Objective To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations in neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Animals 18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves. Procedures 141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided ? 2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n = 146) were fed 2 L of a CR product ? 2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed. Results Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean ± SD sTP concentration was 5.58 ± 0.67 g/dL and 5.26 ± 0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868 ± 854 mg/dL and 1,320 ± 620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations < 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Foley, Andrea L.; Collins, Michael T.; McGuirk, Sheila M.
The effects of feeding sow colostrum on oxygen consumption (VO2), heat production (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ) and rectal temperature (RT) were examined in 26 newborn piglets in a thermoneutral (32 °C) and in a cold (18 °C) environment. Colostrum (32 g\\/kg body weight) was given by gavage at 3 h of age. A control group received a similar amount of
J. Le Dividich; J. Noblet
Neonatal calf health is largely dependent on the ingestion and absorption of maternally derived antibodies via colostrum administration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum-replacement (CR) product as compared with bovine colostrum. Holstein calves were removed from the dam immediately after birth and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups. Group
A. P. Fidler; M. L. Alley; G. W. Smith
In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from colostrum in neonatal calves, unlike in rodents where systemic effects of colostral leptin are demonstrated. Therefore, glucose availability in neonatal calves is promoted by perinatal maturation of eGP and colostrum intake. There may be long-lasting effects of an improved colostrum supply and glucose status on postnatal growth and development, and colostrum supply may contribute to neonatal programming of performance (milk and growth) in later life, but data proving this concept are missing. PMID:23100594
Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schönhusen, U; Metges, C C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance, haematological parameters, and serum and local anti-colostrum immunoglobulin levels were examined. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid were analysed for phenotype as well as for their ability to produce cytokines. The stimulation index (SI) of mononuclear cells from different organs was obtained after colostral or mitogenic stimulation. Feed intake, growth, and haematological parameters were not significantly affected by colostrum. Total serum IgA levels were increased after colostrum supplementation, with a transient decrease in total IgG. Local anti-colostrum immunization was observed in colostrum-fed piglets. The CD21+/CD3+ cells populations of the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP) were markedly affected. The SI of lymphocyte populations changed significantly whereas, naive blood lymphocytes were not stimulated in vitro in the presence of bovine colostrum, suggesting local anti-colostrum immunization and an absence of direct mitogenic effects of the colostrum. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was present in the different organs of colostrum-fed piglets. Bovine colostrum especially stimulated iPP cells. PMID:17187836
Boudry, C; Buldgen, A; Portetelle, D; Collard, A; Théwis, A; Dehoux, J-P
A consumable supplement contains a colostrum component composed of processed bovine colostrum, magnesium peroxide as a source of active oxygen, a vitamin such as vitamin C, magnesium succinate and a bioflavonoid. This colostrum component can be taken separately or admixed with other minerals, vitamins and the like. In one form, the colostrum component is used as an outer shell for a composite pill, tablet or capsule which includes an inner core containing one or more vitamins, minerals, enzymes or omega acids in the event that the components of the inner core are incompatible with one or more materials of the colostrum component. In this way, a wide variety of supplements may be provided offering the advantages of colostrum and active oxygen and the advantages of other materials which may be taken as a single pill or capsule. Various supplements and formulations are described as well as various amounts of the varius components of the supplement.
