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Sample records for intake colostrum production

  1. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  2. Long-term effects of colostrum intake in piglet mortality and performance.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the long-term effects of colostrum intake on performance and mortality in pigs. A total of 1,455 live-born piglets in 10 commercial herds were followed from birth until 22 wk of age. Pigs were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at onset (intermediate weight), and during the fattening period (finishing weight). Colostrum intake was calculated by the mechanistic model developed by Theil et al. (see text for citation). One linear mixed model was fitted to model the possible associations between colostrum intake and weight at the weaning, intermediate, and finishing periods. In addition to colostrum intake as the main predictor of interest, other predictor variables were also tested, namely birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and the interval between birth and first suckling (t). Colostrum intake and birth weight were positively associated with weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( < 0.001) weights. Furthermore, higher colostrum intake is more beneficial to weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( = 0.02) weights in piglets with low versus high birth weights. Birth order was positively associated with weight at each measurement time ( = 0.01). Sex affected only finishing weight ( < 0.001). Some breeds differed in piglets' weight at onset or during the fattening period. The association between t and weaning weight differed by breed. Three generalized linear mixed models were performed to model the probability of dying during the suckling, the nursery, or the fattening period. Colostrum intake, birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and t were tested. Preweaning mortality was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.004) and positively associated with t ( < 0.001). Mortality during the nursery period was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.002). The negative association between colostrum intake and mortality

  3. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

  4. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P<0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P<0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected

  5. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  6. Management and production factors influencing immunoglobulin G1 concentration in colostrum from Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D

    1991-07-01

    Immunoglobulin G1 concentration was measured in 919 first milking colostrums from Holstein cows during a 4-yr period on a commercial dairy farm. Sources of variation analyzed for effect on colostral IgG1 concentration were season of calving, lactation number, dry period length, intercalving interval, complete lactation milk and fat production, weight of first milking colostrum, and time from calving to first milking. Weight of first milking colostrum was the variable most highly correlated (negatively) with colostral IgG1 concentration (r = -.29). Weight of first milking colostrum and lactation number of the cow were the most significant discriminators between colostrum of low and high IgG1 concentration. The implications of these results for colostrum feeding management are discussed. PMID:1894821

  7. Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schönhusen, U; Metges, C C

    2013-02-01

    In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from

  8. Effects of oral supplementation with bovine colostrum on the immune system of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Boudry, C; Buldgen, A; Portetelle, D; Collard, A; Théwis, A; Dehoux, J-P

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance, haematological parameters, and serum and local anti-colostrum immunoglobulin levels were examined. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid were analysed for phenotype as well as for their ability to produce cytokines. The stimulation index (SI) of mononuclear cells from different organs was obtained after colostral or mitogenic stimulation. Feed intake, growth, and haematological parameters were not significantly affected by colostrum. Total serum IgA levels were increased after colostrum supplementation, with a transient decrease in total IgG. Local anti-colostrum immunization was observed in colostrum-fed piglets. The CD21+/CD3+ cells populations of the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP) were markedly affected. The SI of lymphocyte populations changed significantly whereas, naive blood lymphocytes were not stimulated in vitro in the presence of bovine colostrum, suggesting local anti-colostrum immunization and an absence of direct mitogenic effects of the colostrum. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was present in the different organs of colostrum-fed piglets. Bovine colostrum especially stimulated iPP cells. PMID:17187836

  9. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  10. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  11. [Concentration of species alien (bovine) IgG in the blood serum of foals after the intake of non-species specific colostrum preparation].

    PubMed

    Warko, G; Becht, H; Bostedt, H

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen vital foals with free access to maternal colostrum received a additional non-species-specific commercial colostrum additive within the first 18 hours of their life. The additive had been prepared from bovine colostrum. At birth no bovine IgG was detectable. The concentration of bovine IgG reached its maximum 18 hours post natum with XG = 74.6 mg/dl. 96 hours after birth IgG levels had dropped to XG = 20.9 mg/dl. The correlation of bovine IgG with GGT-activity was highly significant. Formation of antibodies against bovine IgG could not be demonstrated. It is not possible to increase igG in the circulation of newborn foals to satisfactory levels with IgG of bovine origin in the used commercial colostrum additive. PMID:8129698

  12. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.05). The HMB supplementation did not affect colostrum composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P < 0.05), dry matter (19.0 vs. 18.2 ± 0.26; P < 0.05), and energy (4.81 vs. 4.47 ± 0.12 kJ/g; P < 0.05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P < 0.05). The HMB piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P < 0.01), although the milk yield was not reduced. Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) μM; P < 0.05] whereas plasma 3-hydroxy butyrate was reduced in HMB sows during lactation. In conclusion, HMB supplemented to sows improved the colostrum production but inhibited piglet

  13. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk production and longevity in Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled clinical trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. ...

  14. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC. PMID:26020907

  15. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  16. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P.; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  17. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

  18. The effects of dietary supplementation with chromium picolinate throughout gestation on productive performance, Cr concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Zhan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Su, Binchao; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic) on productive performance, chromium (Cr) concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows. Thirty Yorkshire sows were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were equally grouped and treated with either a diet containing 0 (control) or 400 ppb dietary Cr supplementation throughout gestation. The sows received the same basal diet based on corn-DDGS meal. Supplemental CrPic increased (P < 0.05) the sow body mass gain from the insemination to the day 110 of gestation in sows. No differences (P > 0.50) were observed in the gestation interval, sow mass, and backfat at insemination, after farrowing, at weaning and lactation loss. The number of piglets born alive, piglets per litter at weaning, and litter weaned mass were increased (P < 0.05) for those supplemented with CrPic compared with the control. However, the total number of piglets born, total born litter mass, average piglet birth body mass, born alive litter mass, and average born alive piglet mass did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05). The placental masses of sows were similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with CrPic throughout gestation in sows showed increased (P < 0.01) concentration of Cr in the colostrum or serum at days 70 and 110. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with CrPic throughout gestation in sows decreased (P < 0.05) the serum insulin concentration, the glucose or serum urea nitrogen concentration at days 70 and 110. However, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed in total protein concentration among treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed in total solids, protein, fat or lactose among sows fed the diets supplemented with CrPic compared with the control. This exciting finding provides evidence for an increase in mass gain and live-born piglets in sows

  19. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  20. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  1. Colostrum composition of Santa Inês sheep and passive transfer of immunity to lambs.

    PubMed

    Alves, A C; Alves, N G; Ascari, I J; Junqueira, F B; Coutinho, A S; Lima, R R; Pérez, J R O; De Paula, S O; Furusho-Garcia, I F; Abreu, L R

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Inês ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 40±15 min (mean±SE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS)<2.75, but did not differ between primiparous and multiparous with BCS≥2.75 (interaction parity and BCS). The IgG concentration and fat, protein, lactose, and defatted dry extract percentages were not affected by the BCS of the ewe at lambing or by the parity. The total solids percentage in the colostrum was higher in ewes with BCS<2.75 (interaction BCS and time). The production and the protein, total solid, and defatted dry extract percentages showed quadratic behavior, the fat percentage decreased linearly, and the lactose percentage increased linearly with time postpartum. The IgG concentration in the colostrum was not correlated with the ewe's weight or BCS at the time of lambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of

  2. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  3. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet. PMID:23365360

  4. Feeding corn during the last 12 days of gestation improved colostrum production and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vera, S; Terrazas, A; Delgadillo, J A; Serafín, N; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Hernández, H

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to investigate if partial substitution of a grazing diet with a supplemental high-starch feed during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goat does grazing semi-arid rangeland. For the first objective, 25 pregnant does were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) grazing only (control; n = 11), and 2) grazing plus 0.6 kg/d of supplemental corn (as fed), a high starch feed, during the last 12 ± 1.0 d before parturition (SC; n = 14). Colostrum was collected at parturition and again at 1, 3, 6, and 10 h postpartum for yield and composition. In all goats, blood concentrations of glucose and plasma progesterone were determined. Total colostrum yield/10 h was greater (P = 0.002) in the SC does (1,102 ± 144 g) than in control does (405 ± 50 g). From 6 to 10 h postpartum, contents of colostrum protein and solids not fat were less (P ≤ 0.012) whereas lactose contents were greater (P = 0.035) in the SC does than in control does. Concentration of glucose in the blood at parturition was greater (P = 0.037) in the SC does (160 ± 13 mg/dL) than in control does (115 ± 12 mg/dL). A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in plasma progesterone concentrations occurred 1 d before parturition in control does, whereas the decrease (P = 0.008) occurred 3 d before parturition in SC does. For the second objective, 20 does (10 per group) and their single kids were randomly assigned to the same treatments as above for evaluation of dietary treatment on neonatal activity. Kid activity was assessed using videos recorded during the first 90 min after birth. Frequency of low-pitched bleats was greater (P < 0.001) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Frequencies and durations of teat seeking from 30 to 90 min after birth and of suckling activity were greater (P ≤ 0.015) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Duration of parturition was longer (P = 0.001) in control does (58 ± 10.2 min) than in SC does (21 ± 2.8 min

  5. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products. PMID:26102159

  6. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour. PMID:27600963

  7. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in goat colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-10-15

    As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. PMID:27173528

  8. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    PubMed

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  9. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  10. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    PubMed

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    G (+4.5 g/L) than those with a BMI at 17 kg/m or below ( < 0.01). Concentrations of colostrum IgG varied largely between herds and between sows. The largest variation of piglet IgG was mainly on the piglet level, supporting the complex nature of IgG production and uptake. However, the strong association between colostrum IgG and piglet IgG shows that increased IgG level in colostrum will improve the levels of IgG in piglets and potentially increase survival of the piglets. PMID:26440345

  11. Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Traina, Giovanna; Tomasello, Giovanni; Casagrande-Proietti, Patrizia; Leonardi, Leonardo; Barbato, Olimpia; Brecchia, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the composition of colostrum and the potential preventive and therapeutic use of this "first milk" for treating various gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Colostrum is a complex biological liquid that is richer in antimicrobial peptides, immune-regulating compounds and growth factors than the subsequent mature milk. The main functions of colostrum are to provide essential nutritional components, strengthen the natural defense system, modulate immune response, balance intestinal microbiota and enhance the growth and repair of several tissues. Several studies and clinical trials carried out both in vitro and in vivo on humans and animals suggest the clinical benefits of bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation in gastro-intestinal diseases. Despite the encouraging results, further well-designed studies are required in order to confirm these effects, the dose and duration of treatment. Colostrum is safe since there are no contraindications regarding high dose levels and few side effects of clinical relevance have been reported. In conclusion, in the near future, colostrum-based supplements may play a complementary role to synthetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27100711

  12. Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.

    PubMed

    Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

  13. Serum immunoglobulin G concentration in goat kids fed colostrum or a colostrum substitute.

    PubMed

    Constant, S B; LeBlanc, M M; Klapstein, E F; Beebe, D E; Leneau, H M; Nunier, C J

    1994-12-15

    To determine the suitability of a new colostrum substitute derived from goat serum and to determine the amount of colostral IgG needed to achieve serum IgG concentration > 800 mg/dl, twin kids from 14 does were fed colostrum or a colostrum substitute. The volume of colostrum or colostrum substitute fed was calculated so that half the kids in each group received IgG at a low dosage (1.5 g/kg of body weight) and the other half received IgG at a high dosage (3 g/kg). Kids were bottle fed the colostrum or colostrum substitute and then fed pooled goat's milk until 18 hours old, at which time they were allowed to nurse their dams. Does were milked manually every 2 hours after parturition until specific gravity of mammary secretions was < 1.02, the specific gravity of goat's milk. Serum IgG concentration of each kid was determined by means of single radial immunodiffusion at birth and 12, 18, and 24 hours and 7, 21, and 42 days after birth. Kids were weighed at each blood collection and monitored for illness daily. None of the kids had measurable serum IgG concentrations at birth. Mean serum IgG concentration was significantly higher in kids fed colostrum than in kids fed colostrum substitute at all times, except days 7 and 42 (P < 0.05). By 24 hours after birth, serum IgG concentration was > 800 mg/dl in all kids fed colostrum, in 4 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the higher dosage, and in 2 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the lower dosage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7744651

  14. Osteoporosis and bone metabolic parameters in dependence upon calcium intake through milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Stracke, H; Renner, E; Knie, G; Leidig, G; Minne, H; Federlin, K

    1993-09-01

    The bone mineral content of young adults as well as of osteoporotic patients and age-matched controls without bone disease was measured by single-photon absorptiometry. A retrospective nutrition survey was additionally made to study the relationship between bone mineral content and calcium intake in different periods of life. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density of young adults is directly related to the calcium intake through milk and dairy products. The osteoporotics had a significantly lower bone mineral content than the controls. Calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence had been significantly lower in the patients than in the controls, whereas in the later periods of life (20-30 years prior to the study and at the time of the study) there were no significant differences between the calcium intakes of the two groups. It was also found that an adequate intake of calcium protected against increased bone resorption, as evidenced in particular by the reduced levels of serum osteocalcin, a parameter of bone turnover. In conclusion it can be stated that the data support the hypothesis that adequate calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence is a decisive marker for obtaining a maximum bone mass (peak adult bone mass) and for the prevention of osteoporosis. Furthermore, it can be stated that increased calcium intake in the later years may not reduce the accelerated risk of osteoporosis resulting from inadequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence. PMID:8243426

  15. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  16. Chitotriosidase activity in goat blood and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Argüello, A; Castro, N; Batista, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sanchez-Macias, D; Quesada, E; Capote, J

    2008-05-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investigated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this activity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking at partum and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Goat kid blood was collected at birth and every 7 d thereafter until goats kids were 56 d old. The ChT activity ranged from 2,368 to 3,350 nmol/ mL per hour in goat blood serum, and no statistical differences were detected through time. However, activity tended to decrease from 3 d prepartum to 2 d post-partum. Colostrum ChT activity was 3,912 nmol/mL per hour and 465 nmol/mL per hour on the day of delivery and 4 d postpartum, respectively. Colostrum ChT activity was significantly higher at partum than at any other time. The ChT activity in colostrum was significantly greater at 1 d postpartum than at 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity did not differ in colostrum collected on d 2, 3, and 4 postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity in goat kid blood serum ranged from 2,664 to 9,231 nmol/mL per hour at birth and 49 d of life, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in the blood serum increased with age: at birth, activity was significantly less than at 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 d postpartum. The maximum ChT activity in blood serum was observed at 49 d postpartum. Activity in 49-d-old kids was significantly greater than that observed in kids at 0, 7, and 14 d postpartum. PMID:18420635

  17. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  18. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n = 106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the Yangtze River outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93 μg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p < 0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (-)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.33 ± 7.34 μg kg(-1)bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01 mg kg(-1) bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:26650085

  19. Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 μmol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

  20. Change of antibody levels to ferritin in the sera of foals after birth: possible passive transfer of maternal anti-ferritin autoantibody via colostrum and age-related anti-ferritin autoantibody production.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masami; Kondo, Takashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Antibody (immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM or IgA) levels relative to ferritin in six foal sera (three male and three female) after birth (day 0 and 2, 6, 10, 20, 28, 36, 40, 52 and 56 weeks of age) were semi-quantitatively measured with normalization with antibody activity to ferritin in one adult horse serum. After addition of horse spleen ferritin to the serum sample, the complex formed between antibodies to ferritin in the serum and ferritin was co-immunoprecipitated using antibody to horse spleen ferritin. Antibody classes of the co-immnoprecipitate were detected with antibodies specific for horse IgG, IgM or IgA heavy chain. Six adult horse serum samples were found to have ferritin-binding activities in all immunoglobulin classes examined. Although ferritin antibody activities (IgG, IgM and IgA) were scant in the foal sera before sucking colostrum (day 0), their activities increased at 2 weeks of age. IgG antibodies showed a biphasic response and IgM antibody activity increased up to 40 weeks of age. Antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) activities to ferritin in three colostrum samples were significantly higher than in adult horse serum samples. These results demonstrate that antibody to ferritin in foal serum is derived from colostrum after birth and is produced thereafter. PMID:23607654

  1. Retinol and α-tocopherol in human milk and their relationship with dietary intake during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiajing; Xiao, Hailong; Wu, Kejian; Yu, Zuxun; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Kelei; Li, Jiaomei; Li, Duo

    2016-04-01

    Human milk is considered as an optimal nutrition source for neonates, and vitamins A and E improve oxidative stress in offspring through breast milk. We aim to determine α-tocopherol and retinol contents in breast milk obtained over the course of lactation stages from mothers in three regions in China, and to investigate their correlation with maternal dietary intake during lactation. Human milk samples and 24 hour food records were obtained from mothers in Hangzhou (n = 34), Lanzhou (n = 34) and Beijing (n = 34) on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) postpartum. Concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol in breast milk samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The breast milk concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol decreased over progress of lactation stages (P < 0.001). The retinol content of transitional milk from Hangzhou was higher than that in Lanzhou (P = 0.019) and Beijing (P < 0.001), and the α-tocopherol content in colostrum from Hangzhou showed a lower concentration than that from Lanzhou (P = 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between retinol and α-tocopherol contents in colostrum (r = 0.37, P = 0.002), transitional (r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and mature milk (r = 0.53, P < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between any dietary constituents (grain, fruit, vegetable, dairy, egg and meat, oil and bean products) and either retinol or α-tocopherol. PMID:26987293

  2. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  3. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  4. A proteomics study of colostrum and milk from the two major small ruminant dairy breeds from the Canary Islands: a bovine milk comparison perspective.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Renaut, Jenny; Argüello, Anastasio; Castro, Noemí

    2016-08-01

    Colostrum and milk feeding are key factors for the newborn ruminant survival, affecting the future performance of the animal. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the potential of feeding newborn ruminants (mainly goat kids and lambs) with colostrum and milk from other more productive ruminant species (mainly cows). Although some studies regarding differences between colostrum and milk from these three species have been performed, herein we conduct for the first time a comparison using a proteomics 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis gel-based approach between these three ruminant species. In this study colostrum and milk samples from six Holstein cows, six Canarian sheep and six Majorera goats were used to determine the chemical composition, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) concentrations and proteomics profiles. Results showed that in general sheep colostrum and milk contained higher fat, protein and lactose percentages compared to bovine and goat samples. Additionally, no differences in the IgG or IgM concentrations were found among any of the three studied species, with the exception of sheep colostrum that showed the highest IgM concentration. With reference to the proteomics-based approach, some high abundant proteins such as serum albumin precursor, beta-caseins or different immunoglobulins components were found in colostrum, milk or even both. Nevertheless, differences in other proteins with immune function such as serotransferrin or lactoperoxidase were detected. This study shows that despite the similar immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from the three studied species, differences in several immune components can be detected when these samples are studied using a proteomics approach. Finally, this study also provides a base for future investigation in colostrum and milk proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:27600973

  5. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:27122369

  6. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

  7. Prepartum supplementation of nicotinic acid: Effects on health of the dam, colostrum quality, and acquisition of immunity in the calf.

    PubMed

    Aragona, K M; Chapman, C E; Pereira, A B D; Isenberg, B J; Standish, R B; Maugeri, C J; Cabral, R G; Erickson, P S

    2016-05-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) has been shown to reduce lipolysis, alter milk components and the ruminal environment, and increase blood flow. Increased blood flow to the mammary gland during colostrogenesis might increase nutrients and immunoglobulin concentration of colostrum. Twenty-six multiparous Holstein cows were housed in a tiestall barn. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments 4 wk prepartum: (1) 0g/d of NA (control, CON) or (2) 48g/d of NA (NA). Total mixed ration amounts fed and refused were measured daily to determine dry matter intake. Blood samples were collected from dams every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from the coccygeal vein or artery and were analyzed for glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Colostrum was collected and weighed within 90 min of parturition. Colostral immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was analyzed using radial immunodiffusion assay. Calves were removed from their dams before suckling and weighed within 30 min after birth. Calves received 3 L of a lacteal-based colostrum replacer that provided a total of 225.8g of IgG within 2h of birth. Calf blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture at 0 and 24h of age and analyzed for IgG concentration and determination of apparent efficiency of absorption. Colostrum yield, dry matter intake, IgG yield, and fat and solids percentage of colostrum did not differ between treatments. Serum concentrations of glucose and BHB were not affected by treatment. We detected an effect of week on serum glucose concentrations at calving and on serum BHB concentrations at 1 wk postpartum. There was a treatment by week effect for serum NEFA concentrations at 1 wk postpartum, where cows that received NA prepartum had higher serum NEFA concentration than CON cows, indicating that a NEFA rebound occurred. No differences were observed for calf body weight, 0- or 24-h serum IgG concentration, or apparent efficiency of absorption

  8. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  9. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84–1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80–1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70–1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63–1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:26877260

  10. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84-1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80-1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70-1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63-1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:26877260

  11. THE USE OF SCHOOL FOOD PRODUCTION RECORDS AS A SURROGATE MEASURE OF STUDENT INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National School Lunch Program meals provide an important source of fruit, vegetables, and milk for students. In intervention studies, measuring individual dietary intake is expensive. This study investigated whether food production records could be used as a surrogate measure of student consumption....

  12. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  13. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  14. Short communication: Changes in the composition of yak colostrum during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mi, J D; Zhou, J W; Ding, L M; Wang, L; Long, R J

    2016-01-01

    Although the great interest has been paid to colostrum utilization for calves, no systematic studies evaluating the compositional changes of yak colostrum during the first week after parturition have been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate such postpartum nutritional changes. Colostrum samples from 12 multiparous (2-7 lactations) yaks, grazed on alpine pasture, were collected at exactly 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h postpartum. Gross composition (fat, total solids, protein, and ash) were measured, as well as fat and water-soluble vitamins, fatty acid and mineral composition, and IgG. The colostrum, collected 1h postpartum, had the highest concentrations of crude protein, total solids, ash, vitamin A and E, β-carotene, and most minerals (Na, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe). These components decreased rapidly within 24h. Similarly, at 24h postpartum, IgG content decreased to 7.5% of the value (87.78 mg/mL) at 1h postpartum. In contrast, the concentration of vitamin C increased from 1 to 24h and then decreased consistently thereafter to the lowest value at 168 h. Phosphorus and Ca contents showed an increasing trend from 24 to 168 h after calving. Lactose content increased from 2.88% at 1h to 4.96% at 48 h postpartum and was steady to 168 h. Total n-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3-to-n-6 fatty acid ratio were proportionally similar as a percentage of total fatty acid methyl esters during the first 168 h of milk production. However, the proportion of total n-6 fatty acid content to total fatty acid methyl esters decreased from 3.07% at 1h to 2.60% at 24h. In summary, experimental results indicate colostrum should be provided to yak calves as soon as possible after birth to provide nutrients and enhance passive immunity. PMID:26547651

  15. Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: Vaccination response.

