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1

The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

2014-01-01

2

Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g = -106 + 2.26 WG + 200 BWB + 0.111 D - 1,414 WG/D + 0.0182 WG/BWB (R(2) = 0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n = 500, mean = 437 g, SD = 153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean = 305 g, SD = 140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P < 0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P < 0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected neither CI nor CY, but the prefarrowing diet with coconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the new mechanistic predictive model for CI suggests that the previous empirical predictive model underestimates CI of sow-reared piglets by 30%. It was also concluded that nutrition of sows during gestation affected CY and colostrum composition. PMID:25367518

Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

2014-12-01

3

Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves.  

PubMed

In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from colostrum in neonatal calves, unlike in rodents where systemic effects of colostral leptin are demonstrated. Therefore, glucose availability in neonatal calves is promoted by perinatal maturation of eGP and colostrum intake. There may be long-lasting effects of an improved colostrum supply and glucose status on postnatal growth and development, and colostrum supply may contribute to neonatal programming of performance (milk and growth) in later life, but data proving this concept are missing. PMID:23100594

Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schönhusen, U; Metges, C C

2013-02-01

4

Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.  

PubMed

Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24?h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves. PMID:24990486

Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fábio P Leivas

2014-11-01

5

Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk.  

PubMed

Piglet survival is a major problem, especially during the first 3 days after birth. Piglets are born deficient of energy, but at the same time they have a very high energy requirement because of high physical activity, high need for thermoregulation (because of their lean body with low insulation) and high heat production in muscle tissues. To be able to survive, newborn piglets may rely upon three different sources of energy, namely, glycogen, colostrum and transient milk, which orchestrate to cover their energy requirements. Piglets are born with limited amounts of energy in glycogen depots in the liver and muscle tissues and these depots are sufficient for normal activity for ?16 h. Intake and oxidation of fat and lactose from colostrum must supply sufficient amount of energy to cover at least another 18 h until transient milk becomes available in the sow udder ?34 h after the first piglet is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different attempts have been made to increase the short-term survival of piglets, that is, survival until day 3 of lactation, by focusing on improving transfer of vital maternal energy to the offspring, either in utero or via mammary secretions. Thus, the present review addresses how sow nutrition in late gestation may favor survival of newborn piglets by increasing glycogen depots, improving colostrum yield or colostrum composition, or by increasing production of transient milk. PMID:24762853

Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Quesnel, H

2014-04-25

6

Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

Korhonen, H J

2013-01-01

7

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

8

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

9

Icterus in bob veal calves and its association with lack of colostrum intake and high serum creatine kinase activity.  

PubMed

Icterus condemnations compose a substantial proportion (41%) of total condemnations of bob veal, the class of veal composed of calves < 3 weeks old and weighing up to 68 kg. At postmortem examination, bob veal condemned because of icterus have generalized yellow discoloration of tissues, which is commonly associated with large, yellow liver (fatty liver), and a paucity of other gross pathologic changes. To establish that the generalized yellow discoloration was attributable to high tissue bilirubin concentrations and to examine the underlying mechanism(s) that might be responsible, blood samples and tissue specimens were obtained from clinically normal and icteric bob veal calves at slaughter. For comparison, blood samples were collected from clinically normal, 1- to 5-day-old Holstein calves being raised on local dairy farms. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were obtained for the 3 groups of calves (normal local, normal slaughter, and icteric slaughter), and tissues of slaughter calves were examined for histologic evidence of inflammatory or degenerative changes. Mean +/- SD total bilirubin concentration and creatine kinase (CK) activity in icteric bob veal (3.3 +/- 0.8 mg/dl; 869 +/- 788 U/L), normal bob veal (1.4 +/- 0.7 mg/dl; 486 +/- 890 U/L), and normal local calves (0.5 +/- 0.2 mg/dl; 156 +/- 158 U/L) were significantly different. When data for both normal and icteric bob veal calf groups were combined for analysis, total bilirubin concentration regressed significantly on hepatic lipid scores (P = 0.00003) and CK activity (P = 0.00049). Colostrum consumption was determined by measuring serum total protein concentration and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. Bob veal calves that had not consumed colostrum had significantly higher total bilirubin (P = 0.00005) and CK (P = 0.0008) values. It was concluded that normal and icteric bob veal calves have significant increase in total bilirubin concentration, and icterus of bob veal calves is secondary to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Lack of colostrum consumption was strongly correlated with icterus in bob veal calves. PMID:8585665

Gray, M L; Bounous, D I; Kelley, L C; Almazan, P; Brown, J

1995-11-01

10

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after childbirth. (b)...

2010-04-01

11

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after childbirth. (b)...

2012-04-01

12

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to measure by immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after childbirth. (b)...

2011-04-01

13

Effect of colostrum redox balance on the oxidative status of calves during the first 3 months of life and the relationship with passive immune acquisition.  

PubMed

New-born calves depend upon colostrum intake for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and other beneficial substances. However, colostrum is also a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intrinsic production of ROS also increases after birth, so the combination of colostral and intrinsic ROS could overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of the calf leading to oxidative stress (OS), a condition that has been shown to play a key role in the initiation and development of several pathological conditions. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effects of the redox balance of colostrum on the oxidative status of calves and on passive immune transfer. Serum samples were taken from 20 calves on their day of birth, every week during their first month of life and at 2 and 3 months of age, and the concentrations of ROS and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC) assayed. The oxidative/anti-oxidative profile and IgG content of the colostrum were also assessed. The redox balance of the colostrum had a significant effect on both calf oxidative status and on passive immune transfer (as measured by calf serum IgG concentration), which indicates that the oxidative/antioxidative profile of colostrum should be measured when colostrum quality is assessed. The highest risk of OS during the study period was found to be when the calves were fed artificial milk replacer; this suggests that calves should be supplemented with antioxidants during this period in order to minimize any harmful consequences of high ROS generation. PMID:24332736

Abuelo, Angel; Pérez-Santos, María; Hernández, Joaquín; Castillo, Cristina

2014-02-01

14

Health factors in colostrum.  

PubMed

Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2-4 days. Colostrum is very important part of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to the baby. This is the major source of secretory IgA and gives protection against gastrointestinal infections. In view of so many health factors through colostrum, the use of colostrum has been extended to so many health problems of mankind. Human and bovine colostrums have many similarities barring that bovine colostrum can be obtained in large quantity, so bovine colostrum has been used in various disorders in human beings. This is the nature's gift that is for the young ones to grow as well as for the treatment of many health problems in older age group. PMID:16077241

Thapa, B R

2005-07-01

15

Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.  

PubMed

Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

2014-04-01

16

Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

2011-01-01

17

Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions in the blood plasma of lambs. Further proteomic studies will be necessary, particularly using the selected reaction monitoring approach, to describe in detail the role of specific colostrum proteins for immune transfer to the neonate. PMID:25465637

Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí; Bendixen, Emøke

2015-01-01

18

Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

Gapper, Leyton

2013-01-01

19

Bovine colostrum in oral treatment of enterogenic endotoxaemia in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Under conditions of shock, bacteria and endotoxins in the intestines can traverse the mucosal barrier by translocation and enter the blood and lymphatic system. Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have been reported to neutralize endotoxins and bacteria. We studied the essential therapeutic factors of colostrum products in an animal experiment. Method We simulated endotoxaemia by per-oral administration of a suspension of Escherichia coli and antibiotics into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats after giving intraperitoneal carrageenan. At the same time, pure bovine colostrum or lactoferrin-enriched bovine colostrum was given. Therapeutic effects were studied by examining plasma endotoxin activity and bacterial contamination of mesenterial lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages. Albumin was used in a control group. Results The most effective bovine colostrum was able to reduce the maximum plasma endotoxin value by 67% as compared with the albumin group. The combination of this colostrum with lactoferrin brought about a reduction by 80%. The reduction in bacterial contamination of lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages was also evident. Conclusion Both gammaglobulin and lactoferrin may help to eliminate endotoxins when bovine colostrum is administered into the gut in conditions of septic shock. PMID:12493077

Döhler, J Rüdiger; Nebermann, Lars

2002-01-01

20

Residues in colostrum following antibiotic dry cow therapy.  

PubMed

Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxacillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum samples were collected from each cow at first milking after parturition. Samples were screened for residues by Delvotest P. Colostrum samples positive by Delvotest also were tested by Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Four of 186 colostrum samples from cows treated with antibiotics at drying off were positive for residues by Delvotest. Only one was confirmed positive by disc assay following heat treatment. All colostrum samples from 48 cows not treated were negative. Samples of first marketable milk also were collected. Over 96% of milk samples from cows treated at drying off and 100% of milk samples from cows not treated were negative for residues by Delvotest. If manufacturer's recommendations are followed, antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy with products in our study should not be a significant problem. PMID:6530498

Oliver, S P; Duby, R T; Prange, R W; Tritschler, J P

1984-12-01

21

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

22

REVIEW OF NONSPECIFIC ANTIMICROBIAL FACTORS IN COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

colostrum et du lait sont passés en revue dans cet article, en particulier le lysozyme, la lactoferrine, et colostrum et aux leucocytes. Introduction. Lysozyme. Occurrence. Biological significance. Lactoferrin, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, xanthine oxidase (for re- views, see Reiter and Oram, 1967; Reiter 1976 and 1978

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian  

E-print Network

Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian Latent-Variable Approach May 1, 2008 1 #12;1 Abstract Pesticide risk assessment for food products involves combining information from consumption and concentration data sets to estimate a distribution for the pesticide intake

Theobald, Chris

24

From birth to colostrum: early steps leading to lamb survival.  

PubMed

New-born lambs have limited energy reserves and need a rapid access to colostrum to maintain homeothermy and survive. In addition to energy, colostrum provides immunoglobulins which ensure passive systemic immunity. Therefore, getting early access to the udder is essential for the neonate. The results from the literature reviewed here highlight the importance of the birth site as the location where the mutual bonding between the mother and her young takes place. Attraction to birth fluids by the periparturient ewe leads to intense licking of the lamb. Grooming not only dries, cleans and stimulates the newborn it also facilitates bonding through learning of its individual odour. Ewes having twins should ideally stay on the birth site for at least six hours in order to establish a strong bond with both lambs and favour lambs survival. However, primiparous ewes or ewes having high levels of emotivity are more likely to exhibit poor maternal behaviour. In addition, difficult parturition and weather conditions have an indirect effect on the behaviour of the mother and are other major causes of lamb death. On the lamb's side, rapid access to the udder and early suckling are extremely important. Delayed lactation or insufficient colostrum yield may be fatal especially since suckling has strong rewarding properties in the establishment of a preference for the mother, which in turn increases lamb survival. Insufficient access to the udder in mothers leaving the birth site too soon after parturition, especially in twin-bearing ewes, could also partly account for the high incidence of loss of mother-young contact and subsequent death in such lambs. Strategies to improve neonatal survival should be aimed at maximising lamb vigour, colostrum production, and mutual mother-young bonding through adequate feeding in late pregnancy and selection on behaviour. PMID:16824451

Nowak, Raymond; Poindron, Pascal

2006-01-01

25

Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

1992-11-01

26

Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum as a Low-Cost, Large-Scale Source of Antibodies with Broad Neutralizing Activity for HIV-1 Envelope with Potential Use in Microbicides  

PubMed Central

Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 105. While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide. PMID:22664963

Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J.; Wheatley, Adam K.; Jacobson, Jonathan C.; Alexander, Marina R.; Rawlin, Grant

2012-01-01

27

Effects of Abomasal Infusion of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Intake, Feeding Behavior and Milk Production in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat is often fed to dairy cows to increase the energy concentration of their diet; however, feeding fat often reduces dry matter intake (DMI), which limits its im- pact on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. To investi- gate the effects of postruminal fat infusion on intake, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cows at two stages of lactation (55 and

J. A. Benson; C. K. Reynolds; D. J. Humphries; S. M. Rutter; D. E. Beever

2001-01-01

28

THE NUTRITIONAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCT CONSUMPTION ON DIETARY INTAKES OF YOUNG ADULTS (1995-1996): THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on the dietary intakes of adults. Dietary intakes of adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey (1995-1996) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Dietary intake data was collected on 1266 adults (61% females, 39% males; 74% whites, 26% blacks...

29

INFLUENCE OF MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL ON FORAGE DRY MATTER INTAKE OF MULTIPAROUS AND PRIMIPAROUS BRANGUS FEMALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brangus cows (n = 29) were used to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based upon their sire's EP...

30

DU COLOSTRUM 38 fois les bact. Gram -  

E-print Network

DU COLOSTRUM 38 fois les bact. Gram - 33 fois les bact. Gram + 19 fois les bact. Gram + et Gram - à- taté : 36 fois les bact. Gram - 39 fois les bact. Gram + 18 fois les bact. Gram - et Gram + 3 fois

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION  

E-print Network

and local passive immunity of maternal origin. In swine, as stressed by Curtis and Bourne (1971), colostralINFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT IMMUNITY OF PIGLETS A. MILON transfer of passive maternal immunity. Passive transfer of maternal humoral immunity is of peculiar

Boyer, Edmond

32

A prospective cohort study of soy product intake and stomach cancer death  

PubMed Central

The relationship between intake of soy products and death from stomach cancer was examined in a community-based prospective study of Japanese men and women in Takayama, Japan. Over 7 years of follow-up, 121 deaths from stomach cancer (81 men and 40 women) occurred among 30?304 (13?880 men and 16?424 women) participants who were at least 35 years of age. Diet including the intake of soy products and isoflavones was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food–frequency questionnaire at the beginning of the study. In men, the highest compared to the lowest tertile of total soy product intake was significantly inversely associated with death from stomach cancer after controlling for covariates (hazard ratios=0.50; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.26-0.93, P for trend=0.03). Decreased hazard ratios for the highest compared to the lowest tertiles of total soy product intake (hazard ratios=0.49; 95% CI 0.22–1.13) was observed in women, although this association was of marginal significance. These data suggest that soy intake may reduce the risk of death from stomach cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 31–36. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600349 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085252

Nagata, C; Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Shimizu, H

2002-01-01

33

Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven  

SciTech Connect

Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

1987-09-01

34

Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2015-04-15

35

Soy Product Intake and Serum Isoflavonoid and Estradiol Concentrations in Relation to Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Japanese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   To evaluate soy intake and serum concentrations of estradiol and isoflavonoids and their relationship to bone mineral density\\u000a (BMD) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP) activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 postmenopausal\\u000a Japanese women. Soy product and isoflavone intake from soy products and intake of nutrients were assessed with a semiquantitative\\u000a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD (mg\\/cm2) was

C. Nagata; H. Shimizu; R. Takami; M. Hayashi; N. Takeda; K. Yasuda

2002-01-01

36

Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

1980-06-01

37

Residues in Colostrum Following Antibiotic Dry Cow Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxa- cillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum sam- pies were collected

S. P. Oliver; R. T. Duby; R. W. Prange; J. P. Tritschler II

1984-01-01

38

Effects of moisture content of complete diets on feed intake and milk production by cows.  

PubMed

In two trials, 47 and 54 Holstein cows were fed diets containing ensiled forages, ensiled and dry forages, or diets of different moisture contents. In trial 1, diets were fed during a preliminary dry period, early lactation, late lactation, a second dry period, and a second early lactation. In trial 2, four diets identical except for moisture content (78, 64, 52, and 40% dry matter) were fed for the first 200 days of lactation. Substitution of dry hay for alfalfa silage increased dry matter intake during the first early lactation, whereas partial substitution of corn silage with straw did not affect intake during dry periods. Dry matter intake increased linearly as dry matter content of diet increased in trial 2. Neither milk production nor body weight were affected by treatment in either trial. Percentage total solids increased linearly as dry matter content of diet decreased in trial 2. Volatile fatty acids differed slightly, but no trends were consistent. No differences of daily chewing time were observed. From these trials, diets of less than 60 to 65% dry matter may reduce intake by lactating dairy cows. PMID:6630672

Lahr, D A; Otterby, D E; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G; Lundquist, R G

1983-09-01

39

Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review. Part I: biotechnological standards, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and principles of treatment.  

PubMed

Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some other animal species, most immunoglobulins are obtained from the colostrum, the first milk after birth, via the gut but in humans the majority of immunoglobulins, and those of the IgG-class in particular, are acquired from the mother by placental transport in the weeks prior to parturition. It has long been known that the consumption of bovine colostrum by humans has therapeutic effects e.g. in gastrointestinal infections, but only since the second half of the last century has it been possible to prepare stable, standardized preparations of colostrum. These biologics are administered to patients in combination with standard therapies as so-called balanced supportive diets. Investigations with standardized colostrum preparations in animal models of human disease and estimates of bovine IgG activity in the human GI-tract, described in this review, have provided preclinical data supporting the use of bovine colostrum in human diseases. On the other hand, the number of bovine colostrum products with a sufficiently large and reliable database is limited and the precise nature of the therapeutic targets is still being evaluated. PMID:17474538

Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

2007-04-01

40

Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation  

PubMed Central

Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season. Specific feeding in the summer season (on pasture) did lead in more concentrated colostrum in dry substance, fatty acids and cholesterol. PMID:23442377

2013-01-01

41

First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

2014-01-01

42

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

43

Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

2015-01-01

44

Protein metabolism and strength performance after bovine colostrum supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This study was designed to determine the responses of muscle protein, serum amino acids, and strength performance to bovine colostrum supplementation in physically active men. The rest (R) group (n=6) and the exercise (E) group (n=6) carried out twice a 2-week experiment randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion with either placebo (PLA; consuming daily 20?g maltodextrin) or bovine colostrum

A. Mero; T. Nykänen; O. Keinänen; J. Knuutinen; K. Lahti; M. Alen; S. Rasi; J. Leppäluoto

2005-01-01

45

Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone  

E-print Network

that bovine milk and its basic proteins, and bovine colostrums (BC) and their extracts have positive effects- : BCAP [/] ; : ( 0.04 g·d-1 ) BCAP ; BCAP (0.04~0.40 g·d-1 ) / / / / Résumé ­ Effets de la basiques, le colostrum bovin et ses extraits, ont un effet positif sur la croissance osseuse de l'Homme ou

Boyer, Edmond

46

Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

2014-04-01

47

Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules  

PubMed Central

In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W.; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G.; Bastian, Max

2014-01-01

48

Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)0.75 per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW0·75 per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens. PMID:25049823

Ning, D.; Guo, Y. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.

2013-01-01

49

Clinical parameters, intestinal function, and IGF1 concentrations in colostrum-deprived and colostrum-fed newborn pony foals.  

PubMed

Colostrum (COL) contains cytokines and growth factors that may enhance intestinal development in neonates. The hypothesis of this study was that besides providing immunoglobulins, COL is important for intestinal function and meconium release in foals. Newborn foals were either fed COL (n = 5) or an equal amount of milk replacer (MR, n = 7) during the first 24 hours of life. To ensure passive immunity, all foals received 1 L plasma. Postnatal development, meconium release, intestinal motility, white blood cell count, insulin-like growth factor 1, and intestinal absorptive function (xylose absorption test) were evaluated. Clinical findings and meconium release were not affected by feeding of COL or MR. Ultrasonography revealed a slightly larger jejunum and stomach in group COL versus MR (P < 0.05). The percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was higher in foals of group MR versus group COL (P < 0.05) and the percentage of lymphocytes was lower in MR compared with COL foals (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 concentration increased during the first 14 days after birth in both groups. A xylose absorption test on Day 5 revealed similar increases in plasma xylose concentrations after oral intake. In conclusion, feeding of COL versus MR was without effect on meconium release and intestinal absorptive function. Differences between foals fed COL and MR with regard to intestinal function are apparently without clinical relevance. In foals that have not received maternal COL, there is no major risk of intestinal problems if they are fed MR and provided with immunoglobulins by transfusion of plasma. PMID:24054551

Palm, F; Nagel, C; Bruckmaier, R M; Aurich, J E; Aurich, C

2013-12-01

50

Assessment of intake and internal dose from iodine-131 for exposed workers handling radiopharmaceutical products.  