Immunoglobulin-containing food products and nutraceuticals such as bovine colostrum are of interest to consumers as they may provide health benefits. Commercial scale colostrum products are valued for their immunoglobulin G (IgG) content and therefore require accurate analysis. One of the most commonly used methods for determining total soluble IgG in colostrum products is based on affinity chromatography using a Protein G column and UV detection. This paper documents improvements to the accuracy of the Protein G analysis of IgG in colostrum products, especially those containing aggregated forms of IgG. Capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) analysis confirmed that aggregated IgG measured by Protein G does not contain significant amounts of casein or other milk proteins. Size exclusion chromatography identified the content of soluble IgG as mainly monomeric IgG and aggregated material MW > 450 kDa with small amounts of dimer and trimer. The turbidity of the eluting IgG, mainly associated with aggregated IgG, had a significant effect on the quantitative results. Practical techniques were developed to correct affinity LC data for turbidity on an accurate, consistent, and efficient basis. The method was validated in two laboratories using a variety of colostrum powders. Precision for IgG was 2-3% (RSD(r)) and 3-12% (RSD(R)). Recovery was 100.2 ± 2.4% (mean ± RSD, n = 10). Greater amounts of aggregated IgG were solubilized by a higher solution:sample ratio and extended times of mixing or sonication, especially for freeze-dried material. It is concluded that the method without acid precipitation and with turbidity correction provides accurate, precise, and robust data for total soluble IgG and is suitable for product specification and quality control of colostrum products. PMID:21524111
Holland, Patrick T; Cargill, Anne; Selwood, Andrew I; Arnold, Kate; Krammer, Jacqueline L; Pearce, Kevin N
The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs. 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs. 97 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07). The piglet mortality during the first week of lactation tended to be higher for sows fed CLA than for CON sows (6.8 vs. 2.3%, respectively; P = 0.10), and the number of piglets that died or were moved to others sows to ensure survival during the first week was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows. PMID:23365381
Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Jensen, S K; Theil, P K
Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and
A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte
This trial was conducted to investigate whether ?-hydroxy ?-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.05). The HMB supplementation did not affect colostrum composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P < 0.05), dry matter (19.0 vs. 18.2 ± 0.26; P < 0.05), and energy (4.81 vs. 4.47 ± 0.12 kJ/g; P < 0.05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P < 0.05). The HMB piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P < 0.01), although the milk yield was not reduced. Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) ?M; P < 0.05] whereas plasma 3-hydroxy butyrate was reduced in HMB sows during lactation. In conclusion, HMB supplemented to sows improved the colostrum production but inhibited piglet growth at peak lactation. PMID:23365383
Flummer, C; Theil, P K
Holstein calves were assigned to ex- perimental diets of milk replacer or fer- mented colostrum to measure the effects of these diets on growth, health, and feed intake. Calves were fed .32 kg dry milk replacer reconstituted with warm water or 2.27 kg fermented colostrum once daily. Calf starter (17% crude protein) was offered ad libitum beginning at 4 days
D. E. Otterby; D. G. Johnson; H. W. Polzin
Studies have indicated that the intake of colostrum could modulate the offspring reaction towards early schistosome infections. The effect of colostrum (containing immunoglobulins, parasite antigens, immune cells and other cell-related products) on late Schistosoma infections is to our knowledge not documented. The objective of the present study is to determine whether the intake of colostrum from Schistosoma mattheei infected cows will modify late S. mattheei infection patterns in their offspring. Six calves born to confirmed non-infected cows and 10 calves born to confirmed infected mothers were purchased after intake of colostrum. All calves were exposed to a total experimental challenge of 2500 cercariae around the age of 7 months. Serum samples were collected before and after intake of colostrum and monthly thereafter for the determination of specific antibody levels. Faecal samples were collected monthly from 42 days after infection for the determination of faecal egg counts. Six calves of each group were slaughtered around the age of 15 months for worm recovery and tissue egg counting. No differences between both groups were observed in immunoglobulin levels and faecal egg counts after infection, and in worm counts and tissue egg counts at necropsy. In conclusion colostral effects, which were noticed at an early age, are no longer present around the age of 7 months. As such calves which are born during a season of high Schistosoma transmission will still be under colostral influence and therefore be more protected against a primary challenge than calves born during a low transmission season, as the latter will only receive their first challenge when colostral protective effects have disappeared. PMID:15817203
Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Duchateau, L; Phiri, I K; Chembensofu, M; Vercruysse, J