    PubMed

    Langel, S N; Wark, W A; Garst, S N; James, R E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination contributes to improved herd health and production. Boosting immune development at a young age may have long-term effects by enhancing vaccine immune response and efficacy. In the bovine, colostrum is the sole source of maternal immunity, having a substantial effect on health status in the neonate. To date, colostral antibody concentration is used to evaluate colostrum quality. However, colostrum also contains proteins and cells, which may affect immune development and future responses to vaccines. To determine the effect of maternal colostral cells on immune development, 37 female Holstein and Jersey dairy calves were bottle-fed 4 quarts total of whole colostrum (WC) or cell-free colostrum (CFC) at birth. Calves were vaccinated with 2 series of multivalent vaccines. Series A consisted of vaccines given between 1 and 4mo of life. Series B consisted of vaccines given between 5 and 10mo of life. Calf peripheral blood samples were obtained before each vaccination series and monthly for 3mo after each vaccination series. Cellular blood parameters were determined by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before vaccination series B and once a month for 2mo after vaccination series B. Calves fed CFC had fewer numbers of B cells in mo 2 after vaccination series A when compared with WC-fed calves. Calves fed CFC had decreased gene expression levels of IL-2 in mo 1 and numbers of CD4(+)CD62L(+)CD45RO(-) and CD4(+)CD62L(+)CD45RO(+) T cells in mo 0 and 1 after vaccination series B as compared with WC-fed calves. Our findings indicate a greater response to vaccines up to 6 to 10mo post-WC feeding when compared with CFC. These data suggest that adoptive transfer of maternal colostral cells at birth has a long-term effect on development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:26923041

  16. Nitrite and nitrate content in meat products and estimated intake in Denmark from 1998 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fagt, S; Nielsen, S; Andersen, R

    2008-10-01

    The content of nitrite and nitrate in cured meat products has been monitored in Denmark seven times between 1995 and 2006. The maximum permitted added amounts of sodium nitrite in Denmark (60 mg kg(-1) for most products up to 150 mg kg(-1) for special products) have not been exceeded, except for a few samples back in 2002. The intake, mean and intake distribution of sodium nitrite have been calculated from 1998 to 2006 with data from the Danish dietary survey conducted in 2000-02 on Danes from four to 75 years of age. The amounts used by industry have been relatively stable through the whole period with levels varying between 6 and 20 mg sodium nitrite kg(-1) with sausages, meat for open sandwiches and salami-type sausages being the greatest contributors. The mean intake of sodium nitrate was around 1 mg day(-1), which is very low compared with the total intake of 61 mg day(-1). The mean intake of sodium nitrite was 0.017 and 0.014, 0.009 and 0.008, and 0.007 and 0.003 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for men and women in the age groups 4-5, 6-14 and 15-75 years, respectively, which was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.09 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The 99th percentile for the group of 4-year-olds was 0.107 and 0.123 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, and the 95th percentile was 0.057 and 0.073 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, highest for the girls. With fewer than 100 boys and girls in the 4-5-year age group, only very few persons were responsible for the high intake. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the saliva and the degradation of nitrite during production and storage must also be considered when evaluating the intake of nitrite. PMID:18608491

  17. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  18. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  20. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  1. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  2. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  3. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  4. Invited review: Growth-promoting effects of colostrum in calves based on interaction with intestinal cell surface receptors and receptor-like transporters.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, Edgar C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal development and maturation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of neonatal calves is crucial for their survival. Major morphological and functional changes in the calf's GI tract initiated by colostrum bioactive substances promote the establishment of intestinal digestion and absorption of food. It is generally accepted that colostrum intake provokes the maturation of organs and systems in young calves, illustrating the significance of the cow-to-calf connection at birth. These postnatal adaptive changes of the GI tissues in neonatal calves are especially induced by the action of bioactive substances such as insulin-like growth factors, hormones, or cholesterol carriers abundantly present in colostrum. These substances interact with specific cell-surface receptors or receptor-like transporters expressed in the GI wall of neonatal calves to elicit their biological effects. Therefore, the abundance and activity of cell surface receptors and receptor-like transporters binding colostral bioactive substances are a key aspect determining the effects of the cow-to-calf connection at birth. The present review compiles the information describing the effects of colostrum feeding on selected serum metabolic and endocrine traits in neonatal calves. In this context, the current paper discusses specifically the consequences of colostrum feeding on the GI expression and activity of cell-receptors and receptor-like transporters binding growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, insulin, or cholesterol acceptors in neonatal calves. PMID:26874414

  5. Heat-treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms: Effects on colostrum characteristics and calf health and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to describe the effect of heat-treatment, at 60 deg C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and IgG concentration, and describe the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on preweaning calf health and performance. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical tri...

  6. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  7. Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher

  8. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurélien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milène; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8 ± 8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7 g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42 ± 32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs. PMID:26186389

  9. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    PubMed

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  10. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  11. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. PMID:26995131

  12. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  13. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    PubMed

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  14. Method for determination of fatty acids in bovine colostrum using GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, S; Sats, A; Poikalainen, V; Karus, A

    2016-12-01

    Bovine colostrum is potentially valuable source of essential fatty acids (FAs), but so far only few studies have made the effort to estimate FA composition of this potential resource. The aim of current research was to fill this gap with selecting and validating an accurate procedure for the analysis of the composition of the FAs in bovine colostrum. We used colostrum samples of Holstein-Friesian cattle from Märja experimental farm as a test material. The validated method includes derivatization, in which FAs are sent through esterification with the acidic catalyst boron trifluoride. Formed methyl esters of fatty acids (FAMEs) were analysed using GC-FID. The obtained LOD and the LOQ of FAMEs were 0.11-0.68 and 0.37-2.27ppm, respectively. The analysis of fortified samples showed very good and similar recoveries, indicating that the method proposed here can be routinely used for determination and investigation of the fatty acids in dairy products. PMID:27374514

  15. Intake to Production Ratio: A Measure of Exposure Intimacy for Manufactured Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health. Objectives: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. Methods: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population’s economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use. Results: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000–24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan. Conclusion: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. PMID:23222017

  16. Performance and metabolic responses of Holstein calves to supplemental chromium in colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 ± 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr × time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood β-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099

  17. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  18. Alternative and classical complement pathway activity in sera from colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, H W; Gilmore, R J

    1980-01-01

    Haemolytic assays were used to compare alternative and classical complement (C) pathway activities in sera obtained from neonatal pigs reared on porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet. Dramatic increases in immunoglobulin concentrations were noted in the colostrum-fed animals during the first day of life, but there was not a concurrent, marked increase in either classical or alternative C pathway activity. Whether fed on homologous or heterologous colostrum, neonatal pigs had a similar gradual increase in alternative and classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period. If direct passive absorption of C components occurs in newborn pigs, it has only a minor influence on functional levels of alternative and classical C pathway activity in their sera. In pigs fed homologous and heterologous colostrum there was, respectively, an 83% and 80% increase in classical pathway activity, but only a 13% and 12% increase in alternative pathway activity during the first 3 days of life. Pigs fed the immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet had a 37% increase in classical C and a 24% increase in alternative C pathway activity. Part of the increase in classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period may be caused by a stimulating factor in colostrum. Most if not all of the increase in alternative C pathway activity and some of the increase in classical C pathway activity is most likely caused by normal humoral homeostatic mechanisms in the neonatal pig. PMID:7429550

  19. Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone. PMID:26123777

  20. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  1. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, B; Predojević, Z

    2008-05-01

    Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

  2. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries. PMID:26387688

  3. Pasteurization of Colostrum Reduces the Incidence of Paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding colostrum from infected dams to neonatal calves is one mode of transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease). Recent studies have demonstrated improved morbidity and mortality rates in calves fed colostrum replacers or pasteurized colostrum. In the present study, the potential benefit...

  4. Protective properties of anticholera antibodies in human colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, A S; Ghose, A C

    1982-01-01

    A comparative immunological study between two colostrum pools of Indian and Swedish mothers was carried out to evaluate their protective properties against Vibrio cholerae. Antibacterial and antitoxin titers were significantly higher in the Indian colostrum pool (ICP) than in the Swedish colostrum pool (SCP). Antilipopolysaccharide as well as antitoxin antibodies belonged to secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM classes as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ICP could significantly inhibit the adherence of V. cholerae to intestinal slices in vitro, whereas such activity was virtually absent in SCP. Moreover, ICP could induce significant protection against live vibrio challenge in rabbit ileal loops, whereas only a weak protective activity was observed with SCP. A secretory IgA fraction was obtained from ICP by using gel filtration and immunoadsorbent techniques. Human secretory IgA thus obtained exhibited antiadherence as well as protective activities against V. cholerae. PMID:7095856

  5. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system. PMID:26843032

  6. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.

    2014-01-01

    Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

  7. Effects of feeding different roughage components to sows in gestation on bacteriological and immunological parameters in colostrum and immune response of piglets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christina; Schubbert, Antje; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Sundrum, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In piglet production, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were considered as predominant causative agents in the aetiology of important diseases of sows and piglets. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of feeding different roughage sources to sows in gestation on the microbiota and endotoxin concentration in colostrum and on the specific immune response of their piglets. In two trial runs, a total of 144 sows were assigned to one of the six dietary treatments: the Control group receiving a concentrate diet and five groups with a restrictive supply of the control diet in combination with straw (S), hay (H), clover grass silage (GS), maize silage (MS) or Jerusalem artichoke (JA). During lactation no roughage was offered. Colostrum samples were analysed for bacteriological and immunological parameters. Blood samples were taken from two piglets per corresponding litter to examine the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and of specific antibodies to LPS of E. coli (strain J5). Roughage feeding had an effect neither on the total bacterial count nor on the content of E. coli in colostrum of sows. The concentration of LPS in colostrum was reduced in Group MS. The concentration of CRP in the colostrum samples was low and independent of the feeding regime (max. 9.3 µg/ml). However, the administration of roughage components rich in crude fibre (Groups H and S) decreased the level of CRP in colostrum significantly. The analysis of the specific immunoglobulin to LPS of E. coli (strain J5) showed a higher concentration of IgG-anti-LPS in blood serum of piglets from sows of Group JA. The results suggest that the inclusion of selected roughage components may have the potential to affect the immunocompetence of sows and their corresponding piglets. PMID:24444334

  8. Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

  9. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  10. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  11. Preventively enteral application of immunoglobulin enriched colostrums milk can modulate postoperative inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated acute inflammatory response following traumatic injury. Inflammatory response during surgical interventions was verified by a significant increase of endotoxin plasma levels and a decrease of the endotoxin neutralizing capacity (ENC). However, the incidence of elevated endotoxin levels was significantly higher (89%) than detected bacterial translocation (35%). Thus parts or products of Gram-negative bacteria seem to translocate more easily into the blood circulation than whole bacteria. Along with the bacterial translocation, the inflammatory response correlated directly with the severity of the surgical intervention. In comparison after major and minor surgery Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly different. Similar effects in mediator release were shown during endovascular stent graft placement and open surgery in infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Open surgery demonstrated a significant stronger endotoxin translocation and a decrease of ENC. Strategies to prevent translocation seem to be sensible. Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary glands within the first days after birth. It contains a complex system of immune factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Placebo-controlled studies verified that prophylactic oral application of immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation diminishes perioperative endotoxemia, prevents reduction of ENC and reduces postoperative CRP-levels, suggesting a stabilization of the gut barrier. This effect may be caused by immunoglobulin transportation by the neonatal receptor FcRn of the mucosal epithelium. In conclusion, there is an association of perioperative endotoxemia and the subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction in surgical patients. A prophylactic oral application of colostrum milk is likely to stabilize the gut barrier i.e. reduces the influx of lipopolysaccharides arising from Gram-negative bacterial

  12. Preventively enteral application of immunoglobulin enriched colostrums milk can modulate postoperative inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Orth, Klaus; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; van Griensven, Martijn; Matuschek, Christiane; Peiper, Matthias; Schrumpf, Holger; Gerber, Peter Arne; Budach, Wilfried; Bölke, Edwin; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schauer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated acute inflammatory response following traumatic injury. Inflammatory response during surgical interventions was verified by a significant increase of endotoxin plasma levels and a decrease of the endotoxin neutralizing capacity (ENC). However, the incidence of elevated endotoxin levels was significantly higher (89%) than detected bacterial translocation (35%). Thus parts or products of Gram-negative bacteria seem to translocate more easily into the blood circulation than whole bacteria. Along with the bacterial translocation, the inflammatory response correlated directly with the severity of the surgical intervention. In comparison after major and minor surgery Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly different. Similar effects in mediator release were shown during endovascular stent graft placement and open surgery in infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Open surgery demonstrated a significant stronger endotoxin translocation and a decrease of ENC. Strategies to prevent translocation seem to be sensible. Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary glands within the first days after birth. It contains a complex system of immune factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Placebo-controlled studies verified that prophylactic oral application of immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation diminishes perioperative endotoxemia, prevents reduction of ENC and reduces postoperative CRP-levels, suggesting a stabilization of the gut barrier. This effect may be caused by immunoglobulin transportation by the neonatal receptor FcRn of the mucosal epithelium.In conclusion, there is an association of perioperative endotoxemia and the subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction in surgical patients. A prophylactic oral application of colostrum milk is likely to stabilize the gut barrier i.e. reduces the influx of lipopolysaccharides arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens

  13. Determination of cocaine/crack biomarkers in colostrum by LC-MS following protein precipitation.

    PubMed

    D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Pereira, Andrea Garcia; Salazar, Fernanda Rodrigues; Ferreira, Pâmela Lukasewicz; Salazar, Cledinara Rodrigues; Limberger, Renata Pereira; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo

    2015-01-25

    Drug abuse by nursing mothers is an ongoing concern because it may cause many adverse effects to the newborns. The development of analytical methods to analyze drugs of abuse in colostrum (first milk produced after birth) has a huge importance, because it enables the monitoring and the correct follow-up to users and newborns. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of cocaine and smoked cocaine (crack) biomarkers in colostrum. Cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE), the pyrolytic products anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) and anhydroecgonine (AEC) were analyzed after a simple protein precipitation procedure using atropine (ATP) as internal standard (IS). Applying a chemometric approach study, all peaks were chromatographically separated at isocratic condition with a Kinetex HILIC column for polar compounds, at 30°C in 12min. One ion was detected for the quantification and three ions for confirmation of each analyte. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range of 5-300ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9983 and 0.9996. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5ng/mL with acceptable validation parameters. Matrix effect was assessed by post-extraction addition approach and showed good results, demonstrating that protein precipitation cleaning procedure is fast, reliable and demand small quantities of organic solvent. The LC-MS method is fast and cheap compared to other equipments and was also successfully applied to assess real samples of colostrum from nursing mothers who were suspect of cocaine/crack abuse. PMID:25462122

  14. Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Shield, J; Melville, C; Novelli, V; Anderson, G; Scheimberg, I; Gibb, D; Milla, P

    1993-01-01

    Lactobin-R is a commercial hyperimmune bovine colostrum with potent anticryptosporidial activity. It was administered to a 4 year old child with AIDS and severe diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis. There was significant clinical improvement in the diarrhoea and permanent elimination of the parasite from the gut as assessed through serial jejunal biopsy and stool specimens. Images PMID:8259880

  15. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

  16. A prospective study of septicaemia in colostrum-deprived foals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J A; Allen, G K; Green, E M; Fales, W H; Loch, W E; Wilkerson, C G

    1993-05-01

    Fourteen mares and their foals were attended at parturition. After mare-foal bonding, 8 colostrum-deprived (CD) foals were removed from their dams, deprived of colostrum, and provided with an alternative milk source for the first 24 h of life. The mares were milked out every 2-4 h during this period to remove colostrum, after which the CD foals were returned to their mares and allowed to nurse. Six colostrum-fed (CF) foals were allowed to suck colostrum in the normal manner. Foal serum IgG concentration was determined by single radial immunodiffusion (means, CD = 0 mg/dl; CF = 1,508 mg/dl). Accepted methods were used to minimise infections in the neonatal foals. Of the 8 CD foals, 7 demonstrated clinical signs of sepsis. Septicaemia was confirmed in 5 of the 7 septicaemic CD foals by ante-mortem blood culture or by culture of tissue at necropsy. Organisms isolated included: Actinobacillus equuli, Escherichia coli, undifferentiated coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and Actinomyces pyogenes. Clinically ill foals were treated with antimicrobial drugs, intravenous fluid therapy, flunixin meglumine, and anti-endotoxin hyperimmune serum. Three septicaemic CD foals survived. Four of 7 septicaemic CD foals died or were destroyed. Post-mortem lesions included bacterial embolic pneumonia, glomerulonephritis/nephritis, lymphoid depletion/atrophy, splenic and lymphoid necrosis, hepatitis, septic arthritis, and systemic bacterial embolism. None of the CF foals became septicaemic. One CF foal had foal heat diarrhoea and 1 CF foal had a serum IgG concentration of 160 mg/dl (i.e. failure of passive transfer), but both foals were otherwise normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8508750

  17. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P <0.01). Nine treated calves developed diarrhoea during the study and four were humanely euthanased due to progressive clinical deterioration. None of the calves in the CG showed signs of disease or died during the study. The dose of IgG used in this trial effectively provided an adequate sIgG concentration in colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease. PMID:26831168

  18. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated. PMID:26971161

  19. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. PMID:23890355

  20. An in vivo characterization of colostrum protein uptake in porcine gut during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Marianne; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Bendixen, Emøke

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the bioactive roles of colostrum proteins has gained much attention, and in particular, their potential use in human and veterinary medicine has been extensively studied. However, studies of bioactivity have mainly been conducted in vitro, but it has not yet been well characterized at the individual protein level which colostrum components are internalized by the intestinal tissue of the neonate. The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo processing of porcine colostrum in the gastrointestinal tract, and describe which of the potential bioactive proteins can be observed in the small intestinal tissue, and therefore may be functionally important. Using 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis we mapped the proteins in porcine colostrum. The colostrum proteins were then traced in the stomach content, as well as in the small intestinal tissue of 5 piglets suckled for 24h. For comparison, we also mapped the proteins present in the intestinal tissue of a newborn piglet that had not received colostrum. This analysis allowed us to identify the colostrum proteins that are internalized and retained in the tissue from the small intestine, indicating their functional importance. Our studies have shown that in early lactation, some colostrum proteins are protected against proteolytic degradation in the stomach. Furthermore, colostrum proteins with immuno-protective, antimicrobial or other bioactive functions are more prone to uptake in the small intestine than the caseins and beta-lactoglobulin, which are amongst the most abundant in colostrum. PMID:20831910

  1. Cellular responses to Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis in colostrum-deprived and colostrum-replete holstein calves supplemented with fat-soluble vitamins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune benefits of colostrum are attributed to passively transferred IgG but also to growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and leukocytes. Non-nutritive compounds in colostrum promote Th2-biased immune responses to early microbial encounters and prevent harmful, inappropriate inflammat...

  2. Tackling inadequate vitamin D intakes within the population: fortification of dairy products with vitamin D may not be enough.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations for vitamin D are designed by authoritative agencies to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the population, and while individual target intakes around the globe vary, they are generally between 10 and 20 μg/day [400-800 IU/day], depending on age, assuming little or no sunshine exposure. National dietary surveys report usual intakes of vitamin D that are much lower than these targets, at about 3-7 μg/day [120-280 IU/day], depending on usual diet, age, sex, and mandatory or voluntary fortification practices, and there is widespread dietary inadequacy around the globe. While acknowledging the valuable contribution fortified milk makes to vitamin D intakes among consumers, particularly in children, and the continued need for fortification of milk and other dairy products, additional strategic approaches to fortification, including biofortification, of a wider range of foods, have the potential to increase vitamin D intakes in the population and minimize the prevalence of low serum 25(OH)D without increasing the risk of excessive dosing. Careful consideration must be given to the range of products used for fortification and the amount of vitamin D used in each; there is a need for well-designed and sustainable fortification, and biofortification strategies for vitamin D, which use a range of foods to accommodate dietary diversity. Clinical patients may require additional consideration in terms of addressing low vitamin D status. PMID:26260695

  3. Colostrum as oral immune therapy to promote neonatal health.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Sheila M; Weller, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx and gut. Colostrum as oral immune therapy is delivered by swabbing the cheeks in the first days of life. Little formal study has evaluated its effectiveness. However, small studies demonstrate that it is a practice that is safe, feasible, and well tolerated even by the smallest premature infants. Encouraging preliminary evidence supports the effect of C-OIT to reduce the time to full enteral feedings. Effects on other outcomes is unclear, in part because existing studies are underpowered to detect significant differences on outcomes like necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and death. Another limitation in the evidence base is that adherence to the intervention and the number of doses of colostrum infants received in the studies is not consistently made clear. More well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate the impact on neonatal complications and how C-OIT supports the infant's immune development. Quality improvement and time series reports of differences pre- and postimplementation of OMC given orally should minimally include statistics for adherence to the intervention and/or the number of doses an infant received as a covariate. Even so, OMC is an immune therapy that poses little risk yet offers likely cost-effective benefit for vulnerable infants. PMID:24472888

  4. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Rønningen, Kjersti S.; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Design Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content

  5. Occurrence and intake of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based products marketed in Korea during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ok, H E; Chang, H-J; Choi, S-W; Cho, T Y; Oh, K S; Chun, H S

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was investigated in 514 cereal-based products (corn-based, n = 125; barley-based, n = 96; wheat-based, n = 94; rice-based, n = 199) marketed in Korea during 2007-2008, and estimates of DON intake were determined. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light (UV) detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.2 and 5.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries and repeatability expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were 82.3-100% and 2.4-15.3% in beer, bread and dried corn. The incidences and mean levels of DON were 56% and 68.9 µg kg(-1) for corn-based products, 49% and 24.1 µg kg(-1) for wheat-based products, 43% and 7.5 µg kg(-1) for barley-based products, and 16% and 3.4 µg kg(-1) for rice-based products, respectively. The estimated daily intake of DON from the consumption of rice-based, wheat-based, barley-based and corn-based products were 0.0038 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0032 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0015 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 0.0002 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These values represent 0.38%, 0.32%, 0.25% and 0.01% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). These results indicate that rice-based products are major contributors to DON exposure in Korea, even though the current exposure level is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. PMID:24785178

  6. Soy and Soy Products Intake, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japan: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-07-01

    Soy and soy products are popular ingredients in the Japanese diet. This study aimed to determine whether soy or soy products intake was associated with all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort in Japan. A total of 11 066 participants were obtained from an annual community-based health examination program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning soy and soy products intake and potential confounding factors. Associations between soy and soy products intake and all-cause mortality were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs). After adjusting for all factors, morality was significantly higher in men with infrequent soy intake (HR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.07) and with almost daily intake (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.19-2.03) compared with intake 1 to 2 times per week. Cancer mortality was higher among men who reported rarely eating soy (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.08-2.79). Soy products intake was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in both sexes. PMID:24958613

  7. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  8. Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

    2003-01-01

    Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains…

  9. Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from immunized or nonimmunized cows.

