglobulins) depending on lactation stage. The research material was colostrum and milk samples from 12 Arabian mares. Colostrum samples were collected within 2 h after parturition and milk samples were collected twice, in the 3rd and 6th weeks of lactation. The level of basic milk components decreased significantly (only lactose content increased) as compared to colostrum. Total bacteria count and somatic cell count decreased significantly with an increase in resistance and urea level. The changes observed were connected to differentiated contribution of particular protein fractions and their relative proportions. Lower levels of ?-casein (P ? 0.05), ?-casein, serum albumin as well as ?-lactalbumin were observed in colostrum as compared to those in milk. Any relationship between lactation stage and ?-casein content was observed. Serum albumin and ?-lactalbumin content increased in subsequent milkings. The level of G class immunoglobulins decreased significantly and its highest level was noted in colostrum. Any significant differences between the 3rd and 6th lactation weeks were obtained. PMID:22339698

  4. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that spot measurements could be made in association with feed efficiency tests made over 70 days. Spot measurements of enteric emissions can be used to define DMP but the number of animals and samples are larger than are needed when day-long measures are made. PMID:26301870

  5. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  6. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Bicalho, M. L.; Machado, V. S.; Lima, S.; Teixeira, A. G.; Warnick, L. D.; Bicalho, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous micro-organisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum. PMID:24582452

  7. Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

  8. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of ?-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and ?-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, ?-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  9. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  10. Effects of a supplemental liquid yeast product on feed intake, ruminal profiles, and yield, composition, and organoleptic characteristics of milk from lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Besong, S; Jackson, J A; Hicks, C L; Hemken, R W

    1996-09-01

    A liquid yeast product (about 11% DM), produced as a by-product of riboflavin synthesis, was incorporated into a TMR at three concentrations to determine the maximal inclusion rate and acceptability as a feed supplement in diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein cows in midlactation were randomly assigned to TMR treatments containing (as-fed basis) 1) no yeast product (control), 2) 20% dietary yeast product, or 3) 40% dietary yeast product in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary DM contents were 90, 74.2, and 58.4% for the 0, 20, and 40% yeast product TMR, respectively. The control TMR was based on a 45:55 ratio (DM basis) of mixed concentrate and chopped alfalfa hay. The DMI decreased linearly with increasing percentages of dietary yeast product. Milk yield and milk protein percentage were not altered by inclusion of the dietary yeast product. Milk fat tended to respond quadratically to increases in the percentage of dietary yeast product in the TMR. The supplemental dietary yeast product had no effect on ruminal pH; however, the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and propionate percentage tended to increase, as supplementation of the yeast product increased. Addition of yeast product to the TMR had no adverse effect on milk flavor. Milk from cows fed yeast product had better flavor than milk from control cows. Results indicate that inclusion of this yeast product at 40% depressed feed intake. PMID:8899533

  11. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0.01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering. PMID:25349368

  12. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves. PMID:21333009

  13. Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 ºC for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

  14. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  15. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-08-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  16. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-01-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  17. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  18. Expression, production and excretion of Bla g 1, a major human allergen, in relation to food intake in the German

    E-print Network

    in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica J. CHAD GORE and C. SCHAL Department of Entomology and W. M. Keck cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), produces several potent human is related to food intake in adult males and females of the German cockroach. Bla g 1 mRNA expression

  19. A preliminary assessment of year long relative loose mineral intake and range cow productivity in Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of the effectiveness of supplementary mineral nutrition in range cattle to promote important economic traits is lacking due a paucity of methods to measure cause and effect relationships, dynamic dietary mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of mineral intake quantifica...

  20. Enterotoxigenic colibacillosis in colostrum-fed calves: pathologic changes.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, J E; Acres, S D

    1979-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic colibacillosis was experimentally produced in 8 of 9 colostrum-fed calves orally given 10(11) Escherichia coli. The eight calves developed profuse diarrhea accompanied by dehydration and depression. At 12 hours after exposure, all calves were euthanatized for necropsy and for collection of tissues for microscopic examination. Histopathologic changes included stunted villi in the jejunum and ileum, focal degeneration and exfoliation of absorptive epithelial cells at the tips of jejunal and ileal villi, and focal emigration of neutrophils which was especially prominent above the dome area of aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's patches). A layer of E coli adhered to the epithelial surface of the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenum, lesions were minimal or absent and bacteria were not adhering to the mucosa. Histopathologic changes were not observed in other tissues. In two calves examined 24 hours after they were inoculated and in two calves euthanatized 24 to 36 hours after spontaneously developing enteric colibacillosis, lesions were similar to those observed in the calves at 12 hours after exposure. PMID:393141

  1. Effect of colostrum heat treatment and bacterial population on immunoglobulin G absorption and health of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Gelsinger, S L; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Improved IgG absorption in calves fed heat-treated colostrum has been attributed to the reduced bacteria content in colostrum after heat treatment. However, at least one study reported that colostrum bacteria content did not affect IgG absorption. The main objective of the current study was a more conclusive test of the combined effects of colostrum bacteria content and heat treatment on IgG absorption. Comparison of conclusions from plasma IgG as measured by radial immunodiffusion and ELISA and comparison of health scores in the first week of life were secondary and tertiary objectives. Colostrum from individual cows was pooled, divided, either heat treated or unheated, and allowed to incubate for bacterial growth or not. The 4 treatments were unheated, low bacteria; unheated, high bacteria; heat-treated, low bacteria; and heat-treated, high bacteria. Plasma samples were collected from bull calves (n=25-27 per treatment) before and 48h after colostrum feeding for IgG and total protein analysis. Fecal, respiratory, and general health scores were assigned daily for the first 7 d. Plasma IgG, total protein, apparent efficiency of IgG absorption, and frequency of illness were analyzed using the MIXED and FREQ procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Plasma IgG values from ELISA were lower than radial immunodiffusion; however, conclusions were similar. Greater colostrum bacteria content reduced total protein, plasma IgG, and efficiency of IgG absorption. Heat treatment tended to improve 48-h plasma IgG as measured by ELISA. Respiratory scores were not affected by colostrum treatment, but calves fed heat-treated, low-bacteria colostrum tended to experience fewer scour days. These results provide conclusive evidence for the benefits of minimizing bacterial contamination in colostrum for feeding calves. PMID:25935243

  2. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in ?-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of ?-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the ?-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence ?-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased ?-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence ?-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  3. Effects of cooling and freezing storage on the stability of bioactive factors in human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Santana, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Audí, C; Castell, M; Moretones, M G; López-Sabater, M C; Castellote, C; Franch, A

    2012-05-01

    Breast milk constitutes the best form of newborn alimentation because of its nutritional and immunological properties. Banked human milk is stored at low temperature, which may produce losses of some bioactive milk components. During lactation, colostrum provides the requirements of the newborn during the first days of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling storage at 4°C and freezing storage at -20°C and -80°C on bioactive factors in human colostrum. For this purpose, the content of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and TGF-?2, and some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and its type I receptor TNF-RI, were quantified. Some colostrum samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at 4°C and others were frozen at -20°C or -80°C for 6 and 12 mo. We quantified IgA, epidermal growth factor, TGF-?1, and TGF-?2 by indirect ELISA. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-? cytokines, IL-8 chemokine, and TNF-RI were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Bioactive immunological factors measured in this study were retained in colostrum after cooling storage at 4°C for at least 48h, with the exception of IL-10. None of the initial bioactive factor concentrations was modified after 6 mo of freezing storage at either -20°C or -80°C. However, freezing storage of colostrum at -20°C and -80°C for 12 mo produced a decrease in the concentrations of IgA, IL-8, and TGF-?1. In summary, colostrum can be stored at 4°C for up to 48 h or at -20°C or -80°C for at least 6 mo without losing its immunological properties. Future studies are necessary to develop quality assurance guidelines for the storage of colostrum in human milk banks, and to focus not only on the microbiological safety but also on the maintenance of the immunological properties of colostrum. PMID:22541460

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

  5. Usual Dietary Intakes: Background

    Cancer.gov

    Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.

  6. Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M.; Harding, John C.S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research. PMID:24082397

  7. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.0±0.38 UFL (unité fourragère lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.6±0.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.8±0.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.9±0.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

  8. Developmental changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome expression during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  9. Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60ºC for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

  10. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  11. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  12. Bovine colostrum: changes in lipid constituents in the first 5 days after parturition.

    PubMed

    Contarini, G; Povolo, M; Pelizzola, V; Monti, L; Bruni, A; Passolungo, L; Abeni, F; Degano, L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great interest paid to protein components in colostrum, fat also plays an important role in the supply of essential nutrients to provide energy, increase metabolism, and protect the newborn calf against microbial infections. This work aimed to elucidate levels of different fat components in colostrum, in particular fatty acid (FA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and phospholipid contents. Colostrum samples from primiparous and multiparous (3-5 lactations) Holstein dams, fed the same ration indoors, were collected on the first 5d after parturition, analyzed, and compared with milk samples from the same cows collected at 5mo of lactation. Fat content during the first 5d of milking did not vary. However, the proportion of short-chain saturated FA increased and that of long-chain FA decreased. The concentration of n-3 FA was higher on the first day of calving than on the other days, with clear differences in the number and type of n-3 FA. Conjugated linoleic isomers and trans FA slowly increased from d 1 to 5, reaching a maximum at 5mo of lactation. Changes in the distribution profile of TG were observed as lactation progressed, with a shift from a prevalence of high-carbon-number TG (C48-50) on d 1 to a bimodal distribution (maxima at C38 and C50) on d 5, characteristic of mid-lactation milk. Cholesterol content was high in the first hours after calving and rapidly decreased within 48h. Colostrum sampled on d 1 also had a high content of phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin were, respectively, lower and higher in the first 5d than in mid-lactation milk. The influence of lactation number on colostrum fat composition was also considered and significant results were obtained for all FA groups (except for polyunsaturated and n-6 FA) and TG content. PMID:24931528

  13. Genetic variation of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in young crossbred ewes and its relationship with their maintenance feed intake at maturity and production traits.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Fogarty, N M

    2008-09-01

    The genetic variation of plasma IGF-I in crossbred ewe lambs postweaning was evaluated together with its potential use as a physiological marker for selection in meat sheep. Genetic variation for IGF-I was analyzed among 1,246 young crossbred ewes that were the progeny of 30 sires from various maternal breeds and Merino dams. The estimate of heritability of IGF-I was 0.28 +/- 0.10, with sire breed not being significant. Genetic correlations were estimated between IGF-I and performance traits of the ewes, including feed intake, growth, body composition, wool, and reproduction over 3 matings. Although the genetic correlations had high standard errors because of the limited size of the data set, the correlation between IGF-I and grazing feed intake of the mature ewes at maintenance was positive (0.32 +/- 0.31). The genetic correlations of IGF-I with other traits ranged from positive and low to moderate for growth (0.05 to 0.36), positive for ultrasound eye muscle depth (0.15), and negative for ultrasound fat depth (-0.12) in the mature ewes, and close to zero for the wool traits. The genetic correlation between IGF-I and the average number of lambs born per ewe mated was negative (-0.18), whereas that for the average number of lambs weaned per ewe mated was positive (0.10). The parameters indicated that genetic variation exists for IGF-I in sheep, and selection for low IGF-I in young ewes may result in some reduction in feed intake and improvement in maintenance efficiency of mature ewes under grazing, with little impact on other production traits. However, the genetic correlations had high standard errors, and more precise estimates of these parameters are required for genetic evaluation and to predict with confidence the outcome of breeding programs. PMID:18469049

  14. The Impact of System Level Factors on Treatment Timeliness: Utilizing the Toyota Production System to Implement Direct Intake Scheduling in a Semi-Rural Community Mental Health Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children’s treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

  15. 9 CFR 113.499 - Products for treatment of failure of passive transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...serials, as described in paragraph (c) below. The reference shall be qualified as follows: (1) At least 20 newborn, colostrum-deprived animals of the species for which the product is recommended shall be randomly selected. (2) Blood...