PubMed

Two methods for determination of internal dose due to (131)I intake during the preparation and handling of iodine radiopharmaceutical products have been compared. The first method was based on the measurement of (131)I in 24-hour urine samples while the second method was based on the measurement in vivo of (131)I in thyroid. The results have shown that urine analysis method can be used as a screening test but not for internal dose assessment of exposed workers. Thyroid monitoring method was found to be more reliable and accurate method for assessing internal dose from (131)I intake. In addition, the assessed internal dose showed that the annual internal effective dose for some workers was below 1 mSv with no risk classification, whereas the results of other group of workers were between 1 and 6 mSv with low risk classification. Only one worker reached 7.66 mSv with high risk classification; and this worker must be monitored individually. PMID:24184740

Bitar, A; Maghrabi, M; Doubal, A W

2013-12-01

51

Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.  

PubMed

High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait. PMID:25601813

Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

2014-11-01

52

Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4·7±1·5 h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50 mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 50·0%, a specificity of 49·5%, and a negative predictive value of 87·9%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk. PMID:25226021

Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-11-01

53

Effect of prepartum anionic supplementation on periparturient feed intake, health, and milk production.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows. PMID:20965343

DeGroot, M A; Block, E; French, P D

2010-11-01

54

Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training  

PubMed Central

Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.

2014-01-01

55

Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.  

PubMed

Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1 % fat milk, 1·5 % fat yogurt and 34 % fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22 % and 0·42 v. 0·39 % of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

2015-02-01

56

Effect of milk chocolate product on week-1 feed intake and growth performance of weanling pigs.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of dried whey (DW; 70% lactose) or milk chocolate product (MCP; 20% lactose and 60% sugars) on wk-1 feed intake and growth performance of pigs. Diets contained 1.60, 1.40, 1.40, and 1.20% total Lys for phase 1 (d 0 to 7), 2 (d 7 to 14), 3 (d 14 to 21), and 4 (d 21 to 35), respectively. Pigs were blocked by initial BW; sex and littermates were balanced across treatment; treatments were replicated with a minimum of 5 pens of 4 pigs each. Pigs were weaned at 24, 19, and 24 d of age with an initial BW of 6.5, 6.0, or 6.3 kg for Exp. 1 to 3, respectively. In Exp. 1 and 2, the treatments were 1) negative control (NC), no lactose added, 2) positive control (PC) with DW, 3) 25% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (25MCP), and 4) 50% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (50MCP). The level of DW or combinations of DW and MCP were 20, 10, and 5% for phases 1, 2, and 3 respectively. A common diet with no lactose was fed during phase 4. In Exp. 3, the treatments were 1) NC, 2) PC, and 3) 100% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (100MCP). In the combined data of Exp. 1 and 2, daily collected feed intake during wk 1 was increased (P < 0.10) from d 3 to 7 for the PC pigs; on d 2, 3, 4, and 7 for the 25MCP pigs; and from d 2 to 7 for the 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. There was no difference (P > 0.10) on any day of wk 1 among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. During phase 1, ADG and ADFI were increased (P < 0.10) for the PC, 25MCP, and 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs, but G:F was not affected (P > 0.10). During phases 2, 3, 4, and overall, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in growth performance among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. In Exp. 3, collected daily feed intake during wk 1 was increased (P < 0.10) from d 2 to 5 for PC pigs and on d 1 and 2 for the 100MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. However, there was no difference (P > 0.10) on any day of wk 1 between the PC and 100MCP pigs. Growth performance was not affected (P > 0.10) during any phase of the experiment. Combined data from Exp. 1, 2, and 3 using the NC and PC diets indicated that dietary DW increased (P < 0.10) final BW and increased ADG and ADFI during phases 1, 2, 3, and overall. These results indicate that partial or total replacement of DW with MCP had no effect on wk-1 feed intake or growth performance of weanling pigs and that MCP could be considered as a formulation alternative to DW. PMID:20382873

Naranjo, V D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

2010-08-01

57

Preventively enteral application of immunoglobulin enriched colostrums milk can modulate postoperative inflammatory response  

PubMed Central

Several studies demonstrated acute inflammatory response following traumatic injury. Inflammatory response during surgical interventions was verified by a significant increase of endotoxin plasma levels and a decrease of the endotoxin neutralizing capacity (ENC). However, the incidence of elevated endotoxin levels was significantly higher (89%) than detected bacterial translocation (35%). Thus parts or products of Gram-negative bacteria seem to translocate more easily into the blood circulation than whole bacteria. Along with the bacterial translocation, the inflammatory response correlated directly with the severity of the surgical intervention. In comparison after major and minor surgery Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly different. Similar effects in mediator release were shown during endovascular stent graft placement and open surgery in infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Open surgery demonstrated a significant stronger endotoxin translocation and a decrease of ENC. Strategies to prevent translocation seem to be sensible. Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary glands within the first days after birth. It contains a complex system of immune factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Placebo-controlled studies verified that prophylactic oral application of immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation diminishes perioperative endotoxemia, prevents reduction of ENC and reduces postoperative CRP-levels, suggesting a stabilization of the gut barrier. This effect may be caused by immunoglobulin transportation by the neonatal receptor FcRn of the mucosal epithelium. In conclusion, there is an association of perioperative endotoxemia and the subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction in surgical patients. A prophylactic oral application of colostrum milk is likely to stabilize the gut barrier i.e. reduces the influx of lipopolysaccharides arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and inhibits enterogenic endotoxemia. This appears to be a major mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock. PMID:24266958

2013-01-01

58

Determination of cocaine/crack biomarkers in colostrum by LC-MS following protein precipitation.  

PubMed

Drug abuse by nursing mothers is an ongoing concern because it may cause many adverse effects to the newborns. The development of analytical methods to analyze drugs of abuse in colostrum (first milk produced after birth) has a huge importance, because it enables the monitoring and the correct follow-up to users and newborns. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of cocaine and smoked cocaine (crack) biomarkers in colostrum. Cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE), the pyrolytic products anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) and anhydroecgonine (AEC) were analyzed after a simple protein precipitation procedure using atropine (ATP) as internal standard (IS). Applying a chemometric approach study, all peaks were chromatographically separated at isocratic condition with a Kinetex HILIC column for polar compounds, at 30°C in 12min. One ion was detected for the quantification and three ions for confirmation of each analyte. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range of 5-300ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9983 and 0.9996. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5ng/mL with acceptable validation parameters. Matrix effect was assessed by post-extraction addition approach and showed good results, demonstrating that protein precipitation cleaning procedure is fast, reliable and demand small quantities of organic solvent. The LC-MS method is fast and cheap compared to other equipments and was also successfully applied to assess real samples of colostrum from nursing mothers who were suspect of cocaine/crack abuse. PMID:25462122

D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Pereira, Andrea Garcia; Salazar, Fernanda Rodrigues; Ferreira, Pâmela Lukasewicz; Salazar, Cledinara Rodrigues; Limberger, Renata Pereira; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo

2014-11-01

59

Intake of Soy Products and Other Foods and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC). Methods The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Results Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52–1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268). Conclusions Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23812102

Ko, Kwang-Pil; Park, Sue K.; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Gwack, Jin; Shin, Aesun; Kim, YeonJu; Kang, Daehee; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

2013-01-01

60

Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.  

PubMed

Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030). PMID:25412019

Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

2015-01-01

61

Response in Vitamin B12Production and Absorption to Increasing Cobalt Intake in the Sheep 1-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sheep, fitted with intestinal reentrant and rumen cannulas, were used to estimate ruminai production of vitamin B-12 when fed diets differing in cobalt concentrations. The basal diet, which was in pelleted form, consisted of 30% ground corn, 69% ground hay and 1% sodium chloride. At daily cobalt intakes averag ing 0.047, 0.41 and 0.83 mg, mean estimates of vitamin

M. F. HEDRICH; J. M. ELLIOT; ANDJ. E. LOWE

2010-01-01

62

NUTRITION, FEEDING, AND CALVES Effect of Prepartum Anionic Supplementation on Periparturient Feed Intake, Health and Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The four diets used prepartum were Control (DCAD +20 meq\\/100 g DM), BioChlor® (DCAD -12 meq\\/100 g DM), Fermenten® (DCAD -10 meq\\/100

M. A. DeGroot; P. D. French

63

Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

2014-04-01

64

Synergistic antidigestion effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums in simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and

Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin

2007-01-01

65

Effect of varying levels of fatty acids from palm oil on feed intake and milk production in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

To determine the optimum feeding level of fatty acids of palm oil (PALM; Energizer RP10; 86.6% palmitic acid) on milk production, lactating cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares. Animals were assigned to squares by parity (3 multiparous and 1 primiparous squares with primiparous in the incomplete square). The 4 diets were designed to provide 0, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g of PALM per day. Cows were fed individually with feed intake measured daily. Each period lasted 16 d with milk production and composition determined the final 2 d. Milk production, milk composition and feed intake data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Milk yields were 30.9, 34.0, 34.2, and 34.2 kg/ d (SEM = 1.9) for the 0, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g levels, respectively. Milk yield was increased by the addition of PALM; however, there were no differences among the levels of PALM. Milk fat percentage was also increased from 3.44% for 0 g to 3.95% (SEM = 0.17) across all levels of PALM but there were no differences among the PALM treatments. Dry matter intakes were 23.3, 26.4, 24.7, and 23.8 kg/d (SEM = 1.4) for the 0, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g levels, respectively. The addition of PALM increased milk yield and milk fat percentage, and no adverse effects on dry matter intake were observed. PMID:17235176

Mosley, S A; Mosley, E E; Hatch, B; Szasz, J I; Corato, A; Zacharias, N; Howes, D; McGuire, M A

2007-02-01

66

Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.  

PubMed

A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. PMID:25036607

Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

2014-09-01

67

Comparative analysis of zinc status, food products' frequency intake and food habits of 11-year-old healthy children.  

PubMed

Children are particularly vulnerable to zinc (Zn) deficiency during periods of rapid growth and development such as infancy and adolescence. The aim was to find the relationship between food frequency, intake, food habits and zinc status in 11-year-old healthy children from southern Poland. The study group comprised children (n = 157) in the age range 11.0 +/- 0.4 years. The level of Zn in serum, erythrocytes and hair samples was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The parents of children examined completed a special food frequency questionnaire. The Zn concentration in hair (boys 182.98 +/- 65.63 microg x g(-1), n = 78; girls 203.82 +/- 39.80 microg x g(-1), n = 79; p = 0.0171), erythrocytes (8.60 +/- 2.76 mg x l(-1), n = 50) and blood serum (0.79 +/- 0.15 mg x l(-1)) correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with frequency intake of different products (hair: meat, rolls, fruit juices without additives, brawn, pate, barley, black pudding, fish canned, chips, margarine used for cooking, bacon; erythrocytes: fruits, matured cheese, dishes of meal, white cottage cheese, fruit juices without additives, cakes and cakes with cream, margarine used for bread spread; blood serum: bread, fruits, milk, kefir, yoghurt). The relationship of the Zn amount in food products, food frequency intake and the concentration in different healthy children tissues is influenced by many internal and external factors. PMID:12443558

Schlegel-Zawadzka, M; Zachwieja, Z; Huzior-Baajewicz, A; Pietrzyk, J J

2002-10-01

68

Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN...

Milam, Kyle Zohn

2012-06-07

69

Effect of feeding maternal colostrum or plasma-derived or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maternal colostrum (MC), a plasma-derived (PDCR) or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer (CDCR) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves. Preplanned contrasts were performed for MC versus CR (PDCR combined with CDCR) and PDCR versus CDCR. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: MC (n=49), 3.8L of maternal colostrum; PDCR (n=49), 550 g (1 dose; 150 g of IgG) of a PDCR; or CDCR (n=49), 470 g (1 dose; 100g IgG) of a CDCR. The best total protein cutoff for determining passive transfer was >5.2, 5.6, and 5.1g/dL for MC, PDCR, and CDCR, respectively. Serum total protein was greater for calves fed MC (mean ± SE; 6.14 ± 0.11 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (5.29 ± 0.11 g/dL) and CDCR (5.27 ± 0.11 g/dL). Serum IgG concentrations were greater for calves fed MC (2,098 ± 108 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (927 ± 107 g/dL) or CDCR (1,139 ± 108 g/dL). Apparent efficiency of absorption was greater for CDCR than PDCR (38.8 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 3.0%). Adequate passive transfer was greatest for MC (91.8%), followed by CDCR (49%) and PDCR (28.6%). Calves fed MC had greater weaning weights and body weight gain than calves fed CR. Morbidity was lower for calves fed MC (46.9%) than for calves fed PDCR (71.4%) or CDCR (67.3%). Calves fed MC tended to have lower mortality than calves fed CR. Given the conditions of this trial, feeding 3.8L of MC was superior to feeding one dose of CR. Further research is needed to evaluate calf performance when a higher dose of CR is fed. PMID:23497992

Priestley, D; Bittar, J H; Ibarbia, L; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

2013-05-01

70

Sucrose intake in Germany.  

PubMed

The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake. By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative sample of 15,838 persons aged 4 years and older were analyzed. The relation between sucrose and nutrients intake was investigated by variance and regression analyses. Low, moderate, and high sucrose intake categories were defined by means of sucrose density quartiles and comparisons were made for the percentages of persons meeting the German nutrient intake recommendations. Mean daily sucrose intake ranges between 43.2 g/d (f, 51-64 years) and 82.3 g/d (m, 13-14 years). The mean contribution of sucrose to total energy intake is highest with 14% in young age (4-6 years) and decreases to 9% and 7% in 51-64 year old women and men, respectively. The food groups "table sugar", "confectionery and ice cream", "biscuits, cake and pastries", "preserves", "dairy products", and "non-alcoholic beverages" are the main sucrose sources with varying importance in different age groups. The average amount of naturally occurring sucrose in the Germans' diet is estimated to 15-25% of total sucrose intake. Sucrose contributes 80-90% to total disaccharides intake in Germany. With each gram of sucrose the intake of energy rises on the average by 12.5 kcal (52.4 kJ), of protein by 0.3 g (9% of the energy increase), of fat by 0.5 g (34%), and of carbohydrates by 1.8 g (57%). Consequently, the higher the sucrose content of a diet, the lower is the contribution of fat to total energy intake. In contrast, the energy-adjusted effect of sucrose was found to be negative for energy-providing nutrients (except mono- and disaccharides) as well as for all the selected micronutrients, except calcium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and dietary fiber. Accordingly, the comparison between moderate and high sucrose consumers revealed a lower percentage of persons meeting nutrient intake recommendations in the high sucrose category under the condition of a comparable energy intake. This unfavorable effect of high sucrose intake is most prominent in 4-6 year old boys and girls as the groups with the highest sucrose intake. Since from the present data no exact figure for a sucrose or sugars intake recommendation can be deduced, it is suggested to keep on the WHO recommendation for a moderate sugar intake of 10% of energy intake. PMID:9894678

Linseisen, J; Gedrich, K; Karg, G; Wolfram, G

1998-12-01

71

Production of recombinant leptin and its effects on food intake in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is a key factor for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts is still limited. There are large differences between mammalian and teleost leptin at both gene and protein levels, and in order to characterize the function of leptin in fish, preparation of species-specific leptin is therefore a key

Koji Murashita; Susumu Uji; Takeshi Yamamoto; Ivar Rønnestad; Tadahide Kurokawa

2008-01-01

72

Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.  

PubMed

Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

2014-05-01

73

Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum  

E-print Network

Short note Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum JJ Ramos T Saez JP Bueso 1993; accepted 4 February 1994) Summary ― Vitamin B!2 was measured in samples of normal ovine d. Colostrum obtained within 24 h of lambing contained high concentrations of vitamin B!2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Short Communication: Evaluation of a Color Method for Testing Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Goat Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immuno- globulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measure- ment of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using

A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote

2005-01-01

75

Gastric Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Regulates Ghrelin Production and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate food intake. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Here we showed the reciprocal relationship of gastric mTOR signaling and ghrelin during changes in energy status. mTOR activity was down-regulated, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were increased by fasting. In db/db mice, gastric mTOR signaling was enhanced, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were decreased. Inhibition of the gastric mTOR signaling by rapamycin stimulated the expression of gastric preproghrelin and ghrelin mRNA and increased plasma ghrelin in both wild-type and db/db mice. Activation of the gastric mTOR signaling by l-leucine decreased the expression of gastric preproghrelin and the level of plasma ghrelin. Overexpression of mTOR attenuated ghrelin promoter activity, whereas inhibition of mTOR activity by overexpression of TSC1 or TSC2 increased its activity. Ghrelin receptor antagonist d-Lys-3-GH-releasing peptide-6 abolished the rapamycin-induced increment in food intake despite that plasma ghrelin remained elevated. mTOR is therefore a gastric fuel sensor whose activity is linked to the regulation of energy intake through ghrelin. PMID:19406939

Xu, Geyang; Li, Yin; An, Wenjiao; Li, Shenduo; Guan, Youfei; Wang, Nanping; Tang, Chaoshu; Wang, Xian; Zhu, Yi; Li, Xiaoying; Mulholland, Michael W.; Zhang, Weizhen

2009-01-01

76

Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

2012-01-01

77

Short communication: evaluation of a color method for testing immunoglobulin G concentration in goat colostrum.  

PubMed

Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measurement of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using 20 mg of IgG/ mL of colostrum as the cut-off point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the color method as a test of IgG concentration in goat colostrum were 93.03, 71.43, and 78.12%, respectively. PMID:15829668

Argüello, A; Castro, N; Capote, J

2005-05-01

78

Effects of supplemental fats on intake, production, and heat stress in lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

in Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer. (December 1990) Richard Glynn Saunders, B. S. , Tarleton State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Carl E. Coppock Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows in late lactation (average days in milk = 211 d) were used..., cottonseed hulls, and either 1) 0% added fat, 2) 15% whole cottonseed, or 3) 15% whole cottonseed plus 3% calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids. Dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, 3. 24 protein-corrected milk, milk protein yield, total milk solids...

Saunders, Richard Glynn

1990-01-01

79

Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.  

PubMed

Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

1994-06-01

80

Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the effect of intake before fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360±22 kg) were maintained at 21°C and fed three different energy intakes within a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Steers were fed alfalfa cubes to provide 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm during 19 days of each experimental period. Steers were placed in individual metabolism stalls fitted with indirect calorimetry head-boxes on day 20 of each experimental period (FED steers) and fed their normal meal. On day 21 of each period the reticulorumen was emptied, washed and refilled with ruminal buffer (NaCl=96; NaHCO3=24; KHCO3=30; K2HPO4=2; CaCl2=1.5; MgCl2=1.5 mmol/kg of buffer) aerated with 75% N2 and 25% CO2 before introduction to the rumen (steers were not fed; WASHED steers). Each gas exchange was measured over 24 h. HP for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm were 479, 597 and 714 kJ/daykg0.75 (s.e.m. =16), respectively. The plateau RQ was 0.756, 0.824 and 0.860 for the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm intakes for the FED steers, respectively. After rumen washing, fasting HP was 331, 359 and 400 kJ/daykg0.75 (s.e.m.=13) for 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0×NEm intakes before fasting, respectively. The RQ for WASHED rumen steers was 0.717, 0.710 and 0.719, respectively. Cortisol and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in WASHED rumen steers did not exceed threshold levels for severe energy deficit and stress as can be induced from prolonged fasting. This study demonstrates that a fasting state can be emulated using the washed rumen technique, minimizing the time required as opposed to traditional fasting methodologies, without causing a severe energy deficit and stress. PMID:25166735

Kim, D H; McLeod, K R; Koontz, A F; Foote, A P; Klotz, J L; Harmon, D L

2015-01-01

81

Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

2014-02-01

82

Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein?×?Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

Neto, Severino Gonzaga; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

2015-01-01

83

Maternal dietary intake alters organ mass and endocrine and metabolic profiles in pregnant ewe lambs.  