Newborn Holstein (n = 48) and Jersey (n = 30) calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from maternal colostrum (n = 39) or colostrum replacement containing an Ig concentrate derived from bovine serum (n = 39). Calves were also fed milk replacer with (n = 38) or without (n = 40) animal plasma (20% of crude protein) to 29 d of age to determine effect of plasma protein on IgG status, health, and growth. Calves were fed maternal colostrum or colostrum replacement at 1.5 and 13.5 h of age and provided a total of 250 or 249 and 180 or 186 g of IgG for Holsteins and Jerseys fed maternal colostrum or colostrum replacement, respectively. Milk replacer (12.5% DM) was fed at 31% of metabolic birth weight (2 feedings/d). Plasma was sampled at 0 h, 24 h, and weekly to determine IgG by turbidimetric immunoassay. At blood collection, calves were weighed and measured to determine growth. Health scores, fecal scores, and grain intake were measured daily. Plasma IgG at 24 h did not differ between calves fed maternal colostrum (13.78 +/- 0.39 g/ L) and colostrum replacement (13.96 +/- 0.38 g/L). Average daily gain, withers height, hip height, body length, heart girth, health, and incidence of diarrhea were not different between treatment groups. Calves fed maternal colostrum used feed more efficiently than calves fed colostrum replacement. Plasma IgG and performance were not affected by the addition of animal plasma to milk replacer. The colostrum replacement used in this study provided adequate IgG for newborn calves. Animal plasma was an acceptable source of protein but did not enhance growth or immunity under the conditions of this study. PMID:15453496
Jones, C M; James, R E; Quigley, J D; McGilliard, M L
Glucose supply markedly changes during the transition to extrauterine life. In this study, we investigated diet effects on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves. Calves were fed colostrum (C; n = 7) or milk-based formula (F; n = 7) with similar nutrient content up to d 4 of life. Blood plasma samples were taken daily before feeding and 2 h after feeding on d 4 to measure glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids, protein, urea, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations. On d 2, additional blood samples were taken to measure glucose first-pass uptake (FPU) and turnover by oral [U-(13)C]-glucose and i.v. [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose infusion. On d 3, endogenous glucose production and gluconeogenesis were determined by i.v. [U-(13)C]-glucose and oral deuterated water administration after overnight feed deprivation. Liver tissue was obtained 2 h after feeding on d 4 and glycogen concentration and activities and mRNA abundance of gluconeogenic enzymes were measured. Plasma glucose and protein concentrations and hepatic glycogen concentration were higher (P < 0.05), whereas plasma urea, glucagon, and cortisol (d 2) concentrations as well as hepatic pyruvate carboxylase mRNA level and activity were lower (P < 0.05) in group C than in group F. Orally administered [U-(13)C]-glucose in blood was higher (P < 0.05) but FPU tended to be lower (P < 0.1) in group C than in group F. The improved glucose status in group C resulted from enhanced oral glucose absorption. Metabolic and endocrine changes pointed to elevated amino acid degradation in group F, presumably to provide substrates to meet energy requirements and to compensate for impaired oral glucose uptake. PMID:21084656
Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Görs, Solvig; Junghans, Peter; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kanitz, Ellen; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance,
C. Boudry; A. Buldgen; D. Portetelle; A. Collard; A. Théwis; J.-P. Dehoux
Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt content at the 2% level do not have marked effects on shelf life of the products. By using salt mixtures, usually NaCl/KCl, the intake of sodium (NaCl) can be further reduced. PMID:22063751
Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero
This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...
Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet. PMID:23365360
Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J
IgE is the key antibody involved in type I allergies. Allergen mediated crosslinking of IgE bound to high affinity Fcepsilon-receptors on mast cells and basophils stimulates cellular degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. In this report, we demonstrate that IgE antibodies can be transferred from the mother to offspring in horses via the colostrum. We found a clear correlation between the IgE concentration in colostrum and the total IgE concentration in foal sera on day 2 after birth (r(sp)=0.83). Maternal IgE was detected in foal sera by ELISA and on peripheral blood leukocytes of foals by flow cytometry. Both serum and cell membrane-bound IgE were undetectable in newborn foals before colostrum uptake and peaked on days 2-5 after birth. Cell-bound IgE became undetectable at 2 months after birth. Serum IgE disappeared from the circulation within the first 3-4 months of age. These kinetics suggest that the IgE antibodies which are detectable in foals during the first 4 months after birth are of maternal origin only. The endogenous IgE production was found to begin at 9-11 months of age, when IgE could be detected on peripheral blood leukocytes and in foal sera again. After 18 months of life, the total IgE concentrations in foal sera were comparable to those detected in their dams. The late onset of endogenous IgE production offers an explanation for observations that IgE mediated allergies are generally not observed in horses before puberty. The roles of the passively transferred maternal IgE in newborn foals are not yet known, but could be manifold, ranging from passive immunity and induction of immunoregulatory functions to determinative influences of maternal IgE on the antibody repertoire in the offspring. PMID:16343646
Wagner, Bettina; Flaminio, Julia B F; Hillegas, Julie; Leibold, Wolfgang; Erb, Hollis N; Antczak, Douglas F
Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.