  16. Are reductions in population sodium intake achievable?

    PubMed

    Levings, Jessica L; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-10-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  17. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-25

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented. PMID:24987806

  18. Effects of supplementation on intake, growth rate, and fleece production by female Angora kid goats grazing rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E; Taylor, C A; Lupton, C J; Brooks, T D

    1993-11-01

    Ninety-eight and 88 female Angora kid goats (6 mo of age) were grazed/browsed on Edwards Plateau rangeland in 92- and 88-d trials in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The goats were either not supplemented (negative control, NC) or fed isoenergetic amounts of corn (C), a corn/cottonseed meal/molasses mixture (C/CSM), or a corn/cottonseed meal/fish meal/molasses mixture (C/CSM/FM). The C/CSM and C/CSM/FM supplements provided equal CP but different amounts of ruminally undegraded protein (UDP). The goats were allowed to graze/browse in a common pasture and were separated into treatment groups three times each week for feeding. Intakes of supplement and forage were measured using a dual-marker technique. Forage intake was not increased with supplemental feeding (P = .21), but tended (P = .08) to be greater with high-protein supplements than with C. Total digestible DMI was greater (P < .01) for supplemented goats and was not affected by supplement type. Supplemental feeding increased BW gain (P < .01) and clean fleece weight (CFW; P < .01). High-protein supplements increased BW gain (P < .01), CFW (P = .07), fiber diameter (FD; P < .01), and staple length (P < .01) compared with C. Greater amounts of UDP (C/CSM/FM) did not increase BW gain (P = .99) but tended to increase CFW (P = .12) and FD (P = .15). Supplemental feeding increased total digestible DMI by partial substitution (corn) for forage or addition (high-protein supplements) to forage, and both energy and protein increased BW gain and CFW and influenced mohair traits. PMID:8270536

  19. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth. PMID:26342981

  20. Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84.62%) and specificity (94.74 and 94.74%, respectively). The 18% Brix cut point resulted in 94.83% of the samples being correctly classified based on IgG concentration. These data support the use of digital refractometer to accurately and rapidly determine IgG concentration in fresh Jersey colostrum. Additionally, these data suggest that IgG concentration determined by RID is affected by multiple FT cycles, whereas estimates obtained by refractometer are not affected by multiple FT cycles. PMID:25465569

  1. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20°C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh colostrum be supplemented with 30 g of GAC. PMID:26117349

  2. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  3. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ?PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ?PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ?PCB, ?PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (<15%), although larger mean differences (?40%) were observed in some fish products (e.g., catfish). PMID:23237106

  4. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). PMID:25659303

  5. Differences in oligosaccharide pattern of a sample of polar bear colostrum and mid-lactation milk.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Nagata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Imazu, Koji; Hayashi, Teruaki; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein

    2003-12-01

    Although the concentrations of carbohydrate in the colostrum and in the mid-lactation milk of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) were similar, the oligosaccharide patterns differed. The colostrum sample contained Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide), Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (2'-fucosyllactose) and Gal(beta1-4)Glc (lactose). The mid-lactation milk contained Gal(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (A-pentasaccharide), Gal(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), A-tetrasaccharide, Gal(alpha1-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (3-fucosylisoglobotriose), Gal(alpha1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and lactose. The dominant saccharides in the colostrum were 3'-N-Acetylneuraminyllactose and lactose, whereas isoglobotriose was the dominant saccharide in the mid-lactation milk in which lactose was only a minor component. Isoglobotriose, which had previously been found to be a dominant saccharide in mature milk from the Ezo brown bear, the Japanese black bear and the polar bear, was not found in the polar bear colostrum. PMID:14662310

  6. Adequate iodine intake of Slovenian adolescents is primarily attributed to excessive salt intake.

    PubMed

    Stimec, Matevz; Kobe, Helena; Smole, Katarina; Kotnik, Primoz; Sirca-Campa, Andreja; Zupancic, Mirjana; Battelino, Tadej; Krzisnik, Ciril; Fidler Mis, Natasa

    2009-12-01

    In Slovenia, table salt iodization has been applied to combat iodine deficiency. Recently, we found that Slovenian adolescents attained iodine sufficiency (median urinary iodine concentration was 140 microg/L; prevalence of goiter was <1%). National data indicate that salt intake of Slovenian population is too high (150% above the recommended limit); therefore, we hypothesized that sufficient iodine intake in adolescents can be primarily attributed to excessive salt intake. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated iodine and salt intake in Slovenian adolescents as well as the contributions of different foods to their intake. We determined the iodine and salt intake of a national representative sample of 2581 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ covered habitual diets over the past year, and 2485 (96%) adolescents completed a valid FFQ (1370 girls, 1115 boys). The iodine intake was 189.7 +/- 2.6 microg/d (mean +/- standard error of mean), well above the recommended 150 microg/d (P < .001). Table salt was by far the biggest dietary source of iodine and sodium for both sexes. Total salt intake (mean +/- standard error of mean, 10.4 +/- 0.2 g/d) significantly exceeded the upper World Health Organization limit (<5 g/d, P < .001), especially in boys (11.5 +/- 0.3 vs 9.4 +/- 0.2 g/d in girls, P < .001). The main food sources of salt were table salt (33%), bread (24%), salty snack products (10%), meat products (8%), fish products (6%), and milk (4%). Salt intake from foods, excluding table salt, was 6.9 g/d (67% of total salt intake). We conclude that although Slovenian adolescents are iodine sufficient, their salt intake, especially among boys, is too high. Several nutritional interventions are proposed to reduce total salt intake while ensuring adequate iodine intake. PMID:19963163

  7. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established. PMID:26233454

  8. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  9. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  10. The effect of dietary bovine colostrum on respiratory syncytial virus infection and immune responses following the infection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infection among young children because of immature T cell immunity of them against hRSV. CD8 T cells play a pivotal role in clearing hRSV and preventing subsequent infection. We examined the effects of dietary bovine colostrum on virus infection and CD8 T cell responses following hRSV infection in the mouse model. Mice received bovine colostrum for 14 days prior to hRSV challenge, and lung indexes (severity of symptom) and lung virus titers were analyzed. In addition, the activation of CD8 T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) of mice receiving bovine colostrum were compared with those in the BALFs of mice receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ribavirin, post virus challenge. The severity of infection and lung virus titers were reduced in the mice receiving bovine colostrum, compared to those receiving PBS. Moreover CD8 T cell responses were selectively enhanced in the former. Our results suggest that dietary bovine colostrum exerts the effects to inhibit hRSV and ameliorate the symptom by hRSV infection, and enhances the CD8 T cell response during the hRSV infection. PMID:26310306

  11. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravinia, H.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control-), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control+) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain ( P < 0.05) of the birds from days 29 to 35 of age with no differences in feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control groups ( P > 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds ( P < 0.05). Pancreas percentage was increased for the birds received 200 to 500 mg/L SkEO at days 21 and 42 of age compared with that of the control- birds ( P < 0.05). The gall bladder weight was 17.56, 40.50, 12.16, and 38.73 % greater for the birds received 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO compared with that of the control- birds, respectively. The results showed that an addition of 400 mg/L SkEO into drinking water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  12. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P?intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control groups (P?>?0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P?

  13. Short-term response in milk production, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows to changes in postgrazing sward height.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2014-05-01

    Postgrazing sward height (PGSH) can be altered to adjust the allowance of grass in the dairy cow's diet. This study aimed to investigate the short-term dairy cow response to a change in postgrazing height in early lactation. Ninety Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows were randomly assigned across 3 postgrazing height treatments (n=30): 2.7 cm (severe), 3.5 cm (low), and 4.2 cm (moderate) from February 14 to April 24, 2011. From April 25, animals were rerandomized within each treatment to graze across 2 postgrazing heights: 3.5 cm (low) or 4.5 cm (high). Animal production measurements were taken from April 4 to 24 (measurement period 1; M1) and from April 25 to May 15 (measurement period 2; M2). The 6 treatments (n=15) of M2 were severe-low, severe-high, low-low, low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high. During M1, increasing postgrazing height from severe to low to moderate linearly increased daily milk yield (21.5, 24.6 and 25.8 kg/cow per day) and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; 13.2, 14.9, and 15.8 kg of DM/cow per day). Milk solids yield was reduced in the severe (-1,518 g/cow per day) treatment when compared with the low and moderate cows (1,866 g/cow per day, on average). The milk yield (MY) response to change in PGSH between M1 and M2 (VM1-M2) was established using VM1-M2 MY=-1.27-1.89 × PGSHM1 + 1.51 × PGSHM2 (R(2)=0.64). The MY response associated with each treatment between M1 and M2 (3 wk) were -1.03 kg/cow for severe-low, 0.68 kg/cow for severe-high, -2.56 kg/cow for low-low, -1.11 kg/cow for low-high, -4.17 kg/cow for moderate-low, and -2.39 kg/cow for moderate-high. The large increase in energy intake in severe-high between M1 and M2 was achieved through higher GDMI per minute and GDMI per bite, which supported the positive change in MY. Treatments low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high recorded the highest overall cumulative milk yield (74 kg of milk solids/cow) over the 6-wk period, whereas severe-low and severe-high had the lowest (65 kg of MS/cow). From the animal responses observed in the present study, imposing a postgrazing height of 3.5 cm in early spring provides the opportunity to increase postgrazing height thereafter; the cow increases GDMI accordingly and converts the additional energy intake into milk output. The equations established in this paper provide a decision tool for dairy farmers to anticipate the animal response when postgrazing height is altered or maintained around the tenth week of lactation. PMID:24582439

  14. Muscle fiber and performance adaptations to resistance exercise with MyoVive, colostrum or casein and whey supplementationa

    E-print Network

    Fry, Andrew C.; Schilling, Brian K.; Chiu, Loren Z. F.; Weiss, Lawrence W.; Kreider, Richard B.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    ) and to function as an antioxidant (Buescher and McIlhern 1988). Be- cause colostrum is a critical source of dietary proteins for neonatals and has been shown to enhance protein synthesis in young pigs (Burrin, Shulman, Reeds et al. 1992), it has been surmised... muscle. Cana- dian Journal of Applied Physiology 23(6):594?599. Mero A, Miikkulainen H, Riski J, Pakkanen R, Aalto J, Takala T (1997) Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. Journal...

  15. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D.

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  16. Daily intake of 4-nonylphenol in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Paulus Shyi-Gang; Mao, I-Fang

    2007-10-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study determined NP levels in commonly consumed foodstuffs to assess daily intake of NP in a Taiwanese population. This study analyzes 318 of samples from 25 types of commonly consumed foodstuffs in northern, central, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan and estimates daily intake of NP in 466 subjects. Moreover, daily NP intake for 3915 additional subjects was estimated by analyzing data from the Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The foodstuff samples were analyzed for five alkylphenol compounds simultaneously by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the average compositions of typical foods consumed in Taiwan were investigated. In combination with alkylphenol levels in these foodstuffs, daily intake of NP in Taiwanese was calculated. The average daily intake of NP for the 466 subjects was 28.04+/-25.32 microg/day. Estimated daily intake of NP, based on NP levels in this study as well as the NAHSIT data, was 31.40 microg/day. Rice was the most commonly consumed source of NP, the proportion was 21.46% among daily intake of NP and the following were aquatic products and livestock, which percentage were 17.97% and 17.38%, respectively. Additionally, oysters had the highest NP levels (235.8+/-90.7 ng/g) in four regions of Taiwan, followed by salmon (123.8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average daily NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than daily intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake. PMID:17512594

  17. Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Godden, S M; Smolenski, D J; Donahue, M; Oakes, J M; Bey, R; Wells, S; Sreevatsan, S; Stabel, J; Fetrow, J

    2012-07-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1,071 newborn calves from 6 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning period. A secondary objective was to complete a path analysis to identify intermediate factors that may explain how feeding heat-treated colostrum reduced the risk for illness. On each farm, colostrum was collected each day, pooled, and divided into 2 aliquots; then, one aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60 min. Samples of fresh and heat-treated colostrum were collected for standard microbial culture (total plate count and total coliform count, cfu/mL) and for measurement of immunoglobulin G concentrations (mg/mL). Newborn calves were removed from the dam, generally within 30 to 60 min of birth, and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8L of either fresh (FR, n=518) or heat-treated colostrum (HT, n=553) within 2h of birth. Venous blood samples were collected from calves between 1 and 7d of age for measurement of serum IgG concentrations (mg/mL). All treatment and mortality events were recorded by farm staff between birth and weaning. Regression models found that serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed HT colostrum (18.0 ± 1.5 mg/mL) compared with calves fed FR colostrum (15.4 ± 1.5 mg/ml). Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression indicated a significant increase in risk for a treatment event (any cause) in calves fed FR colostrum (36.5%, hazard ratio=1.25) compared with calves fed HT colostrum (30.9%). In addition, we observed a significant increase in risk for treatment for scours in calves fed FR colostrum (20.7%, hazard ratio=1.32) compared with calves fed HT colostrum (16.5%). Path analysis suggested that calves fed HT colostrum were at lower risk for illness because the heat-treatment process caused a significant reduction in colostrum total coliform count, which was associated with a reduced risk for illness as a function of improved serum IgG concentrations. PMID:22720957