PubMed

To determine the impacts of Se supply and maternal dietary intake on ewe organ mass and endocrine and metabolic changes throughout gestation, pregnant first parity ewes (n=77) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2×3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe; 9.5?g/kg BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 81.8?g/kg BW)] initiated at breeding and dietary intake [60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements] initiated on d 50 of gestation. Ewes were individually fed and blood samples from the jugular vein were obtained approximately every 14 d from d 50 until parturition. Maternal Se supply did not impact endocrine or metabolic status. There was a nutritional intake by day interaction for NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17? (E2). As expected, with increased maternal intake, NEFA concentrations were reduced. During the last weeks of gestation, BUN and insulin were elevated in EXC compared with RES ewes. Although the pattern of T3 and T4 differed throughout gestation within a treatment group, as maternal intake increased, circulating T3 and T4 were increased. For P4 and E2, as maternal dietary intake increased, there was a reduction in the steroid concentrations in jugular blood. There was only a main effect of maternal nutrition (P<0.001) for cortisol concentrations with EXC ewes having greater concentrations than RES and CON ewes, which did not differ. Although Se is known to influence thyroid hormone metabolism, supranutritional levels during pregnancy did not alter circulating T3 and T4 concentrations. Alterations in maternal endocrine status may have influenced placental transport of nutrients to the developing fetus, which we have shown previously is affected by maternal dietary Se and intake. In addition, the alterations in mammary gland weight that we observed may explain the impact of maternal nutrition on mammary gland function and colostrum production, thereby further impairing growth of developing neonates. PMID:23981299

Vonnahme, K A; Neville, T L; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

2013-10-01

84

EFFECT OF PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY ON INTAKE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF LIVESTOCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grassland ecology is concerned primarily with those factors influencing the composition of plant species under grazing conditions, particularly how they relate to sustaining productive plant communities. With the recent trend of livestock operations opting for less capital-intensive production syst...

85

1. -HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production  

E-print Network

. Comparison of four air conditioning systems in fattening pig-houses C. TEXIER, R. GRANIER B. DE LA FARGE tested with each air conditioning system. The animals were housed by groups of ten on a surface of 0.8 M2) the statical system seems to be better, while air conditioning by overpressure is not recommended in winter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.  

PubMed

Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements in child nutrition. PMID:24606793

Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

2014-03-01

87

Impact of the Maturity of Corn for Use as Silage in the Diets of Dairy Cows on Intake, Digestion, and Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-plant corn was harvested at early dent, quarter milkline, two-thirds milkline, and black layer stages to evaluate the effects of maturity on intake, digestion, and milk production when corn was fed as silage in the diet. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets contain- ing

M. A. Bal; J. G. Coors; R. D. Shaver

1997-01-01

88

GRAZPLAN: Decision support systems for Australian grazing enterprises—II. The animal biology model for feed intake, production and reproduction and the GrazFeed DSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper specifies the animal biology module of a model for simulating grazing systems for ruminants on pasture. The program predicts the intake of energy and protein, allowing for selective grazing and substitution by supplementary feeds, and estimates the use of the diet for maintenance and production, according to current feeding standards. Conception and death rates are predicted from the

M. Freer; A. D. Moore; J. R. Donnelly

1997-01-01

89

The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

2014-09-01

90

Daily dietary intake of copper, zinc, and selenium of exclusively breast-fed infants of middle-class women in Burundi, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation\\u000a have been determined. Wet acid digestion, using nitric and perchloric acids, and atomic absorption spectrometric analysis\\u000a have been used. Daily intakes have been calculated and proven to decrease from 0.39±0.05 (colostrum) to 0.16±0.02 (mature\\u000a milk), 2.3±0.3 (colostrum), to 1.2±0.2

H. Robberecht; H. Benemariya; H. Deelstra

1995-01-01

91

The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.  

PubMed

Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. PMID:25468691

Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

2015-01-01

92

The effect of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) cysticercoids on the weight change, frass production, and food intake of the intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera).  

PubMed

Parasitism results in nutritionally related changes in hosts, often leading to altered feeding behavior. Infected hosts that increase their feeding also increase their probability of reinfection. To study this, I used a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials with food. Each beetle's weight change, food intake, and frass production were measured over 24-h periods at 3, 7, 12, and 16 days postinfection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight and produced more frass than females. Additionally, treatment had no effect on food consumption, but males had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that infection status will not alter the probability of reinfection, but males will be more susceptible to infection than females. However, despite the male's greater food intake during the experimental infection period, parasite loads did not differ between males and females. PMID:16231174

Shea, John F

2005-12-01

93

Corn bran versus corn grain at 2 levels of forage: Intake, apparent digestibility, and production responses by lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of substituting corn bran (CB) for dried ground corn grain (CG) in the nonforage portion of high-forage (HF) and low-forage (LF) diets. Twelve multiparous and 12 primiparous Holsteins were assigned to 4 diets using six 4× Latin squares with 3-wk periods. Forage was 64 or 38% of the total mixed ration (% of dry matter). On a dry matter basis, the HFCG diet had 20% CG, the LFCG diet had 39% CG, the HFCB diet had 19% CB, and the LFCB diet had 38% CB. Digestible organic matter intake (OMI) and milk energy yield were lower for CB compared with CG within forage level. Digestible OMI was greater (1.9kg/d) for the LFCG compared with the HFCG treatment. When CB replaced forage (LFCB vs. HFCB), digestible OMI was not different but milk energy yield was greater with the LFCB diet. The LFCG diet supported the greatest milk, milk protein, and milk energy yield. Decreased concentration of milk protein and increased concentration of milk urea nitrogen when feeding CB compared with CG suggests that lack of fermentable energy in the CB diets may have limited rumen microbial protein synthesis. Total substitution of CG with CB in the nonforage portion did not support maximum milk production, even when forage was reduced at the same time (HFCG vs. LFCB). Predicted neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility at 1 times maintenance, based on chemical analysis of the individual feeds, was 22 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 46.9%). In vitro NDF digestibility (30h) was 19.4 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 49.5%). However, in vivo NDF digestibility of the diet when CB replaced forage (HFCB vs. LFCB) was similar (44.1 vs. 44.5%). Similarly, predicted total digestible nutrients at the production level of intake, based on chemical analysis, were greater for the CB treatments and lower for the CG treatments than those observed in vivo. PMID:24997669

Arndt, C; Armentano, L E; Hall, M B

2014-09-01

94

Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.  

PubMed

Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum. PMID:24582452

Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

2014-05-01

95

The Incidence of Dementia and Intake of Animal Products: Preliminary Findings from the Adventist Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between animal product consumption and evidence of dementia in two cohort substudies. The first enrolled 272 California residents matched for age, sex, and zip code (1 vegan, 1 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and 2 'heavy' meat eaters in each of 68 quartets). This design ensured a wide range of dietary exposure. The second included 2,984 unmatched subjects who resided

Paul Giem; W. Lawrence Beeson; Gary E. Fraser

1993-01-01

96

Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

97

Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of ?-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and ?-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, ?-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

2014-01-01

98

Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. PMID:23642466

Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

2013-08-01

99

Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

1992-04-01

100

Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves. PMID:21333009

2011-01-01

101

Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats?  

PubMed Central

Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death.

Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

2012-01-01

102

Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

1994-01-01

103

Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum: Identification of a colostrum-derived inhibitory lipid  

PubMed Central

We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions. PMID:18675305

Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

2008-01-01

104

Role of rice and cereal products in dietary cadmium and lead intake among different socio-economic groups in south India.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of cadmium and lead in rice and cereal products commonly consumed in South India. Samples from retail outlets were purchased and analysed for cadmium and lead using graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicated varying concentrations of these metals in different rice and cereal products. The daily dietary intake of cadmium and lead varied among different socio-economic groups, based on occupation, and choice of consumption. The findings suggest that rice is the major source of cadmium and lead among the rural population and economically-deprived class. The source of intake of toxic metals appears to be more diverse in the case of the urban middle class and the economically privileged class of South India. PMID:8522035

Srikanth, R; Ramana, D; Rao, V

1995-01-01

105

Effect of Composition of Colostrum and Transition Milk from Holstein Heifers on Specificity Rates of Antibiotic Residue Tests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum and transition milk composition on speci- ficity rates of antibiotic residue screening tests. Milk from 25 primigravid Holstein heifers was collected from either first, second, or third milking (colostrum) and from either fifth, sixth, or seventh milking (transition milk) following parturition. Milk sampled was visibly normal and heifers

S. M. Andrew

2001-01-01

106

Effects of Prepartum Administration of a Monensin Controlled Release Capsule on Rumen pH, Feed Intake, and Milk Production of Transition Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlledreleasecapsule(CRC)onrumenpH,drymat- ter intake, and milk production during the transition period and early lactation were determined in 16 mul- tiparous Holstein cows. Cows were divided into blocks of 2 depending on calving date. Cows were fed either a close-updry cowor alactating cowtotal mixedration ad libitum. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling probes. Monensin

A. M. Fairfield; J. C. Plaizier; T. F. Duffield; M. I. Lindinger; R. Bagg; P. Dick; B. W. McBride

2007-01-01

107

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility\\u000a and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (±SD) live weight of 19.8 (±1.06) kg,\\u000a were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp

Ajebu Nurfeta

2010-01-01

108

Effects of stage of maturity and conservation strategy on fermentation, feed intake and digestibility of whole-crop pea-oat silage used in dairy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two repeated 3×3 Latin Square design trials, dairy cows have been fed bi-crop pea-oat silage to investigate the effect of maturity stage and harvest strategy on feed intake and milk production. In experiment 1 the crop was harvested when the peas were at the flat pod (cut 1) or full pod (cut 2) stage. At the first cut half

T. Rondahl; J. Bertilsson; E. Lindgren; K. Martinsson

2006-01-01

109

Influence of S. babylonica extract on feed intake, growth performance and diet in vitro gas production profile in young lambs.  

PubMed

An experiment was completed to determine the effect of Salix babylonica (SB) extract supplementation to the diet of growing lambs. Eighteen Katahdin × Pelibuey male lambs (14?±?2 kg live body weight) were divided randomly in individual cages into three groups and fed three diets varying in SB: a control group was fed on total mixed ration (TMR) without SB (SB0), an SB25 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 25 mL/lamb/day, and an SB50 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 50 mL/lamb/day on dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, and in vitro gas production (GP) in lambs fed on TMR. In vitro GP of the TMR fed to lambs was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mL extract per gram of DM. Addition of SB extract at low and high doses improved the DMI of lambs by 59.9 and 33.2 %, respectively. Relative to the control, low and high extract doses achieved greater lamb ADG during the experimental period. The asymptotic GP increased (P?

Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Olivares, Misael; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Mellado, Miguel; Arece, Javier

2014-01-01

110

Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in ?-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of ?-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the ?-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence ?-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased ?-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence ?-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

2013-01-01

111

Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.  

PubMed

Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production. PMID:22843214

Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

2013-02-01

112

Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0.01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering. PMID:25349368

Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

2014-11-01

113

Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

2013-01-01

114

Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P excretion levels. To conclude, new selection indexes including RFI can be envisaged to efficiently disentangle the responses to selection on growth rate and body composition from those on feed efficiency, with favorable impacts on N and P excretions, particularly in sire pig breeds. However, the switch from FCR to RFI in selection indexes should not resolve the genetic antagonism between feed efficiency and meat quality. PMID:23482579

Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

2013-06-01

115

A randomized controlled trial on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifers fed a lacteal-derived colostrum replacer or pooled maternal colostrum  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value?=?0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR?=?1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value?=?0.974 ), omphalitis (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value?=?0.956), or mortality (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value?=?0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd. PMID:23965249

2013-01-01

116

The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

2014-02-01

117

Comparison of urinary bromide levels among people in East Asia, and the effects of dietary intakes of cereals and marine products.  

PubMed

Groups of people with no occupational exposure to Br-containing chemicals (29-54 year old, mostly women) in Japan, China and Korea, respectively, offered spot urine samples. Those in China and Korea offered 24 h duplicates of foods of the day. Urine samples were analyzed for Br by ECD-gas chromatography (ECD-GC) after derivatization to methyl bromide, and the Br-U was adjusted for a specific gravity of 1.016. Food intake data were based on national statistics and supplemented by the food duplicate data. Mean Br-U was 5.4 and 6.5 mg/l for Japanese men and women, respectively. Mean levels were in a range of 1.8-2.8 mg/l for four groups of Chinese, and 8-12 mg/l for the four groups of women in Korea. Br-U levels among Korean women were close levels reported for occupational exposure to 1- or 2-bromopropane, or methyl bromide. Regression analyses showed that Br-U levels were influenced by the intake of marine products (such as sea algae, sea fish and shellfish) and fruits, and inversely relate to intakes of cereals and potato. PMID:12191890

Kawai, T; Zhang, Z-W; Moon, C-S; Shimbo, S; Watanabe, T; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

2002-08-01

118

Developmental changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome expression during the transition from colostrum to milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

119

Effect of supplemental yeast culture and physiological factors on colostrum and milk composition of Pelibuey ewes.  

PubMed

The effects of supplemental yeast culture, litter size, stage and number of lactation on milk composition were studied in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Ten control ewes grazed on guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and were supplemented with concentrate. A further ten ewes received the same diet with 14 g/head/day of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Colostrum was collected within 24 h after parturition, and subsequently, milk samples were collected at fortnightly intervals (7, 21, 35, and 49 days). Total solids content averaged 32% in colostrum and 12.5% in milk. Colostrum of primiparous ewes had higher total solids content than that of ewes with more than five lactations. However, ewes with more than five lactations produced milk with higher net energy, total solids, protein, and casein than ewes with fewer lactations. Milk at 7 days had a significantly higher content of energy, total solids, and fat than milk at 21, 35, and 49 days. Total solids content was lower for ewes rearing one lamb than larger litter sizes. Supplementation with yeast culture did not affect the composition of colostrum and milk, which was mainly affected by the stage and number of lactation. PMID:22124973

Macedo, Rafael Julio; Arredondo, Victalina; García, Fernando; Aguilar, Miguel; Prado, Omar; Rodríguez, Rosario

2012-02-01

120

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

121

Blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as a predictor of passive transfer status in lambs.  

PubMed

The importance of blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) enzyme activity was evaluated to assess passive transfer status in healthy lambs. Thirty Akkaraman sheep (3-6 years old) were used which had normal pregnancy period and the same conditions, and the age of the lambs ranged between 0 and 15 days. Blood and colostrum/milk samples were collected from sheep and lambs after birth, before suckling (0) and after on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 15th days. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was determined by the use of Single Radial Immunodiffusion method. Serum gamma-GT activity was measured, using a commercially available kit in blood and colostrum/milk samples. Correlations were carried out between immunoglobulin and gamma-GT levels. Regression models (simple and multiple) were calculated with significant data. Linear correlation was determined between colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations and between serum gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations in lambs on the 0 day. (r: 0.607, P: 0.001), 1st (r: 0.768, P: 0.001) and the 3rd (r: 0.603, P: 0.001) days and on the 1st (r: 0.637, P: 0.001) and 3rd (r: 0.478, P: 0.012) days in the experiment, respectively. Multivariate regression models were developed to estimate sample IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk IgG concentration could be predicted using the formula: lamb serum IgG = 825 + 0.688 (lamb gamma-GT) + 52 (days); colostrum/milk IgG = 832 + 0.505 (colostrum/milk gamma-GT) - 167 (days). The regression models were moderately accurate in predicting serum IgG concentration (R2 = 0.51) and colostrum/milk IgG concentration (R2 = 0.55). Test sensitivity and positive predictive values for serum gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 96 and 100% and for colostrum/milk gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 100 and 68% to prediction IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity can be used to assess passive transfer status of lambs. Along with this, regression models used to calculate serum and colostrum/milk gamma-GT activities found to be useful to estimate sample IgG concentration. The use of serum and colostrum/milk gamma-GT enzyme activity was found useful especially after birth on the 0, 1st and 3rd days. PMID:12667190

Maden, M; Altunok, V; Birdane, F M; Aslan, V; Nizamlioglu, M

2003-04-01

122

Effects of colostrum versus formula feeding on hepatic glucocorticoid and ??- and ??-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves and their effect on glucose and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Neonatal energy metabolism in calves has to adapt to extrauterine life and depends on colostrum feeding. The adrenergic and glucocorticoid systems are involved in postnatal maturation of pathways related to energy metabolism and calves show elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines during perinatal life. We tested the hypothesis that hepatic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ??- and ??-adrenergic receptors (AR) in neonatal calves are involved in adaptation of postnatal energy metabolism and that respective binding capacities depend on colostrum feeding. Calves were fed colostrum (CF; n=7) or a milk-based formula (FF; n=7) with similar nutrient content up to d 4 of life. Blood samples were taken daily before feeding and 2h after feeding on d 4 of life to measure metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism in blood plasma. Liver tissue was obtained 2 h after feeding on d 4 to measure hepatic fat content and binding capacity of AR and GR. Maximal binding capacity and binding affinity were calculated by saturation binding assays using [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-CGP-12177 for determination of ??- and ??-AR and [(3)H]-dexamethasone for determination of GR in liver. Additional liver samples were taken to measure mRNA abundance of AR and GR, and of key enzymes related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Plasma concentrations of albumin, triacylglycerides, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones changed until d 4 and all these variables except leptin and thyroid hormones responded to feed intake on d 4. Diet effects were determined for albumin, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones. Binding capacity for GR was greater and for ??-AR tended to be greater in CF than in FF calves. Binding affinities were in the same range for each receptor type. Gene expression of ??-AR (ADRA1) tended to be lower in CF than FF calves. Binding capacity of GR was related to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas ??-AR binding capacity was negatively associated with glucose metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicate a dependence of GR and ??-AR on milk feeding immediately after birth and point to an involvement of hepatic GR and AR in postnatal adaptation of glucose and lipid metabolism in calves. PMID:25108854

Schäff, C T; Rohrbeck, D; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Kanitz, E; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Hammon, H M

2014-10-01

123

Bovine colostrum: changes in lipid constituents in the first 5 days after parturition.  