    PubMed Central

    Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Smith, K L; Theil, K W

    1983-01-01

    Colostrum was collected and pooled from each of five cows in three experimental groups: group I cows received intramuscular and intramammary inoculations of adjuvanted modified live Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center rotavirus vaccine; group II cows were injected intramuscularly with a commercial modified-live rota-coronavirus vaccine; and group III cows were uninoculated controls. Pooled colostrum from group I cows had higher (P less than 0.05) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoglobulin G (IgG1) and virus neutralization (VN) rotavirus antibody titers (ELISA IgG1 = 2,413,682; VN = 360,205) than did colostrum from group II (ELISA IgG1 = 8,192; VN = 4,395) or group III cows (ELISA IgG1 = 5,916; VN = 2,865). The antibody titers of these last two colostrum pools did not differ (P greater than 0.05). Samples of these colostrum pools were fed as daily supplements (percent [vol/vol] in cow's milk infant formula) to 28 newborn, unsuckled, antibody-seronegative, male Holstein calves. Eight calves received no supplemental colostrum. The calves were orally challenged with virulent bovine rotavirus and monitored daily for diarrhea and fecal rotavirus shedding. Diarrhea and rotavirus shedding occurred in the eight calves fed no supplemental colostrum and persisted longest in this group. The pooled colostrum from group I cows protected eight of eight calves from both rotavirus diarrhea and shedding when fed as a 1% supplement. The pooled colostrum from neither group II nor group III cows protected 12 other calves against rotavirus diarrhea or shedding when fed at the same concentration (1%). Six rotavirus-challenged calves fed 0.1% supplemental colostrum from group I cows and two calves fed 10 and 50% supplemental colostrum from control cows displayed partial passive immunity, exemplified by delayed onset and shortened duration of rotavirus-associated diarrhea and virus shedding. PMID:6309660

  10. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  11. Reducing salt in food; setting product-specific criteria aiming at a salt intake of 5 g per day

    PubMed Central

    Dötsch-Klerk, M; PMM Goossens, W; Meijer, G W; van het Hof, K H

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: There is an increasing public health concern regarding high salt intake, which is generally between 9 and 12 g per day, and much higher than the 5 g recommended by World Health Organization. Several relevant sectors of the food industry are engaged in salt reduction, but it is a challenge to reduce salt in products without compromising on taste, shelf-life or expense for consumers. The objective was to develop globally applicable salt reduction criteria as guidance for product reformulation. Subjects/Methods: Two sets of product group-specific sodium criteria were developed to reduce salt levels in foods to help consumers reduce their intake towards an interim intake goal of 6 g/day, and—on the longer term—5 g/day. Data modelling using survey data from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands was performed to assess the potential impact on population salt intake of cross-industry food product reformulation towards these criteria. Results: Modelling with 6 and 5 g/day criteria resulted in estimated reductions in population salt intake of 25 and 30% for the three countries, respectively, the latter representing an absolute decrease in the median salt intake of 1.8–2.2 g/day. Conclusions: The sodium criteria described in this paper can serve as guidance for salt reduction in foods. However, to enable achieving an intake of 5 g/day, salt reduction should not be limited to product reformulation. A multi-stakeholder approach is needed to make consumers aware of the need to reduce their salt intake. Nevertheless, dietary impact modelling shows that product reformulation by food industry has the potential to contribute substantially to salt-intake reduction. PMID:25690867

  12. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  13. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-wk old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 o...

  14. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

  15. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

  16. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  17. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  18. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A.; Deepak, D.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  19. Serum Immunoglobulins in Newborn Calves Before and After Colostrum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Mohendra J. G. S.

    1971-01-01

    Pre-colostral and post-colostral sera of seven Holstein calves and colostral whey were analyzed immunoelectrophoretically. IgM, IgG1 (fast), and IgG2 (slow) were demonstrated while IgA was not detected in serum of new-born calves before colostrum feeding. In post-colostral serum IgG, IgM, in relatively higher levels, and IgA were present which corresponded with the classes of immunoglobulins found in whey. These observations suggest that the developing bovine fetus may be capable of independent immune response. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4260939

  20. Oligosaccharides of milk and colostrum in non-human mammals.

    PubMed

    Urashima, T; Saito, T; Nakamura, T; Messer, M

    2001-05-01

    Mammalian milk or colostrum usually contains, in addition to lactose, a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides. Although the oligosaccharides of human milk have been reviewed in several recent publications, those of non-human mammals have received much less attention. This paper reviews the chemical structures and the variety of milk oligosaccharides in species other than humans, including placental mammals (e.g. primates, domestic herbivores, bears and other carnivores, the rat and the elephant) as well as monotremes (platypus and echidna) and marsupials (e.g. wallaby). The gastrointestinal digestion and absorption and the possible biological functions of these oligosaccharides are also discussed. PMID:11925504

  1. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  2. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, interacts with proteins and their products of digestion to suppress food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Alfred; Anderson, G Harvey

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that dietary proteins suppress food intake partly through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, and that this effect is mediated by products of protein digestion. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex-4) (0.5 micro g/rat), was given intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats, and food intake was measured when Ex-4 was given alone or with preloads of intact whey and casein proteins, their hydrolysates and amino acid mixtures (0.5 g x 4 mL(-1) x rat(-1)). Both Ex-4 and the preloads suppressed food intake (P < 0.05), but the effect of Ex-4 on food intake was reduced when coadministered with the preloads (P < 0.05). Because the effect of Ex-4 was reduced by the protein hydrolysates and by the amino acid preloads, the results support a role for the end products of protein digestion and GLP-1 release in the suppression of food intake in response to protein ingestion. We concluded that the GLP-1 signaling pathway, activated by the release of products of protein digestion, is another mechanism accounting for the reduction of food intake after protein ingestion. PMID:12840201

  3. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  4. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  5. Chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk.

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Wen, P C; Liang, Q; Liu, H N; Zhang, W B; Wang, P J; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in the chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk. Samples were collected from 12 yaks on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 post-partum (PP). The gross composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, amino acid (AA) profile and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed. All the components decreased rapidly during the first 3 days except lactose which increased. The ratio of whey protein to casein protein decreased from 46:54 to 17:83 during the first 7 days PP. The content of all the AAs decreased, while the percentages of eight essential AAs in protein of samples increased during the study period. Monounsaturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs decreased in the first 7 days PP, whereas saturated FAs increased. In conclusion, the changes in chemical composition were remarkable during the first 3 days. The slight variations, happened during the transient period, are not negligible, which also should be taken into account in the development of yak colostrum supplements. PMID:25545664

  6. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometry for assessing bovine colostrum quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, S; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-09-01

    Provision of good quality colostrum [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration ≥50g/L] is the first step toward ensuring proper passive transfer of immunity for young calves. Precise quantification of colostrum IgG levels cannot be easily performed on the farm. Assessment of the refractive index using a Brix scale with a refractometer has been described as being highly correlated with IgG concentration in colostrum. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Brix refractometry to diagnose good quality colostrum. From 101 references initially obtain ed, 11 were included in the systematic review meta-analysis representing 4,251 colostrum samples. The prevalence of good colostrum samples with IgG ≥50g/L varied from 67.3 to 92.3% (median 77.9%). Specific estimates of accuracy [sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)] were obtained for different reported cut-points using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve model. For the cut-point of 22% (n=8 studies), Se=80.2% (95% CI: 71.1-87.0%) and Sp=82.6% (71.4-90.0%). Decreasing the cut-point to 18% increased Se [96.1% (91.8-98.2%)] and decreased Sp [54.5% (26.9-79.6%)]. Modeling the effect of these Brix accuracy estimates using a stochastic simulation and Bayes theorem showed that a positive result with the 22% Brix cut-point can be used to diagnose good quality colostrum (posttest probability of a good colostrum: 94.3% (90.7-96.9%). The posttest probability of good colostrum with a Brix value <18% was only 22.7% (12.3-39.2%). Based on this study, the 2 cut-points could be alternatively used to select good quality colostrum (sample with Brix ≥22%) or to discard poor quality colostrum (sample with Brix <18%). When sample results are between these 2 values, colostrum supplementation should be considered. PMID:27423958

  8. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution. PMID:20163602

  9. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  10. The effects of moderate exercise on secretory IgA production in mice depends on dietary carbohydrate intake

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Takumi; Kaburagi, Tomoko; Nagai, Ryoji; Oshiro, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is produced from intestinal mucosa and is essential in preventing infection. We analyzed the influence of moderate exercise on intestinal sIgA production and antioxidative function under different carbohydrate nutritional conditions. Thirty-six mice were fed an experimental diet for 10 weeks—a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet, a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet, or a control (C) diet. After 1 week on the experimental diets, mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (n = 6/group), where the exercise consisted of treadmill running for 30 min/day at 11 m/min for 6 days/week in 9 consecutive weeks. Intestinal sIgA levels in the exercise groups fed C or LC diets were significantly lower compared with the parallel sedentary groups, or exercise-group mice fed HC diet. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine was significantly higher in the exercise group fed a HC diet. Superoxide dismutase activity in the small intestine was higher in the exercise group than in the sedentary group, with no effects resulting from intake carbohydrate levels. Our results indicated that moderate exercise reduced the levels of intestinal sIgA depending on decreasing of carbohydrate intake, which is connected with the expression of pIgR. PMID:26236100

  11. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  12. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  13. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  14. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  16. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

  17. Covariance structures of fat and protein influence the estimation of IgG in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Engelbrecht, Rikke; Wiking, Lars

    2016-02-01

    On-farm instruments for assessing colostrum quality are needed in order to ensure that the calf is supplied with enough IgG to avoid failure of passive transfer. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for estimating the IgG concentration in cows' colostrum. This research included 126 colostrum samples from 21 Danish farms with different breeds, ensuring a broad variation pattern in IgG, total protein and fat concentration. Approximately one third of the samples did not fulfil the recommendation of >50 g IgG/l colostrum, and the IgG concentration decreased with time from calving to milking. The ratio of IgG to total protein varied from 6 to 61%, however IgG and total protein were correlated with r2 = 0.70. The variation in fat was independent of variations in protein and IgG. The IgG concentration was measured by ELISA and compared to fast measurements by specific gravity by colostrometer, Brix by refractometer and prediction from infrared spectroscopy. The three fast methods were all correlated to the total protein concentration of colostrum; however specific gravity was also influenced by the fat concentration. Furthermore, specific gravity generally overestimated the IgG concentration, and the cut-off level should be raised to 1050 in order to ensure adequate IgG in colostrum. None of the methods estimated IgG concentration better than the correlation of total protein and IgG, meaning that they all depended on the indirect correlation between total protein and IgG. The results suggest that using a refractometer for quality control of colostrum is an easy and feasible method, and a cut-off level of Brix 22 seems sufficient to assure adequate IgG concentration in colostrum fed to the calf. PMID:26869112

  18. Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Stæhr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Nüsing, Rolf M; Jensen, Boye L

    2013-05-15

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) an COX-2(+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (low salt, LS) or 4% (high salt, HS) NaCl for 18 days. Arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using indwelling catheters. Food and water intake and diuresis were measured in metabolic cages. Urine osmolality and excretion of electrolytes, cGMP, cAMP, and NOx were determined, as well as plasma NOx and cGMP. There was a significant dependence of blood pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS versus LS (102.3 ± 1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9 ± 0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases during the awake phase (night) that were larger in COX-2(-/-) on HS diet compared with COX-2(+/+). Water intake, diuresis, Na(+), and osmolyte excretions and NOx and cGMP excretions were significantly and similarly elevated with HS in COX-2(-/-) and COX-2(+/+). In summary, C57BL6 mice exhibit a salt intake-dependent increase in arterial blood pressure with increased renal NO production. COX-2 activity has a general lowering effect on arterial blood pressure. COX-2 dampens NaCl-induced increases in arterial blood pressure in the awake phase. In conclusion, COX-2 activity attenuates the changes in nocturnal blood pressure during high salt intake, and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal nitric oxide formation during elevated NaCl intake. PMID:23535462

  19. Transfer of tumour necrosis factor-α via colostrum to foals.

    PubMed

    Secor, E J; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether TNF-α is transferred to equine neonates via colostrum and the relationship between TNF-α and IgG concentrations in the equine neonate. Colostrum, presuckle and postsuckle foal serum samples were collected from healthy mares and their foals. Equine TNF-α ELISA and IgG SRID kits were used to determine the concentrations of TNF-α and IgG, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman rank correlation. TNF-α concentrations in all presuckle foal serum were below the limit of detection in 15/16 foals and increased in postsuckle foal serum to a mean concentration of 7.7 x 10(4) pg/ml. TNF-α concentrations in postsuckle foal serum and colostrum showed significant correlation (rho=0.668; P=0.005). However, TNF-α and IgG concentrations in colostrum or postsuckle foal serum did not correlate (rho<-0.016; P>0.05). Ratios of TNF-α/IgG in colostrum or postsuckle foal serum showed significant correlation (rho=0.750; P=0.0008). These results indicate that TNF-α is transferred to the foal via colostrum absorption and may play a role in early immunity. PMID:22027187

  20. Studies of composition and major protein level in milk and colostrum of mares.

    PubMed

    Pecka, Ewa; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Szulc, Tadeusz; Czyż, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the changes in composition and physicochemical features (pH, density, thermostability and acidity) of mare colostrum and milk, and of protein fraction contribution (serum albumin, β-casein, γ-casein, α-lactalbumin, G class immunoglobulins) depending on lactation stage. The research material was colostrum and milk samples from 12 Arabian mares. Colostrum samples were collected within 2 h after parturition and milk samples were collected twice, in the 3rd and 6th weeks of lactation. The level of basic milk components decreased significantly (only lactose content increased) as compared to colostrum. Total bacteria count and somatic cell count decreased significantly with an increase in resistance and urea level. The changes observed were connected to differentiated contribution of particular protein fractions and their relative proportions. Lower levels of γ-casein (P ≤ 0.05), β-casein, serum albumin as well as α-lactalbumin were observed in colostrum as compared to those in milk. Any relationship between lactation stage and β-casein content was observed. Serum albumin and α-lactalbumin content increased in subsequent milkings. The level of G class immunoglobulins decreased significantly and its highest level was noted in colostrum. Any significant differences between the 3rd and 6th lactation weeks were obtained. PMID:22339698

  1. Biochemical parameters in the blood of Holstein calves given immunoglobulin Y-supplemented colostrums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12 h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. Results No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route. PMID:25022282

  2. Invited review: Dairy intake and bone health: a viewpoint from the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Poli, A; Ricotta, D; Banfi, G; Cocchi, D

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this review was to focus on the complex relationships between milk and dairy products intake and bone health, with particular emphasis on osteoporosis. The literature was extensively examined to provide an objective overview of the most significant achievements on the subject. Osteoporosis can be defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Although the major determinants of peak bone mass and strength are genetic, major factors during childhood and adolescence may affect the ability to achieve peak bone mass. These include nutrition, particularly calcium and protein intake, physical activity, endocrine status, as well as exposure to a wide variety of risk factors. The role of calcium intake in determining bone mineral mass is well recognized to be the most critical nutritional factor to achieve optimal peak bone mass. The greatest amount of dietary calcium is obtained from milk and dairy foods, which also provide the human diet with vitamin D (particularly for products fortified with vitamin D), potassium, and other macro- and micronutrients. Although studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or calcium on bone health are predominant in the literature, perplexity or discordance on this subject was expressed by some authors. Discordant data, mainly on the risk of fractures, provided limited proof of the unfavorable effect of dairy intake. More often, discordant works indicate no effect of dairy consumption on bone safety. Some considerations can be drawn from this viewpoint. Milk and dairy products are an optimal source of calcium as well as of other limiting nutrients (e.g., potassium and magnesium), with important effects on bone health. Bioactive components occurring in milk and dairy products may play an essential role on bone metabolism, as shown by in vivo and in vitro studies on colostrum acidic

  3. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. PMID:25468691

  4. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    PubMed

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests

  5. The nutriceutical bovine colostrum truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Tania; Davison, Glen; Oakes, Jemma R; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Patterson, Michael; Moyer, Mary Pat; Playford, Raymond J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, "heat stroke" partially due to increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. We examined bovine colostrum, a natural source of growth factors, as a potential moderator of such effects. Twelve volunteers completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol (14 days colostrum/placebo) prior to standardized exercise. Gut permeability utilized 5 h urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose ratios. In vitro studies (T84, HT29, NCM460 human colon cell lines) examined colostrum effects on temperature-induced apoptosis (active caspase-3 and 9, Baxα, Bcl-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and epithelial electrical resistance. In both study arms, exercise increased blood lactate, heart rate, core temperature (mean 1.4°C rise) by similar amounts. Gut hormone profiles were similar in both arms although GLP-1 levels rose following exercise in the placebo but not the colostrum arm (P = 0.026). Intestinal permeability in the placebo arm increased 2.5-fold following exercise (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline, to 0.92 ± 0.014, P < 0.01), whereas colostrum truncated rise by 80% (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline to 0.49 ± 0.017) following exercise. In vitro apoptosis increased by 47-65% in response to increasing temperature by 2°C. This effect was truncated by 60% if colostrum was present (all P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained examining epithelial resistance (colostrum truncated temperature-induced fall in resistance by 64%, P < 0.01). Colostrum increased HSP70 expression at both 37 and 39°C (P < 0.001) and was truncated by addition of an EGF receptor-neutralizing antibody. Temperature-induced increase in Baxα and reduction in Bcl-2 was partially reversed by presence of colostrum. Colostrum may have value in enhancing athletic performance and preventing heat stroke. PMID:21148400

  6. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and

  7. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  8. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  9. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum for treatment of GI infections: a review and update on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Steele, Jennifer; Sponseller, Jerlyn; Schmidt, Diane; Cohen, Ocean; Tzipori, Saul

    2013-07-01

    Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), produced by vaccination of a cow during gestation, is rich in targeted immunoglobulins, and can be used to treat a variety of diseases. The published history of HBC use for treating gastrointestinal infections in humans has developed over the past several decades and demonstrates the promise of this type of therapeutic for GI infectious disease. HBC, or purified derivative products, have been used successfully for treatment or prevention of cryptosporidiosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Given the positive results of previous studies using HBC for treatment of CDI, we have produced HBC with antibodies against the two most important virulence factors of C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, using a novel recombinant vaccine. Our preliminary results demonstrate efficacy of the HBC product for treatment of CDI in the gnotobiotic piglet model, and warrant more thorough investigation. HBC may provide an effective treatment alternative to antibiotics, which can spare the normal gut microflora, and reduce rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. PMID:23435084

  10. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    PubMed

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. PMID:25613041

  11. Corn silage hybrid effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Al-Jobeile, H; Coors, J G; Lauer, J G

    2000-12-01

    Three corn hybrids harvested as whole-plant silage were evaluated in three separate feeding trials with lactating dairy cows. In trial 1, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were conventional (Pioneer 3563) and leafy (Mycogen TMF 106) corn silage hybrids, each planted at low (59,000 plants/ha) and high (79,000 plants/ha) plant populations. There were no milk production differences between treatments. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was higher for leafy compared with conventional corn hybrids. In trial 2, 26 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to diets containing either conventional (48% forage diet) or brown-midrib (60% forage diet) corn silage in a crossover design with 8-wk periods. Milk yield was lower, but milk fat percentage and yield were higher, for the high-forage diet containing brown-midrib corn silage. In trial 3, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were corn silage at two concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (Garst 8751, 39.2% NDF; Cargill 3677, 32.8% NDF) each fed in normal- (53% of dry matter) and high- (61 to 67% of dry matter) forage diets. Milk production was not different between corn hybrids. Increased concentrate supplementation increased DMI and milk production. There were minimal benefits to the feeding of leafy or low-fiber corn silage hybrids. Feeding brown-midrib corn silage in a high-forage diet increased milk fat percentage and yield compared with conventional corn silage fed in a normal-forage diet. PMID:11132857

  12. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  13. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  14. Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

  15. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. PMID:23642466

  16. Ghrelin gene products and the regulation of food intake and gut motility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Asakawa, Akihiro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Lee, Shou-Dong; Inui, Akio

    2009-12-01

    A breakthrough using "reverse pharmacology" identified and characterized acyl ghrelin from the stomach as the endogenous cognate ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a. The unique post-translational modification of O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 is the first in peptide discovery history and is essential for GH-releasing ability. Des-acyl ghrelin, lacking O-n-octanoylation at serine 3, is also produced in the stomach and remains the major molecular form secreted into the circulation. The third ghrelin gene product, obestatin, a novel 23-amino acid peptide identified from rat stomach, was found by comparative genomic analysis. Three ghrelin gene products actively participate in modulating appetite, adipogenesis, gut motility, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, immune, sleep, memory, anxiety, cognition, and stress. Knockdown or knockout of acyl ghrelin and/or GHS-R1a, and overexpression of des-acyl ghrelin show benefits in the therapy of obesity and metabolic syndrome. By contrast, agonism of acyl ghrelin and/or GHS-R1a could combat human anorexia-cachexia, including anorexia nervosa, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, burn, and postsurgery recovery, as well as restore gut dysmotility, such as diabetic or neurogenic gastroparesis, and postoperative ileus. The ghrelin acyl-modifying enzyme, ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT), which attaches octanoate to serine-3 of ghrelin, has been identified and characterized also from the stomach. To date, ghrelin is the only protein to be octanylated, and inhibition of GOAT may have effects only on the stomach and is unlikely to affect the synthesis of other proteins. GOAT may provide a critical molecular target in developing novel therapeutics for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:20038570

  17. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  18. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  19. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  20. Recognition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Determinants by Human Colostrum and Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Parissi-Crivelli, Joaquín M.; Girón, Jorge A.