  18. Colostrum of Healthy Slovenian Mothers: Microbiota Composition and Bacteriocin Gene Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijaši?, Bojana Bogovi?; Rogelj, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants’ gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence. PMID:25919457

  19. Effects of dietary yeast strains on immunoglobulin in colostrum and milk of sows.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, François; Serreau, Delphine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Berri, Mustapha; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri

    2013-03-15

    The ban of antibiotic growth promoters in pig diet required the development of alternative strategies and reinforced the importance of maternal immunity to protect neonates from intestinal disorders. Milk from sows fed active dry yeasts during gestation and lactation exhibited higher immunoglobulin (Ig) and protein content in milk at day 21 of lactation. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins (Sc01, Sc02, Sb03) to sows during late gestation and lactation could induce higher Ig content in colostrum and milk. Results show that yeast supplementation did not increase significantly sow body weight at days 112 of gestation and 18 of lactation as well as piglet body weight gain from birth to weaning. In contrast, the IgG level in colostrum was increased in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc01 at both 0.05 and 0.5% (p<0.05) and Sb03 at 0.5% (p<0.01). During the lactation, the level of milk IgG remained significantly higher in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc02 at 0.05% and 0.5% and with Sb03 at 0.5%. Furthermore, in comparison with the control sows, the level of milk IgA was significantly maintained in sows supplemented with the 3 yeast strains at 0.05%. The incidence of piglet diarrhoea was decreased in groups Sc01 at both 0.05% and 0.5% and Sc02 at 0.05%. Thus, these results show that the 3 yeast strains display immunostimulatory effects on maternal immunity, but only Sc01 supplementation at 0.05% allowed jointly the increase of IgG level in colostrum, the maintenance of IgA level in milk and the decrease of piglet diarrhoea incidence. This stimulation of maternal immunity could be associated with a better systemic (colostrum IgG) and local (milk IgA) protection of neonates and suggests that dietary yeasts may have stimulated the local gut immune system of sows. PMID:23092748

  20. The Human Colostrum Whey Proteome Is Altered in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of human milk has been used to identify the comprehensive cargo of proteins involved in immune and cellular function. Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and breast milk components. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GDM on the expression of proteins in the whey fraction of human colostrum. Colostrum was collected from women who were diagnosed with (n = 6) or without (n = 12) GDM at weeks 24–28 in pregnancy. Colostral whey was analyzed for protein abundances using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 601 proteins were identified, of which 260 were quantified using label free spectral counting. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified 27 proteins that best predict GDM. The power law global error model corrected for multiple testing was used to confirm that 10 of the 27 proteins were also statistically significantly different between women with versus without GDM. The identified changes in protein expression suggest that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has consequences on human colostral proteins involved in immunity and nutrition. PMID:25338220

  1. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  2. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  3. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of E. coli dose on the pathophysiological response of dairy calves following an intravenous challenge. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli. The challenge doses included 0, 105, 106, 107, 108,...

  4. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  5. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  6. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  7. Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

  8. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  9. Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. II: Effects of Heating Duration on Pathogen Viability and Immunoglobulin G

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrums, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10^8 cfu/ml), Listeria monocytogenes (10^6 cfu/ml), Escherichia coli O0157:H7 (10^6 cfu/ml), Salmonella enteritidis (10^6 cfu/ml), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10^3 cfu/ml), were heat-treate...

  10. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  11. Usual Intake of Soy products

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  12. Usual Intake of Tomatoes

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

  13. Usual Intake of Yogurt

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

  14. Usual Intake of Poultry

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

  15. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans.

    PubMed

    Karav, Sercan; Parc, Annabelle Le; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E

    2015-09-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5×10(-3) to 5.09×10(-3), 4.5×10(-3) to 7.75×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-2)to 5.2×10(-2) mg/mL×min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. PMID:26138399

  16. Composition and microstructure of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Guo, Zheng; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-10-15

    The microstructures of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at different temperatures, and the relationships between microstructure variations and the chemical compositions of the MFGM were also examined. Using a fluorophore-labeled phospholipid probe, we found that non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM were positively correlated with the amount of sphingomyelin at both room (20 °C) and physiological (37 °C) temperatures. However, at the storage temperature (4 °C), there were more non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM. These results indicate that the heterogeneities in the MFGM are most likely to be the result of the lateral segregation of sphingomyelin at the room and physiological temperatures, and at the storage temperature, phospholipids with saturated fatty acids affect the formation of these domains. PMID:25952880

  17. Hoover Dam Intake Towers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  18. Usual Intake of Meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

  19. Usual Intake of Milk

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

  20. Usual Intake of Eggs

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

  1. Usual Intake of Oils

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

  2. Antioxidant defence of colostrum and milk in consecutive lactations in sows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parturition is supposed to be related to oxidative stress, not only for the mother, but also for the newborn. Moreover, it is not clear whether consecutive pregnancies, parturitions, and lactations are similar to each other in regards to intensity of metabolic processes or differ from each other. The aim of the study was to compare dynamic changes of antioxidative parameters in colostrum and milk of sows taken during 72 h postpartum from animals in consecutive lactations. Activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GSH-Tr), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and amount of vitamin A and C were measured. Healthy pregnant animals were divided into 4 groups according to the assessed lactation: A -1st lactation (n = 10), B - 2nd and 3rd lactation (n = 7), C - 4th and 5th lactation (n = 11), D - 6th - 8th lactation (n = 8). The colostrum was sampled immediately after parturition and after 6, 12, 18 and 36 h while the milk was assessed at 72 h after parturition. Spectrophotometric methods were used for measurements. Results The activity of antioxidative enzymes and the concentration of vitamin A increased with time postpartum. The concentration of vitamin C was the highest between the 18th and 36th h postpartum. Conclusions Dynamic changes in the values of antioxidant parameters measured during the study showed that sows milk provides the highest concentration of antioxidants in the 2nd and 3rd and 4th and 5th lactation giving the best defence against reactive oxygen species to newborns and mammary glands. PMID:22429994

  3. Vitamin D Intakes of Ontario Children

    PubMed Central

    Broadfoot, B. V. R.; Trenholme, M. L.; McClinton, E. P.; Thompson, S. H.; Cowan, E. J.

    1966-01-01

    A study to determine approximate intakes of vitamin D and sources contributing this nutrient was conducted among 1000 children, aged one week to 5½ years, in two Ontario Health Units in 1963 and 1964. Over 70% of the children obtained daily intakes above the recommended level, 400 I.U. Supplements provided about 60% of the total intake in children aged 7 months to 66 months who consumed 1000-1800 I.U. or more. In the intake range 1-399 I.U., fortified foods supplied 87% of the vitamin D to this age group. Influences of subsequent Food and Drug Directorate regulations, (a) withdrawing vitamin D from four foods used during the survey and (b) the effect of permissive vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products, were examined theoretically, by age and intake level. Programs directed to planning net intakes of 400 I.U. vitamin D, encouraging the use of fortified milk and discouraging the use of vitamin D supplements are described. PMID:20328491

  4. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  5. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  6. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  7. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  8. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  9. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  10. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  11. The effect of colostrum period management on BW and immune system in lambs: from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Suárez-Trujillo, A; Martell-Jaizme, D; Cugno, G; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the BW and immune status of lambs reared under natural conditions or under artificial conditions fed two different colostrum amounts. In this study, 60 lambs were randomly divided into groups according to treatment. Twenty lambs remained with their dams (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2, 14 and 24 h after birth. After this period, lambs were bottle-fed a commercial milk replacer. Blood plasma sample analysis and BW recordings were carried out before feeding at birth and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 days after birth. Another blood sample analysis and BW recording was carried out when animals reached 10 kg of BW. During weaning (30 days), sampling was carried out every 5 days. Blood plasma was used to determine the concentrations of IgG and IgM and the complement system activity - total and alternative pathways. The NR group showed greater BW than the C4 and C8 groups during milk feeding period, whereas the C4 and C8 groups had greater BW than the NR group at the end of weaning period. The C8 and NR groups had greater plasma IgG and IgM concentrations than the C4 group during milk feeding period. In addition, C4 and C8 groups showed similar IgG concentrations and greater IgM concentrations than the NR group at the end of the weaning period. Complement system activity was greater in the NR group than in the C4 and C8 groups during the first 3 days after birth. In conclusion, lambs fed amounts of colostrum equivalent to 8 g of IgG/kg of BW showed similar immune variables compared to lambs reared under natural conditions, obtaining a greater BW at the end of the weaning period. Nevertheless, this study shows that not only the colostrum amount but also the management during the milk feeding and weaning period, such as stress produced by dam separation, milk quality and suckling frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs. PMID:26148573

  12. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  13. Calcium Intake and Bone health

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Calcium_Intake_100115.html Calcium Intake and Bone health HealthDay News Video - October 2, 2015 To use ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bone Diseases Calcium Fractures Seniors' Health About ...

  14. Effect of Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 dosing on rumen development, volatile fatty acid production and blood ?-hydroxybutyrate in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Muya, M C; Nherera, F V; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Moshidi, P M; Erasmus, L J

    2015-10-01

    Thirty calves were randomly assigned to two treatments and fed until weaning [42 days (d) of age]. Treatments were a control group (n = 15), which did not receive Megasphaera elsdenii (Me0) and a M. elsdenii group, which received a 50-ml oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (10(8) CFU/ml) at day 14 day of age (Me14). Calves were given colostrum for the first 3 day followed by limited whole milk feeding. A commercial calf starter was offered ad libitum starting at day 4 until the end of the study. Fresh water was available throughout the study. Feed intake and growth were measured. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture to determine ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Fourteen male calves (seven per group) were euthanised on day 42 and digestive tracts harvested. Reticulo-rumen weight was determined and rumen tissue samples collected from the cranial and caudal sacs of the ventral and dorsal portions of the rumen for measurements of papillae length, papillae width and rumen wall thickness. Dosing with M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter dry matter intake (DMI), weaning body weight (BW) and tended to improve average daily gain. Calves in Me14 group had greater plasma BHBA concentration than Me0-calves during the last 3 weeks of the trial and had at day 42 greater reticulo-rumen weight, papillae width and papillae density compared to Me0. No differences in rumen wall thickness or papillae length were observed between the two groups. Total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate production did not differ between treatments, but butyrate production was greater in Me14 than Me0. Dosing M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 showed benefit for calves with improved feed intake and rumen development suggesting increased epithelium metabolism and improved absorption of digestive end products. PMID:25817063

  15. Shelf life and storage stability of spray-dried bovine colostrum powders under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huaning; Zheng, Yuanrong; Li, Yunfei

    2015-02-01

    Spray dried bovine colostrum (SDBC) powders were packaged in aluminium-laminated polyethylene (ALPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pouches and then stored under different conditions (25 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH), 4 °C and 40-70 % RH, 50 °C and 20-50 % RH). The shelf life of SDBC powder was evaluated as 425.5 and 86.5 days in ALPE and PET pouches under 25 °C and 50 % RH, respectively. The storage stability of SDBC powder in terms of quality parameters including thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), colour change, moisture content and IgG concentration was studied in both packaging materials under different storage conditions. Results showed that ALPE pouches were more suitable for packaging SDBC powder than PET pouches and storage condition of 4 °C and 40-70 % RH was relative suitable for keeping quality of SDBC powder. The glass transition concept was helpful for evaluating the chemical stability of SDBC powder during storage. PMID:25694704

  16. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

  17. Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

    2014-08-01

    Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

  18. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, ?ukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1? and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  19. Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 ± 2.5?kcal/100?mL), transitional milk (57.7 ± 4.2?kcal/100?mL), and mature milk (65.2 ± 1.1?kcal/100?mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67?kcal/100?mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 ± 0.2?g/100?mL) and transitional milk (1.7 ± 0.1?g/100?mL) was higher than formula (1.4?g/100?mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 ± 0.1?g/100?mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity. PMID:23056929