During recent years the authors and their associates have conducted six experiments, five with growing and one with mature albino rats, for the purpose of determining the influence of the protein content of equicaloric diets on the heat production under conditions representing normal nutritive practice ; and in these experiments the heat production diminished, at moderate rates, in the increasing
ERNEST B. FORBES; RAYMOND W. SWIFT; LAWSON F. MARCY; MARY T. DAVENPORT
Forty-eight Holstein bull calves were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized block design. Main effects were colostrum versus a serum-derived colostrum supplement, 0 versus 1 g of trypsin inhibitor added at the initial 2 feedings, and milk replacer containing 0 or 50% CP from whole egg. Calves were bled at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after birth for determination of serum immunoglobulin (Ig). G. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves consuming the colostrum supplement compared with calves consuming colostrum. Apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was similar. Trypsin inhibitor did not affect IgG concentrations or absorption of IgG. Calves were fed either milk replacer for 28 to 35 d (preweaning phase) and weaned when they consumed 0.7 kg of starter grain for 2 consecutive days. The postweaning phase was from weaning to d 56. Feeding colostrum supplement resulted in higher fecal scores postweaning (1.90 vs. 1.58) and overall (1.85 vs. 1.65) and fewer days medicated preweaning (5.1 vs. 2.2 d) and postweaning (3.9 vs. 1.9 d) and overall (9.0 vs. 4.2 d). Calves were treated for upper respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. Dry matter intake and weaning age were not affected by treatment. Postweaning (1.69 vs. 1.2 kg) and overall (1.22 vs. 1.0 kg), calves that received colostrum and egg milk replacer consumed more dry matter and starter. Postweaning, calves fed colostrum and egg milk replacer had similar or greater body weight and gains compared with calves fed colostrum and milk protein milk replacer. Preweaning, feed efficiency was greater for calves fed colostrum (0.44 vs. 0.34), trypsin inhibitor (0.42 vs. 0.36), and milk protein milk replacer (0.48 vs. 0.30) compared with calves fed colostrum supplement, no trypsin inhibitor, and egg milk replacer, respectively. Trypsin inhibitor increased feed efficiency postweaning. Calves fed trypsin inhibitor and milk protein milk replacer were more efficient preweaning and overall than calves fed trypsin inhibitor and egg milk replacer. Results indicate that the blood derived colostrum supplement did not provide as much IgG as colostrum (4.55 g/L vs. 14.6 g/L, respectively), that feeding 1.0 g of trypsin inhibitor did not enhance serum IgG concentrations, and that the egg milk replacer-fed calves fed colostrum performed nearly as well as calves fed colostrum and the milk protein milk replacer. PMID:15453487
Santoro, H M; Erickson, P S; Whitehouse, N L; McLaughlin, A M; Schwab, C G; Quigley, J D
The Mediterranean diet is proposed as one of the healthiest dietary models, but its contribution to Maillard reaction products (MRP) intake is unknown. Several Spanish dishes typical of the Mediterranean diet (paella, Spanish omelette, salmorejo or churros) were selected to evaluate MR extension and the presence of MRP. CIELab colour, browning at different wavelengths, furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural and acrylamide were
Cristina Delgado-Andrade; Francisco J. Morales; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro
Provision of an adequate mass of IgG from maternal colostrum is essential to health and survival of neonatal calves. Colostrum supplements (CS) have been devel- oped to provide supplemental immunoglobulin when maternal colostrum is of poor quality. However, colos- trum replacers (CR) that provide ?100 g of IgG have not been formulated. Our objective was to determine the absorption of
J. D. Quigley; R. E. Strohbehn; C. J. Kost; M. M. O’Brien
The study investigated whether the susceptibility of calves to an early Schistosoma mattheei infection may be modified by intake of colostrum from infected cows. Twelve calves born to non-infected mothers were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6. The animals from group 1 were fed colostrum originating from a pool collected from non-infected cows, the calves from group 2 received colostrum from a pool collected from cows infected with S. mattheei. One month after birth all calves were infected by exposure to 1000 cercariae of a local strain of S. mattheei, and perfused 12 weeks later to determine the worm- and tissue egg counts. IgG(H+L), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA levels against soluble adult worm antigen preparation of S. bovis (SWAP bovis) were analysed in both colostrum pools and in the serum from the calves collected during the study before and after receiving colostrum, then on days 7, 30, 73 and 122. Faecal egg counts were determined from day 73 onwards. The IgG(H+L), IgG1 and IgA levels of the positive colostrum pool were higher than those of the negative pool. Calves of group 2 showed significantly higher levels of IgG(H+L) and IgG1 until day 73, to reach equal levels at necropsy. Calves of group 2 showed significant reductions of 42, 28 and 42% in total worm counts, female worm counts, and tissue egg counts, respectively, and a reduction of 25% in cumulative faecal egg counts. These findings indicate that there was a significant impact of colostrum on the parasitological and serological course of early S. mattheei infections. PMID:12553572
Gabriël, S; De Bont, J; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, A M; Billiouw, M; Vercruysse, J
In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended. PMID:11125608
Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T
Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores. PMID:19528603
Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J
Summary We reviewed 15 studies reporting on the fatty acid composition of colostrum lipids from 16 geographic regions: 11 European\\u000a studies and one study each from Central America, the Caribbean, Australia and Asia. The contents of essential fatty acids,\\u000a saturates and polyunsaturates were similar in the southern European countries Spain, Slovenia and France. Colostrum of St.\\u000a Lucian women was high
Natasa Fidler; Berthold Koletzko
Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 105. While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide.
Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J.; Wheatley, Adam K.; Jacobson, Jonathan C.; Alexander, Marina R.; Rawlin, Grant
The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences.The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with commercial immunoluminometric assay.The production of colostrums was significantly higher in Burkinabe women, where the colostrums S100B levels in the first day of lactation showed to be at 24 h higher than those of Sicilian mothers (672.21 +/- 256.67 ng/ml vs 309.36 +/- 65.28 ng/ml) and progressively decreased reaching the values of Sicilian mothers in the second and third day (204.31 +/- 63.25 ng/ml and 199.42 +/- 45.28 ng/ml, respectively). Correlation was found between the level of S100B and the length of stage II (duration of expulsive phase of delivery), but the correlation with pain was found only in Burkinabe women.The S100B level in colostrums of Burkinabe mothers differs from that of Sicilians only in the first day of lactation, and in consideration that Burkinabe women produce more colostrums, their newborns receive, during the first days of life, an higher amount of S100B. The elevated quantity of S100B ingested by Burkinabe newborn in the first days of life could promote the physiological postnatal brain adaptation and maturation in the precarious delivery condition of African infants. PMID:18498658
Musumeci, Maria; Betta, Pasqua; Magro, Emanuela; Isaia, Teresa; Simpore, Jacques; Romeo, Domenico Mm; Musumeci, Salvatore
Seven commercially available colostrum replacers were tested for their ability to substitute for goat colostrum as a source of gammaglobulin for goat kids. One hundred kids were fed with goat colostrum or colostrum replacer after separation from their mothers at birth. Blood samples were taken from ten kids at birth, and from all kids at 48 hours after birth. Samples were used to measure the total protein content and gammaglobulin concentration of serum. Kids fed with goat colostrum had higher gammaglobulin concentrations than newborn kids or kids fed with replacer. For three replacers, the gammaglobulin concentrations were the same as those of newborn kids. For three other replacers, the gammablobulin concentrations were similar but higher than those of newborn kids. For one replacer, the levels of gammaglobulin were higher than those of in newborn kids and higher than those measured after feeding of the other replacers. None of the replacers was an adequate substitute for goat colostrum as a source of gammaglobulins. PMID:11699432
Zadoks, R N; Orsel, K; Verwer, C; de Winter, A; van Amerongen, J J; Wensing, T
Background Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab) may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab')2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab')2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab')2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.
Ng, Wy Ching; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Brown, Lorena E.
Background: The present epidemiologic study was conducted in Tromsø, Northern Norway, in 1994-1995. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relation between calcium intake from dairy products and the intake of vitamin D on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Design: Subjects who were taking drugs for hypertension or heart disease, those taking calcium tablets, subjects reporting cardiovascular disease, and pregnant
Rolf Jorde; Kaare H Bønaa
Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.
Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.