PubMed

Despite the great interest paid to protein components in colostrum, fat also plays an important role in the supply of essential nutrients to provide energy, increase metabolism, and protect the newborn calf against microbial infections. This work aimed to elucidate levels of different fat components in colostrum, in particular fatty acid (FA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and phospholipid contents. Colostrum samples from primiparous and multiparous (3-5 lactations) Holstein dams, fed the same ration indoors, were collected on the first 5d after parturition, analyzed, and compared with milk samples from the same cows collected at 5mo of lactation. Fat content during the first 5d of milking did not vary. However, the proportion of short-chain saturated FA increased and that of long-chain FA decreased. The concentration of n-3 FA was higher on the first day of calving than on the other days, with clear differences in the number and type of n-3 FA. Conjugated linoleic isomers and trans FA slowly increased from d 1 to 5, reaching a maximum at 5mo of lactation. Changes in the distribution profile of TG were observed as lactation progressed, with a shift from a prevalence of high-carbon-number TG (C48-50) on d 1 to a bimodal distribution (maxima at C38 and C50) on d 5, characteristic of mid-lactation milk. Cholesterol content was high in the first hours after calving and rapidly decreased within 48h. Colostrum sampled on d 1 also had a high content of phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin were, respectively, lower and higher in the first 5d than in mid-lactation milk. The influence of lactation number on colostrum fat composition was also considered and significant results were obtained for all FA groups (except for polyunsaturated and n-6 FA) and TG content. PMID:24931528

Contarini, G; Povolo, M; Pelizzola, V; Monti, L; Bruni, A; Passolungo, L; Abeni, F; Degano, L

2014-08-01

124

The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.0±0.38 UFL (unité fourragère lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.6±0.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.8±0.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.9±0.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

2015-01-01

125

Usual Dietary Intakes: Background  

Cancer.gov

Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.

126

Composition of mares' colostrum and milk. Protein content, amino acid composition and contents of macro and micro-elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the protein content, protein fractions and amino acid composition of mare's colostrum and milk, and the biological value of milk protein during the first 45 days of lactation were studied. Milk samples (averaging 300–800 cm3) from 29 lactating mares were collected daily at the beginning of lactation and weekly from the 5th to 45th days post-partum. Colostrum samples

Zs. Csapó-Kiss; J. Stefler; T. G. Martin; S. Makray; J. Csapó

1995-01-01

127

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

128

Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84.62%) and specificity (94.74 and 94.74%, respectively). The 18% Brix cut point resulted in 94.83% of the samples being correctly classified based on IgG concentration. These data support the use of digital refractometer to accurately and rapidly determine IgG concentration in fresh Jersey colostrum. Additionally, these data suggest that IgG concentration determined by RID is affected by multiple FT cycles, whereas estimates obtained by refractometer are not affected by multiple FT cycles. PMID:25465569

Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

2015-01-01

129

Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.  

PubMed

Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum. Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production. PMID:21943763

Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

2011-10-01

130

Isolation of HIV-1-Neutralizing Mucosal Monoclonal Antibodies from Human Colostrum  

PubMed Central

Background Generation of potent anti-HIV antibody responses in mucosal compartments is a potential requirement of a transmission-blocking HIV vaccine. HIV-specific, functional antibody responses are present in breast milk, and these mucosal antibody responses may play a role in protection of the majority of HIV-exposed, breastfeeding infants. Therefore, characterization of HIV-specific antibodies produced by B cells in milk could guide the development of vaccines that elicit protective mucosal antibody responses. Methods We isolated B cells from colostrum of an HIV-infected lactating woman with a detectable neutralization response in milk and recombinantly produced and characterized the resulting HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Results The identified HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum mAbs, CH07 and CH08, represent two of the first mucosally-derived anti-HIV antibodies yet to be reported. Colostrum mAb CH07 is a highly-autoreactive, weakly-neutralizing gp140-specific mAb that binds to linear epitopes in the gp120 C5 region and gp41 fusion domain. In contrast, colostrum mAb CH08 is a nonpolyreactive CD4-inducible (CD4i) gp120-specific mAb with moderate breadth of neutralization. Conclusions These novel HIV-neutralizing mAbs isolated from a mucosal compartment provide insight into the ability of mucosal B cell populations to produce functional anti-HIV antibodies that may contribute to protection against virus acquisition at mucosal surfaces. PMID:22624058

Friedman, James; Alam, S. Munir; Shen, Xiaoying; Xia, Shi-Mao; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Pollara, Justin; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Yang, Guang; Kelsoe, Garnett; Ferrari, Guido; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Haynes, Barton F.; Liao, Hua-Xin

2012-01-01

131

Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

2014-04-01

132

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

133

Simultaneous Isolation of Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase from Bovine Colostrum by SPEC 70 SLS Cation Exchange Resin  

PubMed Central

In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum. PMID:22016715

Liang, Yafei; Wang, Xuewan; Wu, Mianbin; Zhu, Wanping

2011-01-01

134

Exercise and exposure to heat following bovine colostrum supplementation: a review of gastrointestinal and immune function.  

PubMed

Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammalian mothers and is essential for the health and survival of the newborn. Bovine colostrum (BC) has greater concentrations of the bioactive components (i.e. immune and growth factors) than those found in human colostrum. As a result, BC supplementation has been recently adopted by many sport competitors as a means of enhancing immune function as well as improving performance. Improvements in physical performance associated with BC supplementation may stem from the ability of BC to maintain gastrointestinal (GI) integrity by decreasing GI permeability. During exercise in the heat, blood flow to the GI tract is reduced that leads to endotoxin leakage into circulation. Endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide, can trigger an inflammatory cascade leading to physiological strain that, in turn, increases heat storage and decreases time to exhaustion. GI permeability is lessened during passive heat stress following BC supplementation, but the influence of BC supplementation on GI function during exercise heat stress remains to be determined. The implications of endotoxemia during exercise in the heat is a matter of growing importance and warrants further study given the global increase in ambient temperatures during sport competitions. PMID:24200023

Carrillo, A E; Koutedakis, Y; Flouris, A D

2013-01-01

135

Internal combustion engine intake passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an air intake device for an internal combustion engine comprising: a cylinder head having an intake port; an intake manifold having an intake passage; and a spacer formed with an intake bore and interposed between the cylinder head and the intake manifold in such a manner that the intake port and the intake passage are communicated with

Y. Yamamoto; H. Yuzawa; T. N. Nishihara

1988-01-01

136

Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele. Results Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 4–5 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection. Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapie-affected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests. Conclusions Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test. PMID:23651710

2013-01-01

137

Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

138

Effects of immune colostrum and orally administered antisporozoite monoclonal antibodies on the outcome of Cryptosporidium parvum infections in neonatal mice.  

PubMed Central

A neonatal BALB/c mouse model of cryptosporidiosis was used to examine the potential passive transfer of immunity via immune colostrum and oral treatment with anticryptosporidial monoclonal antibodies. Neonates suckled by dams that recovered from Cryptosporidium parvum infections were equally susceptible to infection as their control counterparts suckled by naive dams. Parasite loads among the control and immune colostrum-fed mice were indistinguishable. Neonates receiving orally administered antisporozoite monoclonal antibodies were equally susceptible to infections compared with the control and immune colostrum-fed mice. Parasite loads among the mice receiving daily oral treatment with monoclonal antibody mixtures exhibited significantly lower parasite loads compared with the control mice (P less than 0.05). Images PMID:2744847

Arrowood, M J; Mead, J R; Mahrt, J L; Sterling, C R

1989-01-01

139

Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population. PMID:21917191

Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

2012-05-01

140

Relationships among ewe milk production and ewe and lamb forage intake in Suffolk and Targhee ewes nursing single or twin lambs.  

PubMed

Suffolk and Targhee ewes (30 each) with single or twin lambs were used in four periods beginning in late gestation and continuing through weaning to evaluate breed differences in milk production, lamb BW, and DMI by ewes and lambs. In Periods 1 (late gestation) and 2 (early lactation), ewes (Period 1) and ewes with lambs (Period 2) were individually penned, fed .45 kg of barley x ewe(-1) x d(-1) and allowed ad libitum access to chopped alfalfa. Ewes and lambs grazed native range in Periods 3 and 4. Grazed forage DMI was estimated using chromic oxide. Estimates of milk production were obtained by handmilking. Average lamb age was 4, 45, and 73 d at the beginning of Periods 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Milk production tended (P = .20) to be greater for Suffolk than for Targhee ewes. Targhee ewes produced 85% more (P = .001) wool than Suffolk ewes. From 33 d prepartum to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk ewes consistently weighed more (P = .001) than Targhee ewes. Suffolk ewe BW loss (-.15 kg/d) was greater (P = .01) than Targhee ewe BW loss (-.02 kg/d) from 33 d prepartum to 6 d postpartum. From 6 to 89 d postpartum BW gain did not differ (P = .69; .05 kg/d) between breeds. From birth to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk lambs consistently weighed more than Targhee lambs (P = .003). From birth to 89 d postpartum, ADG was greater for Suffolk than for Targhee lambs (P = .006). Targhee ewes consumed 25% more (P = .01) feed over the course of the study than did Suffolk ewes. Grazed forage DMI by Targhee lambs was 26% greater (P = .01) than DMI by Suffolk lambs. When meat production is the primary income from sheep, one potential advantage of Suffolks compared with Targhees is more rapid gain with less feed intake. PMID:9621929

Ramsey, W S; Hatfield, P G; Wallace, J D

1998-05-01

141

Effect of Varying Levels of Fatty Acids from Palm Oil on Feed Intake and Milk Production in Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the optimum feeding level of fatty acids of palm oil (PALM; Energizer RP10; 86.6% palmitic acid) on milk production, lactating cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in repli- cated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Animals were assigned to squares by parity (3 multiparous and 1 primiparous squares with primiparous in the incomplete square).

S. A. Mosley; E. E. Mosley; B. Hatch; J. I. Szasz; A. Corato; N. Zacharias; D. Howes; M. A. McGuire

2007-01-01

142

Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products.  

PubMed

The use of caffeine-containing energy products has increased worldwide in recent years. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in these products. Research shows that caffeine-containing energy products can improve cognitive and physical performance. Presumably, individuals consume caffeine-containing energy products to counteract feelings of low energy in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia, and the time-on-task effect as causes of low energy and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment in healthy adults who had 3 nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2-hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. The review concludes with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

2014-10-01

143

Effects of undegraded intake protein supplementation on milk production, calf weight gain and reproductive performance in Brahman cows  

E-print Network

, 10 and 12 after an observed estrus. Mean milk production was greater for mature cows (1.27 .03 kg/4h) than for heifers (1.06 .?04 kg/4h) (P heifers produced more (Treatment x Parity, P <.02) milk (1.18 .07 kg/4h) than Low (1.06 .?08 kg/4...

Triplett, Brian Lee

1993-01-01

144

Natural Products for Mitigation of Fouling by the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulk, in Marine Water Intake Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2-4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbial sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4)

Gordon T. Taylor; Dongqiang Zheng

145

Sucrose intake in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake\\u000a and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake.\\u000a \\u000a By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative\\u000a sample of 15838 persons

J. Linseisen; K. Gedrich; G. Karg; G. Wolfram

1998-01-01

146

Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products  

PubMed Central

Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP) and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch) with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK) or wheat (WK) kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB) in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2), and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI) was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II) than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38). A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36). RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270) and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min), r = -0.29 and -0.29), which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33). The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min) compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%). A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness), and a higher breath H2 in the late postprandial phase (120-270 and 270-390 min, r = 0.46 and 0.70). High H2 (AUC 120-270 min) also correlated with lower EI (r = -0.34). Conclusions Rye products, rich in indigestible carbohydrates, induce colonic fermentation already post the breakfast meal, and lowers acute insulin responses. A high excretion of breath H2 also correlated with a higher GP. Especially, rye kernels induced a high GP which was associated with a 16% lowering of energy intake at a subsequent lunch meal. The bulking effect of rye fiber, colonically derived fermentation metabolites, a high GP and a low insulin response possibly all contributes to the benefits on glucose- and appetite regulation seen in an acute and semi-acute perspective. PMID:21247415

2011-01-01

147

The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.  

PubMed

Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. PMID:23958020

Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

2013-10-01

148

Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG–LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG–LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

2012-01-01

149

Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.  

PubMed

Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

2014-10-28

150

The Human Colostrum Whey Proteome Is Altered in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

Proteomics of human milk has been used to identify the comprehensive cargo of proteins involved in immune and cellular function. Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and breast milk components. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GDM on the expression of proteins in the whey fraction of human colostrum. Colostrum was collected from women who were diagnosed with (n = 6) or without (n = 12) GDM at weeks 24-28 in pregnancy. Colostral whey was analyzed for protein abundances using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 601 proteins were identified, of which 260 were quantified using label free spectral counting. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified 27 proteins that best predict GDM. The power law global error model corrected for multiple testing was used to confirm that 10 of the 27 proteins were also statistically significantly different between women with versus without GDM. The identified changes in protein expression suggest that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has consequences on human colostral proteins involved in immunity and nutrition. PMID:25338220

Grapov, Dmitry; Lemay, Danielle G; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R; Gho, Deborah S; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

2014-12-01

151

Effects of gestational plane of nutrition and selenium supplementation on mammary development and colostrum quality in pregnant ewe lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine effects of nutritional plane and selenium (Se) supplementation on colostrum quality and mammary development, individually fed, pregnant Rambouillet ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Main effects included dietary Se level which began at...

152

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

153

Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

2005-01-01

154

The Relationship between Intake of Dairy Products and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Who Referred to Isfahan University of Medical Science Clinics in 2013  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS. PMID:25013687

Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza

2014-01-01

155

Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products.  

PubMed

The effects of orally administered carotenoids from natural sources on the non-specific defense mechanisms of rainbow trout were evaluated in a nine-week feeding trial. Fish were fed four diets containing either beta-carotene or astaxanthin at 100 and 200 mg kg-1 from the marine algae Dunaliella salina and red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, respectively, and a control diet containing no supplemented carotenoids. Specific growth rate and feed:gain ratio were not affected by dietary carotenoid supplementation. Among the humoral factors, serum alternative complement activity increased significantly in all carotenoid supplemented groups when compared to the control. On the other hand, serum lysozyme activity increased in the Dunaliella group but not in the Phaffia group, whereas plasma total immunoglobulin levels were not altered by the feeding treatments. As for the cellular responses, the superoxide anion production from the head kidney remained unchanged while the phagocytic rate and index in all supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control. These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout. PMID:15123294

Amar, E C; Kiron, V; Satoh, S; Watanabe, T

2004-04-01

156

Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems  

SciTech Connect

In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stoney Brook, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

157

Raised dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake increases 2-series prostaglandin production during labour in the ewe  

PubMed Central

Preterm labour is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in humans. The incidence is around 10% and the causes are often unknown. Consumption of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in western societies is increasing. These are metabolized to arachidonic acid, the precursor for 2-series prostaglandins (PGs), major signalling molecules during labour. This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2, n-6) on parturition. Ewes were fed a control or LA-supplemented diet from 100 days gestation. Labour was induced using a standardized glucocorticoid challenge (dexamethasone, Dex) to the fetus, starting on day 139. Electromyographic (EMG) activity and fetal and maternal circulating PG concentrations were monitored. One third of LA-fed ewes delivered early (pre-Dex) although basal uterine EMG activity preceding Dex was higher in control ewes (P < 0.05). A steep increase in EMG activity occurred 18–38 h after the start of Dex infusion. Twice basal EMG activity (defined as established labour) occurred on average 7 h earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes (P < 0.05). The basal concentrations of maternal and fetal PGFM and fetal PGE2 were approximately doubled in LA-supplemented ewes before the start of Dex infusion (P < 0.01). The rise in fetal PGE2 and maternal oestradiol concentrations post-Dex occurred earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes. All PG measurements remained significantly higher in the LA-supplemented ewes during labour onset. This study suggests that consumption of a high LA diet in late pregnancy can enhance placental PG production and may thus increase the risk of preterm labour. PMID:15513945

Elmes, M; Green, LR; Poore, K; Newman, J; Burrage, D; Abayasekara, DRE; Cheng, Z; Hanson, MA; Wathes, DC

2005-01-01

158

Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes.  

PubMed

The objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 µg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 µg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, and nutritional plane [60 (RES), 100 (CON), or 140% (HIH) of requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually from d 40, and lambs were removed at parturition. Colostrum was milked from all ewes at 3 h postpartum, and one-half of the ewes (n = 42) were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. Colostrum yield was greater (P = 0.02) for HSe ewes than ASe, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.05) colostrum yield than RES and HIH. Colostrum Se (%) was greater (P < 0.01) for HSe than ASe. Colostrum from ewes fed HSe had less (P = 0.03) butterfat (%), but greater (P ? 0.05) total butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, milk urea N, and Se than ASe. Colostrum from HIH ewes had greater (P ? 0.02) solids-not-fat (%) than RES, whereas RES had greater (P ? 0.04) butterfat (%) than CON and HIH. Colostrum from ewes fed the CON diet had greater (P = 0.01) total butterfat than HIH. Total solids-not-fat, lactose, and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in colostrum from CON than RES and HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk yield (g/d and mL/d) than ASe, and CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.01) yield than RES. Milk protein (%) was greater (P ? 0.01) in RES compared with CON or HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk Se (µg/g and mg/d) than ASe on each sampling day. Milk from CON and HIH ewes had greater (P < 0.01) total solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, and milk urea N than RES. Total Se was greater (P = 0.02) in milk from ewes fed the CON diet compared with RES. Somatic cell count and total somatic cells were greater (P ? 0.05) in milk from CON than RES. A cubic effect of day (P ? 0.01) was observed for milk yield (g and mL). Butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, milk urea N, and Se concentration responded quadratically (P ? 0.01) to day. Protein (%), total butterfat, and total Se, and somatic cells (cells/mL and cells/d) decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with day. Results indicate that gestational nutrition affects colostrum and milk yield and nutrient content, even when lactational nutrient requirements are met. PMID:21521822

Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Thorson, J F; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

2011-05-01

159

Possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats. METHODS: Female rats were fed a standard diet and received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception. In study 1, neonatal rats were randomly subjected to blood tests to investigate autism. In study 2, the 1st group was fed by the mother after an injection of interferon-? (IFN-?) and administration of gliadin. The pups in the 2nd group were prevented from accessing maternal milk, injected IFN-?, administered gliadin, and hand-fed human colostrum. The normal littermates fed by the table mothers were injected with physiological saline and served as normal controls in this study. RESULTS: The protein concentration was higher in group 2 than in group 1 in the duodenum (161.6 ± 9 and 135.4 ± 7 mg/g of tissue, respectively, P < 0.01). A significant increase (P < 0.001) in body weight was detected in human colostrum-treated pups on post natal day (PND) 7 and 21 vs suckling pups in group 1. A delay in eye opening was noticed in the treated rats in group 1 on PND 13 compared with the control group and group 2. Administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception resulted in significantly reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in study 1 compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). However, human colostrum uptake inhibited increases in the level of transglutaminase antibody in autistic pups with coeliac disease. CONCLUSION: The effects of early-life nutrition and human colostrum on the functional maturation of the duodenal villi in autistic rats with coeliac disease that might limit or prevent the coeliac risk with autism. PMID:23745030

Selim, Manar E; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

2013-01-01

160

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

161

Bovine colostrum increases pore-forming claudin-2 protein expression but paradoxically not ion permeability possibly by a change of the intestinal cytokine milieu.  