    2000-01-01

    Human colostra and sera collected from Mexican mothers and their children at birth and 6 months thereafter were studied for the presence of antibodies against the bundle-forming pilus and several chromosomal virulence gene products (intimin and secreted proteins EspA and EspB) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Among 21 colostrum samples studied, 76, 71.5, 57, and 47% of them contained immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against EspA, intimin, EspB, and BfpA, respectively. Interestingly, there was a difference in IgG response to EPEC antigens between the sera from neonates and sera from the same children 6 months later. While the number of neonates reacting to Esps and intimin diminished when they reached 6 months of age, those reacting with BfpA increased from 9 to 71%. Intimin from an enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain was also recognized by most of the samples reacting with EPEC intimin. These data suggest that Bfp and Esps elicit an antibody response during the early days of life of neonates and support the value of breast-feeding in areas of the world where bacterial diarrheal infections are endemic. PMID:10878066

  1. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  2. Relationship Between Iodine Concentration in Maternal Colostrum and Neurobehavioral Development of Infants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiqin; Wu, Deqing; Wu, Wei; Li, Hui; Cao, Lulu; Xu, Jian; Yu, Xiaodan; Bian, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chonghuai; Wang, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that iodine plays an important role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. However, iodine concentration in the colostrum and its association with the neurobehavioral development of infants remains unclear. Colostrums from 150 women were collected, and their iodine concentrations were measured. The median colostrum iodine level was 187.8 μg/L. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III test was performed when the infants were about 18 months. The mean cognitive, language, and motor composite scores were 105.3 ± 9.8, 105.2 ± 11.1, and 104.6 ± 6.7, respectively. And the mean scores of the 5 subtests were 11.1 ± 2.0, 9.3 ± 2.0, 12.4 ± 2.3, 11.1 ± 1.2, and 10.4 ± 1.2, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in the cognition, language, or motor development of infants across different levels of colostrum iodine. After adjusting for a range of confounding factors, colostrum iodine concentration was a predictor of motor development, specifically gross motor development. PMID:27044724

  3. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Zandrie; Smeets, Rolf; Verlaan, George; Lugt, Richard v d; Verstappen, Peter A

    2002-12-01

    In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with bovine colostrum (Intact) on body composition and exercise performance (5 x 10-m sprint, vertical jump, shuttle-run test, and suicide test). Seventeen female and 18 male elite field hockey players, including players from the Dutch national team, received either 60 g of colostrum or whey protein daily. The 5 x 10-m sprint test performance improved significantly (p =.023) more in the colostrum group [0.64 +/- 0.09 s (mean +/- SEM)] compared to the whey group (0.33 +/- 0.09 s). The vertical jump performance improved more in the colostrum group (2.1 +/- 0.73 cm) compared to the whey group (0.32 +/- 0.82 cm). However, this was not statistically significant (p =.119). There were also no significant differences in changes in body composition and endurance tests between the 2 groups. It is concluded that in elite field hockey players, colostrum supplementation improves sprint performance better than whey. However, there were no differences with regard to body composition or endurance performance. PMID:12500989

  4. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  5. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. PMID:26709170

  6. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-04-15

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22965418

  7. Bovine colostrum supplementation during running training increases intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Butler, Ross N; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2009-02-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (-7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980

  8. Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 ºC for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

  9. Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  10. Modulation of human humoral immune response through orally administered bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    He, F; Tuomola, E; Arvilommi, H; Salminen, S

    2001-08-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized into two treatment groups and consumed liquid prepackaged bovine colostrum whey and placebo for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. The circulating antibody secreting cells and the expression of phagocytosis receptors of the subjects before and after oral immunization were measured with the ELISPOT assay and flow cytometry. All subjects responded well to the vaccine. No significant differences were observed in ELISPOT values for IgA, IgG, IgM, Fcgamma and CR receptor expression on neutrophils and monocytes between the two groups. There was a trend towards greater increase in specific IgA among the subjects receiving their vaccine with bovine colostrum. These results suggest that bovine colostrum may possess some potential to enhance human special immune responses. PMID:11549415

  11. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  12. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning

  13. Effects of cooling and freezing storage on the stability of bioactive factors in human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Santana, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Audí, C; Castell, M; Moretones, M G; López-Sabater, M C; Castellote, C; Franch, A

    2012-05-01

    Breast milk constitutes the best form of newborn alimentation because of its nutritional and immunological properties. Banked human milk is stored at low temperature, which may produce losses of some bioactive milk components. During lactation, colostrum provides the requirements of the newborn during the first days of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling storage at 4°C and freezing storage at -20°C and -80°C on bioactive factors in human colostrum. For this purpose, the content of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, and some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and its type I receptor TNF-RI, were quantified. Some colostrum samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at 4°C and others were frozen at -20°C or -80°C for 6 and 12 mo. We quantified IgA, epidermal growth factor, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 by indirect ELISA. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokines, IL-8 chemokine, and TNF-RI were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Bioactive immunological factors measured in this study were retained in colostrum after cooling storage at 4°C for at least 48h, with the exception of IL-10. None of the initial bioactive factor concentrations was modified after 6 mo of freezing storage at either -20°C or -80°C. However, freezing storage of colostrum at -20°C and -80°C for 12 mo produced a decrease in the concentrations of IgA, IL-8, and TGF-β1. In summary, colostrum can be stored at 4°C for up to 48 h or at -20°C or -80°C for at least 6 mo without losing its immunological properties. Future studies are necessary to develop quality assurance guidelines for the storage of colostrum in human milk banks, and to focus not only on the microbiological safety but also on the maintenance of the immunological properties of colostrum. PMID:22541460

  14. Predicting colostrum quality from performance in the previous lactation and environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Cabral, R G; Chapman, C E; Aragona, K M; Clark, E; Lunak, M; Erickson, P S

    2016-05-01

    Nine New Hampshire Holstein dairies contributed to a study to investigate if colostrum quality could be predicted by cow performance in the previous lactation and by environmental factors during the 21-d prepartum period. The numbers of days below 5°C (D<), days above 23°C (D>), and days between 5 and 23°C (D) were used in the development of the regression equation. Between 2011 and 2014, 111 colostrum samples were obtained and analyzed for IgG. Producers recorded cow identification number, calf date of birth, sex of the calf, colostrum yield, hours from parturition to colostrum harvest, and weeks on pasture during the dry period (if any). Dairy Herd Improvement data from each cow and weather data were compiled for analysis. Information accessed was predicted transmitting abilities for milk, fat (PTAF), protein (PTAP), and dollars; previous lactation: milk yield, fat yield, fat percent, protein percent, protein yield, somatic cell score, days open, days dry, days in milk, and previous parity (PAR). Colostrum yield was negatively correlated with IgG concentration (r=-0.42) and D (r=-0.2). It was positively correlated with D> (r=0.30), predicted transmitting ability for milk (r=0.26), PTAF (r=0.21), and PTAP (r=0.22). Immunoglobulin G concentration (g/L) was positively correlated with days in milk (r=0.21), milk yield (r=0.30), fat yield (r=0.34), protein yield (r=0.26), days open (r=0.21), PAR (r=0.22), and tended to be positively correlated with DD (r=0.17). Immunoglobulin G concentration (g/L) was negatively correlated with D> (r=-0.24) and PTAF (r=-0.21) and tended to be negatively correlated with PTAP (r=-0.18). To determine the best fit, values >0 were transformed to natural logarithm. All nontransformed variables were also used to develop the model. A variance inflation factor analysis was conducted, followed by a backward elimination procedure. The resulting regression model indicated that changes in Ln fat yield (β=2.29), Ln fat percent (β=2.15), Ln

  15. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  16. A randomized controlled trial on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifers fed a lacteal-derived colostrum replacer or pooled maternal colostrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value = 0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value = 0.974 ), omphalitis (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value = 0.956), or mortality (HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value = 0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd. PMID:23965249

  17. The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium

  19. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  20. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows. PMID:18218755

  1. Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis in human colostrum and their protective activity against aerosol infection of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, M; Cowell, J L; Burstyn, D G; Thaib, S; Manclark, C R

    1985-01-01

    Colostrum samples from Indonesian mothers were assayed for antibodies which agglutinate Bordetella pertussis and for antibodies to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor of B. pertussis. Agglutinins were assayed by a microtiter method, and 36 of 58 samples tested (62%) had titers above 1:10 (range, less than 1:10 to 1:160). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected anti-filamentous hemagglutinin in 39 of 60 samples (65%) and anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor in 26 of 60 samples assayed (43%). A total of 52 samples (87%) were positive for at least one of these antibodies. Pooled colostrum samples were separated by affinity chromatography into fractions enriched secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) or IgG and examined for their ability to passively protect suckling mice from aerosol challenge with B. pertussis. Samples (160 micrograms of protein) were given intraperitoneally 90 min before challenge. Death, rate of gain in body weight, and leukocytosis were used as indicators of illness. Colostrum containing anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor or agglutinins was protective, whereas colostrum lacking these but containing anti-filamentous hemagglutinin gave little protection. The sIgA-enriched and IgG-enriched fractions appeared to be equal in their ability to protect against respiratory challenge with B. pertussis. PMID:2857154

  2. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  3. Developmental changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome expression during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  4. Inhibitory potential of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum immunoglobulin G on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    L S, Mamatha Bhanu; Nishimura, S-I; H S, Aparna

    2016-07-01

    The unique components of colostrum like free oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are known to offer resistance to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to inhibit the localized adherence of enteropathogens to the digestive tract of the neonates. In this context, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G on human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant multidrug resistant pathogen associated with nasocomial infections. The investigation revealed growth inhibitory potential of immunoglobulin G in a dose dependent manner supported by scanning electron microscopic studies. The N-glycan enriched fraction of immunoglobulin G after PNGase treatment was found more effective, comparable to ampicillin than native immunoglobulin G supporting the fact that colostrum derived oligosaccharides is crucial and act as ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. The MALDI TOF/TOF analysis confirmed the glycostructures of abundant N-glycans of immunoglobulin G exerting antibacterial activity. The proteomic analysis revealed variations between control and treated cells and expression of chemotaxis-CheY protein (14kDa) was evidenced in response to immunoglobulin G treatment. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the mode of inhibition of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae by buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G with the identification of a newly expressed signalling protein. PMID:27017977

  5. Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60ºC for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

  6. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  7. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  8. Lactase phlorhizin hydrolase turnover in vivo in water-fed and colostrum-fed newborn pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, M A; Burrin, D G; Quaroni, A; Rosenberger, J; Cook, G; Nichols, B L; Reeds, P J

    1996-01-01

    We have estimated the synthesis rates in vivo of precursor and brush-border (BB) polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase (LPH) in newborn pigs fed with water or colostrum for 24h post partum. At the end of the feeding period, piglets were anaesthetized and infused intravenously for 3h with L-[4-3H]- phenylalanine. Blood and jejunal samples were collected at timed intervals. The precursor and BB forms of LPH were isolated from jejunal mucosa by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS/PAGE, and their specific radioactivity in Phe determined. The kinetics of precursor and BB LPH labelling were analysed by using a linear compartmental model. Immunoisolated LPH protein consisted of five polypeptides [high-mannose LPH precursor (proLPHh), complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPHe), intermediate complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPH1i) and two forms of BB LPH]. The fractional synthesis rate (Ks) of proLPHh and proLPHc (approx. 5%/min) were the same in the two groups but the absolute synthesis rate (in arbitrary units, min-1) of proLPHh in the colostrum-fed animals was twice that of the water-fed animals. The Ks values of proLPHi polypeptides were significantly different (water-fed, 3.89%/min; colostrum-fed, 1.6%/min), but the absolute synthesis rates did not differ. The Ks of BB LPH was not different between experimental treatment groups (on average 0.037%/min). However, the proportion of newly synthesized proLPHh processed to BB LPH was 48% lower in colostrum-fed than in water-fed animals. We conclude that in neonatal pigs, the ingestion of colostrum stimulates the synthesis of proLPHh but, at least temporarily, disrupts the processing of proLPH polypeptides to the BB enzyme. PMID:9003357

  9. Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

  10. Bovine colostrum: changes in lipid constituents in the first 5 days after parturition.

    PubMed

    Contarini, G; Povolo, M; Pelizzola, V; Monti, L; Bruni, A; Passolungo, L; Abeni, F; Degano, L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great interest paid to protein components in colostrum, fat also plays an important role in the supply of essential nutrients to provide energy, increase metabolism, and protect the newborn calf against microbial infections. This work aimed to elucidate levels of different fat components in colostrum, in particular fatty acid (FA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and phospholipid contents. Colostrum samples from primiparous and multiparous (3-5 lactations) Holstein dams, fed the same ration indoors, were collected on the first 5d after parturition, analyzed, and compared with milk samples from the same cows collected at 5mo of lactation. Fat content during the first 5d of milking did not vary. However, the proportion of short-chain saturated FA increased and that of long-chain FA decreased. The concentration of n-3 FA was higher on the first day of calving than on the other days, with clear differences in the number and type of n-3 FA. Conjugated linoleic isomers and trans FA slowly increased from d 1 to 5, reaching a maximum at 5mo of lactation. Changes in the distribution profile of TG were observed as lactation progressed, with a shift from a prevalence of high-carbon-number TG (C48-50) on d 1 to a bimodal distribution (maxima at C38 and C50) on d 5, characteristic of mid-lactation milk. Cholesterol content was high in the first hours after calving and rapidly decreased within 48h. Colostrum sampled on d 1 also had a high content of phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin were, respectively, lower and higher in the first 5d than in mid-lactation milk. The influence of lactation number on colostrum fat composition was also considered and significant results were obtained for all FA groups (except for polyunsaturated and n-6 FA) and TG content. PMID:24931528

  11. Comparison of gene expression profiles of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shohei; Okutani, Mie; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competitively hybridized to DNA microarray slides. The DNA microarray data were validated by use of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, and expression of the genes FOS, NFKBI, IFNG, CXCR6, CCR5, ITGB2, CCR7, and SELL was assessed. Finally, DNA microarray data were validated at the protein level by use of flow cytometry via expression of c-Fos and integrin β-2. RESULTS Evaluation of gene expression profiles indicated that in contrast to results for peripheral blood, numerous cell-signaling pathways might be activated in colostrum. Profile analysis also revealed that FOS and NFKBI (genes of transcription factors) were involved in most cell-signaling pathways and that expression of these genes was significantly higher in colostral T cells than in peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CCR7 and SELL (genes of T-cell differentiation markers) in colostral T cells had expression patterns extremely similar to those found in effector or effector memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All or most of the T cells in colostrum had an effector-like phenotype and thus were more activated than those in peripheral blood. This gene expression profile would enable T cells to migrate to mammary glands, be secreted in colostrum, and likely contribute to passive immunity provided by sows to newborn pigs. PMID:27580107

  12. [INFLUENCE OF THE REGULAR INTAKE OF FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS ENRICHED BY MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME INDICES OF IRON METABOLISM IN ADOLESCENTS INVOLVED IN SPORTS].

    PubMed

    Turchaninov, D V; Bovarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V; Bagrova, L V; Gotwald, A R; Kozubenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the influence of regular intake offermented milk enriched by products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" on indices of iron metabolism in adolescents of 12-17 years, involved in sports (n = 94). In all study participants there was made double blood test (every 60 days), there were determined the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein. The intervention in the main group (n = 68) was in daily intake offermented milk product in a volume of 200 ml (1 Cup) in addition to the normal diet within 2 months, including 35 cases who had used the bioproduct "Bifidin" and 33 persons- bioproduct "Prolacta". The control group was consisted of 26 persons from the adolescents engaged in the same sections, but not taking additional fermented milk drinks. The average values of all studied indices in adolescent athletes of the main and control groups before and after the intervention were consistent with reference values. Latent iron deficiency was detected in 23.4 ± 4.4% of adolescents involved in sports. At the second point of the research in two months of intake of enriched dairy products in the main group there was noticed the gain in levels of serum iron, ferritin, and the decline of the concentration of C-reactive protein. The results of the study allow us to consider enriched dairy products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" as one of the components of complex measures of prophylaxis of hypovitaminosis and microelementoses in adolescents who are actively involved in sports. PMID:27029177

  13. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  14. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth. PMID:26342981

  15. Evaluation of an on-farm method to assess colostrum IgG content in sows.

    PubMed

    Balzani, A; Cordell, H J; Edwards, S A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the evaluation of swine colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration using the Brix refractometer. Colostrum samples were collected across all teats, from 124 sows of mixed parities. According to sampling time, three categories were created: samples available from 9 h before the onset of parturition until the first piglet was born were classified as before farrowing; samples collected after the first birth until 4 h later were classified as during farrowing; and finally samples collected from this point until 14 h after parturition, were classified as after farrowing. Samples were drawn and divided into three portions; one was immediately analyzed, a second was refrigerated and the third was frozen at -20°C. Fresh and refrigerated colostrum samples were analyzed at the farm with a Brix refractometer. IgG content of frozen samples was analyzed using a Brix refractometer, with a subset of 42 samples also tested with a commercially available radial immune diffusion (RID) kit. The Brix percentage ranged from 18.3% to 33.2%. Brix percentage repeatability, assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was very strong (fresh ICC=0.98, refrigerated ICC=0.88 and frozen ICC=0.99). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed that storage temperature did not affect BRIX percentage of colostrum IgG (P>0.05). ANOVA results show a significant effect of sampling time on colostrum immunoglobulin concentration, measured with both Brix and RID (Brix: P<0.003; RID: P<0.05). Immunoglobulin G concentration measured by RID ranged from 13.27 to 35.08 mg/ml. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that Brix percentage was positively correlated (r=0.56, P<0.001) with RID results (regression equation: RID=1.01 (±0.2) Brix -1.94 (±5.66); R 2=0.31). The results of this study indicate that the Brix refractometer provides a simple, fast and inexpensive estimation of colostrum IgG in sows. PMID:26554447

  16. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  17. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

  18. Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Devrim; Çakıroğulları, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

  19. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum. PMID:4016581

  20. Occurrence of a unique sialyl tetrasaccharide in colostrum of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Uemura, Yusuke; Asakuma, Sadaki; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Taki, Michihiro; Urashima, Tadasu

    2005-10-10

    Crude oligosaccharides were recovered from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) colostrum after chloroform/methanol extraction of lipids and protein precipitation, and purified using gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their chemical structures characterized by NMR spectroscopy were as follows: GalNAc(beta1-4)[Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)Glc and Gal(alpha1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc. The monosialyltetrasaccharide and neutral trisaccharide have not previously been found as free forms in any natural sources including milk or colostrum, although these structures have been found in the carbohydrate units of glycosphingolipids GM2 and Gb3. PMID:15978735

  1. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  2. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20°C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh

  3. Isolation of HIV-1-Neutralizing Mucosal Monoclonal Antibodies from Human Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, James; Alam, S. Munir; Shen, Xiaoying; Xia, Shi-Mao; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Pollara, Justin; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Yang, Guang; Kelsoe, Garnett; Ferrari, Guido; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Haynes, Barton F.; Liao, Hua-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Generation of potent anti-HIV antibody responses in mucosal compartments is a potential requirement of a transmission-blocking HIV vaccine. HIV-specific, functional antibody responses are present in breast milk, and these mucosal antibody responses may play a role in protection of the majority of HIV-exposed, breastfeeding infants. Therefore, characterization of HIV-specific antibodies produced by B cells in milk could guide the development of vaccines that elicit protective mucosal antibody responses. Methods We isolated B cells from colostrum of an HIV-infected lactating woman with a detectable neutralization response in milk and recombinantly produced and characterized the resulting HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Results The identified HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum mAbs, CH07 and CH08, represent two of the first mucosally-derived anti-HIV antibodies yet to be reported. Colostrum mAb CH07 is a highly-autoreactive, weakly-neutralizing gp140-specific mAb that binds to linear epitopes in the gp120 C5 region and gp41 fusion domain. In contrast, colostrum mAb CH08 is a nonpolyreactive CD4-inducible (CD4i) gp120-specific mAb with moderate breadth of neutralization. Conclusions These novel HIV-neutralizing mAbs isolated from a mucosal compartment provide insight into the ability of mucosal B cell populations to produce functional anti-HIV antibodies that may contribute to protection against virus acquisition at mucosal surfaces. PMID:22624058

  4. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control. PMID:12778588

  5. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented. PMID:24987806

  6. A Reevaluation of Routine Force-feeding of Dam's Colostrum to Normal Newborn Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-seven beef calves born to a group of second-calf Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows were used to assess the practical value of force-feeding dam's colostrum. The first 40 calves born were assigned alternately to two equal groups (I and II). One group was force-fed up to I L of dam's colostrum per calf. All these animals were bled at 0 and 48 h after birth. A further group (III) of seven calves born were not handled until they were bled at 48 h. A variety of methods were used to estimate immunoglobulin levels in colostral whey and serum samples. In evaluating the efficiency of passive humoral antibody transfer from dam to offspring, no significant differences were evident except in radial immunodiffusion levels which were increased in group III. The percentages of calves sucking within one hour of birth were 30%, 15% and 100% for groups I, II and III, respectively. Under the conditions of this study it appears that force-feeding of dam's colostrum to the newborn beef calf is disruptive and does not confer any practical benefit on such calves in terms of passive humoral antibody transfer. PMID:17422369

  7. Serological properties of γA antibodies to Escherichia coli present in human colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, M.; Glynn, A. A.; Lindsay, Margaret; Milne, Celia M.