This study examined the effect of a bovine colostrum whey supplementation on growth performance, feed intake, faecal Escherichia coli population and systemic immune response of piglets at weaning. A total of 96 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were assigned for 4 weeks to one of the two treatments: (1) the control (commercial diet with bovine milk whey powder) and (2) the colostrum (commercial diet with freeze-dried bovine colostrum whey) treatments. The two supplements were incorporated in the diet at a level of 20 g/kg during the first 2 weeks after weaning and lowered to a level of 10 g/kg for the next 2 weeks. BW and feed intake were measured weekly. Faecal E. coli counts were determined weekly on specific culture media. Blood samples were collected weekly and submitted to a cell counter analyser for their main components (red and white blood cells, platelets) and flow cytometry was used to determine the lymphocyte population (B, T, Th and Tc). Finally, total seric immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG and IgA) concentrations were determined by the ELISA method. During the first week of the trial, the piglets from the colostrum treatment had improved average daily gain (170 g/day v. 81 g/day, P < 0.001), average daily feed intake (346 g/day v. 256 g/day, P = 0.03) and feed efficiency (BW gain/feed intake) (0.48 v. 0.31, P = 0.04). The pigs fed the colostrum treatment had also a 25% increase in circulating IgA (P = 0.03) compared with the control treatment the first week. It is concluded that a distribution of bovine colostrum whey (20 g/kg diet) during the first week post-weaning induces a systemic IgA response and has a beneficial action on growth performances and feed efficiency. PMID:22443598
Boudry, C; Dehoux, J-P; Wavreille, J; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Buldgen, A
IgE is the key antibody involved in type I allergies. Allergen mediated crosslinking of IgE bound to high affinity Fc?-receptors on mast cells and basophils stimulates cellular degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. In this report, we demonstrate that IgE antibodies can be transferred from the mother to offspring in horses via the colostrum. We found a clear
Bettina Wagner; Julia B. F. Flaminio; Julie Hillegas; Wolfgang Leibold; Hollis N. Erb; Douglas F. Antczak
In spite of the interest in the role of lycopene in the prevention of chronic diseases, little is known about the lycopene content of the tomatoes and tomato products commonly consumed in Croatia, and the contribution of these products to the intake of lycopene. The lycopene content of tomatoes and different tomato products was determined. The lycopene content of tomato-based
Ksenija Markovi?; Mirjana Hruškar; Nada Vah?i?
High intakes of calcium and dairy products have been suggested to be related to prostate cancer risk. Such associations were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993-2002) among 82,483 men who completed a detailed quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 8 years, 4,404 total cases of prostate cancer were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models, no association was found between calcium and vitamin D intake and total, advanced, or high-grade prostate cancer risk, whether for total intake, intake from foods, or intake from supplements, among all male participants or among nonusers of supplemental calcium. No association of calcium or vitamin D intake was seen across racial/ethnic groups. In analyses of food groups, dairy product and total milk consumption were not associated with prostate cancer risk. However, low-/nonfat milk was related to an increased risk and whole milk to a decreased risk of total prostate cancer; after stratification, these effects were limited to localized or low-grade tumors. Although the findings from this study do not support an association between the intakes of calcium and vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, they do suggest that an association with milk consumption may vary by fat content, particularly for early forms of this cancer. PMID:17925283
Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N
Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow’s diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450–500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed.
Background: Laboratory data suggest that calcium and vi- tamin D, found at high levels in dairy products, might reduce breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies re- garding dairy products and breast cancer have yielded in- consistent results. We examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of dairy prod- ucts, calcium, or vitamin D is associated
Myung-Hee Shin; Michelle D. Holmes; Susan E. Hankinson; Kana Wu; Graham A. Colditz; Walter C. Willett
Fifty-two Holstein calves were allotted randomly at 3 days of age to 1) whole milk, 2) sour colostrum, 3) colostrum + 1% propionic acid or 4) colostrum + 1.35 g 37% formaldehyde per liter. Liquid diets were offered once daily at 9% of birth weight to 35 days of age. Colostrum diets were diluted (two parts colos- trum:one part water).
R. B. RINDSIG; G. W. BODOH
1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), a marker of glycemic control state, is reabsorbed via SGLT (sodium glucose cotransporter)-4 (SLC5A9) at renal proximal tubules. SGLT4 is responsible for reabsorption of mannose, fructose, galactose, glucose, and 1,5-AG. Thus, based on our hypothesis that serum 1,5-AG levels are influenced by diet, we investigated whether eating habits influence serum 1,5-AG levels. In total, 330 subjects (158 males and 172 females) with normal glucose tolerance participated. Relationships between serum 1,5-AG levels and eating habits (intake of meats, fish, soybean products, eggs, dairy products, fruit, vegetables, and salt) surveyed by questionnaire were investigated. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that habitual intake of dairy products was a significant negative explanatory variable for serum 1,5-AG levels. Serum 1,5-AG levels were lower in subjects with habitual intake of dairy products than in those without. On the other hand, HbA(1C), glycated albumin, fasting plasma glucose, and OGTT 2-h plasma glucose were not different between the subjects of these two groups. In conclusion, habitual intake of dairy products was associated with low serum 1,5-AG levels, independently of plasma glucose levels. PMID:20633945
Koga, Masafumi; Murai, Jun; Saito, Hiroshi; Mukai, Mikio; Kasayama, Soji
Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season. Specific feeding in the summer season (on pasture) did lead in more concentrated colostrum in dry substance, fatty acids and cholesterol.