  20. Protection against canine parvovirus type 2 infection in puppies by colostrum-derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Grellet, Aurélien; Desario, Costantina; Feugier, Alexandre; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    During the first weeks of life puppies remain protected against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) infection thanks to maternally derived antibodies (MDA) absorbed with colostrum after birth. The objective of the present study was to present the variability in CPV2-specific passive immune transfer and its consequences in puppies naturally exposed to the parvovirus. Seventy-nine puppies from one breeding kennel were included in the study at birth and followed until 56 d of age. Once per week the MDA titre for CPV2 specific antibodies was determined in blood. Viral excretion was also evaluated on a rectal swab by CPV2 PCR assay and puppies were weighed to determine growth rate. At 2 d of age, thirty-four out of seventy-nine puppies (43 %) had MDA ?1:160 (designed group A) and forty-five puppies (57 %) had greater MDA titres (designed group B). The level of absorbed maternal antibodies was shown to be associated with breed size and growth rate during the first 48 h of life. The MDA level declined with age in all cases; however, the proportion of puppies with the antibody level considered as protective against CPV2 infection was significantly higher in group B compared with A from day 2 until 42. Among all puppies surviving until 56 d of age, sixty-seven out of seventy (95·7 %) underwent CPV2 infection. However, puppies from group A excreted CPV2 significantly earlier than puppies from group B. The present study demonstrates the link between passive immune transfer, in terms of level of specific MDA absorbed, and length of the protection period against parvovirus infection in weaning puppies. PMID:26101622

  1. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120-specificity of HIV-1 Envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared to those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, C.R.; Vandergrift, N.; Jeffries, T.L.; McGuire, E.; Fouda, G.G.; Liebl, B.; Marshall, D.J.; Gurley, T.C.; Stiegel, L.; Whitesides, J.F.; Friedman, J.; Badiabo, A.; Foulger, A.; Yates, N.L.; Tomaras, G.D.; Kepler, T.B.; Liao, H.X.; Haynes, B.F.; Moody, M.A.; Permar, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were IgG1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1~69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% versus 20%, p = 0.006, Fisher’s exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120-specific than those isolated from blood (44% versus 16%, p = 0.005, Fisher’s exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  2. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  3. Food intake of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, G A; Weigl, L; Boeing, H; Disch, R; Borelli, S

    2001-01-01

    There is only restricted information about the nutritional behavior of adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Our purpose was to evaluate the food intake in a series of patients with AD with particular consideration of self-reported food intolerance. Particular attention was paid to the risks of nutrient deficiencies. We examined the intake of 28 food items in 116 AD patients with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). For each food item the cohort was divided in two groups according to whether symptoms were reported or not (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic). We found in a series of food items a significant lower food intake among symptomatic patients. Significantly lower intakes were reported by symptomatic patients for dairy products, fish, egg, pork, oranges, non-specified fruits, apples, kiwis, green or red peppers, peanuts and hazelnuts. We concluded that in symptomatic AD patients supplementation with specific nutrients might become mandatory. This is particularly pertinent for calcium, iodine, vitamin C and n-3 fatty acids. PMID:11358724

  4. Predicting Forage Nutritive Value Using an In Vitro Gas Production Technique and Dry Matter Intake of Grazing Animals Using n-Alkanes 

    E-print Network

    Aguiar, Andre D.

    2011-08-08

    In the first experiment, forage samples (n = 39) were collected during 4 years (2006 ? 2009) from pastures grazed by Santa Gertrudis cattle at the King Ranch, TX. The in vitro gas production technique (IVGP) was performed to understand the pattern...

  5. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

  6. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth. PMID:26679810

  7. Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

  8. Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1071 newborn calves from six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning p...

  9. Evaluation of the risk of paratuberculosis in adult cows fed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA-positive or -negative colostrum as calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Estimate the risk of MAP infection in Holstein calves associated with ingestion of MAP DNA positive (vs negative) colostrum at birth. Animals - 205 Holstein heifer calves born in 12 commercial dairy herds. Procedure - Every calf born was separated from its dam within 30 to 60 minutes ...

  10. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

  11. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism. PMID:26476944

  12. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430

  13. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  14. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic “browning” generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that result from the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins. AGEs have been implicated in an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse aging-relate...

  15. Usual Intake of Total seafood

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

  16. Usual Intake of Total grains

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

  17. Usual Intake of Other vegetables

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

  18. Usual Intake of Fruit juice

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

  19. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  20. Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

  1. Usual Intake of Solid fats

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

  2. Usual Intake of Total fruit

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

  3. Usual Intake of Whole grains

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

  4. Usual Intake of Other fruits

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2

  5. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  6. Usual Intake of Total dairy

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

  7. Usual Intake of Refined grains

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

  8. Usual Intake of White potatoes

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

  9. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-11-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population. PMID:26248183

  10. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  11. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  12. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  13. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    E-print Network

    Zemel, Michael B.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S.; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W.; Van Walleghen, Emily L.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2008-10-24

    , and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results: During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body...

  14. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... table for each cooling water intake structure likely to be used by your proposed development and production activities that includes a brief description of the cooling water intake structure, daily water... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section...

  15. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  16. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-01

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ?3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ?10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ?18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ?65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ?75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (?75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  17. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8±0.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3±1.5 and 48.9±1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3±18.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7±3.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4±2.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum was higher for controlled-energy cows (31.7±1.4ng/mL) than intermediate cows (23.5±1.4ng/mL), whereas no treatment effect was noted for vitamin B12 concentration in milk. At 11 and 39 DIM, milk concentrations of vitamin B12 averaged 3.8 and 3.2±1.4ng/mL, respectively. In summary, results suggest that dietary change during the dry period could modify vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum, but had no effect on milk concentration of folates and vitamin B12 during early lactation. PMID:26094219

  18. [Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

    2008-09-01

    The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

  19. Daily dietary intake of selenium in eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klapec, T; Mandi?, M L; Grgi?, J; Primorac, L; Iki?, M; Lovri?, T; Grgi?, Z; Herceg, Z

    1998-06-30

    Data on the selenium content in the soil and human milk in eastern Croatia indicate a possibility of inadequate Se status of people in the area. In order to determine the daily dietary intake of Se in eastern Croatia, a 7-day duplicate diet study was performed. There were 41 participants (18-53 years old; 14 males and 27 females). Selenium measurement was carried out in a HG-AAS. The average daily Se intake in the area is 27.3 micrograms. A significant difference (P < 0.05) exists between male (32.2 micrograms) and female (24.8 micrograms) participants. Percentage of optimum Se intake shows an inverse association with the increasing age of subjects (r = 0.43; P < 0.01). Relationship between Se intake and intakes of different foods (cereal products, milk and dairy products, meat, fish, etc.) was also examined. The sub-optimal Se intake (RDA is 55 micrograms/day for women and 70 micrograms/day for men) is a reflection of low Se levels in the environment, so supplementation of fertilizers with Se should be considered. PMID:9695176

  20. GENETIC REGULATION OF FEED INTAKE AND ENERGY BALANCE IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate and meat production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for rapid growth and...

  1. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  2. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  3. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  4. Influence of a deficient intake of high and low degradable protein on body composition, metabolic adaptation, production and reproductive performance in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fekete, S; Huszenicza, G; Kellems, R O; Szakáll, I; Fébel, H; Husvéth, F; Nagy, P; Kulcsár, M; Kósa, E; Gaál, T; Rudas, P; Oppel, K

    1996-01-01

    High-yielding dairy cows (n = 34) were divided into high (HD) and low (LD) protein degradability groups after delivery, and used for a feeding trial which lasted up to day 80 +/- 10 of lactation. The cows were regularly weighed, their body condition was scored (BCS), and their reproductive status assessed. Blood samples were taken simultaneously, and ruminal fluid was collected on the last day of the trial. On postpartum day 45 +/- 6 and 11 days thereafter two prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) injections were administered. The ammonia and urea concentrations of the ruminal fluid were higher in cows of group HD. The C2:C3 ratio was 2.7:1 vs. 2.3:1 in HD and LD cows, respectively. The amino acid and lipid composition of blood reflected the dietary treatments. The BCS and blood urea concentration were slightly higher in HD animals. The average daily milk production of LD cows was 1.5 kg higher than that of HD cows. The pregnancy rates of the two groups at day 200 after calving did not differ, but LD cows showed their first visible oestrus and reconceived significantly (p < 0.05) later. It can be concluded that--at a marginal energy supply-a moderate (13%) deficiency of rumen-degradable protein during the first 10 weeks after calving can be more detrimental to reproductive performance than a severe (27%) deficiency of undegradable protein. PMID:9055456

  5. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  6. Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type-2 invade and cause diarrhoea during experimental infection in colostrum-restricted newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Van Bost, S; Roels, S; Mainil, J

    2001-08-20

    There exists experimental evidence that necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli (NTEC) strains producing the cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 cause intestinal and extra-intestinal disease in piglets. On the other hand, no experimental model has been developed with NTEC strains producing the cytotoxic necrotising factor 2. In all, 14 colostrum-restricted calves were orally challenged with two strains isolated from the faeces of a diarrheic calf (B20a) or from the heart blood of a septicaemic calf (1404). All calves had diarrhoea which lasted until euthanasia in eight of them. In those calves, diarrhoea was correlated with the faecal excretion of the challenge strains. At necropsy, vascular congestion of the intestinal mucosa, hypertrophy of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and some congestion of the lungs were observed. Bacteriology confirmed the colonisation of the intestine by the challenge strains which were also recovered from the heart blood, the lungs and/or the liver. Histological sections confirmed enterocolitis, lymphadenitis and limited bronchopneumonia. In the intestinal tissue sections, bacteria testing positive in an in situ DNA hybridisation assay with a CNF2 probe were observed. Those results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal anti-O78 and a monoclonal anti-F17b antisera. Three of the five control calves receiving either saline or a CNF(-), F17a strain (25KH09) had no clinical signs or lesions. The other two presented a profuse liquid diarrhoea but those calves were positive for the presence of K99(+) E. coli. In this model, both NTEC2 strains were thus, able to colonise the intestine, to cause long-lasting diarrhoea and to invade the blood stream with localisation in various internal organs in colostrum-restricted conventional newborn calves. PMID:11390113

  7. Evaluation of a commercial bovine colostrum replacer for achieving passive transfer of immunity in springbok calves (Antidorcas marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2013-09-01

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information

    Cancer.gov

    Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

  9. Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  10. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  11. Usual Intake of Cured meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

  12. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ?-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (?9 to 11), trans-18:1 (?6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

  13. Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, A; Möller, T; Barbieri, H E; Jansson, A; Salomonsson, A C; Olsen, M

    2001-08-01

    To estimate the intake of some mycotoxins from food in Sweden, approximately 600 samples were collected and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes. Intakes were calculated for average and high consumers among adults and children and compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the respective toxin. Mycotoxin levels in the food samples were generally below the European/national maximum limits. However, high levels of aflatoxins were found in some samples of Brazil nuts and pistachios. The intake of ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes was found to be below the temporary, TDI values (tTDI) proposed for these toxins by international expert groups, although the intake of trichothecenes (expressed as T-2 toxin equivalents) in children with a high consumption of cereals was close to the tTDI for T-2 toxin. Since there is to date no established numerical tTDI for aflatoxins, such a value was estimated for use within the project. The calculated intake of aflatoxins in high consumers exceeded this tTDI by a factor of two. In conclusion, the exposure to mycotoxins in Sweden did not generally, give rise to any major health concerns in the present study. However, the high levels of aflatoxins in certain commodities emphasize the need for preventive measures and improved control of toxin levels in these food items. Furthermore, the need for regulatory levels for trichothecenes in cereal products should be evaluated. PMID:11469326

  14. Anthropometry, dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of Malaysian estate workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K

    1996-09-01

    Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134

  15. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  16. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  17. Describing dry matter intake and growth patterns in beef steers during the finishing period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake is central to animal production systems, as it impacts efficiency and represents a substantial fraction of the total costs. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency in Angus crossbred steers during finishing on a total mixed diet; and...