    1966-01-01

    Antibodies against Esch. coli WF 96 and WF 61 present in human colostrum and serum were fractionated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Using the haemagglutination test it was found that the antibodies present in colostrum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of γA-globulin, whereas the antibodies present in serum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of γM-globulin. In the presence of human or guinea-pig complement the antibodies present in colostrum did not lyse red cells coated with bacterial polysaccharides whereas the antibodies present in serum were lytic. When the properties of γA and γM antibodies were studied using a bacteriolytic system, it was observed that γA-globulin lysed bacteria only in the presence of both complement and lysozyme; in this respect γAbacterial antibodies behaved differently from γM antibodies which were bacteriolytic in the presence of complement alone, without lysozyme. The effect of treating γA and γM antibodies with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral pH and of heating at 56° was investigated. PMID:5330427

  8. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  9. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  10. Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: The neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Langel, S N; Wark, W A; Garst, S N; James, R E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I

    2015-06-01

    Mortality and decreased weight gain resulting from infection and disease in dairy calves are problems within the dairy industry. The bovine neonate relies solely on colostrum to acquire antibodies through passive transfer. To date, colostrum quality is determined by the concentration of antibodies. However, proteins and cells in the colostrum might also enhance immune development in the neonate. To determine the effect of maternal colostral immune cells on calf health and immune status, maternal colostrum was fed either fresh or after lysis of cells by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Thirty-seven female Holstein and Jersey dairy calves were fed 4 quarts total of whole colostrum (WC) or cell-free colostrum (CFC) at birth. Respiratory and fecal scores were measured from birth to d 45 of life. Calf peripheral blood samples were obtained before and after feeding colostrum as well as on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of life. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected and analyzed for cellular parameters by flow cytometry. Total respiratory scores were greater in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves on d 38 of life. There were fewer CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD62L+CD45RO- T cells on d 1 and fewer CD4+CD62L+CD45RO+ T cells on d 1 and 3 in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves. Compared with WC-fed calves, CFC-fed calves had a greater percentage of CD4+CD62L-CD45RO+ T cells on d 0.25, 1, 3, and 7, and a greater percentage of monocytes on d 7. Our data suggest that colostral cells adoptively transfer and enhance neonatal immunity during the first month of life. PMID:25795487

  11. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum

  12. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established. PMID:26233454

  13. Effects of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and/or lactation on colostrum synthesis and immunological parameters in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Katsafadou, A; Kotsampasi, B; Michailidis, G; Mountzouris, K C; Kalogiannis, D; Christodoulou, V

    2016-03-01

    The emerging immune system is vulnerable to insult not only during fetal life, but also through colostrum transfer of maternal factors with immunomodulatory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and/or lactation on colostrum and milk synthesis, as well as on immunological parameters in offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed to 100% of nutrient requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation (Control) or to 50% during lactation (R1) or during the last 20 days of pregnancy and lactation (R2). Colostrum samples were collected 3 and 18h after parturition and thymus glands were obtained from 5-month-old offspring. Lamb birthweight did not differ between groups, whereas growth rate was significantly lower in males in the R1 group and in females in both undernourished groups. There was a significant reduction in lactose percentage in the 18-h colostrum of the R2 group. The IgG concentration, as a percentage of protein, was significantly increased in 3-h colostrum samples of the R2 group. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the thymus gland of female lambs in both undernourished groups. In conclusion, early life nutritional imbalances may impact on immune system function in later life due to programming effects. PMID:25082148

  14. A Combination of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Excess Fat/Calorie Intake Accelerates Steatohepatitis by Enhancing Hepatic CC Chemokine Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Tadashi; Nakao, Sachie; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki; Sato, Tadayuki; Iida, Yumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered as a key accelerator of fibrosis in various organs including the liver. However, the production of oxidative stress and progression of liver fibrosis may merely represent the independent consequences of hepatocellular injury caused by the primary disease. Because of a lack of appropriate experimental models to evaluate the sole effects of oxidative stress, it is virtually unknown whether this stress is causatively linked to the progression of liver fibrosis. Here, we examined the direct effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the progression of high fat/calorie diet-induced steatohepatitis using Tet-mev-1 mice, in which a mutated succinate dehydrogenase transgene impairs the mitochondrial electron transport and generates an excess amount of ROS in response to doxycycline administration. Wild type and Tet-mev-1 mice that had been continuously given doxycycline-containing water were subsequently fed either normal chow or a cholesterol-free high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 4 months at approximately 1 or 2 years of age. Histopathological examinations indicated that neither the mitochondrial ROS induced in Tet-mev-1 mice nor the feeding of wild type animals with high-fat/high-sucrose diet alone caused significant liver fibrosis. Only when the Tet-mev-1 mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, it induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes and enhanced hepatic CC chemokine expression. These events were accompanied by increased infiltration of CCR5-positive cells and activation of myofibroblasts, resulting in extensive liver fibrosis. Interestingly, this combinatorial effect of mitochondrial ROS and excess fat/calorie intake on liver fibrosis was observed only in 2-year-old Tet-mev-1 mice, not in the 1-year-old animals. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial ROS in combination with excess fat/calorie intake accelerates liver fibrosis by enhancing CC chemokine production in aged animals. We have

  15. A Combination of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Excess Fat/Calorie Intake Accelerates Steatohepatitis by Enhancing Hepatic CC Chemokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moro, Tadashi; Nakao, Sachie; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki; Sato, Tadayuki; Iida, Yumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered as a key accelerator of fibrosis in various organs including the liver. However, the production of oxidative stress and progression of liver fibrosis may merely represent the independent consequences of hepatocellular injury caused by the primary disease. Because of a lack of appropriate experimental models to evaluate the sole effects of oxidative stress, it is virtually unknown whether this stress is causatively linked to the progression of liver fibrosis. Here, we examined the direct effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the progression of high fat/calorie diet-induced steatohepatitis using Tet-mev-1 mice, in which a mutated succinate dehydrogenase transgene impairs the mitochondrial electron transport and generates an excess amount of ROS in response to doxycycline administration. Wild type and Tet-mev-1 mice that had been continuously given doxycycline-containing water were subsequently fed either normal chow or a cholesterol-free high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 4 months at approximately 1 or 2 years of age. Histopathological examinations indicated that neither the mitochondrial ROS induced in Tet-mev-1 mice nor the feeding of wild type animals with high-fat/high-sucrose diet alone caused significant liver fibrosis. Only when the Tet-mev-1 mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, it induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes and enhanced hepatic CC chemokine expression. These events were accompanied by increased infiltration of CCR5-positive cells and activation of myofibroblasts, resulting in extensive liver fibrosis. Interestingly, this combinatorial effect of mitochondrial ROS and excess fat/calorie intake on liver fibrosis was observed only in 2-year-old Tet-mev-1 mice, not in the 1-year-old animals. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial ROS in combination with excess fat/calorie intake accelerates liver fibrosis by enhancing CC chemokine production in aged animals. We have

  16. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  17. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  18. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from two dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitamin D3; 5) CR, vitamin E; 6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, ...

  19. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  20. The Yield of Colostrum and Colostral Gammaglobulins in Beef Cows and the Absorption of Colostral Gammaglobulins by Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, L.; Acres, S. D.; McCartney, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The details of a small study on the volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced by beef cows at the first milking immediately after calving and the serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins attained by beef calves are reported. The mean volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced were 2990 ± 2100 (SD) mL and 314.75 ± 211.8 (SD) g respectively. The mean serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins were 29.9 ± 10.1 (SD) ZST units (n = 40, Ranch A) and 19.2 ± 7.5 (SD) ZST units (n = 42, Ranch B). The main reason for this difference appeared to be nutritional; the cows on ranch B being in much poorer condition and almost certainly producing less colostrum than those on ranch A. PMID:17422425

  1. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations and clinical abnormalities in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal foals given endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Allen, G K; Green, E M; Robinson, J A; Garner, H E; Loch, W E; Walsh, D M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- 3-day-old colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-deprived (CD) foals. Eleven CF and 8 CD neonatal foals were given a bolus i.v. infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 microgram/kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four CF and 2 CD foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-LPS IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum TNF alpha concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as TNF alpha by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2-terminal amino acids of human TNF alpha. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preinfusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum TNF alpha concentration increased in all LPS-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum TNF alpha concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum TNF alpha concentration, persisted longer in CD foals given LPS than in CF foals given LPS. All LPS-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the CF and CD foals given LPS were not significantly different at any time. Serum TNF alpha concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both LPS-infused groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8239125

  2. Colostrum of Healthy Slovenian Mothers: Microbiota Composition and Bacteriocin Gene Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Rogelj, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants’ gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence. PMID:25919457

  3. Colostrum of healthy Slovenian mothers: microbiota composition and bacteriocin gene prevalence.

    PubMed

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants' gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence. PMID:25919457

  4. Isolation and purification of immunoglobulin G from bovine colostrums by hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mianbin; Zhang, Feifei; Liang, Yafei; Wang, Rutao; Chen, Zhengjie; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2015-05-01

    Hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography, a novel chromatographic technique for bioseparation, was developed to isolate and purify bovine IgG with high purity. In this work, the raw IgG solution, a precipitate from bovine colostrum powder solution with 40% (wt/vol) ammonium sulfate, was dissolved in 50mM phosphate buffer and used as loading solution for investigating chromatographic conditions on a mercapto-ethyl-pyridine (MEP) HyperCel (Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY) sorbent. The initial IgG concentration had no effect on the dynamic binding capacity of MEP HyperCel resin, but the linear velocity of loading solution had an obvious effect on the dynamic IgG binding capacity and IgG recovery. The maximum linear velocity was optimized as 0.4cm/min of loading solution, and 90% recovery of IgG was achieved. Under these optimized binding conditions, the pH and ionic strength for the elution process were selected as pH 4.5 and 0.5 M NaCl, respectively. Subsequently, hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography was performed on a MEP HyperCel sorbent to isolate IgG using bovine colostrum whey as the loading solution. Under the optimized operation conditions, a remarkable process improvement in IgG purification was received, which includes a yield of 91.5%, a purity of 93.9% (wt/wt), and a purification factor of 6.8. The results indicated that MEP HyperCel chromatography offers an efficient means to purify IgG from bovine colostrums. PMID:25747828

  5. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. PMID:26639991

  6. Effects of dietary yeast strains on immunoglobulin in colostrum and milk of sows.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, François; Serreau, Delphine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Berri, Mustapha; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri

    2013-03-15

    The ban of antibiotic growth promoters in pig diet required the development of alternative strategies and reinforced the importance of maternal immunity to protect neonates from intestinal disorders. Milk from sows fed active dry yeasts during gestation and lactation exhibited higher immunoglobulin (Ig) and protein content in milk at day 21 of lactation. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins (Sc01, Sc02, Sb03) to sows during late gestation and lactation could induce higher Ig content in colostrum and milk. Results show that yeast supplementation did not increase significantly sow body weight at days 112 of gestation and 18 of lactation as well as piglet body weight gain from birth to weaning. In contrast, the IgG level in colostrum was increased in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc01 at both 0.05 and 0.5% (p<0.05) and Sb03 at 0.5% (p<0.01). During the lactation, the level of milk IgG remained significantly higher in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc02 at 0.05% and 0.5% and with Sb03 at 0.5%. Furthermore, in comparison with the control sows, the level of milk IgA was significantly maintained in sows supplemented with the 3 yeast strains at 0.05%. The incidence of piglet diarrhoea was decreased in groups Sc01 at both 0.05% and 0.5% and Sc02 at 0.05%. Thus, these results show that the 3 yeast strains display immunostimulatory effects on maternal immunity, but only Sc01 supplementation at 0.05% allowed jointly the increase of IgG level in colostrum, the maintenance of IgA level in milk and the decrease of piglet diarrhoea incidence. This stimulation of maternal immunity could be associated with a better systemic (colostrum IgG) and local (milk IgA) protection of neonates and suggests that dietary yeasts may have stimulated the local gut immune system of sows. PMID:23092748

  7. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Nutrition Intervention on Children's Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy Product Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Vicky; Savard, Mathieu; Gallant, Annette; Nadeau, Luc; Gagnon, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most Canadian children do not meet daily recommendations for consumption of vegetables and fruits (V/F) and dairy products (DP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and DP consumption of children. Methods: Participants were 404 children from grades 5 and 6 (intervention group [IG] N = 242,…

  8. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p < 0.001) and dietary fiber intake (p = 0.050), whereas IL-10 decreased (p = 0.022). Other cardiovascular-related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes. PMID:24394704

  9. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-06-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  10. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  11. Aluminium, nickel, cadmium and lead in candy products and assessment of daily intake by children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Martínez, Ruth; Barber, Xavier; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Vilanova, Eugenio; García-Hernández, Vanessa M; Roche, Enrique; Garcia-Garcia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in a total of 263 samples of 12 types of candies widely consumed in Spain, were evaluated. Samples were analysed using an ICP-MS method after acidic sample mineralization. Concentration ranges of Al, Ni, Cd and Pb were 21.28-62.91 µg g(-1), 0.40-1.27 µg g(-1), 0.12-1.01 µg g(-1) and 1.03-7.14 µg g(-1), respectifgvely. Statistically significant positive correlations were calculated between concentrations of Ni-Al and Pb-Cd (p-values < 0.05). Taking into consideration the relatively high metal content, together with the high caloric density of these products, as well as high content of particular nutrients such as sugars that can induce development of certain pathologies like obesity and caries, indicate that frequent consumption of candy products is not recommended. PMID:26684054

  12. Effect of fermented soybean product (Cheonggukjang) intake on metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Choi, Joo Hee; Cha, Youn Soo; Muthaiya, Maria John; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-10-01

    As a nontargeted metabolomics approach, we investigated changes in the plasma metabolite levels in a mouse model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet and fermented soybean product diet. We analyzed the plasma samples by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the present study, the animals were divided into four groups according to the diet type; normal fat diet control group (ND), high-fat diet control group (HD), high-fat diet plus 30% cooked soybean power (HD + S), and high-fat diet plus 30% 72-h fermented Cheonggukjang powder (HD + CGJ). To examine the changes in plasma metabolite levels because of high-fat diet feeding, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the HD + S and HD + CGJ groups than in the ND group. According to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), major metabolites contributing to the discrimination between each group were assigned as lipid metabolites in plasma, e.g., lyso-phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Therefore, diets containing soy-based food products, which are rich sources of isoflavonoids, might be helpful for controlling the lipid metabolism under high-fat diet conditions. PMID:23609950

  13. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production. PMID:17369213

  14. Serum igG, blood profiles, growth and survival in goat kids supplemented with artificial colostrum on the first day of life.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Pittroff, W; García, J E; Mellado, J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare serum IgG concentrations, blood metabolites indicative of nutritional status, weight gain and mortality rate in goat kids fed a commercial colostral supplement containing immunoglobulins against several pathogen microorganisms, prior to the ingestion of the mother colostrum, and goat kids ingesting natural colostrum only. There was no difference in serum IgG concentrations between 27 kids fed a colostrum supplement (20 g, derived from cow lacteal secretions) prior to the kids' first meal (658+/-703 mg dl(-1)) and 21 kids ingesting maternal colostrum freely (1011+/-1140 mg dl(-1)) at 24 hours of birth. Hematocrit values, serum glucose and urea concentrations at 24 hours and 5 days of age were unaffected by treatment. Serum total proteins were 14% higher (P<0.05) in the unsuplemented group than in the supplemented group at 5 d of age. There was no significant difference between the supplemented and unsupplemented kids in daily weight gain from birth to 70 days of age (92+/-4.8 vs 102+/-5.1 g day(-1)). Mortality was 4% for kids receiving the colostrum supplement as compared with 0.0% for kids ingesting maternal colostrum only. Results suggest that, in intensively managed non-dairy goats with kiddings in summer, the supplementation of this commercial colostrum derived from cow lacteal secretions and containing antibodies against diverse pathogens organisms did not enhanced growth, survival or immunity under the farming conditions of this study. PMID:18422257

  15. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  16. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  17. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  18. Supplementation of diets with bovine colostrum influences immune function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Reynolds, Arleigh; Pelker, Robyn; Labuda, Jeff; Zhang, Peifang; Sun, Peichuan

    2013-12-01

    While the need for colostrum in neonates is well established, the systemic effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to adult humans is gaining increasing attention. However, no systematic studies evaluating the immunomodulatory effect of BC in dogs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dietary supplementation of BC in dogs. The study was conducted in two phases: pre-test (8 weeks) and test (40 weeks), with twenty-four dogs (mean age 2.5 years) randomised into two groups. In the 'pre-test' phase, both groups were fed a nutritionally complete diet. At the end of the 'pre-test' phase, all dogs received a canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine, and dogs in the 'test group' were switched to a diet supplemented with 0.1% spray-dried BC. Response to the CDV vaccine was evaluated by measuring vaccine-specific plasma IgG levels. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue response was assessed by measuring faecal IgA levels. Gut microbiota were evaluated by the temporal temperature gel electrophoresis methodology. Dogs fed the BC-supplemented diet demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine response and higher levels of faecal IgA when compared with the control group. Supplementing diets with BC also resulted in significantly increased gut microbiota diversity and stability in the test group. In conclusion, diets supplemented with BC significantly influence immune response in dogs. PMID:23773360

  19. Effect of parity on lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colostrum of healthy Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R.; Morris, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3+TcR1-N12+, CD3+, CD4+, and major histocompatibility complex class II+CD14− lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD26+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving. PMID:20592843

  20. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  1. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  2. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  3. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of E. coli dose on the pathophysiological response of dairy calves following an intravenous challenge. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli. The challenge doses included 0, 105, 106, 107, 108,...

  4. Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

  5. Effects of gestational plane of nutrition and selenium supplementation on mammary development and colostrum quality in pregnant ewe lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine effects of nutritional plane and selenium (Se) supplementation on colostrum quality and mammary development, individually fed, pregnant Rambouillet ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Main effects included dietary Se level which began at...

  6. Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. II: Effects of Heating Duration on Pathogen Viability and Immunoglobulin G

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrums, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10^8 cfu/ml), Listeria monocytogenes (10^6 cfu/ml), Escherichia coli O0157:H7 (10^6 cfu/ml), Salmonella enteritidis (10^6 cfu/ml), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10^3 cfu/ml), were heat-treate...

  7. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  8. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  9. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D.

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  10. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population. PMID:27211631

  11. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243

  12. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravinia, H.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control-), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control+) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain ( P < 0.05) of the birds from days 29 to 35 of age with no differences in feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control groups ( P > 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds ( P < 0.05). Pancreas percentage was increased for the birds received 200 to 500 mg/L SkEO at days 21 and 42 of age compared with that of the control- birds ( P < 0.05). The gall bladder weight was 17.56, 40.50, 12.16, and 38.73 % greater for the birds received 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO compared with that of the control- birds, respectively. The results showed that an addition of 400 mg/L SkEO into drinking water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  13. Raised dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake increases 2-series prostaglandin production during labour in the ewe

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, M; Green, LR; Poore, K; Newman, J; Burrage, D; Abayasekara, DRE; Cheng, Z; Hanson, MA; Wathes, DC

    2005-01-01

    Preterm labour is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in humans. The incidence is around 10% and the causes are often unknown. Consumption of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in western societies is increasing. These are metabolized to arachidonic acid, the precursor for 2-series prostaglandins (PGs), major signalling molecules during labour. This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2, n-6) on parturition. Ewes were fed a control or LA-supplemented diet from 100 days gestation. Labour was induced using a standardized glucocorticoid challenge (dexamethasone, Dex) to the fetus, starting on day 139. Electromyographic (EMG) activity and fetal and maternal circulating PG concentrations were monitored. One third of LA-fed ewes delivered early (pre-Dex) although basal uterine EMG activity preceding Dex was higher in control ewes (P < 0.05). A steep increase in EMG activity occurred 18–38 h after the start of Dex infusion. Twice basal EMG activity (defined as established labour) occurred on average 7 h earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes (P < 0.05). The basal concentrations of maternal and fetal PGFM and fetal PGE2 were approximately doubled in LA-supplemented ewes before the start of Dex infusion (P < 0.01). The rise in fetal PGE2 and maternal oestradiol concentrations post-Dex occurred earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes. All PG measurements remained significantly higher in the LA-supplemented ewes during labour onset. This study suggests that consumption of a high LA diet in late pregnancy can enhance placental PG production and may thus increase the risk of preterm labour. PMID:15513945

  14. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans.

    PubMed

    Karav, Sercan; Parc, Annabelle Le; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E

    2015-09-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5×10(-3) to 5.09×10(-3), 4.5×10(-3) to 7.75×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-2)to 5.2×10(-2) mg/mL×min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. PMID:26138399

  15. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans

    PubMed Central

    Karav, Sercan; Le Parc, Annabelle; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A.; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E.

    2016-01-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N′-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5 × 10−3 to 5.09 × 10−3, 4.5 × 10−3 to 7.75 × 10−3 and 1.9 × 10−2 to 5.2 × 10−2 mg/mL × min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q–TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. PMID:26138399

  16. Possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Manar E; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats. METHODS: Female rats were fed a standard diet and received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception. In study 1, neonatal rats were randomly subjected to blood tests to investigate autism. In study 2, the 1st group was fed by the mother after an injection of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and administration of gliadin. The pups in the 2nd group were prevented from accessing maternal milk, injected IFN-γ, administered gliadin, and hand-fed human colostrum. The normal littermates fed by the table mothers were injected with physiological saline and served as normal controls in this study. RESULTS: The protein concentration was higher in group 2 than in group 1 in the duodenum (161.6 ± 9 and 135.4 ± 7 mg/g of tissue, respectively, P < 0.01). A significant increase (P < 0.001) in body weight was detected in human colostrum-treated pups on post natal day (PND) 7 and 21 vs suckling pups in group 1. A delay in eye opening was noticed in the treated rats in group 1 on PND 13 compared with the control group and group 2. Administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception resulted in significantly reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in study 1 compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). However, human colostrum uptake inhibited increases in the level of transglutaminase antibody in autistic pups with coeliac disease. CONCLUSION: The effects of early-life nutrition and human colostrum on the functional maturation of the duodenal villi in autistic rats with coeliac disease that might limit or prevent the coeliac risk with autism. PMID:23745030

  17. Prediction efficiency by near-infrared spectroscopy of immunoglobulin G in liquid and dried bovine colostrum samples.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M Jordana; Alomar, Daniel; Valderrama, Ximena; Le Cozler, Yannick; Velásquez, Alejandro; Haines, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prediction efficiency of IgG concentration in bovine colostrum by NIRS, using liquid and dried (Dry-Extract Spectroscopy for Infrared Reflectance, DESIR) samples by transflectance and reflectance modes, respectively. Colostrum samples (157), obtained from 2 commercial Holstein dairy farms, were collected within the first hour after calving and kept at -20 °C until analysis. After thawing and homogenisation, a subsample of 500 mg of liquid colostrum was placed in an aluminium mirror transflectance cell (0·1 mm path length), in duplicate, to collect the spectrum. A glass fiber filter disc was infused with another subsample of 500 mg of colostrum, in duplicate, and dried in a forced-air oven at 60 °C for 20 min. The samples were placed in cells for dry samples to collect the spectra. The spectra in the VIS-NIR region (400-2500 nm) were obtained with a NIRSystems 6500 monochromator. Mathematical treatments, scatter correction treatments and number of cross-validation groups were tested to obtain prediction equations for both techniques. Reference analysis for IgG content was performed by radial immunodiffusion. The DESIR technique showed a higher variation in the spectral regions associated with water absorption bands, compared with liquid samples. The best equation for transflectance method (liquid samples) obtained a higher coefficient of determination for calibration (0·95 vs. 0·94, respectively) and cross validation (0·94 vs. 0·91, respectively), and a lower error of cross validation (9·03 vs. 11·5, respectively) than the best equation for reflectance method (DESIR samples). In final, both methods showed excellent capacity for quantitative analysis, with residual predictive deviations above 3. It is concluded that, regarding accuracy of prediction and time for obtaining results of IgG from bovine colostrum, NIRS analysis of liquid samples (transflectance) is recommended over dried samples (DESIR technique by

  18. Effects of colostrum versus formula feeding on hepatic glucocorticoid and α₁- and β₂-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves and their effect on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C T; Rohrbeck, D; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Kanitz, E; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Hammon, H M