This study estimates mercury and methylmercury levels in fish and fishery products commercialized in the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 2001 to 2007. Combining data of mercury levels in food with the consumption data of 2158 people (as the median of two 24-h recall), the total mercury intake of the Catalonian population was calculated. Mercury was detected in 32.8% of
S. Rodellar; M. Fontcuberta; J. F. Arqués; J. Calderon; L. Ribas Barba; L. L. Serra-Majem
The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007
Cai-Xia Zhang; Suzanne C. Ho; Jian-Hua Fu; Shou-Zhen Cheng; Yu-Ming Chen; Fang-Yu Lin
Feed intake and milk production responses to N sup- plementation of corn silage-based diets were measured in three 3 × 3 Latin square experiments. In each experi- ment, 9 Holstein cows received total mixed rations (TMR), based on corn silage. In Exp. 1, midlactation cows were used to study effects of diets with different ratios of effective rumen-degradable protein (ERDP;
A. R. J. Cabrita; A. J. M. Fonseca; R. J. Dewhurst; C. V. P. Sampaio; M. F. S. Miranda; G. N. S. Sousa; I. M. F. Miranda; E. Gomes
A survey of the usage patterns of the artificial sweetener, saccharin, in edible products and a study of its intake pattern in different population groups has been carried out. Of the different edible commodities, ice candy (87 samples) and crushed ice (14 samples), commonly consumed by children, and pan masala (16 samples) and pan flavourings (10 samples), consumed by the
Meenakshi Tripathi; Subhash K. Khanna; Mukul Das
The aim of this research was to investigate factors influencing milk and milk product consumption in young and elderly women consuming less than two-thirds of the RDA for calcium. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 71 women over 70 years and 22 women aged 19–23 years. Questions addressed changes in milk and milk product intake, and reasons for changes; perceptions
Caroline C. Horwath; Christine H. Govan; A. John Campbell; Wendy Busby; Vicky Scott
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake and milk production in Holstein × zebu (F1) cows in feedlot. Eighteen F1 cows were used, divided into three treatments; six were Holstein × Gir (HGI), six were Holstein × Guzerat (HGU), and another six were Holstein × Nelore (HNE), which had recently calved, distributed into simple, random samples, under the same feeding conditions of corn silage and concentrate with 20% crude protein. The three-marker method was used (LIPE, titanium dioxide, and iADF) to estimate the individual intake and digestibility of the nutrients for the cows in group. The mathematical model used to establish the lactation curves was: Y = at(b)e(-ct) by Wood (Nature 216:164-165, 1967). The statistical analyses for the nutrient intake and digestibility, as well as parameters of metabolic efficiency, were performed using multiple linear regression (? = 5%). No effect (P > 0.05) of genetic group was observed for any of the variables studied. The intake and digestibility of the nutrients and the microbial nitrogen presented quadratic curves as a function of the lactation period (P < 0.05). The HGU cows exhibited an accumulated milk production of 4,946.81 kg at 305 days, whereas the HGI cows produced 4,821.78 kg. The HNE cows displayed inferior performance, with a production of 3,674.98 kg. It was concluded that, in confinement, F1 cows from different genetic groups do not exhibit different intake, digestibility, or metabolic efficiency. The HGU and HGI cows have greater cumulative production at 305 days. PMID:22246541
Santos, Stefanie Alvarenga; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares, Rilene Ferreira Diniz; de Mendes Ruas, José Reinaldo; Prados, Laura Franco; da Silva Menchaca Vega, Danielle
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems Â§ 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...