PubMed

An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-?, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-? remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-? expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23717570

Bodammer, Peggy; Kerkhoff, Claus; Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg

2013-01-01

162

Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. PMID:25175558

Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

2015-01-01

163

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

164

Usual Intake of Energy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy Table A44. Energy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1426.1 (17.93) 963.7 (18.47) 1052.5

165

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

166

Engine air intake valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses, in combination with an internal combustion engine, a system for regulating engine speed by regulating the air flow across a throttle valve in an air intake passage. It comprises an engine air intake valve and means of sensing an operating variable representative of engine speed and sending an electrical signal representative of the engine speed to the

1990-01-01

167

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

168

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

169

High- and low-purity glycerine supplementation to dairy cows in early lactation: effects on silage intake, milk production and metabolism.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of supplemental low- and high-purity glycerine on silage intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolites and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. A total of 42 cows of the Swedish Red Breed, housed in individual tie stalls, were fed 0.25 kg of low- or high-purity glycerine on top of concentrate, twice daily, during the first 4 weeks of lactation. One-third of the cows acted as controls, receiving no glycerine. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and concentrate was fed at restricted level of intake, about 6 kg/day for primiparous cows and 7 kg/day for multiparous cows. Feed refusals were weighed daily. Cows were milked twice daily, milk yield was recorded on four occasions per week and milk samples were collected simultaneously. Blood samples were drawn from the coccygeal vessel once a week. Low- and high-purity glycerine had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake (P = 0.38 and P = 0.75, respectively) or on BCS (P = 0.45). Cows fed high-purity glycerine tended to have higher milk yield than control cows (P = 0.06). Milk composition tended to differ among treatments. No main effects of treatment on concentration of glycerine (P = 0.44), glucose (P = 0.78), insulin (P = 0.33), non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.33) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.15) in plasma. These data indicate that high-purity glycerine has the potential to increase milk yield, as well as enhance the milk protein concentration and milk fat + protein yield. PMID:23800400

Omazic, A Werner; Tråvén, M; Bertilsson, J; Holtenius, K

2013-09-01

170

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

171

Usual Intake of Milk  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

172

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

173

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

174

Methane emissions from grazing Angus beef cows selected for divergent residual feed intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production, such as growth of beef cattle and milk production in dairy cattle. RFI has been shown to be linked with a reduction in CH4 emissions in studies that used grain based diets. Our study quantified CH4 emissions from 48 Angus

F. M. Jones; F. A. Phillips; T. Naylor; N. B. Mercer

2011-01-01

175

Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

Refractometry using a Brix refractometer has been proposed as a means to estimate IgG concentration in bovine maternal colostrum (MC). The refractometer has advantages over other methods of estimating IgG concentration in that the Brix refractometer is inexpensive, readily available, less fragile, and less sensitive to variation in colostral temperature, season of the year and other factors. Samples of first-milking MC were collected from 7 dairy farms in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut (n=84) and 1 dairy farm in California (n=99). The MC was milked from the cow at 6.1 ± 5.6h postparturition and a sample was evaluated for Brix percentage by using an optical refractometer. Two additional samples (30 mL) were collected from the milk bucket, placed in vials, and frozen before analysis of total IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) using commercially available plates and by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). The second sample was analyzed for total bacterial counts and coliform counts at laboratories in New York (Northeast samples) and California (California samples). The Brix percentage (mean ± SD) was 23.8 ± 3.5, IgG concentration measured by RID was 73.4 ± 26.2g/L, and IgG concentration measured by TIA was 67.5 ± 25.0 g/L. The Brix percentage was highly correlated (r=0.75) with IgG analyzed by RID. The Brix percentage cut point to define high- or low-quality colostrum (50 g of IgG/L measured by RID) that classified more samples correctly given the proportion of high- (86%) and low-quality (14%) samples in this study was 21%, which is slightly lower than other recent estimates of Brix measurements. At this cut point, the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 92.9, 65.5, 93.5, 63.3, and 88.5%, respectively. Measurement of IgG by TIA correlated with Brix (r=0.63) and RID (r=0.87); however, TIA and RID methods of IgG measurement were not consistent throughout the range of samples tested. We conclude that Brix measurement of total solids in fresh MC is an inexpensive, rapid, and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration. A cut point of 21% Brix to estimate samples of MC >50 g/L was most appropriate for our data. Measurement of IgG in MC by TIA differed from measurement by RID. PMID:23200468

Quigley, J D; Lago, A; Chapman, C; Erickson, P; Polo, J

2013-02-01

176

Colostrum and ideas about bad milk: a case study from Guinea-Bissau.  

PubMed

The study aims to explore ideas about bad milk found among women in Guinea-Bissau. Interviews were held with 20 elderly knowledgeable rural women. Interinformant agreement was high within each ethnic group studied. All the informants recognized colostrum but disliked its consistency. Depending on ethnical background, it was considered good, of no special value or harmful to the newborn baby. Further, all the informants held that mature breast milk could turn bad, e.g. in case of mother's sickness or adultery. Suspected bad milk can be diagnosed by putting an ant into it to observe if it dies. The condition of bad milk can be treated by various procedures. The findings are discussed in relation to similar ideas existing in other societies and to views on the quality of maternal milk held in the industrialized countries. It is proposed that the idea of producing bad milk may be an important determinant of breastfeeding performance generally. Restrictions imposed on the breastfeeding woman, with the intention of producing healthier breast milk, may actually contribute to a decline in breastfeeding. PMID:8426971

Gunnlaugsson, G; Einarsdóttir, J

1993-02-01

177

Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine  

PubMed Central

Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2013-01-01

178

Detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in serum and colostrum by indirect ELISA.  

PubMed

An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) G ELISA based on the S1 portion of the spike protein was validated and compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. In serum samples from experimentally infected pigs (n?=?35), anti-IgG PEDV antibodies were detected as early as 7 days post-infection. In field serum samples (n?=?239), the diagnostic sensitivity of the S1 ELISA was 100% and the diagnostic specificity was 94%. The S1 ELISA showed no cross-reactivity with antibodies against other porcine coronaviruses. Colostrum samples (n?=?133) were also tested for anti-PEDV IgG and IgA. The diagnostic sensitivity was 92% for IgG and 100% for IgA, and the diagnostic specificity was 90% for IgG and 99.4% for IgA. These data suggest that the S1 ELISA is a sensitive and specific test that could also be used to evaluate PEDV colostral immunity. PMID:25135339

Gerber, Priscilla F; Gong, Qiaoling; Huang, Yao-Wei; Wang, Chong; Holtkamp, Derald; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-10-01

179

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

180

Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage  

PubMed Central

Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392?±?12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P?intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P??0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P?

Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

2010-01-01

181

Effect of particle size of alfalfa hay and reconstitution with water on intake, digestion and milk production in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

Twenty-four lactating Holstein dairy cows (12 first lactation and 12 multiparous; day in milk = 11 ± 5 days) were allotted to a randomised complete block design in a 2 × 3 factorial with four replicates per treatment to evaluate the effects of two methods of alfalfa feeding (dry and reconstituted to achieve a theoretical dry matter (DM) content of 350 g/kg) and three geometric mean (GM) particle sizes of alfalfa (9.13, 4.51 and 1.20 mm) on performance of dairy cows for a period of 28 days. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake as total mixed rations (TMR). The GM particle size, its standard deviation, and the values of physical effectiveness factor of alfalfa and TMR decreased as alfalfa particle size decreased. Reduction of particle size and reconstitution of alfalfa increased the bulk density and the functional specific gravity of alfalfa and rations. Reduction of particle size decreased insoluble dry matter, water-holding capacity, and hydration rate of alfalfa. As particle size decreased, the amount of physically effective NDF in the ration (g/kg) decreased but the daily intake of physically effective NDF (kg/day) increased. Reduction of particle size and reconstitution increased dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal passage rate, but reduced NDF and ash digestibilities, ruminal pH, N-NH3, milk fat, total chewing activity, rumination and eating time, total and ruminal mean retention time, and time delay of marker. Increased functional specific gravity, from reduced forage particle size and the reconstitution of alfalfa, was the most important factor influencing DMI, milk composition, and chewing activity. PMID:22444224

Teimouri Yansari, A; Primohammadi, R

2009-02-01

182

Insufficient Colostrum Ingestion is a Risk Factor for Polyarthritis and/or Phlegmon in Hand-Reared Reticulated Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 Cases (2003–2012)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0–2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0–6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

KIDO, Nobuhide; NAGAKURA, Kasumi; ITABASHI, Masanori; ONO, Kaori; DAN, Mayuko; MATSUMOTO, Rei; OMIYA, Tomoko

2014-01-01

183

Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

184

Predicting the forage intake by lactating cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current National Research Council (NRC) model to estimate the dry matter intake by cows is based on a single equation related to metabolic size and net energy density of the diet. However, research has indicated that the observed dry matter production by grazing cows can be influenced by animal...

185

The influence of level of energy intake on reproductive performance of gilts  

E-print Network

Literature Cited 27 co ol LIST OF TABLES 1 Rations Fed Qllte in Studies 1? 2 ~ 3 and 0 - ? ? ? ? - ? 10 2i Summary of' Effects of Energy Intake on ReProductive Performance cf 611ts 21 3, Effects of Level of Energy Intake on Age at Puberty ? - 22... Effects of Level of Energy Intake on deight at Puberty - 23 5o Effects of Level of Energy Intake on Ovulation Rate - ? - 24 6. Effeots of Level of Energy Intake on Number of Live Esbryos 'Pe Effects of Level of Energy Intake on Percent Live Embryos 26...

Thomas, William Belton

2012-06-07

186

Muscle fiber and performance adaptations to resistance exercise with MyoVive, colostrum or casein and whey supplementationa  

E-print Network

& whey (n = 4), colostrum + casein & whey (n = 6), and casein & whey (n = 5) groups. All groups similarly increased (p < .05) 1 repetition maximum (RM) leg press (kg; pre = 158.6 – 12.8, post = 189.3 – 11.3), body mass (kg; pre = 79.0 – 3.2, post = 80....7 – 3.8), and lean body mass (kg; pre = 60.1 – 3.1, post = 62.2 – 2.8). Increases were observed for peak force (N; all loads), peak velocity (m . s -1 ; 70% & 40% 1 RM), and peak power (W; 70% & 40% 1 RM) for all groups for the leg press exercise...

Fry, Andrew C.; Schilling, Brian K.; Chiu, Loren Z. F.; Weiss, Lawrence W.; Kreider, Richard B.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.

2003-01-01

187

Early Administration of Oropharyngeal Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Human milk reduces morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. However, clinical instability often precludes ELBW infants from receiving early enteral feeds. This study compared clinical outcomes before and after implementing an oropharyngeal colostrum (COL) protocol in a cohort of inborn (born at our facility) ELBW infants. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of inborn ELBW infants admitted to the Duke Intensive Care Nursery from January 2007 to September 2011. In November 2010, we initiated a COL protocol for infants not enterally fed whose mothers were providing breastmilk. Infants received 0.1?mL of fresh COL to each cheek every 4 hours for 5 days beginning in the first 48 postnatal hours. We assessed demographics, diagnoses, feeding history, and mortality and for the presence of medical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), surgical NEC, and spontaneous perforation. Between-group comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank sum testing where appropriate. Results: Of the 369 infants included, 280 (76%) were born prior to the COL protocol (Pre-COL Cohort [PCC]), and 89 (24%) were born after (COL Cohort [CC]). Mortality and the percentage of infants with surgical NEC and spontaneous perforations were statistically similar between the groups. The CC weighed an average (interquartile range) of 1,666 (1,399, 1,940) g at 36 weeks versus 1,380 (1,190, 1,650) g for the PCC (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis with birth weight as a covariable, weight at 36 weeks was significantly greater (37 g; p<0.01). Conclusions: Initiating oropharyngeal COL in ELBW infants in the first 2 postnatal days appears feasible and safe and may be nutritionally beneficial. Further research is needed to determine if early COL administration reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23805944

Seigel, Jonathan K.; Smith, P. Brian; Ashley, Patricia L.; Cotten, C. Michael; Herbert, Claudia C.; King, Beth A.; Maynor, Angela R.; Neill, Sara; Wynn, James; Bidegain, Margarita

2013-01-01

188

Fumonisin intake of the German consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to calculate the dietary fumonisin intake of the German consumer, a large survey was carried out on a variety of\\u000a potentially contaminated products in the period between December 1998 and July 2001. A total of 1960 food samples comprising\\u000a all known relevant groups of products were analysed for fumonisins. Furthermore, 272 of these samples were also analysed for

I. Zimmer; E. Usleber; H. Klaffke; R. Weber; P. Majerus; H. Otteneder; M. Gareis; R. Dietrich; E. Märtlbauer

2008-01-01

189

Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane yielding whey permeate. Research shows that bovine milk from healthy cows contains hundreds of naturally occurring peptides - many of which are homologous with known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides - and nearly 50 oligosaccharide compositions (not including structural isomers). As these endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides have low-molecular weight and whey permeate is currently an under-utilized product stream of the dairy industry, we hypothesized that whey permeate may serve as an inexpensive source of naturally occurring functional peptides and oligosaccharides. Laboratory fractionation of endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum sweet whey was expanded to pilot-scale. The membrane fractionation methodology used was similar to the methods commonly used industrially to produce whey protein concentrate and whey permeate. Pilot-scale fractionation was compared to laboratory-scale fractionation with regard to the identified peptides and oligosaccharide compositions. Results were interpreted on the basis of whether industrial whey permeate could eventually serve as a source of functional peptides and oligosaccharides. The majority (96%) of peptide sequences and the majority (96%) of oligosaccharide compositions found in the laboratory-scale process were mirrored in the pilot-scale process. Moreover, the pilot-scale process recovered an additional 33 peptides and 1 oligosaccharide not identified from the laboratory-scale extraction. Both laboratory- and pilot-scale processes yielded peptides deriving primarily from the protein ?-casein. The similarity of the laboratory-and pilot-scale's resulting peptide and oligosaccharide profiles demonstrates that whey permeate can serve as an industrial-scale source of bovine milk peptides and oligosaccharides. PMID:25284962

Dallas, David C; Weinborn, Valerie; de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Wang, Meng; Parker, Evan A; Guerrero, Andres; Hettinga, Kasper A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

2014-09-01

190

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

191

Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.  

PubMed

A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(?)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

2015-03-01

192

Increased protein intake in military special operations.  

PubMed

Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ? 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

Ferrando, Arny A

2013-11-01

193

Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

194

Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

195

Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1071 newborn calves from six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning p...

196

FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN  

PubMed Central

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

2011-01-01

197

Dietary intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 enhances production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in antigen-primed mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic lactobacilli have been proposed as a potential oral bacteriotherapeutic means of modulating immune phenotype expression in vivo, via their ability to promote cytokine production. This study investigated the ability of a known interferon (IFN)%-promoting probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001) to modulate cytokine production in mice expressing an on-going Th2-type immune response. BALB\\/c mice were primed to ovalbumin in alum adjuvant

Martin L. Cross; Rikke R. Mortensen; Jane Kudsk; Harsharnjit S. Gill

2002-01-01

198

Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.  

PubMed

Four wethers were used in a 4?×?4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P?products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430

Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

2014-10-29

199

[Dietary fiber--adequate intake and effects on metabolism health].  

PubMed

The positive effects of dietary fiber are related, in part, to the fact that a portion of the fermentation of components takes place in the large intestine, which has an impact on the speed of digestion, pH of the colon, and production of by-products with important physiological functions. Individuals with high fiber intake seem to have lower risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. The increase in fiber intake reduces serum cholesterol, improves blood glucose in patients with diabetes, reduces body weight, and is associated with lower serum ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Increased fiber intake and intake of more fiber than the currently recommended level (14 g/1,000 kcal) may provide greater health benefits, including reducing low-grade inflammation. PMID:24030179

Bernaud, Fernanda Sarmento Rolla; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

2013-08-01

200

Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production.  

PubMed

Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708

Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C

2003-02-01

201

Milk production during the colostral period is not related to the later lactational performance in dairy cows.  

PubMed

In dairy cows, milk yield increases rapidly after parturition until a peak at around wk 6 of lactation. However, the description of the shape of the lactation curve is commonly based on weekly average milk yields. For a more detailed analysis of the milk production curve from the very beginning of lactation including the colostral period and the effect of colostrum yield on further lactational performance, the first 10 milkings after parturition, daily milk yields from d 1 to 28 of lactation, and the cumulative milk production on d 100 to 305 of lactation were investigated in 17 primiparous and 39 multiparous cows milked twice daily. Milk yield at the first milking after parturition (colostrum) ranged from 1.3 to 20.7kg (?=19.4kg) in multiparous and from 1.8 to 10.9kg in primiparous animals (?=9.1kg). At the tenth milking, milk production ranged from 9.2 to 21.5kg (?=12.3kg) in multiparous and from 7.0 to 15.2kg (?=8.2kg) in primiparous animals. Immediately after parturition, daily milk production increased rapidly, but after approximately 1wk in lactation, the slope of the daily milk production curve flattened and continued more linear. A nonlinear regression equation was used to determine this timely change, which occurred earlier in primiparous (d 6.9±0.3) than in multiparous cows (d 8.2±0.2). The correlation between the amount of first colostrum and milk production during further lactation decreased already from 0.47 on d 5 to 0.32 on d 14. In multiparous cows, the correlation between total milk production of the previous 305d standard lactation and the amount of first colostrum was not significant (correlation=0.29), whereas the correlation with the daily production increased from 0.45 on d 5 to 0.69 on d 14. However, in primiparous animals, correlations between first-colostrum yield and daily milk yields up to d 28 of lactation were not significant, possibly due to the smaller sample size compared with multiparous animals. First-colostrum yield and cumulative milk production of 100, 200, and 305 lactation days were not significantly correlated in multiparous and primiparous cows. In conclusion, the milk production during the first few milkings is widely independent from the overall production level of a cow. Potentially, genetic selection toward lower milk yield during the very first days after parturition at a simultaneously high lactational performance may be a tool to ensure sufficient colostrum quality and to reduce the metabolic load around parturition. PMID:24485686

Kessler, E C; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J

2014-04-01

202

Innate and adaptive immune responses of snatch-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived pigs to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe snatch-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pig model, in which neonates are raised on commercially available bovine colostrum, is an alternative model for porcine infectious disease research. It is not known if SF-pCD pigs possess growth performance and immunity comparable to conventional, farm-raised pigs. The current experiment compared growth performance and immune responses of SF-pCD pigs to their farm-raised siblings following Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) vaccination. Twelve SF-pCD and 13 farm-raised siblings were vaccinated on day 7 (D7) and D26 of age. Body weights were measured once or twice weekly and average daily gain (ADG) was calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated on D40. Cytokine secretion from PBMC stimulated with Mhyo antigen or phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA/Iono) was assessed using a multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA). Additionally, interferon gamma (IFN¿) secretion from stimulated PBMC was assessed using ELISPOT. Mhyo IgG titers were measured by an ELISA in D40 sera.ResultsGrowth performance did not differ between groups before weaning, but SF-pCD pigs had higher ADG after weaning. In response to Mhyo stimulation, numbers of IFN¿ secreting PBMC and levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and IL10 in PBMC supernatants were significantly higher in SF-pCD pigs, as were Mhyo antibody levels in sera, and levels of IL1ß, IL8 and IL12 in supernatants of PMA/Iono stimulated PBMC.ConclusionsUnder the conditions of this experiment, SF-pCD pigs demonstrated superior growth performance and enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination. Whether or not this reflects greater resistance or tolerance to infection is unknown but the ability to react positively to the vaccination provides evidence that SF-pCD pigs are a suitable alternative model for swine disease research. PMID:25239088

Huang, Yanyun; Ladinig, Andrea; Ashley, Carolyn; Haines, Deborah M; Harding, John

2014-09-20

203

Evaluation of a commercial bovine colostrum replacer for achieving passive transfer of immunity in springbok calves (Antidorcas marsupialis).  