  18. Normative influences on food intake.

    PubMed

    Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2005-12-15

    Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often violate the norm. Personal norms are individualized rules that people develop to help themselves decide how much is appropriate to eat in a given situation. Situational norms are derived from the eating situation itself; examples include portion size and social influence, which exert powerful effects on intake. We discuss the implications of a normative approach to the analysis of eating and overeating. PMID:16243366

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  20. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  1. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  2. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  3. Influence of 4 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation on neutrophil and mucosal immune responses to prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Thatcher, R; March, D S; Davison, G

    2015-12-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28?±?8 years; body mass 79?±?7?kg; height 182?±?6?cm; maximal oxygen uptake ( V ? O 2 m a x ) 55?±?9?mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20?g per day of COL (n?=?10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n?=?10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5?h of cycling at 15% ? (?55-60% V ? O 2 m a x ). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P??0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:25727914

  4. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  5. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    craving. Calorie and nutrient intakes were measured directly. The subjects with premenstrual syndrome significantly increased calorie intake during the late luteal phase (from 1892 :t 104 to 2395 :t 93 kcal, mean to calorie intake. The Hamilton Depression Scale and addendum scores rose from 2.0 :t 0.5 to 21.2 :t 0

  6. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  7. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  8. Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Ewa; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goli?ski, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczy?ski, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Z?otnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level - 294?g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets - 262?g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P???0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed analysis of correlations that occurred between fat, fatty acids and traits associated with piglet rearing confirmed that linolic acid (C18:2; n-6) was highly significantly correlated with piglets' body weights (r?=?0.456**) and was negatively correlated with piglets' deaths (r?=?-0.312). On the other hand, fat revealed correlation with body weight gains of piglets (r?=?0.333*_ and a negative correlation with deaths of piglets (r?=?-0344*). Recapitulating, the results of the performed experiments revealed that differences in the levels of fat and fatty acids found in sows' colostrum and milk influenced results of piglet rearing. Together with the increase in the content of fat and UFA in sows' colostrum and milk, piglets were characterized by the best body weight, growth rate, as well as by small mortality. PMID:25041642

  9. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (±SD) 116±18 d in milk and 686±52kg of body weight were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800h, and individually fed daily at 0900h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2+SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2+LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5±1.19kg/d and 32.8±3.34kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6±2.6kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62±0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2+LONGP, CO0+SHORTP, and CO0+LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81±0.09kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169±15min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400±35min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570±4min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89±0.42%/h; concomitantly mean retention time increased from 31.7 to 38.4±5.36h for diets containing long particle size. The results of this experiment show that effects of oil on milk fat depression were less severe when cows consumed long particle size, suggesting that dietary manipulations that modify rumen kinetics also affect milk fat production in dairy cows consuming reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles supplemented with corn oil. PMID:26547654

  10. Measurement of carbonic anhydrase isozyme VI (CA-VI) in swine sera, colostrums, saliva, bile, seminal plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Toshiho; Itoh, Seigo; Arai, Sachiko; Ichihara, Nobutune; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Swine secretory carbonic anhydrase VI (CA-VI) was purified from swine saliva and an antibody to CA-VI was generated. A specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the measurement of swine CA-VI. The assay can detect as little as 5?ng/mL of swine CA-VI. Typical standard curves were determined for a range of CA-VI solutions (7.8 to 500?ng/mL). The coefficients of variation for these solutions were less than 5%. When 500, 250 or 100?ng/mL of swine CA-VI was added to swine sera, the recoveries were 102.0%, 109.7% and 100.2%, respectively. The concentrations of CA-VI in the saliva (26.2?±?30.4?µg/mL), sera (3.3?±?4.9?ng/mL), bile (153.0?±?114.0?ng/mL), seminal plasma (124.0?±?39.0?ng/mL) and parotid gland (441.3?±?90.0?µg/g wet tissue), submaxillary gland (88.1?±?124.4?µg/g wet tissue), sublingual gland (58.6?±?24.6?µg/g wet tissue) and gallbladder (2.4?±?1.3?µg/1g wet tissue) were determined by ELISA. The concentration of CA-VI in colostrum was 163.3?±?101.4?ng/mL and did not decrease within 10?days following parturition. An immunohistochemical reaction to anti-CA-VI antiserum was observed in the columnar epithelial cells lining the gallbladder. These data suggest that secretory CA-VI plays various roles in pH regulation and the maintenance of ion and fluid balance. PMID:21951903

  11. The response of newly born mice to odors of murine colostrum and milk: unconditionally attractive, conditionally discriminated.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Mingioni, Mathieu; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2014-09-01

    It is a general rule that milk conveys chemosensory cues that are attractive to mammalian neonates. This study investigated whether compositional fluctuations in milk along lactation induce variations in newborn mouse pups' (Mus musculus, strain BALB/c) attraction to milk odor. Pups differing in suckling experience were exposed to the odor of milk sampled from females varying in lactational stage. Immediately after birth, suckling-inexperienced (P0) and suckling-experienced (P0suck ) pups were assayed in a series of paired-choice tests contrasting murine milk [of lactation days 0, 3, 15 (abridged L0, L3, L15, respectively)] and a blank (water) to evaluate olfactory detection and attraction of milk odor. Preference tests further paired these milk two-by-two to assess their relative attraction. Results showed first that P0 and P0suck pups detect and positively orient to any milk odor. When L0 is presented against L15 milk, P0 pups orient for a similar duration towards these odor stimuli, whereas P0suck pups spend more time toward the odor of L0 than of L15 milk. Finally, P0suck pups orient similarly to odors of L0 milk collected before/after the first suckling episode (L0 and L0suck , respectively), but the odor of L0 milk was more attractive than that of L3 milk. Thus, mouse pups' positive orientation toward the odors of murine colostrum (assumed to correspond to L0/L0suck milk) and later-lactation milk appears unconditional of previous suckling experience, whereas their ability to discriminate or display preference between milk differing in lactation stage appears conditional on postnatal exposure effects. PMID:24798460

  12. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  13. Intake system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okimoto, H.; Tashima, S.; Koyama, N.

    1988-07-12

    This patent describes an intake system for an internal combustion engine having engine sections for utilizing the interference effect between engine sections to increase an intake charge for at least two engine sections, comprising first intake passage means connected to a first intake port of one engine section of the at least two engine sections, second intake passage means connected to a second intake port of another engine section. The first and second intake passage means being communicated with each other by communicating passage means and having portions upstream of the communicating passage means which join each other at a junction portion. The first and second intake passage means and the communicating passage means being arranged so as to have a substantially common axis in the vicinity of the communicating passage means, the junction portion being communicated with the atmosphere and valve means for opening and closing the communicating passage means in accordance with an engine operating conditions, the valve means being located within the communicating passage means and near the first and second intake passage means. The valve means when closed providing a first passage between the first and second intake ports, the first passage comprising the first and second passage means in their entirety including the junction portion.

  14. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  15. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  16. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  17. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children. PMID:26060540

  18. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (?(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the ?(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance ?(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  19. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  20. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Galetti, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy and in most countries, incidence rates are increasing. Although differences in population iodine intake are a determinant of benign thyroid disorders, the role of iodine intake in TC remains uncertain. We review the evidence linking iodine intake and TC from animal studies, ecological studies of iodine intake and differentiated and undifferentiated TC, iodine intake and mortality from TC and occult TC at autopsy, as well as the case-control and cohort studies of TC and intake of seafood and milk products. We perform a new meta-analysis of pooled measures of effect from case-control studies of total iodine intake and TC. Finally, we examine the post-Chernobyl studies linking iodine status and risk of TC after radiation exposure. The available evidence suggests iodine deficiency is a risk factor for TC, particularly for follicular TC and possibly, for anaplastic TC. This conclusion is based on: a) consistent data showing an increase in TC (mainly follicular) in iodine deficient animals; b) a plausible mechanism (chronic TSH stimulation induced by iodine deficiency); c) consistent data from before and after studies of iodine prophylaxis showing a decrease in follicular TC and anaplastic TC; d) the indirect association between changes in iodine intake and TC mortality in the decade from 2000 to 2010; e) the autopsy studies of occult TC showing higher microcarcinoma rates with lower iodine intakes; and f) the case control studies suggesting lower risk of TC with higher total iodine intakes. PMID:26146517

  1. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-12-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  2. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  3. Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake.

    PubMed

    Dougkas, Anestis; Minihane, Anne M; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-12-28

    Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese. PMID:22380537

  4. Intake of Probiotic Food and Risk of Preeclampsia in Primiparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Haugen, Margaretha; Myking, Solveig; Sengpiel, Verena; Magnus, Per; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to modify placental trophoblast inflammation, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure, all potentially interesting aspects of preeclampsia. The authors examined the association between consumption of milk-based probiotic products in pregnancy and development of preeclampsia and its subtypes. The study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using a prospective design in 33,399 primiparous women in the years 2002–2008. The intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli was estimated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Preeclampsia diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intake of probiotic milk products was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. The association was most prominent in severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.96). With probiotic intakes divided into categories representing no, monthly, weekly, or daily intake, a lower risk for preeclampsia (all subtypes) was observed for daily probiotic intake (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). Lower risks for severe preeclampsia were observed for weekly (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.98) and daily (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.89) intakes. These results suggest that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women. PMID:21821542

  5. Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds Table A31. Nuts and seeds: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.3 (0.04) 0.0

  6. Intake systems for rotary piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Okimoto, H.; Tashima, S.

    1987-11-17

    A rotary piston engine is described comprising a rotor casing which includes at least three rotor housings each having an inner wall surface of a trochoidal configuration, an intermediate housing located between each adjacent two rotor housings and a side housing attached to an outer surface of each outermost rotor housing so that a rotor cavity of trochoidal configuration is defined in each rotor housing. A substantially polygonal rotor is disposed in each rotor cavity with apex portions in sliding contact with the inner wall surface of the rotor housing to define working chambers of cyclically variable volumes upon rotation of the rotor, eccentric shaft means carrying the rotors so that the rotors are angularly offset with each other by equal angular distance, intake means including intake port means provided in the casing to open the rotor cavity in each rotor housing. Individual intake passage means have one end connected with each intake port means, junction means connect with the other ends of the respective individual passage means. The individual intake passage means lead to the respective ones of the intake passage means having the same passage length. The individual intake passage means and the junction means have passage lengths which are determined such that a pressure wave produced at one intake port means is transmitted to another port means after a time interval corresponding to 180/sup 0/ in terms of angle of rotation of the eccentric shaft means in a normal speed range of engine operation.

  7. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  8. Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

  9. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

  10. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  11. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  12. MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

  13. Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes)

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes) Table A16. Beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

  14. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  15. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  16. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  17. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  18. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  19. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID: 201415403124 Shipping

  20. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  1. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  2. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:14 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:12/23/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID:

  3. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  4. The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors. PMID:17723994

  5. Increased food intake with oxyntomodulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Price, Samantha L.; Minnion, James S.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin analogues offer a novel treatment for obesity. However during analogue screening in a rat model increased food intake was consistently observed. To further investigate this finding, a series of representative analogues (OXM14 and OXM15) and their Glu-3 equivalents (OXM14E3 and OXM15E3) were administered to rats for 7 days and food intake and bodyweight measurements taken. To investigate the role of glucagon receptor activation glutamate (Glu/E) was substituted at amino acid position 3. GLP-1 and glucagon receptor efficacy of the oxyntomodulin analogues and their Glu-3 counterparts were measured at the rat receptors in vitro. Doses of 25 n mol/kg of OXM14 and OXM15 increased food intake by up to 20%. Bodyweight was not significantly increased. Food intake was not increased with the Glu-3 peptides, indicating that a glucagon receptor mechanism may be responsible for the increase in food intake. PMID:26431789

  6. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  7. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  9. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  10. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  11. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  15. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  16. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

  20. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement. 91.310 Section 91...Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 91.310 Section 91...Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 91.310 Section 91...Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 91.310 Section 91...Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 91.310 Section 91...Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  5. On the Structure of Steady Flow Through Dual-Intake Engine Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Z.; Chen, A.; Yianneskis, M.; Ganti, G.

    1996-11-01

    The influence of intake port design on the flow field in a dual-intake valve engine was investigated using computational fluid dynamics, in order to study the effect of inlet port design on the in-cylinder flow. A detailed 3D computational grid incorporating all the features of the Ford Zetec production engine inlet ports, valves and cylinder head was initially created and the flow structure modelled at 5 and 10 mm valve lifts under steady flow conditions. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data obtained by laser Doppler anemometry indicate that the flow characteristics have been predicted well in most regions. Flow generated by different intake port designs was also simulated by introducing air into the cylinder at different directions to the inlet valve axes and the effects of port deactivation, throttling and exhaust gas recirculation were examined. The implications of the results for intake port design are discussed.