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal energy metabolism in calves has to adapt to extrauterine life and depends on colostrum feeding. The adrenergic and glucocorticoid systems are involved in postnatal maturation of pathways related to energy metabolism and calves show elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines during perinatal life. We tested the hypothesis that hepatic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and α₁- and β₂-adrenergic receptors (AR) in neonatal calves are involved in adaptation of postnatal energy metabolism and that respective binding capacities depend on colostrum feeding. Calves were fed colostrum (CF; n=7) or a milk-based formula (FF; n=7) with similar nutrient content up to d 4 of life. Blood samples were taken daily before feeding and 2h after feeding on d 4 of life to measure metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism in blood plasma. Liver tissue was obtained 2 h after feeding on d 4 to measure hepatic fat content and binding capacity of AR and GR. Maximal binding capacity and binding affinity were calculated by saturation binding assays using [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-CGP-12177 for determination of α₁- and β₂-AR and [(3)H]-dexamethasone for determination of GR in liver. Additional liver samples were taken to measure mRNA abundance of AR and GR, and of key enzymes related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Plasma concentrations of albumin, triacylglycerides, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones changed until d 4 and all these variables except leptin and thyroid hormones responded to feed intake on d 4. Diet effects were determined for albumin, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones. Binding capacity for GR was greater and for α₁-AR tended to be greater in CF than in FF calves. Binding affinities were in the same range for each receptor type. Gene expression of α₁-AR (ADRA1) tended to be lower in CF than FF calves. Binding capacity of GR was related to parameters of glucose and lipid

  19. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  20. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1992-02-01

    Residual energy intake, defined as actual minus predicted energy intake during a production period, was estimated for each of 650 bull calves of 31 Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. Residual energy intake, measured under ad libitum feeding, had heritabilities similar to those of growth rate and energy conversion ratio with an estimate of approximately .3. Residual energy intake was related to average daily energy intake both phenotypically and genetically such that selection for decreased residual energy intake would lead to a decrease in daily feed intake. Such selection would also tend to increase carcass fatness (i.e., genetically fat animals are the most efficient). Residual energy intake estimated with and without correction for carcass composition were closely correlated. Thus, residual energy intake may be estimated without the knowledge of carcass composition in growing bulls of dual-purpose breeds. PMID:1548200

  1. The Supplementation of Yam Powder Products Can Give the Nutritional Benefits of the Antioxidant Mineral (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se) Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 μg/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered. PMID:24471100

  2. Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA) in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model. PMID:23458564

  3. Passive immunisation of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Davidson, G P; Whyte, P B; Daniels, E; Franklin, K; Nunan, H; McCloud, P I; Moore, A G; Moore, D J

    1989-09-23

    The efficacy of a 10-day course of bovine colostrum with high antibody titre against the four known human rotavirus serotypes in protecting children against rotavirus infection was examined in patients admitted to hospital. Children aged 3 to 15 months were blocked in pairs according to ward accommodation (ie, isolation or open area). Each block contained 1 treated and 1 control child. The allocation to treatment or control (an artificial infant formula) was randomised. 9 of 65 control children but none of 55 treated children acquired rotavirus infection during the treatment period (p less than 0.001). The importance of protecting against rotavirus infection was highlighted by the fact that parents of symptomatic rotavirus-positive children sought medical attention seven times more often than did parents of symptomatic rotavirus-negative children (p less than 0.05). PMID:2570959

  4. Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. PMID:25175558

  5. [Determination of immunoglobulin G in mare colostrum by high-performance gel permeation chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yuewen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yang, Jie

    2011-03-01

    A direct high-performance gel permeation chromatographic (HPGPC) method for the determination of immunoglobulin G in mare colostrum was established. HPGPC separation was performed on a TOSOH TSK-G4000PW(XL) column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 5 microm) with 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 20 microL. At the detection wavelength of 280 nm, the linear range was from 0.2 to 3.0 g/L (r2 = 0.999 5) with a detection limit of 0.08 mg/L (S/N = 10). The recovery was 97.47% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.22%. The RSDs of the peak area of stability, accuracy and reproducibility for the established method were 2.86%, 1.62% and 1.82%, respectively. Mare milk was collected from Zhaosu (China), a complete collection was stored in an ice box, then sent to a laboratory and stored in a low temperature refrigerator. The whey milk was prepared by centrifugation two times at 12 000 r/min and 4 degrees C for 30 min. The whey protein was obtained from the middle layer. A 2 mL volume of the whey milk was mixed with 23 mL of mobile phase. The average contents of IgG were from 35.0 g/L to 50.0 g/L at the first lactation (2 h), and the average contents of IgG were from 2.0 g/L to 4.0 g/L after 72 h. The relatively simple analytical method was proved to be accurate and precise in its application to mare colostrum. PMID:21657059

  6. Bovine Colostrum Increases Pore-Forming Claudin-2 Protein Expression but Paradoxically Not Ion Permeability Possibly by a Change of the Intestinal Cytokine Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23717570

  7. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition. PMID:22440417

  8. Detection of bovine alpha-S1-casein in term and preterm human colostrum with proteomic techniques.

    PubMed

    Orru, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Coscia, A; Bertino, E

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased social awareness of allergens and population hyper-sensitization, the reported incidence of allergic reactions to food allergens has increased over the past two decades. Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the most common food allergens. The aim of this study was to use proteomics techniques to investigate cow's milk allergens in both full-term human colostrum and in preterm newborns mothers where both groups showed no prior allergen detection -- in order to understand whether cows milk allergens could be a cause of sensitization established through lactation. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using techniques detailed in this paper and which allowed for direct protein identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of the colostrum samples. According to our results, bovine alpha 1 casein is considered a major cow's milk allergen, is readily secreted in human milk, and so could be considered a possible cause of sensitization in exclusively breastfed infants. PMID:23755758

  9. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infections in children associated with raw milk and raw colostrum from cows--California, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-06-13

    On September 18, 2006, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of two children hospitalized with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). One of the patients had culture-confirmed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection, and both patients had consumed raw (unpasteurized) cow milk in the week before illness onset. Four additional cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection in children who had consumed raw cow milk or raw cow colostrum produced by the same dairy were identified during the following 3 weeks. In California, intrastate sale of raw milk and raw colostrum is legal and regulated. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases by CDPH, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), and four local health departments and subsequent actions to prevent illnesses. As a result of this and other outbreaks, California enacted legislation (AB 1735), which took effect January 1, 2008, setting a limit of 10 coliforms/mL for raw milk sold to consumers. Raw milk in several forms, including colostrum, remains a vehicle of serious enteric infections, even if the sale of raw milk is regulated. PMID:18551097

  10. Demographic, Reproductive, and Dietary Determinants of Perfluorooctane Sulfonic (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Concentrations in Human Colostrum.

    PubMed

    Jusko, Todd A; Oktapodas, Marina; Palkovičová Murinová, L'ubica; Babinská, Katarina; Babjaková, Jana; Verner, Marc-André; DeWitt, Jamie C; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Čonka, Kamil; Drobná, Beata; Chovancová, Jana; Thurston, Sally W; Lawrence, B Paige; Dozier, Ann M; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Patayová, Henrieta; Trnovec, Tomáš; Legler, Juliette; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lamoree, Marja H

    2016-07-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184 colostrum samples collected from women participating in a cohort study in Eastern Slovakia between 2002 and 2004. During their hospital delivery stay, mothers completed a food frequency questionnaire, and demographic and reproductive data were also collected. PFOS and PFOA predictors were identified by optimizing multiple linear regression models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The geometric mean concentration in colostrum was 35.3 pg/mL for PFOS and 32.8 pg/mL for PFOA. In multivariable models, parous women had 40% lower PFOS (95% CI: -56 to -17%) and 40% lower PFOA (95% CI: -54 to -23%) concentrations compared with nulliparous women. Moreover, fresh/frozen fish consumption, longer birth intervals, and Slovak ethnicity were associated with higher PFOS and PFOA concentrations in colostrum. These results will help guide the design of future epidemiologic studies examining milk PFAS concentrations in relation to health end points in children. PMID:27244128

  11. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  12. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  13. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  14. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities. PMID:23164230

  15. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  16. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer

  17. Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

    2014-08-01

    Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

  18. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  19. Site-specific glycosylation of secretory immunoglobulin A from human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan; Strum, John S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2015-03-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a major glycoprotein in milk and plays a key role in mediating immune protection of the gut mucosa. Although it is a highly glycosylated protein, its site-specific glycosylation and associated glycan micro-heterogeneity have still not been fully elucidated. In this study, the site-specific glycosylation of sIgA isolated from human colostrum (n = 3) was analyzed using a combination of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS and in-house software (Glycopeptide Finder). The majority of the glycans found are biantennary structures with one or more acidic Neu5Ac residues; however, a large fraction belonged to truncated complex structures with terminal GlcNAc. Multiple glycosites were identified with nearly 30 glycan compositions located at seven sites on the secretory component, six compositions at a single site on the J chain, and 16 compositions at five sites on the IgA heavy (H) chain. Site-specific heterogeneity and relative quantitation of each composition and the extent of occupation at each site were determined using nonspecific proteases. Additionally, 54 O-linked glycan compositions located at the IgA1 hinge region (HR) were identified by comparison against a theoretical O-glycopeptide library. This represents the most comprehensive report to date detailing the complexity of glycan micro-heterogeneity with relative quantitation of glycoforms for each glycosylation site on milk sIgA. This strategy further provides a general method for determining site-specific glycosylation in large protein complexes. PMID:25629924

  20. Protection against canine parvovirus type 2 infection in puppies by colostrum-derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Grellet, Aurélien; Desario, Costantina; Feugier, Alexandre; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    During the first weeks of life puppies remain protected against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) infection thanks to maternally derived antibodies (MDA) absorbed with colostrum after birth. The objective of the present study was to present the variability in CPV2-specific passive immune transfer and its consequences in puppies naturally exposed to the parvovirus. Seventy-nine puppies from one breeding kennel were included in the study at birth and followed until 56 d of age. Once per week the MDA titre for CPV2 specific antibodies was determined in blood. Viral excretion was also evaluated on a rectal swab by CPV2 PCR assay and puppies were weighed to determine growth rate. At 2 d of age, thirty-four out of seventy-nine puppies (43 %) had MDA ≤1:160 (designed group A) and forty-five puppies (57 %) had greater MDA titres (designed group B). The level of absorbed maternal antibodies was shown to be associated with breed size and growth rate during the first 48 h of life. The MDA level declined with age in all cases; however, the proportion of puppies with the antibody level considered as protective against CPV2 infection was significantly higher in group B compared with A from day 2 until 42. Among all puppies surviving until 56 d of age, sixty-seven out of seventy (95·7 %) underwent CPV2 infection. However, puppies from group A excreted CPV2 significantly earlier than puppies from group B. The present study demonstrates the link between passive immune transfer, in terms of level of specific MDA absorbed, and length of the protection period against parvovirus infection in weaning puppies. PMID:26101622

  1. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26778319

  2. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  3. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.

    PubMed

    Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2015-03-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  4. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  5. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  6. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  7. Hemolytic complement activity and concentrations of its third component during maturation of the immune response in colostrum-deprived foals.

    PubMed

    Bernoco, M M; Liu, I K; Willits, N H

    1994-07-01

    Six foals were deprived of colostrum for the first 36 hours after birth and, instead, received reconstituted powdered milk. Five control foals suckled their dams naturally. Blood samples were obtained from all the foals after birth and at approximately weekly intervals until at least 5.5 months of age. Sera were analyzed for hemolytic complement activity, complement component C3, and correlating IgG concentration. Hemolytic complement (P = 0.0145) and C3 (P = 0.0002) values were significantly higher in colostrum-deprived foals (CDF) than in naturally nursed foals at 2 to 5 days of age. In addition, significantly (P = 0.0149) higher IgG concentration was found in CDF than in naturally nursed foals between 3 and 5.5 months of age. It was concluded that the observed high complement activity in CDF within 2 to 5 days of age may provide an alternative in immune defense for IgG-deprived foals after failure of colostral transfer. PMID:7978631

  8. Set-up and application of an analytical approach for the quality control of purified colostrum as food supplement.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Regazzoni, Luca; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Selmin, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-08-15

    A validated analytical procedure is here described for the quality control of the protein fraction of purified bovine colostrum used in food supplements. The proposed procedure starts with 1D and 2D-gel electrophoresis. The sample is then separated into two fractions by protein G affinity chromatography: the IgG enriched and the IgG depleted fraction (IgG-d). A size exclusion chromatography coupled to UV is then applied to the IgG and IgG-d fractions for the quantitative analysis of IgG and IgM, respectively. The IgG-d fraction is then analysed by HPLC-MS analysis for the quantitative analysis of β-lactoglobulins and α-lactoalbumin. The next step is to quantitatively measure a set of bioactive proteins selected from the bovine colostrum data bank on the basis of their claimed health benefits. The enzymatic activities of lactoperoxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase are then tested as an index of protein functionality. PMID:27341426

  9. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth. PMID:26679810

  10. Inhibition of S-fimbria-mediated adhesion to human ileostomy glycoproteins by a protein isolated from bovine colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Ouwehand, A C; Conway, P L; Salminen, S J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and purify the component in bovine colostrum which is responsible for the inhibition of S-fimbria-mediated adhesion of Escherichia coli. Whey from defatted colostrum was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the < 100K, < 30K, and < 10K fractions and the colostral whey were tested for inhibition of in vitro adhesion of radiolabelled S-fimbria-bearing E. coli to human ileostomy glycoproteins, which provide a model for human intestinal mucus. The inhibiting compound was purified from a dialyzed < 30K fraction with an anion exchange column which was eluted with a NaCl gradient (0 to 1.0 M). The compound was found to be a heat-resistant but pepsin-sensitive protein with an Mr of approximately 18,000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 5.75. The protein appears to block receptor sites for S-fimbriae on ileostomy glycoproteins, with steric hindrance being the most likely mechanism. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the amino terminus of the 18K protein showed similarity with the sequence of beta-lactoglobulin. PMID:7591156

  11. Effects of newborn characteristics and length of colostrum feeding period on passive immune transfer in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Capote, J; Morales-Delanuez, A; Rodríguez, C; Argüello, A

    2009-04-01

    Majorera goat kids (n = 200) were used to evaluate the effects of litter size, birth body weight, sex, and suckling duration on serum IgG concentrations. Kids were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: litter size and sex were equally distributed in each group. In the first group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 24 h; in the second group, kids (n = 66) stayed with their dams for 48 h; and in the third group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 120 h. Blood samples were obtained every 24 h for 5 d, and serum IgG concentration was measured using radial immunodiffusion. In litter sizes of 1 to 2 kids, IgG blood serum concentration was significantly higher (18.30 +/- 5.40 mg/mL) than in litters of 3 kids (9.85 +/- 4.23 mg/mL). Kid sex did not affect IgG blood serum concentrations. Suckling duration did not affect kid serum IgG concentrations. In conclusion, kids with low birth body weight (<2.8 kg) or from litters of 3 may need special attention. If newborn goat kids are allowed to suckle colostrum for at least 24 h from their dams, this seems to be sufficient time to ingest enough IgG from colostrum to achieve an adequate serum IgG concentration and passive immune protection to avoid failure of passive immune transfer. PMID:19307643

  12. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Jayda; Ostergaard, Mette V; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette; Møller, Hanne K; Purup, Stig; Fink, Lisbeth N; Frøkiær, Hanne; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B

    2013-05-15

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterm neonates. Preterm pigs (92% gestation) were delivered by caesarean section and fed parental nutrition (2 days) followed by enteral (2 days) porcine colostrum (COLOS, n = 7), infant formula (FORM, n = 13), or AF supplied before and after introduction of formula (AF, n = 10) in experiment 1, and supplied only during the enteral feeding period in experiment 2 (FORM, n = 16; AF, n = 14). The NEC score was reduced in both AF and COLOS pigs, relative to FORM, when AF was provided prior to full enteral feeding (9.9 and 7.7 compared with 17.3, P < 0.05). There was no effect of AF when provided only during enteral feeding. AF pigs showed decreased bacterial abundance in colon and intestinal inflammation-related genes (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, NOS) were downregulated, relative to FORM pigs with NEC. Anti-inflammatory properties of AF were supported by delayed maturation and decreased TNF-α production in murine dendritic cells, as well as increased proliferation and migration, and downregulation of IL-6 expression in intestinal cells (IEC-6, IPEC-J2). Like colostrum, AF may reduce NEC development in preterm neonates by suppressing the proinflammatory responses to enteral formula feeding and gut colonization when provided before the onset of NEC. PMID:23518680

  13. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  14. Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

  15. Evaluation of the risk of paratuberculosis in adult cows fed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA-positive or -negative colostrum as calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Estimate the risk of MAP infection in Holstein calves associated with ingestion of MAP DNA positive (vs negative) colostrum at birth. Animals - 205 Holstein heifer calves born in 12 commercial dairy herds. Procedure - Every calf born was separated from its dam within 30 to 60 minutes ...

  16. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

  17. Experimental Validation of a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Targeting the Genetic Element ISMAP02 for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Bovine Colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colostrum samples experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (strain K-10) at increasing concentrations between 1×10**1 and 1× 10**9 cells/mL were tested for recovery of MAP DNA using a modified nested ISMAP02 target PCR initially developed for detecting MAP DNA...

  18. Screening for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in local and imported food and feed products available across the State of Kuwait and assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Husain, Adnan; Gevao, Bondi; Dashti, Basma; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter Aleaxnder; Al-Wadi, Majed; Al-Foudari, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    A total of 318 local and imported meat, milk, eggs, fish, and animal feed samples collected in Kuwait were analyzed by cell-based reporter gene assay (Dioxin-Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression DR-CALUX) for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) obtained by DR-CALUX bioassay were compared with the official maximum limits according to the European Commission (EC) regulations. Suspected and randomly chosen negative samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The results showed that among suspected samples, one sample was confirmed to be non-compliant. The positive sample was of imported origin. The correlation coefficient of 0.98 between DR-CALUX and GC-HRMS was found. Moreover, the average daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for the Kuwaiti population were estimated. Results obtained in this study were discussed and compared with other published data. PMID:24433787

  19. Milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Parreño, V; Marcoppido, G; Vega, C; Garaicoechea, L; Rodriguez, D; Saif, L; Fernández, F

    2010-07-01

    Group A bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the major cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide. As a preventive strategy, we evaluated the protection and immunomodulation in two groups of BRV-inoculated calves. All calves received control colostrum (CC; VN=65,536; IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (VN=1,048,576; IgG(1)=262,144), twice a day, for 14 days. Calves received milk supplemented with 0.8% immune colostrum [(Gp 1) VN=16,384; IgG(1)=4096] or milk supplemented with 0.4% immune colostrum [(Gp 2) VN=1024; IgG(1)=1024]. Calves receiving CC or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4). Calves were inoculated with virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Group 1 calves (milk IgG(1) 4096) showed 80% protection against BRV diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. At 21 post-inoculation days (PID), the antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses of Gp 1 calves were limited mainly to duodenal and jejunal lamina propria (LP) with limited or no responses in systemic sites (spleen and PBL) and mesenteric lymph nodes. The profile of serum and fecal Ab responses as well as the ASC responses was also modulated by the presence of passive IgG(1) Abs and probably other colostrum components, toward higher titers of IgA Ab in serum and feces and a greater number of IgA ASC in the proximal intestine, reflecting positive modulation by colostrum toward this isotype associated with optimal protection of the intestinal mucosa. After challenge, at PID 21, all calves in Gp 1 and 2 were fully protected against diarrhea and only 1 of 5 calves in Gp 1 shed virus asymptomatically, indicating that the passive Ab treatment for 14 days was effective in protecting most of the animals after a first and a second virus exposure. The final outcome was a positive modulation of the mucosal immune responses and a high protection rate against diarrhea and virus shedding during the period of peak

  20. Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, J D; Abbott, M J; Brinkworth, G D; Whyte, P B D

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the effect of supplementation with concentrated bovine colostrum protein powder (intact) on plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations, endurance running performance and recovery. Thirty physically active males completed 8 weeks of running training whilst consuming 60 g x day(-1) of intact powder (n=17) or a concentrated whey protein powder placebo (n=13) in a randomised, double-blind, parallel design. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were measured prior to subjects performing two (approximately 30 min) incremental treadmill running tests to exhaustion (RUN1 and RUN2) separated by 20 min of passive recovery at Weeks 0. 4 and 8. Plasma IGF-I concentrations showed little change in either group (p=0.83). Effective peak running speed (PRSE; i.e. equivalent of peak power) during RUN1 was not different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99), and had increased by a similar amount in both groups by Week 4 (mean+/-SD, intact 2.2+/-4.0%, placebo 3.2+/-3.3%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI 15.7 to -13.7%; p=0.89) and Week 8 (intact 3.6+/-5.6%, placebo 3.4+/-4.4 %; 95% CI -100.0 to 100.0%; p>0.99). PRSE was less in both groups during RUN2 (p<0.05), but was not significantly different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99). PRSE during RUN2 tended to have increased more in the placebo group by Week 4 (intact 1.8+/-4.8%, placebo 4.2+/-3.9%; 95% CI 0.2 to -5 0%; p=0.07), but the intact group had increased PRSE significantly more by Week 8 (intact 4.6+/-6.1%, placebo 2.0+/-4.5%; 95% Cl 0.0 to 5.2%; p=0.05). resulting in a significantly faster PRSE (p=0.003). We conclude that supplementation with intact powder did not increase plasma IGF-I concentrations or improve performance during an initial bout of incremental running to exhaustion in our sample. However, performance during a second bout of exercise may be improved by as much as 5.2% in the average subject after 8 weeks of supplementation, possibly due to an enhancement of recovery. PMID:12188088

  1. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, "tar" and nicotine yields.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user". In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that "herbal" waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  2. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  3. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  4. Genetic Variants of the FADS Gene Cluster and ELOVL Gene Family, Colostrums LC-PUFA Levels, Breastfeeding, and Child Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Eva; Bustamante, Mariona; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Guxens, Monica; Torrent, Maties; Mendez, Michelle; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Vrijheid, Martine; Molto-Puigmarti, Carolina; Lopez-Sabater, Carmen; Estivill, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding effects on cognition are attributed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), but controversy persists. Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes has been overlooked when studying the effects of LC-PUFAs supply on cognition. We aimed to: 1) to determine whether maternal genetic variants in the FADS cluster and ELOVL genes contribute to differences in LC-PUFA levels in colostrum; 2) to analyze whether these maternal variants are related to child cognition; and 3) to assess whether children's variants modify breastfeeding effects on cognition. Methods Data come from two population-based birth cohorts (n = 400 mother-child pairs from INMA-Sabadell; and n = 340 children from INMA-Menorca). LC-PUFAs were measured in 270 colostrum samples from INMA-Sabadell. Tag SNPs were genotyped both in mothers and children (13 in the FADS cluster, 6 in ELOVL2, and 7 in ELOVL5). Child cognition was assessed at 14 mo and 4 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, respectively. Results Children of mothers carrying genetic variants associated with lower FADS1 activity (regulating AA and EPA synthesis), higher FADS2 activity (regulating DHA synthesis), and with higher EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios in colostrum showed a significant advantage in cognition at 14 mo (3.5 to 5.3 points). Not being breastfed conferred an 8- to 9-point disadvantage in cognition among children GG homozygote for rs174468 (low FADS1 activity) but not among those with the A allele. Moreover, not being breastfed resulted in a disadvantage in cognition (5 to 8 points) among children CC homozygote for rs2397142 (low ELOVL5 activity), but not among those carrying the G allele. Conclusion Genetically determined maternal supplies of LC-PUFAs during pregnancy and lactation appear to be crucial for child cognition. Breastfeeding effects on cognition are modified by child genetic variation in

  5. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  6. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8±0.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3±1.5 and 48.9±1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3±18.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7±3.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4±2.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum

  7. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430

  8. Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

    2014-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

  9. Evaluation of an animal model system for cryptosporidiosis: therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J

    1994-07-01

    Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective

  10. Evaluation of an animal model system for cryptosporidiosis: therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J

    1994-01-01

    Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective

  11. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic “browning” generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that result from the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins. AGEs have been implicated in an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse aging-relate...