PubMed

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080

Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe

2013-09-01

204

Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

2014-01-01

205

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

206

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

207

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

208

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

209

Usual Intake of Solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

210

Usual Intake of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

211

Usual Intake of Other vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

212

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

213

Power plant intake entrainment analysis  

SciTech Connect

Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

2000-04-01

214

Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.  

PubMed

Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance. PMID:23688620

Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

2013-09-01

215

[Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].  

PubMed

The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

2008-09-01

216

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

2014-01-01

217

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

218

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

219

Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

Brender, Jean D.; And Others

1985-01-01

220

Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.  

PubMed

Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ?-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (?9 to 11), trans-18:1 (?6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

2014-12-10

221

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

222

Farming practices in Sweden related to feeding milk and colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials to dairy calves  

PubMed Central

Background Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed. Results Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns. Conclusions Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy farms. Future work should focus on the effect of waste milk feeding on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. PMID:23837498

2013-01-01

223

Influence of organic versus inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on the concentration of selenium in colostrum, milk and blood of beef cows  

PubMed Central

Background Selenium (Se) is important for the postnatal development of the calf. In the first weeks of life, milk is the only source of Se for the calf and insufficient level of Se in the milk may lead to Se deficiency. Maternal Se supplementation is used to prevent this. We investigated the effect of dietary Se-enriched yeast (SY) or sodium selenite (SS) supplements on selected blood parameters and on Se concentrations in the blood, colostrum, and milk of Se-deficient Charolais cows. Methods Cows in late pregnancy received a mineral premix with Se (SS or SY, 50 mg Se per kg premix) or without Se (control – C). Supplementation was initiated 6 weeks before expected calving. Blood and colostrum samples were taken from the cows that had just calved (Colostral period). Additional samples were taken around 2 weeks (milk) and 5 weeks (milk and blood) after calving corresponding to Se supplementation for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively (Lactation period) for Se, biochemical and haematological analyses. Results Colostral period. Se concentrations in whole blood and colostrum on day 1 post partum and in colostrum on day 3 post partum were 93.0, 72.9, and 47.5 ?g/L in the SY group; 68.0, 56.0 and 18.8 ?g/L in the SS group; and 35.1, 27.3 and 10.5 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. Differences among all the groups were significant (P < 0.01) at each sampling, just as the colostrum Se content decreases were from day 1 to day 3 in each group. The relatively smallest decrease in colostrum Se concentration was found in the SY group (P < 0.01). Lactation period. The mean Se concentrations in milk in weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation were 20.4 and 19.6 ?g/L in the SY group, 8.3 and 11.9 ?g/L in the SS group, and 6.9 and 6.6 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. The values only differed significantly in the SS group (P < 0.05). The Se concentrations in the blood were similar to those of cows examined on the day of calving. The levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were 364.70, 283.82 and 187.46 ?kat/L in the SY, SS, and C groups, respectively. This was the only significantly variable biochemical and haematological parameter. Conclusion Se-enriched yeast was much more effective than sodium selenite in increasing the concentration of Se in the blood, colostrum and milk, as well as the GSH-Px activity. PMID:18980689

Slavik, Petr; Illek, Josef; Brix, Michal; Hlavicova, Jaroslava; Rajmon, Radko; Jilek, Frantisek

2008-01-01

224

Influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.  

PubMed

Immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (Mat-Abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. Here, we report the anti-FMDV humoral responses elicited in calves with or without Mat-Abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in Argentina. Anti-FMDV (O1/Campos strain) antibodies (Abs) were evaluated by Liquid Phase Blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT), isotype ELISA (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM) and avidity ELISA, to allow for the first time a more detailed description of the humoral responses elicited. Our results show that primary IgM responses to FMDV vaccination only became evident as Mat-Abs titers decreased. Likewise, prime and boost vaccination schedules, applied 35 days apart to groups of calves with high or low levels of Mat-Abs, showed that the levels of preexisting neutralizing Mat-Abs prevented the loss of total Abs measured by LPB-ELISA but negatively interfered with the induction of virus neutralizing responses. Altogether, these findings indicate that comprehensive serological characterization of immune responses generated after vaccination in calves may reveal important information on the actual effectiveness of vaccination strategies for young animals, particularly in endemic settings. PMID:24968156

Bucafusco, Danilo; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Pega, Juan; Juncos, María Sol; Schammas, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

2014-11-12

225

Infection of Cesarean-Derived Colostrum-Deprived Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Swine Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important pathogens for porcine respiratory disease complex, which is economically significant worldwide. The pathogenesis of PCV2–SIV coinfection is unknown. In this study, we focused on establishing a challenge model for PCV2 to determine whether SIV influences PCV2 replication and increases the severity of PCV2-associated disease. Cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intratracheally with cell culture medium only (negative control group), PCV2 only, or PCV2 followed 1 wk later with SIV H1N1. Two pigs from each group were necropsied at 12, 21, 28, and 35 d after inoculation. Coinfection with SIV did not increase the number of PCV2 genomic copies in serum or target tissues or the severity of microscopic lesions associated with PCV2 in lung or lymph node. The antibody titer to PCV2 did not differ significantly between PCV2–SIV- and PCV2-infected groups. In conclusion, SIV H1N1 did not influence PCV2 replication in dually infected pigs in this study. PMID:20158948

Wei, Huiling; Lenz, Stephen D; Alstine, William G Van; Stevenson, Gregory W; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Pogranichniy, Roman M

2010-01-01

226

Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

227

Original article Effect of duodenal perfusion of protein on the intake  

E-print Network

partly dissociated. dairy cow / intake / protein / incomplete milking Résumé -- Effet d'un supplément with or without incomplete milking Dhiaeddine M'HAMED*, Philippe FAVERDIN, Raymond V�RIT� INRA/ENSAR Unité Mixte, with or without the expected increase of milk production, plays a role in the feed intake response. Treatments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

2011-09-01

229

BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

2013-01-01

230

Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.  

PubMed

An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

2010-08-01

231

Nicotine intake by snuff users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in

M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend

1981-01-01

232

Fat intake and cardiovascular response  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for the development of obesity, which is frequently associated with diseases such as hypertension and diabetes and thus accelerated atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II and endothelin-1 are powerful growth factors and vasoconstrictors implicated in regulating vascular tone, vascular structure, and inflammation. Reduced bioactivity of nitric oxide and increased formation of reactive oxygen species

Matthias Barton

2008-01-01

233

Reduction in virus-neutralizing activity of a bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate by gastric acid and digestive enzymes.  

PubMed

Bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrates have been proposed for inducing passive immunity against various enteric pathogens. In vitro digestion studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal secretions on the virus-neutralizing activity of a concentrate prepared from the colostrum of cows that were immunized with rotavirus. The proteolytic activity of human gastric and duodenal fluid specimens was used to design a two-stage in vitro digestion model with commercial enzymes for estimating the individual impact of pepsin, gastric acid, and select pancreatic enzymes on antirotavirus activity in bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrates. The rotavirus-neutralizing titer of concentrate was decreased by incubation with pepsin at pH 2, a pool of pancreatic enzymes at pH 7.5, or sequential digestion with pepsin (pH 2) and pancreatic enzymes (from initial titer of 55,210 to 2,030, 19,500, and 320, respectively). Reduction in rotavirus-neutralizing titer after gastric-phase digestion was primarily due to acidic conditions and not to proteolytic cleavage by pepsin. Although both trypsin and carboxypeptidase caused significant proteolysis of concentrate during duodenal-phase digestion, only trypsin caused a significant reduction in rotavirus-neutralizing titer. The extent of digestion was the same for concentrate suspended in water or skim milk. The results demonstrate that the biological activity of bovine milk antibodies is reduced by exposure to acid and trypsin in vitro and suggest that neutralization of both gastric acid and pancreatic trypsin may enhance the effectiveness and economic feasibility of passive oral immunoprophylaxis with bovine milk immunoglobulins. PMID:7815246

Petschow, B W; Talbott, R D

1994-08-01

234

The response of newly born mice to odors of murine colostrum and milk: unconditionally attractive, conditionally discriminated.  

PubMed

It is a general rule that milk conveys chemosensory cues that are attractive to mammalian neonates. This study investigated whether compositional fluctuations in milk along lactation induce variations in newborn mouse pups' (Mus musculus, strain BALB/c) attraction to milk odor. Pups differing in suckling experience were exposed to the odor of milk sampled from females varying in lactational stage. Immediately after birth, suckling-inexperienced (P0) and suckling-experienced (P0suck ) pups were assayed in a series of paired-choice tests contrasting murine milk [of lactation days 0, 3, 15 (abridged L0, L3, L15, respectively)] and a blank (water) to evaluate olfactory detection and attraction of milk odor. Preference tests further paired these milk two-by-two to assess their relative attraction. Results showed first that P0 and P0suck pups detect and positively orient to any milk odor. When L0 is presented against L15 milk, P0 pups orient for a similar duration towards these odor stimuli, whereas P0suck pups spend more time toward the odor of L0 than of L15 milk. Finally, P0suck pups orient similarly to odors of L0 milk collected before/after the first suckling episode (L0 and L0suck , respectively), but the odor of L0 milk was more attractive than that of L3 milk. Thus, mouse pups' positive orientation toward the odors of murine colostrum (assumed to correspond to L0/L0suck milk) and later-lactation milk appears unconditional of previous suckling experience, whereas their ability to discriminate or display preference between milk differing in lactation stage appears conditional on postnatal exposure effects. PMID:24798460

Al Aïn, Syrina; Mingioni, Mathieu; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

2014-09-01

235

Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.  

PubMed

Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

2013-07-01

236

Children and Adolescents' Choices of Foods and Beverages High in Added Sugars Are Associated With Intakes of Key Nutrients and Food Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were non- consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Con- sumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. Conclusions: On average, consumption

CAROL D. FRARY; RACHEL K. JOHNSON; MIN QI WANG

237

Control of Food Intake in the Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

2001-01-01

238

Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.  

PubMed

Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136

Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

2013-08-01

239

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

240

Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (?(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the ?(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance ?(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

2014-05-01

241

Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets.  

PubMed

Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) to the gestation and lactation diets on the performance of sows and their progeny. At 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing 1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g of fermentation product/d through gestation and 15.0 g of fermentation product/d through lactation (SCFP treatment, n=22), and 2) sows fed a diet with equal amounts of a mixture of corn and soybean meal instead of the SCFP (CON treatment, n=20). Sow BW and backfat thickness were recorded. Blood was collected from sows, as well as piglets, for the measurement of cell numbers, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and IgG. Fecal samples from d 7 to 9 of lactation were collected to determine apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. The composition of colostrum and milk was also measured. No difference (P > 0.10) in reproductive performance was observed between treatments. However, sows in the SCFP treatment tended to have increased total litter weaning weight (P=0.068) and litter BW gain (P=0.084) compared with sows in the CON treatment. Neutrophil count was decreased (P < 0.05) by adding the fermentation product on d 110 of gestation and d 17 of lactation, whereas a decreased (P < 0.05) white blood cell count was observed only on d 110 of gestation. Concentration of PUN tended to be greater (P=0.069) for sows in the CON treatment compared with sows in the SCFP treatment on d 110 of gestation. Apparent total tract nutrient digestibility values of ash, CP, DM, and ether extract were not affected (P > 0.10) by adding the fermentation product. Protein and fat contents in colostrum and milk did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments. Colostrum from sows in the SCFP treatment contained a greater (P < 0.05) amount of ash than colostrum from sows in the CON treatment. Immunoglobulin G measured in the colostrum, milk, and plasma of piglets did not differ (P > 0.10) between sows in the CON and SCFP treatments. This study indicates that adding the SCFP in the gestation and lactation diets has the potential to 1) improve litter BW gain during lactation, possibly by improving maternal protein utilization, as shown in a tendency to reduce PUN; 2) improve the maternal health status, as shown by the reduced neutrophil cell count; and 3) increase milk production, as shown in a tendency to improve litter BW gain without affecting nutrient composition of the colostrum and milk. PMID:21383042

Shen, Y B; Carroll, J A; Yoon, I; Mateo, R D; Kim, S W

2011-08-01

242

Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).  

PubMed

The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123

Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

2007-03-01

243

Pemphigus erythematosus relapse associated with atorvastatin intake  

PubMed Central

Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Herein we report the case of a 70 year-old man who developed a relapse of pemphigus erythematosus, a syndrome with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus, after atorvastatin intake. PMID:25258514

Lo Schiavo, Ada; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Romano, Francesca; Cozzi, Roberto

2014-01-01

244

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

245

IS GREATER INTAKE OF DAIRY AND CALCIUM A RISK FACTOR OF PROSTATE CANCER? A META-ANALYSIS OF PROSPECTIVE STUDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. High intakes of calcium and dairy products may increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans now recommends that all Americans increase their dairy intake. The current study is to examine the ass...

246

Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.

1993-12-31

247

The effect of milk intake on forage intake and growth of nursing calves.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine Holstein steer calves were assigned to one of five treatments at birth and individually fed for 200 d with milk replacer reconstituted to equal the fat and protein concentration of beef cow milk. Treatment levels were the quantities of reconstituted milk fed per day based on lactation curves, which were based on peak milk levels (PML) of 2.72, 5.44, 8.16, 10.88, and 13.6 kg/d, respectively. In addition to reconstituted milk, chopped alfalfa hay was offered ad libitum to allow for maximal voluntary forage consumption. All calves were fed a high-energy diet postweaning until they reached a similar degree of fatness in the 12th rib (4 to 5% chemical fat) as determined by ultrasound. There were differences (P < 0.05) among groups in weaning weight, preweaning ADG, age, and weight at slaughter. During the preweaning phase, there was a linear relationship (P < 0.01) for daily milk and forage DE intake; however, DE intake per unit of BW did not differ across treatments (P = 0.06). Increasing PML resulted in a linear (P < 0.01) decrease in alfalfa hay intake in the preweaning phase, and G:F increased quadratically (P < 0.01). During the postweaning phase, preweaning milk intake had no meaningful effect on postweaning ADG, but overall ADG had a linear relationship (P < 0.01) with preweaning milk level. There was no effect of PML on the 12th-rib lipid percent, marbling score, or quality grade, but protein and fat concentration in the carcass and empty BW increased linearly (P < 0.01) with PML. The group fed at 2.72 kg/d PML was 58 kg lighter (P = 0.03) and required 34 d more (P < 0.01) to reach the predetermined degree of fatness at slaughter than the group fed at 13.6 kg/d PML, suggesting that increased milk production by the dam can decrease the number of days to the slaughter weight at which a similar rib lipid concentration is reached. PMID:15753351

Abdelsamei, A H; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Thonney, M L; Ketchen, D J; Stouffer, J R

2005-04-01

248

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

249

Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products.\\u000a Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the\\u000a association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone\\u000a receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study

Grete S. Pedersen; Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Leo J. Schouten; Erik J. M. Konings; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Piet A. van den Brandt

2010-01-01

250

Association between family structure and food group intake in children  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

2014-01-01

251

Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.  

PubMed

Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities. PMID:18629690

Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

2008-08-01

252

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

253

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

254

MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

255

SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

1 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE The Sexual Harassment Awareness and Intake Awareness Committee (SHAIC) is responsible for educating employees about sexual harassment and its potential consequences to the University community, and for overseeing sexual harassment training. The SHAIC

Brinkmann, Peter

256

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

257

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes)  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes) Table A16. Beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

258

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

259

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

260

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0

261

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

262

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

263

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

264

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

265

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

266

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Center Number:

267

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

268

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

269

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

270

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

271

Jet engine air intake system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (inventors)

1977-01-01

272

Validation of the deuterium oxide method for measuring average daily milk intake in infants  

SciTech Connect

The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d.

Fjeld, C.R.; Brown, K.H.; Schoeller, D.A.

1988-09-01

273

The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors. PMID:17723994

Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

2007-01-01

274

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

275

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

276

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

277

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

278

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

279

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

280

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

281

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location...construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of...

2012-07-01

282

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location...construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of...

2014-07-01

283

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2013-07-01

284

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2010-07-01

285

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2012-07-01

286

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2014-07-01

287

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2011-07-01

288

Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.  

PubMed

Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate containing table sweeteners. PMID:12623659

Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

2003-02-01

289

Comparison of serum, ear notches, and nasal and saliva swabs for Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection in colostrum-fed persistently infected (PI) calves and non-PI calves.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of neonatal and young calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) may be complicated by interference from colostrum-derived specific antibodies. Ten calves, with 3 calves identified as PI and 7 as non-PI were used in the current study. All non-PI calves were shown to be seropositive for BVDV-specific antibodies by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) on serum. Serum samples, ear notch samples, and nasal and saliva swabs were collected from each calf from birth until 12 weeks of age and tested by ELISA for BVDV-specific antigen and antibodies. Following colostrum ingestion, Ab-ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios rose by a mean of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-1.25) and 1.72 (95% CI = 1.55-1.89) in seropositive, non-PI calves and in PI calves, respectively. The mean S/P ratios then declined to approximately 1.1 in non-PI calves and 0.5 in PI calves at between 60 and 80 days of age. In PI calves, testing for antigen in serum and nasal and saliva swabs was subject to interference by colostrum-derived antibodies in calves up to 3 weeks of age. Nasal swabs were less affected than serum and saliva swabs. Ear notches maintained positive ACE corrected optical densities at all sample times, despite a drop in the signal following the ingestion of colostrum. PMID:25227419

Lanyon, Sasha R; Sims, Sarah K; Cockcroft, Peter D; Reichel, Michael P

2014-11-01

290

The acoustics of racing engine intake systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally aspirated racing engines have tuned intake systems and can now achieve volumetric efficiencies in excess of 125% and peak engine speeds in excess of 18,000 rev/min. Engines designed for single seater racing commonly dispense with the intake manifold and its convoluted and restricting flow path preferring single lengths of pipe feeding each cylinder separately. An investigation into the intake process on a single cylinder racing engine has shown that inertial ram effects make a strong contribution to the intake process at high engine speeds whereas acoustic resonance effects are more important to the rather weak wave action that occurs at low engine speeds. An acoustic model of the resonant wave action has proved useful in distinguishing between these two effects. The attributes of the acoustic model have been compared to those of more traditional time-marching gas-dynamics calculation methods. A decoupled hybrid method has been shown to yield calculations of the wave dynamics in the intake system of a single cylinder racing engine that show fair agreement with measured results up to the 10th harmonic of the engine cycle frequency. In a case study, the intake characteristics of a single cylinder racing engine have been shown to differ only slightly from those expected from the V10 engine on which it is based, although this will only be the case when the dimensions of the intake system are chosen appropriately.

Harrison, M. F.; Dunkley, A.

2004-04-01

291

Zinc intake and its dietary sources: results of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.  

PubMed

The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2-16 years old children (n = 4834) was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD) zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0) mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14-16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR). Children (2-3 years) were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14-16 years) or excessive (children 2-3 years) zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required. PMID:22852053

Rangan, Anna M; Samman, Samir

2012-07-01

292

Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.  

PubMed

The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

2014-05-28

293

Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.  

PubMed

The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment. PMID:20887237

Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

2012-04-01

294

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

295

Nicotine intake by snuff users.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

1981-01-01

296

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

297

Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers  

PubMed Central

This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

2011-01-01

298

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-12-01

299

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25424037

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-11-28

300

Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.  