  6. USE OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING TO UNDERSTAND GENETIC MECHANISMS CONTROLLING FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY IN PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the major variable cost in pork production. Determination of genetic mechanisms that control feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency (FE) remains a major challenge for the improvement of FE and FI. Although feed is associated with production traits such as growth and composition, considerable...

  7. ORNL/TM-2009/021 Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2009/021 Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy February 2009 for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does

  8. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49?g of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70?g/day for men and 60?g/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10?g/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15?g/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75?g/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  9. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  10. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  11. Intake of nutrients from pasture by poultry.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew; Gordon, Sue

    2003-05-01

    EC legislation requires the land to which free-range poultry have access to be 'mainly covered with vegetation', but the nature of this vegetation is not specified. In practice, most free-range land will be grass pasture. Modern poultry nutrition is a highly-developed science, and to house poultry in an environment in which they may consume an unknown quantity of vegetation, itself of unknown nutritive value, introduces uncertainty into a predictable system. In recent years the contribution of grazing to the nutrition of the birds has been considered negligible. However, birds on range appear to ingest a little grass, and therefore the quality of the pasture may affect their performance. If poultry consumed largely grass, then the nutritional value derived from it would be relatively poor. The grass would constitute a source of energy and fibre, but would make little contribution in terms of protein. The likely approach that poultry nutritionists would take is a precautionary one. They would need to know the full nutritive value of the pasture and the likely quantitative intake by the birds, and they would then make adjustments to feed formulations at what they considered to be a 'safe' level, in order to minimise the risks of impairing performance. A small (0-5) percentage contribution is probably the most that could be achieved, but given that feed accounts for about 70% of the variable costs of poultry production, such a contribution is economically important. PMID:14506872

  12. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  13. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

  14. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Larson, Nicole I; Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort) and 1366 high school students (older cohort) who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999) and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively). Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (<2 hours/daily), moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily), and heavy television viewers (?5 hours/daily). Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television) five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating habits in young adulthood. PMID:19183442

  15. [Food intake during and outside Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Akrout, M; Zouari, B

    2003-01-01

    We explored the effect of fasting in the month of Ramadan on the dietary pattern of a group of 130 healthy adults. During Ramadan, there was an increase in total energy intake, as a result of protein and lipid intake but not carbohydrate intake compared to the diet througout the rest of the year, in both students and parents. The meal eaten after sunset was an important contributor to calories (65%), lipids (74%), proteins (71%) and carbohydrates (56%). These findings show the eating behaviour during Ramadan may contribute to improved nutritional status of people at risk of nutritional deficiency. PMID:15562742

  16. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

  17. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (? = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (? = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (? = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (? = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (? = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (? = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; ? = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (? = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (? = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in food acceptance. PMID:26340090

  18. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile). Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to spend most time in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The consumption of foods from the remaining food groups, did not differ between the physical activity levels in both sexes. Conclusion It can be concluded that dietary habits diverge between adolescents with different self-reported physical activity levels. For some food groups a difference in intake could be found, which were reflected in differences in some nutrient intakes. It can also be concluded that physically active adolescents are not always inclined to eat healthier diets than their less active peers. PMID:21294914

  19. Caffeine Intake May Modulate Inflammation Markers in Trained Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Souza, Mauren Assis; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Stefanello, Silvio Terra; Bresciani, Guilherme; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Barbosa, Nilda de Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. PMID:24763113

  20. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  1. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

  2. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-11-28

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25424037

  3. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  4. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  5. Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method

    Cancer.gov

    If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

  6. Dietary calcium intake and overweight in adolescence 

    E-print Network

    Gerges, Amira Sami

    2005-02-17

    Recent research has shown an association between low dietary calcium intake and obesity in adults as well as overweight in young children; however, this relationship has not been investigated in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  7. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  8. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

  9. Advances in Colostrum Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) continues to affect a significant portion of North American dairy calves, contributing to high preweaning morbidity and mortality rates as well as impaired long-term health and performance. The goal of this presentation is to review key components of a successful c...

  10. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  11. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  12. Colostrum and milk selenium, antioxidative capacity and immune status of dairy cows fed sodium selenite or selenium yeast.

    PubMed

    Salman, Saeed; Dinse, Daniela; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schreiner, Matthias; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) can be supplemented from organic or inorganic sources and this may affect Se metabolism and functional outcome such as antioxidative status and immune functions in dairy cows. A feeding trial was performed with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fed with a total mixed ration (0.18 mg Se/kg dry matter (DM)) either without Se supplement (Control, n = 5), or with Se from sodium selenite (Group SeS, n = 5) or Se yeast (Group SeY, n = 6). In Groups SeS and SeY, the Se supplementation amounted to an additional intake of 4 mg Se and 6 mg Se/d during gestation and lactation, respectively. The effect of both Se sources was characterised by milk Se and antioxidant levels, and the phenotyping and functional assessment of phagocytic activity of milk immune cells. Se yeast has been found to increase (p ? 0.001) the milk Se and antioxidant levels markedly compared to the control group. The experimental treatment did not affect the immune parameters of the cows. Lymphocyte subpopulations and phagocytosis activity of neutrophilic granulocytes were affected neither by the Se intake nor by the two different dietary supplements. It can be concluded that sodium selenite and Se yeast differ considerably in their effects on antioxidant status in dairy cows. However, the basal dietary Se concentration of 0.18 mg/kg DM seemed to be high enough for the measured immune variables. PMID:23298256

  13. Reconstruction of long-lived radionuclide intakes for Techa riverside residents: 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The Sr intake function was recently improved, taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio Cs-to-Sr in river water. Intake via Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows' milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000-9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River, the Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows' milk was the main source of Cs in diet in the upper-Techa River region. PMID:23532077

  14. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources. PMID:26244601

  15. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets the requirement in infants and that is 3 times higher than the amount necessary to prevent scurvy (7 mg/day). PMID:26227083

  16. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  17. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  18. Methane emissions from river buffaloes fed on green fodders in relation to the nutrient [corrected] intake and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Mohini, Madhu; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Datt, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen male Murrah buffalo calves (15-18 months, 227.98?±?4.44 kg body weight) were distributed randomly in to three equal groups and fed solely on either berseem (G1), oats (G2), or chicory fodder (G3). A digestibility trial followed by methane measurement using SF6 tracer technique was conducted. No significant difference was observed in nutrient intake; however, crude protein (CP) intake was lower in G2 (0.35 kg) than G1 (0.7) and in G3 (0.71) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) intake was significantly (p?intake was similar in all the groups, whereas the digestible CP and NFC intake was lower in G2 compared to G1 and G3. Chicory- and berseem-fed groups emitted 12.2 and 5.2 % less methane than oats-fed group. However, no significant difference was observed in the absolute methane loss and methane loss as percentage of energy intake (p?>?0.05) among the groups. There was positive correlation between nutrient intake and total methane production. However, an inverse relationship was observed between total digestible carbohydrate intake and methane production (g/kg dry matter intake). The following regression equations were developed to estimate methane production: methane (g/kg BW) = 128.8553 + (167.7456 × dNDFI) + (216.32 × dCPI) - (40.3313 × dNFCI) and methane (g/d) = -1.7494 + (41.42 × NDFI) + (39.8686 × CPI) + (0.5197 × NFCI). PMID:23857630

  19. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  20. Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY & ACCESSIBILITY ONLINE CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM

    E-print Network

    Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM ­ OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY & ACCESSIBILITY: DATE CLOSED: #12;Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM ­ OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY SIGNATURE: DATE: INQUIRY/COMPLAINT DETAILS (Attach pages if necessary) Office of Human Rights, Equity

  1. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  2. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  3. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  4. Puffing Topography and Nicotine Intake of Electronic Cigarette Users

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Rachel Z.; Hua, My; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior electronic cigarette (EC) topography data are based on two video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring topography are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake. Objectives This study evaluated EC topography with a CReSS Pocket device and quantified nicotine intake. Methods Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10–15 minute break between brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and topography data. Results Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one, took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65 seconds/puff), volume/puff (51ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively, which is similar to conventional smokers. Conclusions EC puffing topography was variable among participants in the study, but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration, inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products. PMID:25664463

  5. ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

  6. A comparison of two methods of measuring food group intake: grams vs servings.

    PubMed

    Nöthlings, Ute; Murphy, Suzanne P; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2006-05-01

    Different measurements can be used to quantify food group intake, such as servings, cups, or grams. Dietary recommendations are given in terms of servings (recently expressed as cup and ounce measurements), but research on disease risks often uses grams as the intake measure. Because serving sizes vary among foods within a food group, the method of expressing food group intake (grams vs servings) may impact disease risk analyses. Daily consumption of eight food groups was calculated as both Food Guide Pyramid servings and grams for 206,721 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire between 1993 and 1996. Mean grams per serving ranged from 25 g for red meat to 172 g for dairy products. Spearman correlation coefficients between intakes as grams per day and servings per day were 0.85 for grains, 0.97 for vegetables, 0.99 for fruit, 0.95 for dairy products, 0.98 for red meat, 0.93 for processed meat, 1.00 for poultry, and 1.00 for fish. Because there was little effect on the ranking of study participants' intakes due to the method of calculating food group consumption, the two measures are interchangeable in disease risk models. PMID:16647334

  7. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  8. Nutrients, satiety, and control of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Bellisle, France

    2015-10-01

    In the context of the worldwide epidemic of obesity affecting men and women of all ages, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control human appetite, particularly those that allow the adjustment of energy intake to energy needs. Satiety is one important psycho-biological mechanism whose function is to inhibit intake following the ingestion of a food or a beverage. According to the classical theories of appetite control, satiety is influenced by macronutrient intake and/or metabolism. Satiety also seems to be modified by micronutrients, non-nutrients, and some bioactive food constituents. Under optimal conditions, satiety should be well connected with hunger and satiation in a way that spontaneously leads to a close match between energy intake and expenditures. However, the current obesity epidemic suggests that dysfunctions often affect satiety and energy intake. In this regard, this paper presents a conceptual integration that hopefully will help health professionals address satiety issues and provide the public with informed advice to facilitate appetite control. PMID:26394262

  9. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  10. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  11. Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions.

    PubMed

    Stella, Nephi

    2013-08-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal bioactive component in the Cannabis plant, is truly a captivating drug. Acute and chronic THC intake produces a spectrum of biological effects ranging from transient psychotropic effects to prolonged medicinal benefits, many of which have been fostered for centuries by our society. In the July 2013 issue of the JCI, Cutando et al. combined mouse genetics with classic mouse behavioral analysis to deepen our understanding of the physiological consequence of subchronic THC intake on eyeblink reflexes, a fundamental neuronal adaptive response, revealing that this regimen leads to downregulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (referred to as CB1 in the Cutando et al. article) in cerebellar stress fibers and the activation of microglia, raising provocative new questions about the safety profile of regimented THC intake. PMID:23863631

  12. Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Nephi

    2013-01-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal bioactive component in the Cannabis plant, is truly a captivating drug. Acute and chronic THC intake produces a spectrum of biological effects ranging from transient psychotropic effects to prolonged medicinal benefits, many of which have been fostered for centuries by our society. In the July 2013 issue of the JCI, Cutando et al. combined mouse genetics with classic mouse behavioral analysis to deepen our understanding of the physiological consequence of subchronic THC intake on eyeblink reflexes, a fundamental neuronal adaptive response, revealing that this regimen leads to downregulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (referred to as CB1 in the Cutando et al. article) in cerebellar stress fibers and the activation of microglia, raising provocative new questions about the safety profile of regimented THC intake. PMID:23863631

  13. Dietary intake of magnesium may modulate depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz; Soleimannejad, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status. PMID:23238611

  14. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  15. GENETIC MECHANISMS REGULATING FEED INTAKE, ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY WEIGHT IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to maintain a constant body weight, feed intake and energy expenditure must be coordinated and tightly regulated. This may not hold true for some poultry species intensively selected for such economically important traits as growth and meat production. For example, the modern commercial b...

  16. MECHANISMS REGULATING FOOD INTAKE, ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY WEIGHT IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to maintain a constant body weight, food intake and energy expenditure must be coordinated and tightly regulated. This may not hold true for some poultry species intensively selected for such economically important traits as growth and meat production. For example, the modern commercial b...