  12. Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P < .01) villus circumferences, areas, and heights in total small intestine and especially in the duodenum than calves fed only milk replacer. Furthermore, villus circumferences and areas in total small intestine were greater (P < .05) in calves fed colostrum once than in calves fed no colostrum. Villus size in total small intestine was smaller (P < .05) in rbGH-treated than in control calves; jejunum villus circumferences and heights were especially reduced (P < .05). Crypt depths in ileum were greater (P < .05) in rbGH-treated calves. In conclusion, prolonged colostrum supply significantly enhanced small intestinal villus size in neonatal calves. In contrast, Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

  13. Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2003-02-01

    Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708

  14. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  15. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis. PMID:26891335

  16. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from −23% for sodium and −62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (−15 to −28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial

  17. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  18. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  19. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  20. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  1. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. PMID:26805975

  2. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  3. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  4. Fat content and fatty acids profile of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses ( Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) during six months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Kuczyńska, Beata; Lojek, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The effect of the stage of lactation, the number of foals and age of the mare on changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses was investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 lactating mares were collected at the beginning of lactation, on the days 1 and 2 after foaling and then, starting from the first month of lactation, at 4-week intervals up to the sixth month of lactation. Significant differences were observed in fat content as well as the composition of some analysed fatty acids between colostrum and milk of mares of the Konik breed. The number of foalings and the age of mares did not have a statistically significant effect on the fat content in milk and had only a slight effect on the fatty acid composition. Milk produced by mares of the Konik breed is characterized by a considerable content of polyene fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms, a low ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids as well as low, highly advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. PMID:18680614

  5. An in depth proteomic analysis based on ProteoMiner, affinity chromatography and nano-HPLC-MS/MS to explain the potential health benefits of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Ferrari, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Rumio, Cristiano; Cannizzaro, Luca; Carini, Marina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-03-20

    Bovine colostrum (BC), the initial milk secreted by the mammary gland immediately after parturition, is widely used for several health applications. We here propose an off-target method based on proteomic analysis to explain at molecular level the potential health benefits of BC. The method is based on the set-up of an exhaustive protein data bank of bovine colostrum, including the minor protein components, followed by a bioinformatic functional analysis. The proteomic approach based on ProteoMiner technology combined to a highly selective affinity chromatography approach for the immunoglobulins depletion, identified 1786 proteins (medium confidence; 634 when setting high confidence), which were then clustered on the basis of their biological function. Protein networks were then created on the basis of the biological functions or health claims as input. A set of 93 proteins involved in the wound healing process was identified. Such an approach also permits the exploration of novel biological functions of BC by searching in the database the presence of proteins characterized by innovative functions. In conclusion an advanced approach based on an in depth proteomic analysis is reported which permits an explanation of the wound healing effect of bovine colostrum at molecular level and allows the search of novel potential beneficial effects. PMID:26809613

  6. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ortiz, A.; Salcedo, J.; Barile, D.; Bunyatratchata, A.; Moreno, F.J.; Martin-García, I.; Clemente, A.; Sanz, M.L.; Ruiz-Matute, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2–0.6 min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8–1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40 °C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315 mg L−1 for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251 mg L−1 for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  7. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  8. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  9. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  10. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  11. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  12. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  13. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  14. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  15. Influence of fresh forage-based diets and αs₁-casein (CSN1S1) genotype on nutrient intake and productive, metabolic, and hormonal responses in milking goats.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M

    2013-04-01

    Polymorphism at the αS1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high αS1-casein (αS1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low αS1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for αS2-CN, β-CN, and κ-CN but a different genotype for αS1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF

  16. Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Béder, I

    2000-01-01

    Plasma carnitine levels were measured in two alternative nutrition groups--strict vegetarians (vegans) and lactoovovegetarians (vegetarians consuming limited amounts of animal products such as milk products and eggs). The results were compared to an average sample of probands on mixed nutrition (omnivores). Carnitine levels were correlated with the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine (as substrates of its endogenous synthesis), since the intake of carnitine in food is negligible in the alternative nutrition groups (the highest carnitine content is in meat, lower is in milk products, while fruit, cereals and vegetables contain low or no carnitine at all). An average carnitine level in vegans was significantly reduced with hypocarnitinemia present in 52.9% of probands. Similarly, the intake of methionine and lysine was significantly lower in this group due to the exclusive consumption of plant proteins with reduced content of these amino acids. Carnitine level in lactoovovegetarians was also significantly reduced, but the incidence of values below 30 micromol/l was lower than in vegans representing 17.8% vs. 3.3% in omnivores. Intake of methionine and lysine was also significantly reduced in this group, but still higher compared to vegans (73% of protein intake covered by plant proteins). Significant positive correlation of carnitine levels with methionine and lysine intake in alternative nutrition groups indicates that a significant portion of carnitine requirement is covered by endogenous synthesis. Approximately two thirds of carnitine requirement in omnivores comes from exogenous sources. The results demonstrate the risks of alternative nutrition with respect to the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine, and with respect to the intake and biosynthesis of carnitine. PMID:11043928

  17. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  18. Interaction of Haemophilus parasuis with nasal and tracheal mucosa following intranasal inoculation of cesarean derived colostrum deprived (CDCD) swine.

    PubMed Central

    Vahle, J L; Haynes, J S; Andrews, J J

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three cesarean derived, colostrum deprived pigs were obtained at 5 wk of age and inoculated intranasally with either 1.4 x 10(8) colony forming units of Haemophilus parasuis or sterile phosphate buffered saline. Pigs were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, 26, or 36 h post-inoculation and tissues from the oropharynx and respiratory tract were obtained for qualitative bacterial culture, immunohistochemistry for H. parasuis antigens, and light and transmission electron microscopy. Haemophilus parasuis was consistently isolated from the nasal cavity (17/17, 100%) and trachea (13/17, 76%) and rarely isolated from the lung (3/17, 18%) and blood stream (1/17, 6%) of infected pigs. Antigens of H. parasuis were sporadically detected on the nasal mucosa (6/17, 35%) and trachea (8/17, 47%). Light microscopic lesions included submucosal and intraepithelial infiltrates of neutrophils and infrequent, patchy loss of cilia. Ultrastructural changes in nasal mucosal epithelial cells included cell protrusion, loss of cilia, and dilation of the cytocavitary network. Bacteria were infrequently identified and were either within an amorphous material at the apical surface of the cilia or were between individual cilia. These results suggest H. parasuis associates with the nasal mucosa and can induce a suppurative rhinitis with nasal mucosal epithelial cell degeneration. This process may represent an initial event in the pathogenesis of H. parasuis infection of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9243000

  19. Obtaining hyperimmune anti-Cryptosporidium parvum ovine colostrum. A study of the humoral immune response in immunized sheep.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, S; Alvarez-Sánchez, M A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2006-01-01

    Three ewes were immunized five times over a 2-month period prior to giving birth by intramuscular injection, oral administration and intramammary infusion of antigen and viable or freeze-dried Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst solution emulsified with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant. Two animals served as controls and another two as adjuvant controls. Serum was collected at first immunization and thereafter every 2 to 4 weeks. Colostrum and milk were collected as well. All samples were assayed for C. parvum-specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology, and Western blotting was used to recognize the C. parvum antigens. Hyperimmunization resulted in a progressive and significant increase in specific anti-C. parvum serum IgG, IgA and IgM titres, with the highest values noted at the point of lambing. Titres decreased slightly in milk, although they were in all cases higher than those in the control animals. Moreover, some 30 bands of C. parvum were recognized. PMID:16292678

  20. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  1. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  2. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  3. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  4. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  5. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  6. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  7. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Washburn, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain

  8. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  9. Effects of oral supplementation with β-carotene on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals and on fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Aurich, J E; Wulf, M; Hurtienne, A; Schweigert, F J; Aurich, C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, effects of oral β-carotene supplementation to mares (β-carotene group: 1000 mg/day, n = 15; control group: n = 15) from 2 weeks before foaling until 6 weeks thereafter on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk and plasma of their foals were determined. In addition, effects on fertility were studied. Beta-carotene concentrations increased in plasma and colostrum of β-carotene-supplemented mares compared to control mares (p < 0.05). In mares of both groups, β-carotene concentrations were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05). In foals, β-carotene concentrations increased with colostrum uptake and were higher in foals born to supplemented mares (p < 0.05; control group: 0.0003 ± 0.0002 μg/ml on day 0, 0.008 ± 0.0023 μg/ml on day 1; β-carotene group: 0.0005 ± 0.0003 μg/ml on day 0, 0.048 ± 0.018 μg/ml on day 1). Concentrations of vitamin A and α-tocopherol were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05) but did not differ between groups. Concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma of mares decreased over time and in foals, increased markedly within 4 days after birth. All but one mare (control group) showed oestrus within 2 weeks post-partum. Occurrence of oestrus did not differ between groups. More mares of the control group (7/7 vs. 5/12 in the β-carotene group) became pregnant after being bred in first post-partum oestrus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-carotene supplementation to mares increased β-carotene concentrations in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals but had no positive effects on fertility. PMID:21545547

  10. Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goliński, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczyński, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Złotnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level - 294 g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets - 262 g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P ≤ 0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed

  11. Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypczak, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goliński, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczyński, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Złotnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level – 294 g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets – 262 g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P ≤ 0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed

  12. Multi-residue method for the determination of 57 persistent organic pollutants in human milk and colostrum using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-11-01

    Human breast milk represents the best choice for the nutrition of infants. However, in addition to containing beneficial nutrients and antibodies, it can also be considered the best indicator of infant exposure to contaminants. We developed a multi-residue method using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 57 persistent organic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides, 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human milk and colostrum samples. We have used primary secondary amine in the clean-up step as it gave a more efficient separation of the analytes from fat and superior removal of the co-extracted substances compared with gel permeation chromatography. No significant matrix effect was observed for the tested pollutants, and therefore matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 74.8-113.0 %. The precision was satisfactory, with relative standard deviations below 16 %, while values of 0.1-0.4 μg L(-1) were established as the limit of quantification for all the target analytes (0.05 and 100 μg L(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 18 human colostrum and 23 mature milk samples. All the samples tested were positive for at least nine different residues, with some samples containing up to 24 contaminants. Remarkably, the contaminants hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, PCB 180, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were present in 100 % of the colostrum and mature milk samples analyzed. PMID:24162817

  13. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. PMID:25064655

  14. A Pilot Study to Determine the Safety and Feasibility of Oropharyngeal Administration of Own Mother’s Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Meier, Paula P.; Groer, Maureen W.; Zeller, Janice M.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Fogg, Lou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety of oropharyngeal administration of own mother’s colostrum to ELBW infants in first days of life. A secondary purpose was to investigate the feasibility of (1) delivering this intervention to ELBW infants in the first days of life, and (2) measuring concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lactoferrin in tracheal aspirate secretions and urine of these infants. Subjects Five ELBW infants (mean BW and gestational age = 657 grams and 25.5 weeks, respectively). Design Quasi experimental, one group, pretest-posttest design. Methods Subjects received 0.2 mL of OMC administered oropharyngeally every two hours for 48 consecutive hours, beginning at 48 hours of life. Concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin were measured in tracheal aspirates and urine of each subject at baseline, at the completion of the intervention and again 2 weeks later. Results All infants completed the entire treatment protocol, each receiving 24 treatments. A total of 15 urine specimens were collected and 14 were sufficient in volume for analysis. A total of 15 tracheal aspirates were collected, but only 7 specimens (47%) were sufficient in volume for analysis. There was wide variation in concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin in urine and tracheal aspirates among the five infants; however several results were outside the limits of assay detection. All infants began to suck on the endotracheal tube during the administration of colostrum drops. Oxygen saturation measures remained stable or increased slightly during each of the treatment sessions. There were no episodes of apnea, bradycardia, hypotension or other adverse effects associated with the administration of colostrum. Conclusions Oropharyngeal administration of OMC is easy, inexpensive, and well-tolerated by even the smallest and sickest ELBW infants. Future research should continue to examine the optimal procedure for measuring the direct immune effects of this therapy, as well as the clinical

  15. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  16. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  17. Influence of 4 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation on neutrophil and mucosal immune responses to prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Thatcher, R; March, D S; Davison, G

    2015-12-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28 ± 8 years; body mass 79 ± 7 kg; height 182 ± 6 cm; maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) 55 ± 9 mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20 g per day of COL (n = 10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n = 10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5 h of cycling at 15% Δ (∼55-60% V̇O2max). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P < 0.05) and a trend toward a time × group interaction (P = 0.06). However, there was no effect of COL on leukocyte trafficking, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated oxidative burst, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, salivary secretory IgA, lactoferrin or lysozyme (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:25727914

  18. Modeling lactose hydrolysis for efficiency and selectivity: Toward the preservation of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum whey permeate.

    PubMed

    de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Aquino, Leticia F M C; Liu, Yan; Cohen, Joshua L; Lee, Hyeyoung; de Melo Silva, Vitor L; Rodrigues, Maria I; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose has been shown to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of bioactive oligosaccharides. Achieving maximum lactose hydrolysis requires intrinsic process optimization for each specific substrate, but the effects of those processing conditions on the target oligosaccharides are not well understood. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH (3.25-8.25), temperature (35-55°C), reaction time (6 to 58 min), and amount of enzyme (0.05-0.25%) on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase and on the preservation of biologically important sialyloligosaccharides (3'-siallylactose, 6'-siallylactose, and 6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine) naturally present in bovine colostrum whey permeate. A central composite rotatable design was used. In general, β-galactosidase activity was favored at pH values ranging from 3.25 to 5.75, with other operational parameters having a less pronounced effect. A pH of 4.5 allowed for the use of a shorter reaction time (19 min), lower temperature (40°C), and reduced amount of enzyme (0.1%), but complete hydrolysis at a higher pH (5.75) required greater values for these operational parameters. The total amount of sialyloligosaccharides was not significantly altered by the reaction parameters evaluated, suggesting specificity of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae toward lactose as well as the stability of the oligosaccharides at pH, temperature, and reaction time evaluated. PMID:27236766

  19. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

  20. Recognition of gram-positive intestinal bacteria by hybridoma- and colostrum-derived secretory immunoglobulin A is mediated by carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Amandine; Corthésy, Blaise

    2011-05-13

    Humans live in symbiosis with 10(14) commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system. PMID:21454510

  1. Recognition of Gram-positive Intestinal Bacteria by Hybridoma- and Colostrum-derived Secretory Immunoglobulin A Is Mediated by Carbohydrates*

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Amandine; Corthésy, Blaise

    2011-01-01

    Humans live in symbiosis with 1014 commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with Gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of Gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with Gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for Gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system. PMID:21454510

  2. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  3. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  4. Intrajejunal infusion of 2-monoacylglycerol reduced food intake without inducing diarrhea in rats.

    PubMed

    Okuma, Chihiro; Ohta, Takeshi; Ito, Makoto; Tadaki, Hironobu; Oda, Tomohiro; Kume, Shinichi; Nishiu, Jun; Kakutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Some nutrients, such as carbohydrate, fat and protein, are known to stimulate satiety. However, the effect of sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MG), one of the digestive products of triglycerides, on food intake is still unclear. In the present study, the effects of 2-MG on food intake and diarrhea were evaluated and compared with long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) in rats by intrajejunal infusion. Intrajejunal infusion of 2-MG reduced food intake. In addition, 2-MG did not induce diarrhea at the condition that it comparably reduced food intake as compared with LCFA. These results suggest that 2-MG stimulates satiety without inducing diarrhea, different from LCFA. PMID:26883454

  5. Describing dry matter intake and growth patterns in beef steers during the finishing period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake is central to animal production systems, as it impacts efficiency and represents a substantial fraction of the total costs. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency in Angus crossbred steers during finishing on a total mixed diet; and...

  6. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  7. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  8. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  9. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation. PMID:26903293

  10. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  11. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  12. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  13. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

  14. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  15. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  16. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

  17. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  18. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  19. Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Calvo, Mona S; Green, Timothy J; Whiting, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification. PMID:20399268

  20. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

  1. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  2. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group. PMID:27087119

  3. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  4. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVIII. Energy intake and reproductive output during lactation in Swiss mice raising small litters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Song, De-Guang; Su, Zhen-Cheng; Wei, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xian-Bin; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Limits to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during lactation in Swiss mice have been suggested to reflect the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. However, an alternative explanation is that milk production and food intake are regulated to match the limited growth capacity of the offspring. In the present study, female Swiss mice were experimentally manipulated in two ways - litter sizes were adjusted to be between 1 and 9 pups and mice were exposed to either warm (21°C) or cold (5°C) conditions from day 10 of lactation. Energy intake, number of pups and litter mass, milk energy output (MEO), thermogenesis, mass of the mammary glands and brown adipose tissue cytochrome c oxidase activity of the mothers were measured. At 21 and 5°C, pup mass at weaning was almost independent of litter size. Positive correlations were observed between the number of pups, litter mass, asymptotic food intake and MEO. These data were consistent with the suggestion that in small litters, pup requirements may be the major factor limiting milk production. Pups raised at 5°C had significantly lower body masses than those raised at 21°C. This was despite the fact that milk production and energy intake at the same litter sizes were both substantially higher in females raising pups at 5°C. This suggests that pup growth capacity is lower in the cold, perhaps due to pups allocating ingested energy to fuel thermogenesis. Differences in observed levels of milk production under different conditions may then reflect a complex interplay between factors limiting maternal performance (peripheral limitation and heat dissipation: generally better when it is cooler) and factors influencing maximum pup growth (litter size and temperature: generally better when it is hotter), and may together result in an optimal temperature favouring reproduction. PMID:23720804

  5. Increased Protein Intake in Military Special Operations123

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Arny A.

    2013-01-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20–25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ∼ 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

  6. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  7. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  8. Advances in Colostrum Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) continues to affect a significant portion of North American dairy calves, contributing to high preweaning morbidity and mortality rates as well as impaired long-term health and performance. The goal of this presentation is to review key components of a successful c...

  9. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  10. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Elidottir, Anita S.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20–66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids), respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day), including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day). Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal. Conclusion Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies. PMID:27560647

  11. Micronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-08-01

    A number of socio-economic, biological and lifestyle characteristics change with advancing age and place very old adults at increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin and mineral intakes and respective food sources in 793 75-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) in the North-East of England, participating in the Newcastle 85+ Study. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a multiple-pass recall tool (2×24 h recalls). Determinants of micronutrient intake were assessed with multinomial logistic regression. Median vitamin D, Ca and Mg intakes were 2·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 1·2-6·5) µg/d, 731 (IQR 554-916) mg/d and 215 (IQR 166-266) mg/d, respectively. Fe intake was 8·7 (IQR 6·7-11·6) mg/d, and Se intake was 39·0 (IQR 27·3-55·5) µg/d. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of folate (31·5 %), Fe (49·2 %) and Se (46·7 %) and the second highest contributors to intakes of vitamin D (23·8 %), Ca (27·5 %) and K (15·8 %). More than 95 % (n 756) of the participants had vitamin D intakes below the UK's Reference Nutrient Intake (10 µg/d). In all, >20 % of the participants were below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake for Mg (n 175), K (n 238) and Se (n 418) (comparisons with dietary reference values (DRV) do not include supplements). As most DRV are not age specific and have been extrapolated from younger populations, results should be interpreted with caution. Participants with higher education, from higher social class and who were more physically active had more nutrient-dense diets. More studies are needed to inform the development of age-specific DRV for micronutrients for the very old. PMID:27363567

  12. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  13. Ascorbic acid intake and oxalate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Knight, John; Madduma-Liyanage, Kumudu; Mobley, James A; Assimos, Dean G; Holmes, Ross P

    2016-08-01

    In humans, approximately 60 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) breaks down in the body each day and has to be replaced by a dietary intake of 70 mg in women and 90 mg in men to maintain optimal health and AA homeostasis. The breakdown of AA is non-enzymatic and results in oxalate formation. The exact amount of oxalate formed has been difficult to ascertain primarily due to the limited availability of healthy human tissue for such research and the difficulty in measuring AA and its breakdown products. The breakdown of 60 mg of AA to oxalate could potentially result in the formation of up to 30 mg oxalate per day. This exceeds our estimates of the endogenous production of 10-25 mg oxalate per day, indicating that degradative pathways that do not form oxalate exist. In this review, we examine what is known about the pathways of AA metabolism and how oxalate forms. We further identify how gaps in our knowledge may be filled to more precisely determine the contribution of AA breakdown to oxalate production in humans. The use of stable isotopes of AA to directly assess the conversion of vitamin to oxalate should help fill this void. PMID:27002809

  14. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  15. Feeding supplemental fat and undegraded intake protein to early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Grummer, R R; Shaver, R D; Broderick, G A; Drendel, T R

    1991-10-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows (16 primiparous) were fed alfalfa silage-based TMR containing 18% CP with 33 or 36% of the CP as undegraded intake protein and with 0 or 2.8% supplemental fat (DM basis). Expeller soybean meal replaced solvent soybean meal to vary undegraded intake protein, and sodium alginate-treated tallow was used as the fat source. A standard diet containing solvent soybean meal without fat was fed during the first 21 d postpartum for covariate adjustment of milk production. A continuous lactation design with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with supplemental fat and undegraded intake protein as main effects. Feeding supplemental fat increased actual milk (32.9 vs. 31.7 kg/d) but decreased milk protein concentration. Cows fed supplemental fat also had higher BW, and weight gain was significant with time. Increasing undegraded intake protein did not affect milk yield, composition, or component yield. There were no significant interactions between supplemental fat and undegraded intake protein on milk yield or composition. Milk fatty acid composition was not altered by addition of undegraded intake protein, but C6 to C14 fatty acids were reduced by adding supplemental fat. Results do not support the strategy of increasing levels of undegraded intake protein when supplemental fat is fed. Variation in undegraded intake protein content of feed-stuffs appears to be of more importance in ration formulation than interactions between supplemental fat and protein. PMID:1744277

  16. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  17. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    PubMed

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of all the foods except cereals and pulses. The intake of various nutrients i.e. energy, protein, fats, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  18. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  19. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements' effect on total nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Sharma, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy for 17 nutrients based on responses to a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered to MEC participants at baseline in 1993-1996. Although the prevalence of nutrient adequacy from food only was higher for multivitamin supplement users (n = 21,056) than for nonusers (n = 69,715), differences averaged only 2 percentage points. For multivitamin users, the prevalence of adequacy improved by an average of 8 percentage points for both men and women when intake from supplements was included. Users were also more likely to have potentially excessive intakes, particularly for iron, zinc, vitamin A, and niacin. The 26,735 MEC participants in Hawaii who answered an open-ended question about multivitamin use in 1999-2001 reported using 1246 different products. The nutrient profile of these products varied widely, and the composition of products at the 90th percentile was 10-fold greater than the composition at the median for some nutrients. We conclude that analyses of nutrient adequacy and excess for supplement users should be extended to national samples and that composition data on actual supplements used are preferable to assuming a default nutrient profile for multivitamin supplements. Multivitamin products could be better formulated to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy and also to reduce the risk of excessive intakes. PMID:17209210

  20. Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

  1. Bovine Colostrum Contains Immunoglobulin G Antibodies against Intimin, EspA, and EspB and Inhibits Hemolytic Activity Mediated by the Type Three Secretion System of Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Vilte, Daniel A.; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Ángel A.; Mercado, Elsa C.