PubMed

Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

2010-02-01

301

INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA. Legislation/Enabling Authority: Section 308 Supported Program: Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

302

Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

303

Dietary intake and bioavailability of trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the nutritional importance of trace elements, it is relevant to consider the factors regulating their metabolism.\\u000a One of the most important factors is the true intake level. Conventional techniques such as diet history and interview studies\\u000a in conjunction with standard food tables do not provide the true intake levels from prepared meals. Employing the duplicate\\u000a portion

Mohamed Abdulla; Abdulla Behbehani; Hussein Dashti

1989-01-01

304

Obtaining an unbiased estimate of intake in routine monitoring when the time of intake is unknown.  

PubMed

A common problem in internal dosimetry occurs in routine monitoring, when it is required to estimate an intake from a measurement made at the end of a monitoring interval, and the time of intake is unknown. ICRP suggests that, in these cases, it should be assumed that the intake occurred in the middle of the monitoring period. However, it has been shown that this will, in the long term, lead to biased estimates of a worker's intake and dose. In order to overcome this biasing, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) recommends a different method based on calculating the intakes for all possible intake-times in the interval, and then taking an arithmetic average. In this paper, it is shown that both the ICRP and USDOE methods are biased. An alternative method is suggested, which assumes a constant chronic intake throughout the monitoring interval. Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the magnitude of bias for two realistic monitoring programmes using all three methods. It is shown that the proposed method is unbiased and also yields estimates of intake that are generally closer to the actual intake, than the other two. The Monte Carlo conclusions are backed up by a theoretical analysis of bias. Finally, the source of bias in the apparently intuitive approach of the USDOE method is revealed by viewing the problem from a Bayesian perspective. PMID:16410294

Puncher, M; Marsh, J W; Birchall, A

2006-01-01

305

Inconsistencies in the assessment of food intake.  

PubMed

Many peptides and other compounds that influence metabolism also influence food intake, and numerous hypotheses explaining the observed effects in terms of energy homeostasis have been suggested over the years. For example, cholecystokinin (CCK), a duodenal peptide secreted during meals that aids in digestion, also reduces ongoing food intake, thereby contributing to satiation; and insulin and leptin, hormones secreted in direct proportion to body fat, act in the brain to help control adiposity by reducing energy intake. These behavioral actions are often considered to be hard-wired, such that negative experiments, in which an administered compound fails to have its purported effect, are generally disregarded. In point of fact, failures to replicate the effects of compounds on food intake are commonplace, and this occurs both between and within laboratories. Failures to replicate have historically fueled heated debate about the efficacy and/or normal function of one or another compound, leading to confusion and ambiguity in the literature. We review these phenomena and their implications and argue that, rather than eliciting hard-wired behavioral responses in the maintenance of homeostasis, compounds that alter food intake are subjected to numerous influences that can render them completely ineffective at times and that a major reason for this variance is that food intake is not under stringent homeostatic control. PMID:23074241

Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

2012-12-15

306

Measuring food intake with digital photography  

PubMed Central

The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

2014-01-01

307

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIETARY NUTRIENT INTAKE IN ESRD  

PubMed Central

Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) including those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study interrelationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research. PMID:20557492

Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Shinaberger, Christian S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2010-01-01

308

Folate Intake and Supplement use in Women of Childbearing Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate intake by dietary intake and supplementation before conception and in the first six weeks of pregnancy protects against the occurrence of birth defects such as neural-tube defects in infants. Data collected in the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed to determine folate intake and supplement use in women of childbearing age (11–50 years old). We

N. Sinichi; G. E. Gates

1998-01-01

309

Trans fatty acid intake is associated with increased risk and n3 fatty acid intake with reduced risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

We evaluated the association of dietary fat and protein intake with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a clinic-based study in 603 cases (including 218 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 146 follicular lymphoma, and 105 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and 1007 frequency-matched controls. Usual diet was assessed with a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs, and polytomous logistic regression was used to assess subtype-specific risks. trans Fatty acid (TFA) intake was positively associated with NHL risk [OR = 1.60 for highest vs. lowest quartile (95% CI = 1.18, 2.15); P-trend = 0.0014], n3 (?3) fatty acid intake was inversely associated with risk [OR = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.35, 0.65); P-trend < 0.0001], and there was no association with total, animal, plant-based, or saturated fat intake. When examining intake of specific foods, processed meat [OR = 1.37 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.83); P-trend = 0.03], milk containing any fat [OR = 1.47 (95% CI = 1.16, 1.88); P-trend = 0.0025], and high-fat ice cream [OR = 4.03 (95% CI = 2.80, 5.80); P-trend < 0.0001], intakes were positively associated with risk, whereas intakes of fresh fish and total seafood [OR = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.46, 0.80); P-trend = 0.0025] were inversely associated with risk. Overall, there was little evidence for NHL subtype-specific heterogeneity. In conclusion, diets high in TFAs, processed meats, and higher fat dairy products were positively associated with NHL risk, whereas diets high in n3 fatty acids and total seafood were inversely associated with risk. PMID:23486982

Charbonneau, Bridget; O'Connor, Helen M; Wang, Alice H; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Macon, William R; Slager, Susan L; Call, Timothy G; Habermann, Thomas M; Cerhan, James R

2013-05-01

310

Branched-chain fatty acid content of foods and estimated intake in the USA.  

PubMed

Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2 % of fatty acids in cows' milk fat. There are few systematic data available on the BCFA content of other foods to estimate dietary intakes. In the present study, we report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods in the American diet and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant food products, and are absent from chicken, pork and salmon. The mean BCFA intake of 500 mg/d was delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products; by comparison, average intake of the widely studied long-chain PUFA EPA and DHA has been estimated to be 100 mg/d. Common adjustments in the diet could double the daily intake of BCFA. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA, but, overall, they are low-fat foods providing very small amounts of BCFA in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from the influence of microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products and highlight the need for research into their effects on health. PMID:24830474

Ran-Ressler, Rinat Rivka; Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao; Brenna, J Thomas

2014-08-28

311

Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.  

PubMed

Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

2014-12-01

312

Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship  

PubMed Central

Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

2015-01-01

313

Reconstruction of long-lived radionuclide intakes for Techa riverside residents: 137Cs.  

PubMed

Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The Sr intake function was recently improved, taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio Cs-to-Sr in river water. Intake via Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows' milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000-9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River, the Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows' milk was the main source of Cs in diet in the upper-Techa River region. PMID:23532077

Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2013-05-01

314

Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results. PMID:21461198

Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

2011-01-01

315

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

316

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

317

Methane emissions from river buffaloes fed on green fodders in relation to the nutrient [corrected] intake and digestibility.  

PubMed

Fifteen male Murrah buffalo calves (15-18 months, 227.98?±?4.44 kg body weight) were distributed randomly in to three equal groups and fed solely on either berseem (G1), oats (G2), or chicory fodder (G3). A digestibility trial followed by methane measurement using SF6 tracer technique was conducted. No significant difference was observed in nutrient intake; however, crude protein (CP) intake was lower in G2 (0.35 kg) than G1 (0.7) and in G3 (0.71) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) intake was significantly (p?intake was similar in all the groups, whereas the digestible CP and NFC intake was lower in G2 compared to G1 and G3. Chicory- and berseem-fed groups emitted 12.2 and 5.2 % less methane than oats-fed group. However, no significant difference was observed in the absolute methane loss and methane loss as percentage of energy intake (p?>?0.05) among the groups. There was positive correlation between nutrient intake and total methane production. However, an inverse relationship was observed between total digestible carbohydrate intake and methane production (g/kg dry matter intake). The following regression equations were developed to estimate methane production: methane (g/kg BW) = 128.8553 + (167.7456 × dNDFI) + (216.32 × dCPI) - (40.3313 × dNFCI) and methane (g/d) = -1.7494 + (41.42 × NDFI) + (39.8686 × CPI) + (0.5197 × NFCI). PMID:23857630

Prusty, Sonali; Mohini, Madhu; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Datt, Chander

2014-01-01

318

THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

319

Puffing Topography and Nicotine Intake of Electronic Cigarette Users  

PubMed Central

Background Prior electronic cigarette (EC) topography data are based on two video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring topography are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake. Objectives This study evaluated EC topography with a CReSS Pocket device and quantified nicotine intake. Methods Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10–15 minute break between brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and topography data. Results Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one, took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65 seconds/puff), volume/puff (51ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively, which is similar to conventional smokers. Conclusions EC puffing topography was variable among participants in the study, but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration, inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products. PMID:25664463

Behar, Rachel Z.; Hua, My; Talbot, Prue

2015-01-01

320

Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

2014-01-01

321

Flavonoid Intake and Eye Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often

Paul E. Milbury

2012-01-01

322

Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions.  

PubMed

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal bioactive component in the Cannabis plant, is truly a captivating drug. Acute and chronic THC intake produces a spectrum of biological effects ranging from transient psychotropic effects to prolonged medicinal benefits, many of which have been fostered for centuries by our society. In the July 2013 issue of the JCI, Cutando et al. combined mouse genetics with classic mouse behavioral analysis to deepen our understanding of the physiological consequence of subchronic THC intake on eyeblink reflexes, a fundamental neuronal adaptive response, revealing that this regimen leads to downregulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (referred to as CB1 in the Cutando et al. article) in cerebellar stress fibers and the activation of microglia, raising provocative new questions about the safety profile of regimented THC intake. PMID:23863631

Stella, Nephi

2013-08-01

323

Measuring food intake with digital photography.  

PubMed

The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

2014-01-01

324

Alcohol Intake, Smoking, and Colorectal Adenoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. Methods: A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy were included (113 cases and 255 controls) in this study. Information on alcohol intake and cigarette smoking was collected from structured questionnaires. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Alcohol intake was associated with a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma in men; compared to non-drinkers, ORs (95% CIs) were 11.49 (2.55–51.89) for 10–20 g/day of alcohol intake and 14.15 (3.31–60.59) for â 20 g/day of alcohol intake (P for trend = 0.003). There was a weaker association of alcohol intake for women than men; however, there was a suggestive increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in women. Cigarette smoking was not associated with colorectal adenoma, but we cannot rule out the possibility that this was due to low statistical power. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence to suggest that alcohol intake may contribute to colorectal adenoma in the Korean population. Our study results demonstrate that a larger epidemiologic study is needed. PMID:25337582

Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

325

Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?  

PubMed

Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI. PMID:24458212

Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

2014-06-01

326

Whole Milk Intake Is Associated with Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality among U.S. Male Physicians1234  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have associated higher milk intake with greater prostate cancer (PCa) incidence, but little data are available concerning milk types and the relation between milk intake and risk of fatal PCa. We investigated the association between intake of dairy products and the incidence and survival of PCa during a 28-y follow-up. We conducted a cohort study in the Physicians’ Health Study (n = 21,660) and a survival analysis among the incident PCa cases (n = 2806). Information on dairy product consumption was collected at baseline. PCa cases and deaths (n = 305) were confirmed during follow-up. The intake of total dairy products was associated with increased PCa incidence [HR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.35); >2.5 servings/d vs. ?0.5 servings/d]. Skim/low-fat milk intake was positively associated with risk of low-grade, early stage, and screen-detected cancers, whereas whole milk intake was associated only with fatal PCa [HR = 1.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.28); ?237 mL/d (1 serving/d) vs. rarely consumed]. In the survival analysis, whole milk intake remained associated with risk of progression to fatal disease after diagnosis [HR = 2.17 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.51)]. In this prospective cohort, higher intake of skim/low-fat milk was associated with a greater risk of nonaggressive PCa. Most importantly, only whole milk was consistently associated with higher incidence of fatal PCa in the entire cohort and higher PCa-specific mortality among cases. These findings add further evidence to suggest the potential role of dairy products in the development and prognosis of PCa. PMID:23256145

Song, Yan; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Cao, Yin; Qiu, Weiliang; Mucci, Lorelei; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Pollak, Michael; Liu, Simin; Ma, Jing

2013-01-01

327

A Region on BTA6 Is Associated with Feed Intake and Gain in Beef Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle in feed intake and BW gai...

328

Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

2010-01-01

329

Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

330

Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Various purine-rich foods and high protein intake have long been thought to be risk factors for gout. Similarly, the possibility that the consumption of dairy products has a role in protecting against gout has been raised by metabolic studies. We prospectively investigated the association of these dietary factors with new cases of gout. methods Over a 12-year period, we

Hyon K. Choi; Karen Atkinson; Elizabeth W. Karlson; Walter Willett; Gary Curhan

2010-01-01

331

Nutritional Intake in Adult Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Research pertaining to the nutritional intake of hemodialysis patients is limited. Purpose Describe the nutritional quality of foods consumed by hemodialysis patients and variation by day of the week. Methods Dietary recalls were obtained from 22 hemodialysis patients and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Results Few statistically significant differences were found by day of the week, but several dietary deficits were noted. Conclusion The data suggest poor intake of calories, protein, and several vitamins and minerals, as well as excess sodium consumption, but little variation by day of the week. Additional research is needed. PMID:25104876

Stark, Susan; Snetselaar, Linda; Hall, Beth; Stone, Roslyn A.; Kim, Sunghee; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

332

Total-diet study: dietary intakes of macro elements and trace elements in Italy.  

PubMed

The present study provides the dietary intakes of macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) from the Italian total diet. The contribution of the most representative food groups of the total diet (cereals and cereal products, vegetables, fruit, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish) to the daily intakes of these nutrients was also evaluated. The Italian total diet was formulated following the 'market-basket' approach. Cereals represented the primary sources of Cu (35 %), Fe (30 %) and Mg (27 %). About 89 % of the total daily intake of Fe was derived from plant foods. The vegetables food group was the main source of dietary K (27 %). Most of the Ca (59 %) and P (27 %) was derived from the milk-and-dairy food group. Of the dietary Zn, 41 % was provided by meat, which, together with the fish food group, was the primary source of Se (20 %). The adequacy of the Italian total diet with respect to nutritional elements was assessed by comparing the daily intakes with the average requirement values of the Italian recommended dietary allowances. The present findings indicated that the dietary patterns of the Italian total diet were generally consistent with current Italian dietary recommendations for both macro and trace elements. The major concern was for Ca, for which daily intake was 76 % of the average recommendation for the Italian population. It should not be ruled out that there could be a potential risk of inadequate Fe intake in some segments of the population. PMID:14641971

Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Aguzzi, Altero; Cappelloni, Marsilio; Di Lullo, Giuseppe; Lucarini, Massimo

2003-12-01

333

Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation. PMID:22785030

Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

2012-11-01

334

Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2013-05-01

335

Growth performance, metabolic and endocrine traits, and absorptive capacity in neonatal calves fed either colostrum or milk replacer at two levels.  

PubMed

Colostrum (CO) contains high amounts, whereas whole milk and milk replacer (MR) contain small amounts, of bioactive and growth-promoting substances, such as IGF-I. An experiment was designed to study the effects of feeding CO or MR on the first 3 d to neonatal calves, followed by whole milk up to d 7, at low and high density. Intestinal absorptive capacity, plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations, and growth performance were measured during the 1st wk of life. Body weight increased (P < .05) similarly in calves fed low or high amounts of CO but did not rise in MR-fed calves. Loose feces were more frequent (P < .05) and absorption of xylose on d 5 was lower (P < .01) in MR- than in CO-fed calves, but there were no effects of feeding density within CO-fed or within MR-fed groups. However, high feeding density within CO-fed groups enhanced (P < .05) total protein, globulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and insulin concentrations, whereas in the initially high and low MR-fed groups only plasma glucose and insulin after the first meal and plasma NEFA on d 2 were modified (P < .05) by different feeding density. Thus, feeding different amounts of CO partly influenced protein and fat metabolism in calves during the 1st wk of life, but it did not measurably affect intestinal function. However, feeding different amounts of MR, in the absence of CO, barely affected metabolic and endocrine traits and absorptive capacity. Thus, high density CO feeding, and therefore a high supply of nutrients, together with greater amounts of bioactive and growth-promoting substances influenced neonatal metabolism and growth more than a high density of MR feeding containing only small amounts of bioactive and growth-promoting substances. Factors in addition to nutrient density seem to be important for the development of neonatal calves. PMID:10764068

Kühne, S; Hammon, H M; Bruckmaier, R M; Morel, C; Zbinden, Y; Blum, J W

2000-03-01

336

Physiopathological effects of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculation in weaned calves fed with colostrum containing antibodies to EspB and Intimin.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious systemic complication which particularly affects children. Cattle are the primary reservoir for E. coli O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. In this study, we evaluated the ability of transferred maternal colostral antibodies against ?-Intimin C280 and EspB, to protect young weaned calves from E. coli O157:H7 infection. Hyperimmune colostra were obtained by immunization of pregnant cows with a mix of the mentioned antigens. All vaccinated cows mounted a significant IgG response against ?-Intimin C280, and EspB in sera and colostra. Colostrum-fed calves also exhibited high serum IgG titers against ?-Intimin C280 and EspB along with a rise in mucosal ?-Intimin C280-specific IgG antibodies at recto-anal junction and ileum. Additionally, 70 day-old calves received a challenge with E. coli O157:H7 but no reduction in total bacterial shedding or frequency of E. coli O157:H7 excretion from these calves was observed. Most tissue samples showed granulocyte focal infiltrations of the lamina propria and enterocyte erosion. In conclusion, up to the 70th day, the passively acquired ?-Intimin-C280 and EspB-IgG antibodies present in sera and recto-anal mucosa reached a titer insufficient to reduce EHEC O157 shedding and damages of experimentally inoculated young calves. PMID:24797699

Rabinovitz, B C; Vilte, D A; Larzábal, M; Abdala, A; Galarza, R; Zotta, E; Ibarra, C; Mercado, E C; Cataldi, A

2014-06-24

337

Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of known individual polyphenols and their major dietary sources in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. Methods A total of 10,477 random sample (45–69 y) of urban population of Krakow, Poland, completed a validated 148-item food frequency questionnaire. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the recently developed Phenol-Explorer database. Results The mean intake of polyphenols was 1756.5 ± 695.8 mg/d (median = 1662.5 mg/d). The main polyphenol groups were flavonoids (897 mg/d) and phenolic acids (800 mg/d). A total of 347 polyphenols from 19 polyphenol subclasses were found. The individual compounds with the highest intakes were isomers of chlorogenic acid (i.e., 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-caffeoylquinic acid) among hydroxycinnamic acids (average intake 150 mg/d), that largely originated from coffee, and compounds belonging to the catechin chemical family (i.e., [+]-gallocatechin, [-]-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, and [-]-epicatechin) among flavanols (average intake 50 mg/d), that mostly originated from tea and cocoa products. Conclusions The current study provides the most updated data for individual polyphenols intake in the diet of a well-established nutritional cohort. These findings will be useful to assess potential beneficial role on health of specific foods with high polyphenol content and characterize the effects of individual phenolic compounds. PMID:25280419

Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Topor-M?dry, Roman; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Paj?k, Andrzej

2014-01-01

338

Vitamin C Intakes at a Residential Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE July 1941 we have been making a study1 of the vitamin C in the diet at a residential institution (home for waifs and strays at Cambridge), in order to obtain information about the day-to-day intakes, the influence of seasonal fluctuations in the supply of available sources, the effect of the War, etc. Chemical analyses were made on representative specimens

Leslie J. Harris; Mamie Olliver

1943-01-01

339

Usual Dietary Intakes: The NCI Method  

Cancer.gov

The premise of the NCI method is that usual intake is equal to the probability of consumption on a given day times the average amount consumed on a "consumption day." The exact methods used for dietary components that are consumed nearly every day by nearly everyone differ slightly from those used for dietary components that are episodically consumed.

340

SURFACE WATER INTAKES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Surface Water Intakes digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in a...