  17. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  18. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ? 416 ?mol/L for male population and ? 360 ?mol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (? = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (? = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  19. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  20. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and underscores the importance of canned foods in the overall exposure of adults of BPA. PMID:25645382

  1. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  2. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  3. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic. PMID:26284059

  4. Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study?

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Topor-M?dry, Roman; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Paj?k, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of known individual polyphenols and their major dietary sources in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. Methods A total of 10,477 random sample (45–69 y) of urban population of Krakow, Poland, completed a validated 148-item food frequency questionnaire. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the recently developed Phenol-Explorer database. Results The mean intake of polyphenols was 1756.5 ± 695.8 mg/d (median = 1662.5 mg/d). The main polyphenol groups were flavonoids (897 mg/d) and phenolic acids (800 mg/d). A total of 347 polyphenols from 19 polyphenol subclasses were found. The individual compounds with the highest intakes were isomers of chlorogenic acid (i.e., 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-caffeoylquinic acid) among hydroxycinnamic acids (average intake 150 mg/d), that largely originated from coffee, and compounds belonging to the catechin chemical family (i.e., [+]-gallocatechin, [-]-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, and [-]-epicatechin) among flavanols (average intake 50 mg/d), that mostly originated from tea and cocoa products. Conclusions The current study provides the most updated data for individual polyphenols intake in the diet of a well-established nutritional cohort. These findings will be useful to assess potential beneficial role on health of specific foods with high polyphenol content and characterize the effects of individual phenolic compounds. PMID:25280419

  5. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  6. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  7. SURFACE WATER INTAKES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Surface Water Intakes digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in a...

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: The NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    The premise of the NCI method is that usual intake is equal to the probability of consumption on a given day times the average amount consumed on a "consumption day." The exact methods used for dietary components that are consumed nearly every day by nearly everyone differ slightly from those used for dietary components that are episodically consumed.

  9. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  10. INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:Section 308
    Supported Program:Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

  11. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  12. Parents significantly overestimate zinc intakes in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary surveys (e.g., CSFII) suggest that many toddlers exceed the Institute of Medicine's tolerable upper limit (UL) for zinc. Our objective was to compare zinc intakes estimated from parental report of toddlers to weighed dietary records carried out at home and in an inpatient setting at the Gene...

  13. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. PMID:25137143

  14. Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

    Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

  15. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTING EVEN PROCESSING OF SKY, SAVED FOR DOCUMENTARY PURPOSES) - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs System at the Irving Powerhouse. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Intake & Forebay, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  17. View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  18. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  19. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  20. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  1. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  2. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  3. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  4. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  5. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

  6. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  19. 98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at cross Lake dam Cribbing supports extra suction intake installed in 1930. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  20. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326...Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had...

  1. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326...Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had...

  2. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326...Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had...

  3. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326...Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had...

  4. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326...Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had...

  5. RESEARCH Open Access Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    subjects correlated MSG intake with an increased risk of being overweight irrespective of the total calorie activity and calorie intake. * Correspondence: ubocha@kku.ac.th 1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty

  6. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  8. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Sullivan, Bridget S; Duffy, Valerie B

    2010-06-16

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  9. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  10. Influence of water and food consumption on inadvertent antibiotics intake among general population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kho, Younglim; Park, Changu; Paek, Dohyeon; Ryu, Pandong; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Pangyi; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-10-01

    Antibiotic entry into the water environment has been of growing concern. However, few investigations have been performed to examine the potential for indirect human exposure to environmental antibiotic residues. We evaluated the contribution of drinking water and major food consumption to inadvertent intake of antibiotic residues among general human population in Korea. We estimated daily human intake of six antibiotics, i.e., sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), trimethoprim (TMP), enrofloxacin (EFX), and roxithromycin (RTM), by measuring the concentrations of the antibiotics and their major metabolites in urine from general population in Korea (n=541). In addition, we measured antibiotics from source water of drinking water as well as in tap water samples, and surveyed water consumption rates among the study population. To assess the contribution of dietary factor, we also surveyed consumption pattern for several major foods which are suspected of antibiotics residue. SMZ, Sulfamethazine-N4-acetyl (SMZ-N4), TMP, EFX, ciprofloxacin (CFX), and RTM were detected up to 448, 6210, 11,900, 6970, 32,400, and 151pg/ml in the urine samples, respectively. Estimates of daily intake of major antibiotics did not appear to be related with consumption of drinking water although antibiotics were frequently detected in source waters (10-67ng/l). Consumption of several foods correlated significantly with urinary excretion of several antibiotics. Daily intake estimates of EFX and CFX were associated with consumption of beef, pork, and dairy products; those of SMZ and TMP associated with pork and dairy products; and that of TMP related with raw fish. Daily antibiotics intake estimates however did not exceed the acceptable daily intake levels. PMID:20624619

  11. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  12. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  13. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  14. Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults123

    PubMed Central

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S

    2011-01-01

    Background: The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. Objective: We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. Design: In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Results: Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P < 0.001) and by 357 ± 47 kcal in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Conclusions: Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086. PMID:21289225

  15. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section...

  16. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section...

  20. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section...

  1. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section...

  2. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  6. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  7. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  8. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  9. Learn More about Usual Dietary Intake | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Usual dietary intake refers to the long-run average or habitual daily intake of a nutrient or food. This concept is relevant to many nutrition studies because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time, diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term, and interventions are intended to affect habitual diet.

  10. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  11. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  12. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  13. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  14. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  15. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  16. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  17. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  18. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  19. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  20. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  2. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  3. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  4. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  5. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  6. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  7. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  10. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  11. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  12. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  15. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  16. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  17. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  18. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  19. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  20. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

  1. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

  2. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

  3. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

  4. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  5. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 90.310 Section 90...Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 90.310 Section 90...Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement. 90.310 Section 90...Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 90.310 Section 90...Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 90.310 Section 90...Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers...engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806...Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806...Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806...Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806...Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806...Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall...

  15. Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Maternal vitamin D status is important for fetal development and the prevention of pregnancy complications. Mothers require both sufficient intakes and skin production of this vitamin. We investigated the validity and test-retest reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) to establish a method of assessing vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women, using a serum marker. A total of 245 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, who were not taking vitamin D supplements, were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured as an indicator of vitamin D status. To assess the test-retest reliability of the DHQ, 58 pregnant women completed it twice within a 4-5-week interval. Significant positive correlations between intakes and serum concentrations of vitamin D were found (r?=?0.266 for daily intakes and r?=?0.249 for energy-adjusted intakes). In the winter investigation in which the serum 25(OH)D concentrations were less likely to be affected by sunlight exposure, the correlation coefficients were 0.304 for both daily and energy-adjusted intakes. After excluding participants with pregnancy-associated nausea, the coefficients increased. The intraclass correlation coefficient between vitamin D intakes estimated from the two-time DHQ was 0.638. The DHQ provides an acceptable validity and reliability of the vitamin D intake of Japanese pregnant women. However, the data of women with nausea should be interpreted with caution. We believe that the DHQ is a useful questionnaire to grasp and improve vitamin D intakes during pregnancy. PMID:24118748

  16. Alpacas fed calcium propionate seem to moderate their energy intake.

    PubMed

    Lund, K E; Milton, J T B; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas have evolved digestive and metabolic adaptations that enable them to survive in environments where the available feed varies in nutritional quality. Alpacas are thought to derive glucose from the deamination of amino acids in the liver, rather than via the conversion of propionate like true ruminants. Because fibre growth is dependent on the availability of absorbed amino acids, alpacas using amino acids as a source of energy should leave less amino acids available for fibre growth. If alpacas were to obtain glucose from a source of propionate, such as calcium propionate, the dependence on amino acids would be reduced leaving more available for fibre growth. Calcium propionate was added to the ration fed to 32 alpaca wethers, and fibre production was measured to monitor important fibre attributes in response to calcium propionate. Although the diets supplemented with calcium propionate should have provided more energy than the diets without calcium propionate, the metabolisable energy intake of all animals was similar (p = 0.278). It seems that rather than sparing amino acids, the alpacas regulated their energy intake and refused to consume the additional energy offered as calcium propionate. Consequently, they produced less fibre, and the diameter of their fibre was smaller than those alpacas that were not fed calcium propionate. It seems that alpacas rely on their digestive and metabolic adaptations to efficiently obtain and conserve energy for their survival. PMID:24621322

  17. The short-term effects of soybean intake on oxidative and carbonyl stress in men and women.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Hodosy, Július; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hal?ák, Luká?; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Beyond other beneficial effects, a soy-rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications. Reduction of oxidative and carbonyl stress has been proposed as the underlying mechanism, but the evidence for this is lacking. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of short-term increased soy intake on oxidative and carbonyl stress parameters in young volunteers. Young healthy probands (omnivores) of both genders (55 women, 33 men) were given soybeans (2 g/kg bodyweight daily) for one week. Markers of oxidative and carbonyl stress were measured in plasma at the beginning and at the end of one week soybean intake and after another week of a wash-out period. Total antioxidant capacity was increased by soybean intake in both genders. This led to decreased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in women, but not in men. On the contrary, in men, soybean intake increased lipoperoxidation. No effects on carbonyl stress markers (advanced glycation end products-specific fluorescence and fructosamine) were found. Soybean intake has gender-specific effects on oxidative stress in young healthy probands potentially due to divergent action and metabolism of phytoestrogens in men and women. Effects of soybean intake on carbonyl stress should be evaluated in longer studies. PMID:23652988

  18. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  19. The relationship between parental labor force participation and adolescents' dietary intake and risks to cardiovascular health 

    E-print Network

    Godwin, Anne Louise

    1997-01-01

    . Daughters' waist-to-hip ratios were predicted by fathers'job importance, fathers' work history, and mothers' occupational energy intake, fat intake, saturated fat intake, and carbohydrate intake were predicted by mothers' work schedule irregularity...

  20. Water and nutrient intake in pregnant New Zealand women: association with wheeze in their infants at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia Ellyett; McDonald, Barry William

    2014-01-01

    The association between water and nutrient intake in pregnant women, and wheeze in their 18 month old infants, was investigated in a prospective study. Volunteers (n=369) recruited from northern New Zealand were visited in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy. At each visit anthropometric measurements were taken, diet assessed by 24-hour recall and 3-day food records and questionnaires determining personal details administered. Eighteen months after birth, infants were measured, and questions on infant feeding and wheeze asked. Overall, mothers reported 32% of their infants had wheezed in the last 12 months. After adjusting for significant covariates and energy intake, higher maternal intakes of dietary water (p=0.009) and manganese (p=0.024) were associated with decreased wheeze, and glucose (p=0.003) with increased wheeze. Prevalence of infant wheeze decreased 18.5% from the lower to the upper quartile of water intake, and 17.4% from the lower to the upper quartile of manganese intake. Wheeze was more common in Polynesian than European infants (41.8% vs 28.9%). Polynesian mothers consumed significantly less dietary water (median 451 g less) and manganese (median 1374 ?g less) than European mothers per day. Glucose was only significant because of strong association with infant wheeze at extremely high maternal intakes of >40 g/day in ~10% of the subjects. There was no association between maternal dietary supplement intake and wheeze. Mothers estimated at high risk of infant wheeze consumed less tap water, whole grains, tea, fruit; and more fruit juice, soft drink, processed meat and fish products, and refined grain products. This is the first study to report an intergenerational association between maternal water, and glucose intake with infant wheeze. PMID:25516325

  1. An exploratory NMR nutri-metabonomic investigation reveals dimethyl sulfone as a dietary biomarker for onion intake.

    PubMed

    Winning, Hanne; Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Dragsted, Lars O; Viereck, Nanna; Poulsen, Morten; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Engelsen, Søren B

    2009-11-01

    The metabolome following intake of onion by-products is evaluated. Thirty-two rats were fed a diet containing an onion by-product or one of the two derived onion by-product fractions: an ethanol extract and the residue. A 24 hour urine sample was analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of onion intake on the rat metabolism. Application of interval extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) proved to be able to distinguish between the metabolomic profiles from rats consuming normal feed and rats fed with an onion diet. Two dietary biomarkers for onion intake were identified as dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The same two dietary biomarkers were subsequently revealed by interval partial least squares regression (PLS) to be perfect quantitative markers for onion intake. The best PLS calibration model yielded a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.97% (w/w) with only 1 latent variable and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.94. This indicates that urine from rats on the by-product diet, the extract diet, and the residue diet all contain the same dietary biomarkers and it is concluded that dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid are dietary biomarkers for onion intake. Being able to detect specific dietary biomarkers is highly beneficial in the control of nutritionally enhanced functional foods. PMID:19838425

  2. Determinants of heat production in newborn lambs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, F. A.; Small, J.