    2008-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the main cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, an endemic disease in Argentina which had an incidence in 2005 of 13.9 cases per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Cattle appear to be a major reservoir of EHEC, and a serological response to EHEC antigens has been demonstrated in natural and experimental infections. In the current study, antibodies against proteins implicated in EHEC's ability to form attaching and effacing lesions, some of which are exported to the host cell via a type three secretion system (TTSS), were identified in bovine colostrum by Western blot analysis. Twenty-seven (77.0%) of the 35 samples examined contained immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the three proteins assayed in this study: EspA, EspB, and the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of γ-intimin, an intimin subtype associated mainly with O157:H7 and O145:H- serotypes. Every colostrum sample was able to inhibit, in a range between 45.9 and 96.7%, the TTSS-mediated hemolytic activity of attaching and effacing E. coli. The inhibitory effect was partially mediated by IgG and lactoferrin. In conclusion, we found that early colostrum from cows contains antibodies, lactoferrin, and other unidentified substances that impair TTSS function in attaching and effacing E. coli strains. Bovine colostrum might act by reducing EHEC colonization in newborn calves and could be used as a prophylactic measure to protect non-breast-fed children against EHEC infection in an area of endemicity. PMID:18562563

  2. Bovine colostrum contains immunoglobulin G antibodies against intimin, EspA, and EspB and inhibits hemolytic activity mediated by the type three secretion system of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vilte, Daniel A; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Angel A; Mercado, Elsa C

    2008-08-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the main cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, an endemic disease in Argentina which had an incidence in 2005 of 13.9 cases per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Cattle appear to be a major reservoir of EHEC, and a serological response to EHEC antigens has been demonstrated in natural and experimental infections. In the current study, antibodies against proteins implicated in EHEC's ability to form attaching and effacing lesions, some of which are exported to the host cell via a type three secretion system (TTSS), were identified in bovine colostrum by Western blot analysis. Twenty-seven (77.0%) of the 35 samples examined contained immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the three proteins assayed in this study: EspA, EspB, and the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of gamma-intimin, an intimin subtype associated mainly with O157:H7 and O145:H- serotypes. Every colostrum sample was able to inhibit, in a range between 45.9 and 96.7%, the TTSS-mediated hemolytic activity of attaching and effacing E. coli. The inhibitory effect was partially mediated by IgG and lactoferrin. In conclusion, we found that early colostrum from cows contains antibodies, lactoferrin, and other unidentified substances that impair TTSS function in attaching and effacing E. coli strains. Bovine colostrum might act by reducing EHEC colonization in newborn calves and could be used as a prophylactic measure to protect non-breast-fed children against EHEC infection in an area of endemicity. PMID:18562563

  3. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  4. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-12-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  5. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  6. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  7. Performance of statistical methods to correct food intake distribution: comparison between observed and estimated usual intake.

    PubMed

    Verly-Jr, Eliseu; Oliveira, Dayan C R S; Fisberg, Regina M; Marchioni, Dirce Maria L

    2016-09-01

    There are statistical methods that remove the within-person random error and estimate the usual intake when there is a second 24-h recall (24HR) for at least a subsample of the study population. We aimed to compare the distribution of usual food intake estimated by statistical models with the distribution of observed usual intake. A total of 302 individuals from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) answered twenty, non-consecutive 24HR; the average length of follow-up was 3 months. The usual food intake was considered as the average of the 20 collection days of food intake. Using data sets with a pair of 2 collection days, usual percentiles of intake of the selected foods using two methods were estimated (National Cancer Institute (NCI) method and Multiple Source Method (MSM)). These estimates were compared with the percentiles of the observed usual intake. Selected foods comprised a range of parameter distributions: skewness, percentage of zero intakes and within- and between-person intakes. Both methods performed well but failed in some situations. In most cases, NCI and MSM produced similar percentiles between each other and values very close to the true intake, and they better represented the usual intake compared with 2-d mean. The smallest precision was observed in the upper tail of the distribution. In spite of the underestimation and overestimation of percentiles of intake, from a public health standpoint, these biases appear not to be of major concern. PMID:27523187

  8. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  9. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  10. alpha-Tocopherol intake and plasma concentration of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders is associated with dietary intake pattern.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Martin, Antonio; Lin, Hai; Bermudez, Odilia I; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-10-01

    alpha-Tocopherol from foods has been associated with protection against several chronic diseases and maintenance of immune function. However, most people do not meet current recommendations for intake. We examined alpha-tocopherol intake and plasma concentration in a representative sample of Puerto Rican and Dominican older adults (n = 447) and in neighborhood-matched non-Hispanic whites (n = 155). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Mean dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol were 6 mg in both ethnicities. Only 4.7% of women and 7.9% of men met the estimated average requirement (12 mg/d) for vitamin E from food alone. Top sources of alpha-tocopherol for Hispanics included oils and milk, and for non-Hispanic whites they were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and sweet baked products. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were 24.5 micromol/L for Hispanics and 25.8 micromol/L for non-Hispanic whites (P > 0.05). Plasma alpha-tocopherol was positively associated with alpha-tocopherol intake (P = 0.003), and significance remained after adjusting covariates and after exclusion of supplement users (P for trend = 0.008). We identified the following 5 dietary patterns by cluster analysis: 1) fruit and breakfast cereal, 2) starchy vegetables, 3) rice, 4) milk and milk products, and 5) sweets. Those following the sweets pattern had the lowest plasma alpha-tocopherol relative to those following the fruit and breakfast cereal or milk patterns (P < 0.05 for all), although they had similar intakes. A large proportion of these elders (>90%) have inadequate intake of alpha-tocopherol, and plasma concentrations were associated with intake patterns. PMID:16988129

  11. Consumption of calcium in the U.S.: food sources and intake levels.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K H; Heimbach, J T

    1994-08-01

    Calcium intake is one of a number of factors that affect peak bone mass. Low bone mass is related to increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Data from the USDA 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey were used to determine populations most at risk of less than optimal calcium intake and food sources of calcium intake. Mean per capita daily consumption of calcium for the total U.S. population was 737 mg and varied by region of the country, household income, ethnic group, sex, and age. For most groups of females, intake was substantially less than the RDA. About 50% of total dietary calcium was supplied by milk and milk products. Milk and cheese used as ingredients in meat, grain, and vegetable mixtures contributed another 20% of dietary calcium. The remaining 30% of calcium was provided by grains and grain products, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds. PMID:8064396

  12. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  13. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  14. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  15. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  16. Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

    2014-01-01

    of feed intake, the increase in prediction error of all models was generally less than when compared with previous period animal data combined with current feed data. Milk yield as a model input in intake predictions can be substantially affected by current dietary factors. Milk yield can be used as model input when formulating rations aiming to sustain a given milk yield, but can generate large errors in estimates of future feed intake and milk production if the economically optimal diet deviates from the current diet. PMID:24508436

  17. Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, O T; Hintz, H F; Schryver, H F

    1983-10-01

    Milk samples averaging 500 ml were collected weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum from five lactating mares. Samples were obtained by hand milking after oxytocin administration and while the foal nursed. Dry matter, protein and gross energy were higher in samples obtained at 10 and 17 days postpartum than those obtained during the midlactation period of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples averaged 10.5% dry matter, 1.29% fat, 1.93% protein, 6.91% sugar and 50.6 kcal/100 g. Protein comprised 22% of milk energy. Milk intake was estimated in five foals from deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover to be 16, 15 and 18 kg/day at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum. Milk intake differed significantly among foals and at the various postpartum ages, whether intake was expressed as a daily amount, as a percent of foal body weight, per kilogram0.75 or per gram of foal body weight gain. Milk production was equivalent to 3.1% of the mare's body weight at 11 days postpartum, 2.9% at 25 days and 3.4% at 39 days. On the basis of metabolic body size milk output by the mare was 149 g/kg0.75, 139 g/kg0.75 and 163 g/kg0.75 at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively. Nutrient intakes by foals were calculated from milk composition and intake data. At 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively, dry matter intake equaled 3.1, 2.1 and 2.0% of foal body weight, and daily gross energy intake was 9380, 7590 and 8910 kcal. For each gram of body weight gain, foals ingested 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age. PMID:6619986

  18. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  19. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  20. Nutrient intake from multivitamin/mineral supplements is similar among users from five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Martin, Carrie L; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2008-03-01

    A multivitamin/mineral supplement is the most widely used type of dietary supplement among American adults. Therefore, accurate assessment of intake from this supplement is crucial when studying diet and chronic diseases. From 1999 to 2001, the Multiethnic Cohort Study collected detailed information on multivitamin/mineral use among five ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. Daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals were calculated using the nutrient composition specified on the product label. For reported supplements with insufficient detail to match to a specific product, default nutrient profiles were assigned. Multivitamin/mineral use was reported by 50% of the participants (38% for Native Hawaiians to 57% for whites). Default profiles were assigned for 38% of users. The median daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals among users (n=75,865) were well above the Recommended Daily Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and zinc. Although nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals varied widely among individuals, there was no substantial difference in the median intake across ethnic groups. To accurately estimate nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals, detailed information on the product consumed should be collected. When detailed information is not available, the same default nutrient profiles can be used when estimating intakes for these five ethnic groups. PMID:18313435

  1. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  2. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  3. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  4. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  5. Nicotine intake by snuff users.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

  6. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  7. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  8. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  9. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  10. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  11. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk

  12. Morphological changes and virus distribution in the ileum of colostrum-deprived calves inoculated with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype-1.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, M; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Trevejo, J L; Risalde, M A; Greiser-Wilke, I; Núñez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2009-07-01

    Eight colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intranasally with a non-cytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype-1 and killed in batches of two at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi). Two non-inoculated animals with similar background served as controls. All infected calves developed mild pyrexia and transient leucopenia due primarily to lymphopenia. Viraemia was correlated with body temperature and inversely related to leucocyte count. Ileal Peyer's patches developed mild follicular lymphoid depletion from 3dpi. This change was accompanied by cellular fragmentation and pyknosis, characteristic of apoptosis, which was most prominent from 6dpi. Lymphocyte apoptosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination. Stellate cells and macrophages located in the lymphoid follicles were identified as infected by virus from 3dpi and the number of these infected cells increased until 9dpi. Fewer lymphocytes expressed BVDV antigen. Macrophages had morphological features consistent with activation of secretory and phagocytic function from 3dpi. These findings suggest that BVDV is only directly responsible for the destruction of a small number of lymphocytes. Although lymphocyte infection coincided with the onset of apoptosis, the intensity of infection was disproportionate to the marked depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, particularly during the early stages of this process. Characterization of the indirect pathogenic mechanisms involved in the lymphoid depletion associated with BVDV infection will require additional study. PMID:19406434

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing

    2016-05-18

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries. PMID:27159491

  14. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic. PMID:26284059

  15. New insights in cellular immune response in colostrum-deprived pigs after immunization with subunit and commercial vaccines against Glässer's disease.

    PubMed

    Frandoloso, R; Martínez-Martínez, S; Yubero, S; Rodríguez-Ferri, E F; Gutiérrez-Martín, C B

    2012-01-01

    Four groups of colostrum-deprived pigs were immunized with Porcilis Glässer® (PG) or with subunit vaccines developed by us (rTbpA, NPAPT(M) or NPAPT(Cp)) against Glässer's disease, and they were challenged with 3×10(8)CFU of Haemophilus parasuis. A strong reduction in CD3(+)γδTCR(+) cells was seen in non-immunized control and scarcely protected (rTbpA) groups, suggesting that these cells could represent a target of H. parasuis infection. A significant increase in CD172α(+)CD163(+) cells was detected in all groups but PG, while a reduction in SLAIIDR(+) molecules expression was observed after challenge in control animals. Significant increases in CD3ε(+)CD8α(+)CD8β(+) and B cells were detected respectively in control and NPAPT groups, and in scarcely (rTbpA) and well-protected (NPAPT(M) and NPAPT(Cp)) groups. Finally, a greater response in CD4(+)CD8α(-) cells was observed in NPAPT(Cp) compared to NPAPT(M) and PG groups. These results state the potential of NPAPT antigen for developing effective vaccines against Glässer's disease. PMID:22721860

  16. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

    2003-02-01

    Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate

  17. Serum and colostral antibody production in cows immunized with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Burton, Randall; Kim, Skaison; Patel, Rutvij; Scola, Michele; Hartman, Deborah; Tracey, Daniel; Fox, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    The use of hyper-immune bovine colostrum as a human therapeutic platform is an emerging technology with potential to deliver the efficacy of antibody therapeutics with the convenience and safety of oral or topical application. It is necessary to understand how the bovine immune system responds to immunization with foreign proteins, both in terms of the serum antibody response and the transfer of antigen-specific antibodies into the colostrum to enable efficient large-scale production of therapeutic antibodies. We have immunized 25 cows with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rhTNF) and measured the levels of rhTNF-specific antibodies in the serum and colostrum of these animals. We observed a decline of 84±9% in serum IgG1 concentrations in the final weeks of pregnancy that presumably reflects rapid transport of IgG1 into colostrum. The serum IgG2 levels remained constant, such that the serum IgG1 to IgG2 ratio was 1:20 at parturition. We observed substantial animal-to-animal variability in the levels of anti-rhTNF antibodies in both serum and colostrum samples. In particular, a subset of 4 cows had extraordinarily high colostral anti-rhTNF antibody production. Only a weak correlation was found between the peak serum anti-rhTNF activity and the colostral anti-rhTNF activity in these animals. The 4 cows with high colostral anti-rhTNF activities trended toward higher serum IgG1 loss relative to average colostral anti-rhTNF producers, but this difference was not statistically significant in this small sample. The high-anti-rhTNF-producing cows also exhibited a greater proportion of rhTNF-specific antibodies that bound to bovine IgG1- and IgG2-specific detection antibodies relative to the total anti-rhTNF immunoglobulin population. This finding suggests that the isotype distribution of the anti-rhTNF response is varied between individuals and genetic or environmental factors may increase the yield of antigen-specific colostral antibodies. PMID:27040787

  18. Patterns of nutrient intake among dietary supplement users: attitudinal and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Schucker, R E

    1987-06-01

    A national telephone interview survey of an age-stratified random sample of 2,991 adults, aged 16 and over, provided detailed information from 1,142 vitamin and mineral supplement users about their nutrient intake patterns from dietary supplements. Dietary supplement users were divided into four groups (Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy) on the basis of the type and amount of nutrient intake from supplements. The Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy nutrient intake groups accounted for 42%, 16%, 28%, and 14%, respectively, of the total users. Young supplement users (aged 16 to 25) tended to be in the Light user group. Older adults (aged 41 to 64) and residents of the western United States tended to be in the Heavy and Very Heavy user groups. Users in the Light and Moderate nutrient intake groups generally used only one broad-spectrum vitamin and mineral product. Users in the Heavy and Very Heavy groups were typically taking two or more specialized vitamin and mineral products at a time as part of a personalized supplement regimen. Heavy and Very Heavy nutrient intakes were associated with more frequent visits to health food stores, greater nutrition activity, and less physician involvement. Light and Moderate nutrient intakes were more likely to be associated with a defensive interest in avoiding nutritional deficiencies. The implications of generally different motivations for dietary supplement use are discussed in the context of public information strategies. PMID:3584757

  19. USE OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING TO UNDERSTAND GENETIC MECHANISMS CONTROLLING FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY IN PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the major variable cost in pork production. Determination of genetic mechanisms that control feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency (FE) remains a major challenge for the improvement of FE and FI. Although feed is associated with production traits such as growth and composition, considerable...

  20. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in

  1. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promoti...

  2. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  3. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  4. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  5. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake. PMID:25786485

  6. Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and grains, and dietary fiber has decreased, whereas intake of carbohydrate rich convenience foods has increased. As a result, 10-20 g of dietary fat is now obtained from carbohydrate rich foods. A greater proportion of Taiwanese are choosing low-fat meat products, however, excessive intake of meat by men and women aged 19 to 64 years is resulting in excessive intakes of protein, cholesterol and saturated fat. Men and women aged 19 to 30 years had insufficient intakes of fruit and vegetables. Consumption of fruit, dairy/products, and nuts was low in all age groups. We recommend strengthening public nutrition education and changing diet related environment to improve dietary quality and food group distributions. Issues of concern include excessive intakes of energy and the soybean/fish/meat/eggs food group in all subjects, high amount of processed foods and refined-carbohydrate rich foods in men aged 19 to 64 years and women aged 19-30 years, as well as intakes below the DRI for a variety of nutrients in elderly persons. PMID:21669594

  7. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  8. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

  9. Silica urolithiasis without magnesium trisilicate intake.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, O; Sasagawa, I; Adachi, Y; Suzuki, H; Kubota, Y; Nakada, T

    1998-10-01

    Two cases of silica stones, without previous oral intake of magnesium trisilicate, are reported. A 64-year-old Japanese woman had bilateral renal stones. Infrared spectrophotoscopy revealed that one of the fragments consisted of silicate and the others consisted of calcium oxalate. A 75-year-old woman had right renal stones. The composition of 1 stone was a mixture of silicate and unspecified matrices. Silicate urolithiasis may not necessarily be related to oral intake of silicate-containing antacids. PMID:9792982

  10. Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J W; Smith, B M; Washnock, C S

    1999-09-01

    Dry beans and soybeans are nutrient-dense, fiber-rich, and are high-quality sources of protein. Protective and therapeutic effects of both dry bean and soybean intake have been documented. Studies show that dry bean intake has the potential to decrease serum cholesterol concentrations, improve many aspects of the diabetic state, and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight control. Soybeans are a unique source of the isoflavones genistein and diadzein, which have numerous biological functions. Soybeans and soyfoods potentially have multifaceted health-promoting effects, including cholesterol reduction, improved vascular health, preserved bone mineral density, and reduction of menopausal symptoms. Soy appears to have salutary effects on renal function, although these effects are not well understood. Whereas populations consuming high intakes of soy have lower prevalences of certain cancers, definitive experimental data are insufficient to clarify a protective role of soy. The availability of legume products and resources is increasing, incorporating dry beans and soyfoods into the diet can be practical and enjoyable. With the shift toward a more plant-based diet, dry beans and soy will be potent tools in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease. PMID:10479219

  11. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  12. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  13. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

  14. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  15. Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ≥90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

  16. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  17. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  19. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  20. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  1. Nutrient Intake and Food Restriction in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjin; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

  2. Nutrient intake and food restriction in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

  3. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  4. 1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ALTITUDE). CONSTRUCTED WITH CONCRETE AND RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1948. INCLUDES INTAKE SCREEN AT LEFT AND SLUICE GATE AT RIGHT. TWO 8" CAST-IRON PIPES CARRY WATER FROM THE INTAKE TO THE OLD DAM (FORMER INTAKE) DOWN LINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  5. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  6. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  7. Dietary phytoestrogen intake and mammographic density -- results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Gabriele; Mack, U; von Fournier, D; Linseisen, J

    2005-09-12

    The influence of dietary phytoestrogens provided by Western diets on mammographic density is not well established. Soy and soy products as source of isoflavones were found to be inversely associated with high mammographic density, a marker for breast cancer risk. Another class of phytoestrogens, the lignans, which are more frequent in Western diets, are rarely investigated. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Heidelberg (EPIC-Heidelberg) we explored the feasibility of mammogram collection and measurement of mammographic density in order to investigate the association between dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast density patterns. Wolfe classification was used to summarize mammographic density. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. - Out of the 505 randomly selected women, 317 (63%) returned the questionnaire and 310 (61.4%) women provided informed consent to collect mammograms. Dietary intake of seven women with dense patterns (DY) was compared with 47 women without dense patterns. A high dietary intake of fibre (p-value = 0.008) and secoisolariciresinol (p-value = 0.043) is inversely associated with non-dense breast patterns. This is also observed for a high dietary intake of soy-products (p-value = 0.004) and, in tendency, genistein (p-value = 0.069). After adjustment for energy intake and age the groups of dense and non-dense mammographic patterns were different regarding the intake of carbohydrate (p = 0.032), soy-products (p = 0.020), fibre (p = 0.046), and secoisolariciresinol (p = 0.027). - Our results suggest an inverse association between dietary lignan intake and breast density, similar to the findings for isoflavones. To our knowledge this is the first report on this association, but due to the risk of chance finding, this has to be confirmed in a study with sufficient statistical power. PMID:16183551

  8. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  9. Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation. PMID:22785030

  10. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-l