341

Shock Induced Separating Flows in Scramjet Intakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock induced separating flows in a scramjet intake has been studied by using a computational fluid dynamics approach. A configuration of scramjet intake geometry consisting of two exterior compression ramps, followed by a subsequent inlet and interior isolator/diffuser assembly, is chosen. The flow conditions are incoming Mach 7 with free-stream static temperature of 46.3K and wall temperature of 300K, respectively. Consequently, oblique shock wave will be formed and its interaction with viscous boundary layers will lead to flow separation that is responsible for the loss of mass flow, total pressure and several other effects. Simulations confirmed that it is necessary to include the cowl wedge in order to predict wall pressure distributions along the lower surface of the intake walls. It is also shown that mesh topology has some influences on prediction results with structured mesh gives better predictions than that of hybrid mesh. A total of eight turbulence models have been applied and results have shown reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements and other numerical predictions, with small differences occur in localized regions particularly after shock reflection inside the intake channel. Not surprisingly, shock induced flow separation occurs and it correlates well with higher wall pressure and heating downstream. This phenomenon will have significant impact on deteriorating boundary layer property and consequently the engine performance.

Yao, Yufeng; Rincon, Daniel; Zheng, Yao

342

Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

343

Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes  

SciTech Connect

In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

Poda, G A

1983-01-01

344

Parents significantly overestimate zinc intakes in children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary surveys (e.g., CSFII) suggest that many toddlers exceed the Institute of Medicine's tolerable upper limit (UL) for zinc. Our objective was to compare zinc intakes estimated from parental report of toddlers to weighed dietary records carried out at home and in an inpatient setting at the Gene...

345

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01

346

Impairment due to intake of carisoprodol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Carisoprodol is a centrally acting muscle relaxant commonly used for lower back pain. It is a drug of abuse and has been detected among impaired drivers. Carisoprodol’s active metabolite meprobamate is thought to act through the GABAA receptor complex and produces a well-known impairing effect. It is unclear whether therapeutic intake of carisoprodol leads to impairment, and the effect

Jørgen G. Bramness; Svetlana Skurtveit; Jørg Mørland

2004-01-01

347

Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.  

PubMed

Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. PMID:25137143

Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

2014-11-01

348

Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

349

Tofu intake is associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China.  

PubMed

Tofu is a soy product which is commonly consumed in Asian countries, such as China and Indonesia. Several studies found negative associations of high tofu consumption with cognitive function in older Asian populations. However, the effect of tofu on cognitive function remains disputed as it was not found in Western populations. In the present study, the effect of weekly tofu intake on cognitive performance was investigated in an observational cross sectional study of 517 Chinese elderly from Shanghai. Similar to earlier studies, results showed that a higher weekly intake of tofu was associated with worse memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (? = -0.10, p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, being vegetarian, and weekly intake of fruit/juice, green vegetables, and orange/red vegetables. Furthermore, among older elderly (?68 years of age), high tofu intake increased the risk of cognitive impairment indicative of dementia (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99-1.64, p = 0.04), after adjusting for all covariates. Consumption of meat and green vegetables independently also reduced risk of dementia. To conclude, high intake of tofu was negatively related to cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China. Similar findings were reported in Indonesia and in Japanese Americans in the US. These findings suggest that the effect of tofu on cognition in elderly should be further investigated. PMID:25114086

Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

2015-01-01

350

Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction  

PubMed Central

High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

2015-01-01

351

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature...

2013-07-01

354

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature...

2012-07-01

355

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature...

2011-07-01

356

40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2012-07-01

357

40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2012-07-01

358

40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Nonconditioned air supply procedure. Humidity...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2013-07-01

361

40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2011-07-01

362

40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Nonconditioned air supply procedure. Humidity...

2012-07-01

364

40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2014-07-01

365

40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Nonconditioned air supply procedure. Humidity...

2011-07-01

367

40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2011-07-01

368

40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Nonconditioned air supply procedure. Humidity...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Nonconditioned air supply procedure. Humidity...

2014-07-01

370

40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system and after the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity...

2014-07-01

371

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2014-07-01

372

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2010-07-01

373

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2012-07-01

374

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2013-07-01

375

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2011-07-01

376

30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can...

2011-07-01

377

30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can...

2012-07-01

378

30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can...

2014-07-01

379

30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can...

2013-07-01

380

40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

2010-07-01

381

40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

2014-07-01

383

40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

2012-07-01

384

40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

2011-07-01

385

40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

2013-07-01

386

40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

2012-07-01

387

40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a)...

2014-07-01

388

40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

2010-07-01

389

40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

2011-07-01

390

40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

2013-07-01

391

40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow...

2014-07-01

392

1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

393

View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs System at the Irving Powerhouse. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Intake & Forebay, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

394

View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

395

CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM  

EPA Science Inventory

For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relatively low numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale a different number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

396

Vitamins—dietary intake and intake from dietary supplements in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse the current vitamin intake and the contribution of dietary supplements to this intake of 4030 participants of the German Nutrition Survey (GeNuS) 1998, which was part of the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES), conducted from October 1997 until March 1999.Design: In the GeNuS participants were interviewed comprehensively about their usual diet and supplementation

R Beitz; GBM Mensink; B Fischer; M Thamm

2002-01-01

397

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

PubMed Central

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

2010-01-01

398

Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

2014-01-01

399

An overview of USDA's Dietary Intake Data System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods for collecting and processing food intake data have been developed by the Food Surveys Research Group at USDA to increase the quality and efficiency of food intake surveys and other dietary research studies. These automated methods are part of a Dietary Intake Data System, which consists of three computer systems and an extensive food and nutrient database. Computer

Nancy Raper; Betty Perloff; Linda Ingwersen; Lois Steinfeldt; Jaswinder Anand

2004-01-01

400

Control of food intake in Octopus briareus Robson  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the role of environmental factors on the control of food intake in 6 experiments with 2 male and 9 female Octopus briareus Robson. Water temperature and crab density were found to exert the most pronounced effect. Food intake doubled with a temperature rise of 10– C and with doubling of crab density. Food intake was unaffected by overeating. Undereating

Katarina T. Borer

1971-01-01

401

Familial aggregation of energy intake in children1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Uncompensated overnutrition promotes obesity, but the controls of children's eating behavior are poorly understood. Insights may be achieved by testing whether the eating patterns of children are associated with demographic variables or whether they aggregate among family members. Objective: We tested whether children's total energy intake and macronutrient intake and their ability to compensate for earlier en- ergy intake

Myles S Faith; Kathleen L Keller; Susan L Johnson; Angelo Pietrobelli; Patty E Matz; Marie Alexandra Jorge; Jordana Cooperberg; Steven B Heymsfield

402

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

2013-07-01

403

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

2012-07-01

404

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

2014-07-01

405

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

2010-07-01

406

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510...Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

2011-07-01

407

Energy intake and body weight effects of six months reduced or full fat diets, as a function of dietary restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the effect of six months consumption of reduced fat or full fat products on energy intake and body weight, as a function of dietary restraint.DESIGN: A small realistic supermarket in the University departments provided full fat commercial products and their reduced fat alternatives. Volunteers visited the supermarket once a week. Half of them were required to take

Westerterp-Plantenga; NEG Wijckmans-Duijsens; WPG Verboeket-van de Venne; K de Graaf; KH van het Hof; JA Weststrate; Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga

1998-01-01

408

An exploratory NMR nutri-metabonomic investigation reveals dimethyl sulfone as a dietary biomarker for onion intake.  

PubMed

The metabolome following intake of onion by-products is evaluated. Thirty-two rats were fed a diet containing an onion by-product or one of the two derived onion by-product fractions: an ethanol extract and the residue. A 24 hour urine sample was analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of onion intake on the rat metabolism. Application of interval extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) proved to be able to distinguish between the metabolomic profiles from rats consuming normal feed and rats fed with an onion diet. Two dietary biomarkers for onion intake were identified as dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The same two dietary biomarkers were subsequently revealed by interval partial least squares regression (PLS) to be perfect quantitative markers for onion intake. The best PLS calibration model yielded a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.97% (w/w) with only 1 latent variable and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.94. This indicates that urine from rats on the by-product diet, the extract diet, and the residue diet all contain the same dietary biomarkers and it is concluded that dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid are dietary biomarkers for onion intake. Being able to detect specific dietary biomarkers is highly beneficial in the control of nutritionally enhanced functional foods. PMID:19838425

Winning, Hanne; Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Dragsted, Lars O; Viereck, Nanna; Poulsen, Morten; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Engelsen, Søren B

2009-11-01

409

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

410

Terpenes and carbohydrate source influence rumen fermentation, digestibility, intake, and preference in sheep.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that toxins and nutrients in foods interact to influence foraging behavior by herbivores. Based on this hypothesis we predicted that 1) terpenes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) influence intake and preference in sheep for diets varying in sources of nonstructural (barley grain) and structural (sugar beet pulp) carbohydrates, and 2) these effects are due to the differential effects of terpenes on fermentation products and apparent digestibility of each class of carbohydrates. Lambs were fed 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with varying proportions of the same ingredients (beet pulp- and barley grain-based diet) or offered a choice between the 2 diets; all feeds were fed without and with terpenes, in consecutive periods. We also compared intake and preference of the beet pulp-and barley-based diets before and after the lambs ate a meal of sagebrush. Finally, we assessed the effect of terpenes on ruminal variables and in vivo digestibility. Lambs ate less when fed beet pulp or when they were offered a choice of diets with terpenes (P < 0.001), and intake of the beet pulp-based diet was the most affected (P < 0.05). Lambs preferred the beet pulp-to the grain-based diet with terpenes, but their preference reversed when terpenes were removed from the diets (P < 0.05). When lambs were offered both diets, intake and preference did not differ (P > 0.20) before eating sagebrush, but they preferred the beet pulp-based diet after eating sagebrush (P < 0.05). Intake of sagebrush did not differ among groups consuming the test diets (P = 0.21). Addition of terpenes to both diets increased the digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF and decreased concentrations of total VFA and acetate (P < 0.05). Terpenes also depressed butyrate concentration in the barley-based diet (P < 0.05). Propionate concentrations were not affected by terpenes in either feed (P = 0.63). In summary, the predominant type of feed ingredient (beet pulp, grain) ingested with terpenes influenced fermentation products, intake, and preference in lambs. The source of energy from supplements, or other plants in the diet, is likely to influence intake and preference for sagebrush in sheep foraging on rangelands. Moreover, ingesting terpenes from sagebrush may also influence intake and preference for other plant species or supplements. PMID:16908651

Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Olson, K C

2006-09-01

411

Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg?0.8 d?1) and growth (g kg?0.8 d?1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ?20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

2012-01-01

412

Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes.  

PubMed

Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes. Key pointsAthletic girls show lower carbohydrate intakes compared to boys.Substrate oxidation during exercise appears to be maturity related, fat being the preferred fuel for oxidation in younger athletic children.Children appear to have lower endogenous but greater exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise.Carbohydrate intake during exercise appears to show no additional performance improvement in young athletes. Perhaps fat intake or a combination of both nutrients may be a better approach for nutrient supplementation during exercise.Gastric emptying physiology of young athletes is not well known. Adult sport drinks showed a tendency to delay gastric emptying in young athletes during exercise at higher intensities.More research is needed in paediatric sports nutrition. PMID:24149421

Montfort-Steiger, Veronica; Williams, Craig A

2007-01-01

413

Nutrition intakes and practices of marathon swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status of swimmers, during the marathon swimming event of crossing Toroneos (26 km). The participants were 24 athletes mean aged 36.08±12.52 years. The sample was divided into two groups, according to their age: (1) 18–34 years (12 athletes) and (2) 35–68 years (12 athletes).MethodsThe athletes recorded their food intake for 3

S K Papadopoulou; E Xyla; M Grammatikopoulou; M Hassapidou

2011-01-01

414

Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake  

PubMed Central

A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

2014-01-01

415

Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake  

PubMed Central

Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs. PMID:22580974

Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

2013-01-01

416

Cocoa intake attenuates oxidative stress associated with rat adjuvant arthritis.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of cocoa intake on oxidative stress associated with a model of chronic inflammation such as adjuvant arthritis. Female Wistar rats were fed with a 5% or 10% cocoa-enriched diet or were given p.o. a quercetin suspension every other day for 10 days. Arthritis was induced by a heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspension. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by macrophages, and splenic superoxide dismutase (total, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial) and catalase activities were determined. Clinically, joint swelling in arthritic rats was not reduced by antioxidants; however, the 5% cocoa diet and quercetin administration reduced ROS production. Moreover, the 5% cocoa diet normalized the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In conclusion, a cocoa diet reduces the oxidative stress associated with a chronic inflammatory pathology, although it was not enough to attenuate joint swelling. PMID:22728690

Ramos-Romero, S; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramiro-Puig, E; Franch, A; Castell, M

2012-09-01

417

Influence of infant feeding and gluten intake on coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Accepted 26 September 1996? OBJECTIVES—To study the impact of infant feeding habits and actual gluten intake on gluten induced enteropathy.?METHODS—A case-referent design, controlling for the HLA alleles conferring increased genetic risk, was used. All 164 siblings of 97probands were investigated. Eighty five of the siblings, carrying the genes DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 conferring susceptibility for the disease, were investigated by interview, food recording, and taking a small intestinal biopsy sample. Eight cases of silent coeliac disease were found and these were compared with the 73 siblings in whom the diagnosis was excluded.?RESULTS—No statistically significant differences were found between cases and referents in terms of duration of breast feeding, age at introduction of cows' milk products, frequency of breast feeding after gluten introduction, and gluten consumption.?CONCLUSIONS—The studied factors may be of less importance for the development of gluten induced enteropathy.?? PMID:9068298

Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Rydberg, L; Nordin, P; Kristiansson, B

1997-01-01

418

[Acute hepatitis associated with Colpachi intake. Apropros of 5 cases].  

PubMed

The use of herbal medicines believed to have therapeutic properties is becoming increasingly widespread. These medicines are usually taken by patients on their own initiative and physicians are often unaware of which patients are taking these substances. Herbal medicines can be taken in the form of teas, powders, and liquid extracts. In the last few years, it has come to light that these natural remedies are not free of risks, especially the risk of interaction with other drugs or hepatotoxicity, ranging from asymptomatic forms to massive hepatic necrosis. We describe a series of 5 patients notified to the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System of medicinal products for human use. All the patients developed acute hepatitis during Colpachi treatment lasting several months, which resolved after discontinuing intake of this substance. Systematic examination of the literature revealed the existence of 6 other reported cases of suspected Colpachi-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:17335712

Bruguera, Miguel; Herrera, Samuel; Lázaro, Edurne; Madurga, Mariano; Navarro, Marta; de Abajo, Francisco J

2007-02-01

419

The lipid messenger OEA links dietary fat intake to satiety  

PubMed Central

Summary The association between fat consumption and obesity underscores the need to identify physiological signals that control fat intake. Previous studies have shown that feeding stimulates small-intestinal mucosal cells to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which, when administered as a drug, decreases meal frequency by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-? (PPAR-?). Here we report that duodenal infusion of fat stimulates OEA mobilization in the proximal small intestine, whereas infusion of protein or carbohydrate does not. OEA production utilizes dietary oleic acid as a substrate and is disrupted in mutant mice lacking the membrane fatty-acid transporter CD36. Targeted disruption of CD36 or PPAR-? abrogates the satiety response induced by fat. The results suggest that activation of small-intestinal OEA mobilization, enabled by CD36-mediated uptake of dietary oleic acid, serves as a molecular sensor linking fat ingestion to satiety. PMID:18840358

Schwartz, Gary J.; Li, Xiaosong; Gaetani, Silvana; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Piomelli, Daniele

2008-01-01

420

Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

1991-01-01

421

Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-? expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats  

PubMed Central

Background We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Methods Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41–43 days and randomly assigned to WD?+?AF feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n?=?8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n?=?8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n?=?6) for 41–43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31–33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. Results WD?+?AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-? mRNA (-2.8-fold, p?

2014-01-01

422

The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (?TEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (?TEI range ?7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (?TEI = ?1.3, range ?9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

2010-01-01

423

Metabolism, intake, and digestibility of lambs supplemented with organic chromium.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolism of organic chromium and its effect on digestibility and intake of lambs. Four 4-month-old male lambs, each weighing 28 kg, were used. The animals were kept in metabolic cages for a period of 20 days (15 days of adaptation and 5 days of experimentation), in two experimental phases, with inverted treatments. Organic chromium was administered by intraruminal infusion of 1 mg of chromium-rich yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) throughout the adaptive and experimental period. The dry material rates of the diet and feces of the animals were evaluated to estimate consumption, digestibility, and fecal production. During the experimental period, blood, feces, and urine were collected every 24 h to determine chromium levels. There was no significant difference in the excretion of chromium in the urine, and no mineral remnants were detected in the blood. Excretion was generally fecal. There was greater excretion of chromium in the feces of lambs in the treated group on day 0 and day 3, compared with the control group. The use of organic chromium promoted an increase in the consumption of dry material in the treated animals only at day 0 (P <0.05). The production of fecal dry matter was greater among the treated lambs than among the animals of the control group on day 1, day 2, day 3, and day 4 (P <0.05). The results obtained showed that organic chromium associated with live yeasts is not absorbed by the body and do not affect the intake time in the dose used. PMID:24078327

da Rocha, Jose Francisco Xavier; Rodrigues Aires, Adelina; Gonçalves Nunes, Matheus Augusto; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Kozloski, Gilberto Vilmar; Castagna de Vargas, Agueda; D'Avila Farias, Luana; da Silva Cecim, Marcelo; do Rego Leal, Marta Lizandra

2013-12-01

424

Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

2010-01-01

425

Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production  

PubMed Central

Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI) on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT), was assessed in IVP (n = 80) and AI (n = 20) groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves. PMID:22136315

2011-01-01

426

Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. PMID:25528694

Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

2015-04-01

427

Nutrient intakes and impact of fortified breakfast cereals in schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598

McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J

1996-01-01

428

Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

2014-01-01

429

Vitamin K Intake and Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Vitamin K is essential for activation of ?-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n?=?60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42–77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35–188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p?=?0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p<0.05). Accordingly, dp-ucMGP levels were elevated (>500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies. PMID:23118917

Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Schurgers, Leon J.; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Borst, Martin H.

2012-01-01

430

Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents. PMID:23167254

2012-01-01

431

CADMIUM INTAKE VIA OYSTERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IN NEW ZEALAND: CADMIUM INTAKE, METABOLISM AND EFFECTS IN PEOPLE WITH A HIGH INTAKE OF OYSTERS IN NEW ZEALAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to confirm the high dietary intakes of cadmium and other trace elements from oysters in a population associated with the oystering industry, and to determine (1) the impact of those high intakes on cadmium concentrations in accessible tissues of the stud...

432

Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

2012-12-01

433

Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents. PMID:24418246

Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute

2014-01-01

434

?-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat ?-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat ?-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat ?-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. PMID:25251294

Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H. Tanju

2014-01-01

435

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake.  

PubMed

Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC. PMID:24965793

Coble, Jeffrey P; Cassell, Martin D; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

2014-08-15

436

Relationship between dietary intake, antioxidant status and smoking habits in female Austrian smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background Previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and free radicals, which can increase lipid peroxidation.\\u000a Aim of the study The association between smoking, food pattern, especially vitamin intake and plasma concentrations of important antioxidants,\\u000a as well as lipid peroxidation products was assessed in this cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods Sixty Austrian women aged 18–40 y

Petra Rust; Petra Lehner; Ibrahim Elmadfa

2001-01-01