    1980-06-01

    Measurement of summit metabolism (the maximum rate of heat production) in lambs aged 1 or 4h revealed considerable between animal variation. Summit metabolism per unit body weight decreased as body weight increased whereas summit metabolism per unit body surface area was independent of body weight. Severe pre-partum hypoxia was apparently associated with a low summit metabolism at 1 or 4h of age which made such lambs very susceptible to hypothermia. This deficiency in heat production capacity did not appear to be a permanent featuresince most lambs so affected recovered full thermoregulatory ability by 12h of age. Feeding of colostrum conferred an immediate 18% increase in summit metabolism. The significance of these findings to the prevention of hypothermia in the newborn lamb is discussed.

  3. 2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  4. Food intake and struvite crystalluria in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Palmore, W P; Bartos, K D

    1987-01-01

    Four adult, castrated, male ferrets were studied in two similar trials for effects of food intake on variables hypothesized to promote struvite (ammonium, magnesium, phosphate hexahydrate) crystal formation in urine. Struvite crystalluria occurred in three of the four ferrets. Urine pH (UpH) averaged 6.6 for these ferrets. UpH in the ferret without crystalluria was 6.0. By simple linear regression analysis, no relationship was found between the amount of food ingested and the urinary concentration and excretion of magnesium and phosphorous. However, urine osmolality and excretion of both protein and ammonium were correlated to food intake (P less than .05). Ways in which these effects could promote struvite crystal formation are discussed. PMID:3451569

  5. Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

    2002-07-01

    Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989

  6. Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

    1999-02-08

    managed. Environmental Influences Climatic conditions in which range herbivores graze and browse can have a profound effect on forage intake (NRC 1987). Each herbivore species appears to have its own comfort zone with upper and lower temperature limits... their digestive tracts rapidly not only because they are quickly fermented and digested, but also because the browsers and intermediate feeders have an open rumen anatomy that allows materials to pass out more easily than the more compartment- alized rumen...

  7. Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes.

    PubMed

    Montfort-Steiger, Veronica; Williams, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes. Key pointsAthletic girls show lower carbohydrate intakes compared to boys.Substrate oxidation during exercise appears to be maturity related, fat being the preferred fuel for oxidation in younger athletic children.Children appear to have lower endogenous but greater exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise.Carbohydrate intake during exercise appears to show no additional performance improvement in young athletes. Perhaps fat intake or a combination of both nutrients may be a better approach for nutrient supplementation during exercise.Gastric emptying physiology of young athletes is not well known. Adult sport drinks showed a tendency to delay gastric emptying in young athletes during exercise at higher intensities.More research is needed in paediatric sports nutrition. PMID:24149421

  8. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  9. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  10. PYY3-36: Beyond food intake.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2015-07-01

    The gastrointestinal hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (PYY(3-36)) has attained broad recognition with respect to its involvement in energy homeostasis and the control of food intake. It is mainly secreted by distal intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating and exerts neurally mediated, paracrine and endocrine effects on various target organs. In addition to its gastrointestinal effects, PYY(3-36) has long been known to inhibit food intake. Recent closer examination of the effects of PYY(3-36) revealed that this gut-derived peptide also influences a wide spectrum of behavioral and cognitive functions that are pivotal for basic processes of perception and judgment, including central information processing, salience learning, working memory, and behavioral responding to novelty. Here, we review the effects of PYY(3-36) that go beyond food intake and provide a conceptual framework suggesting that several apparently unrelated behavioral actions of PYY(3-36) may actually reflect different manifestations of modulating the central dopamine system. PMID:25527432

  11. Physiopathological effects of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculation in weaned calves fed with colostrum containing antibodies to EspB and Intimin.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, B C; Vilte, D A; Larzábal, M; Abdala, A; Galarza, R; Zotta, E; Ibarra, C; Mercado, E C; Cataldi, A

    2014-06-24

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious systemic complication which particularly affects children. Cattle are the primary reservoir for E. coli O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. In this study, we evaluated the ability of transferred maternal colostral antibodies against ?-Intimin C280 and EspB, to protect young weaned calves from E. coli O157:H7 infection. Hyperimmune colostra were obtained by immunization of pregnant cows with a mix of the mentioned antigens. All vaccinated cows mounted a significant IgG response against ?-Intimin C280, and EspB in sera and colostra. Colostrum-fed calves also exhibited high serum IgG titers against ?-Intimin C280 and EspB along with a rise in mucosal ?-Intimin C280-specific IgG antibodies at recto-anal junction and ileum. Additionally, 70 day-old calves received a challenge with E. coli O157:H7 but no reduction in total bacterial shedding or frequency of E. coli O157:H7 excretion from these calves was observed. Most tissue samples showed granulocyte focal infiltrations of the lamina propria and enterocyte erosion. In conclusion, up to the 70th day, the passively acquired ?-Intimin-C280 and EspB-IgG antibodies present in sera and recto-anal mucosa reached a titer insufficient to reduce EHEC O157 shedding and damages of experimentally inoculated young calves. PMID:24797699

  12. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking. PMID:26011395

  13. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed diet-distress association in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea, as well as other various ethnic minority immigrants in Korea. PMID:20430141

  14. Prospective association between milk intake and adiposity in preschool age children

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the quantity and type of milk (whole, 2%, or 1%/skim) consumed at age 2 is associated with adiposity at age 3. Design We assessed milk and dairy intake at age 2 with food frequency questionnaires completed by mothers. Our primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight at age 3 years, defined as BMI (kg/m2) for age and sex ? 85th percentile. Subjects 852 preschool-aged children in the prospective US cohort Project Viva. Statistical Analysis We used linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for maternal BMI and education, paternal BMI, and child age, sex, race/ethnicity, intake of energy, non-dairy beverages, TV-viewing, and BMI z-score at age 2 years. Results At age 2 years, mean (SD) milk intake was 2.6 (1.2) servings per day. Higher intake of whole milk at age 2, but not low-fat milk, was associated with a slightly lower BMI z-score (?0.09 unit per daily serving [95% CI ?0.16, ?0.01]) at age 3; when restricted to children with a normal BMI (5th to < 85th %ile) at age 2, the association was null (?0.05 unit per daily serving [95%CI ?0.13, 0.02]). Intake of milk at age 2, whether full or low-fat, was not associated with risk of incident overweight at age 3. Neither total milk nor total dairy intake at age 2 was associated with BMI z-score or incident overweight at age 3. Conclusion Neither consuming more dairy products, nor switching from whole milk to low-fat milk at age 2, appears likely to prevent overweight in early childhood. PMID:20338282

  15. Fatty Acid Transporter CD36 Mediates Hypothalamic Effect of Fatty Acids on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S.; Le Foll, Christelle; Philippe, Erwann; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Marsollier, Nicolas; Bui, Linh-Chi; Guissard, Christophe; Dairou, Julien; Lorsignol, Anne; Pénicaud, Luc; Levin, Barry E.; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36). The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or ?-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/? heparin (IL, ILH, respectively) or saline/heparin (SH) were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1) Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN) with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2) Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH; and 3) Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH. ILH significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to SH (p<0.001). Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of ILH on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented ILH effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation. PMID:24040150

  16. Ethanol Intake Patterns in Female Mice: Influence of Allopregnanolone and the Inhibition of Its Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.; Beckley, Ethan H.; Nickel, Jeffrey D.; Eddy, Sarah; Finn, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors that exhibits a psychopharmacological profile similar to ethanol (i.e., anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic). Based on research suggesting that manipulation of ALLO levels altered ethanol self-administration in male rodents, the current studies determined whether exogenous ALLO administration or the inhibition of its synthesis in vivo modulated ethanol intake patterns in female C57BL/6J mice. Lickometer circuits collected temporal lick records of ethanol (10% v/v) and water consumption during daily 2-hr limited access sessions. Following the establishment of stable ethanol intake, studies examined the effect of an acute ALLO challenge (3.2 – 24.0 mg/kg) or a 7-day blockade of ALLO production with finasteride (FIN; 50 or 100 mg/kg) on ethanol intake in a within-subjects design. In contrast to results in male mice, ethanol dose (g/kg), ethanol preference, and most of the bout parameters were unaltered by ALLO pretreatment in female mice. Ethanol intake in females also was recalcitrant to 7-day treatment with 50 mg/kg FIN, whereas 100 mg/kg FIN significantly reduced the ethanol dose consumed by 35%. The FIN-attenuated ethanol intake was attributable to a significant decrease in bout frequency (up to 45%), with lick patterns indicating reduced maintenance of consumption throughout the 2-hr session. FIN also produced a dose-dependent decrease in brain ALLO levels. In conjunction with data in male mice, the present findings indicate that there are sex differences in the physiological regulation of ethanol intake patterns by GABAergic neurosteroids. PMID:18486362

  17. Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-08-15

    We estimated human exposure to organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes, but also polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), through food consumption (mainly food of animal origin) and indoor dust ingestion in Romania. A total of 71 food samples (meat, diary products, vegetable cooking oil, and eggs from urban supermarkets and rural areas) and 18 indoor dust samples were collected from Iasi, Eastern Romania. HCHs and DDTs were the most prevalent OCPs in both food and dust samples. Higher levels of OCPs were measured in food samples collected from rural areas compared to those from urban supermarkets, except milk-based products for which no significant differences could be recorded. However, levels of contamination with HCHs in milk-based products were occasionally higher than current European maximum residue levels (MRLs). Above-MRL levels of DDTs were also recorded in eggs from rural areas. In dust, DDTs (median concentration of 1050 ng/g) were the most prevalent contaminants and p,p'-DDT was consistently the main contributor of sum DDTs, with a contribution between 50 and 75%. Surprisingly, OCPs, mainly DDT, were found at elevated levels in indoor dust samples (median concentrations for sum OCPs of 1200 ng/g dust). This suggests the importance of dust as an exposure route for pesticides (especially at contaminated sites), since dust is not commonly considered in exposure assessments for these chemicals. The main contributor to the sum PBDEs in dust samples was BDE 209 (median concentration of 495 ng/g), with a contribution between 94 and 99%. We estimated that the dietary intake of SigmaHCHs and SigmaDDTs is high for both adults (1500-2100 ng/day) and toddlers (1100-1500 ng/day), while the PCB dietary intake was estimated at 200 ng/day for adults, being compared to other European studies. The contribution of dust ingestion to the daily intake of PBDEs is increased in comparison to intake of other chlorinated contaminants, while food consumption seems to be more important than dust for the HBCD intake. However, neither BDE 209 nor HBCD were measured at levels above method LOQ in any food samples and their dietary intake is probably overestimated because nondetects were replaced by (1)/(2) LOQ. The estimated intakes obtained in the present study are in good agreement with the higher concentrations of OCPs and the low levels of PBDEs reported recently in Romanian human samples. PMID:20704229

  18. Salt intake and cardiovascular disease: why are the data inconsistent?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M J; Mente, A; Smyth, A; Yusuf, S

    2013-04-01

    Effective population-based interventions are required to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reducing salt intake has emerged as a leading target, with many guidelines recommending sodium intakes of 2.3 g/day or lower. These guideline thresholds are based largely on clinical trials reporting a reduction in blood pressure with low, compared with moderate, intake. However, no large-scale randomized trials have been conducted to determine the effect of low sodium intake on CV events. Prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between sodium intake and CV outcomes have been inconsistent and a number of recent studies have reported an association between low sodium intake (in the range recommended by current guidelines) and an increased risk of CV death. In the largest of these studies, a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CV death and heart failure was found. Despite a large body of research in this area, there are divergent interpretations of these data, with some advocating a re-evaluation of the current guideline recommendations. In this article, we explore potential reasons for the differing interpretations of existing evidence on the association between sodium intake and CVD. Similar to other areas in prevention, the controversy is likely to remain unresolved until large-scale definitive randomized controlled trials are conducted to determine the effect of low sodium intake (compared to moderate intake) on CVD incidence. PMID:23257945

  19. Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.

    PubMed

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. PMID:25528694

  20. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545