The primary objective of this study was to determine if a RNA enveloped virus can be inactivated in goat colostrum using methylene blue (MB) and 1h of illumination (photodynamic inactivation (PI)).The effects of illumination on the virucidal properties of MB were studied in translucent media as well as colostrum. Concentrations of MB evaluated were 10, 1.0, 0.1 and 0.01?M. Bovine
K. E Washburn; R. N Streeter; J. T Saliki; T. W Lehenbauer; M. E Prado
Previous virological and immunological studies have suggested that multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune disease triggered by a virus infection. In order to inhibit the growth of measles virus in the patient's jejunum, we obtained an IgA-rich cow colostrum containing anti-measles lactoglobulin resistant to proteases. This colostrum was orally administered to patients with MS to investigate its effect on the
T. Ebina I; A. Sato; K. Umezu; H. Aso; N. Ishida; H. Seki; T. Tsukamoto; S. Takase; S. Hoshi; M. Ohta
The changes in the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of colostrum fat of three cows were studied. In addition to the determination\\u000a of fatty acid composition by gas chromatography, the distribution of TAG according to the acyl carbon number (ACN) and molecular\\u000a weight was analyzed utilizing both supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ammonia negative-ion chemical ionization mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS). Colostrum TAG contained
P. Laakso; P. Manninen; J. Mäkinen; H. Kallio
Assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human body is important for human health because they have weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects and are considered endocrine disrupters. We used colostrum of women as indicator for levels of OCPs in human body for mothers with normal and preterm labor from eastern part of Romania. Sixty- three samples of colostrum were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). OCPs have been detected in all samples, with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) being at the highest concentrations. Of the organochlorines measured in clostrum samples from women in preterm labor, median levels of DDTs (470 ng/g) and HCHs (99 ng/g) were higher than for the same compounds from women in normal labor (median of DDTs=268 ng/g and median of HCHs=96 ng/g). Normal labor had higher median concentrations of HCB (19.5 ng/g) versus preterm labor (14 ng/g). Statistical data show high Spearman correlation coefficients between various OCPs. We found a good correlation between alpha-, gamma-, beta- and delta- HCH isomers (p<0.001) for both normal and preterm labor. The most abundant target compound was p,p'-DDE (median value 96 ng/g, and 137 ng/g for mother with normal and preterm labor, respectively) in all colostrum samples. The estimated daily intakes of HCHs by infants exceeded corresponding Health Canada guidelines. PMID:20378154
Cioroiu, Mona; Tarcau, Doina; Mocanu, Raluca; Cucu-Man, Simona; Nechita, Bogdan; Luca, Maria
Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.
Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dairy-product intake and hip fracture among a national sample of women aged 50 years and older. Univariate analyses using SAS procedures showed dairy-product intake was significantly associated with hip fracture. Women who had suffered hip fracture reported higher dairy use than women who had not experienced these fractures, a finding that is dramatically inconsistent with the literature. This finding may reflect positive behavioral changes resulting from the hip fracture event. Further research must focus on changes in health behavior after fracture, which may assist in understanding the roles of specific theories of health behavior. Application of principles of health behavior could improve the effectiveness of preventive treatment programs for osteoporosis. PMID:10611772
Turner, L W; Hunt, S; Kendrick, O; Eddy, J
Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 ± 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr × time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood ?-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099
Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M
Prospective data on the associations between intake of dairy products and its nutrient components with risk of hypertension remain limited. We therefore investigated the associations of intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D with the incidence of hypertension in a prospective cohort of 28 886 US women aged 45 years. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D at
Lu Wang; JoAnn E. Manson; Julie E. Buring; I-Min Lee; Howard D. Sesso
Pesticide risk assessment for food products involves combining information from consumption and concentration data sets to estimate a distribution for the pesticide intake in a human population. Using this distribution one can obtain probabilities of individuals exceeding specified levels of pesticide intake. In this article, we present a probabilistic, Bayesian approach to modeling the daily consumptions of the pesticide Iprodione though multiple food products. Modeling data on food consumption and pesticide concentration poses a variety of problems, such as the large proportions of consumptions and concentrations that are recorded as zero, and correlation between the consumptions of different foods. We consider daily food consumption data from the Netherlands National Food Consumption Survey and concentration data collected by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture. We develop a multivariate latent-Gaussian model for the consumption data that allows for correlated intakes between products. For the concentration data, we propose a univariate latent-t model. We then combine predicted consumptions and concentrations from these models to obtain a distribution for individual daily Iprodione exposure. The latent-variable models allow for both skewness and large numbers of zeros in the consumption and concentration data. The use of a probabilistic approach is intended to yield more robust estimates of high percentiles of the exposure distribution than an empirical approach. Bayesian inference is used to facilitate the treatment of data with a complex structure. PMID:18808397
Chatterjee, Ayona; Horgan, Graham; Theobald, Chris
Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606
Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa
Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.
Objective: To determine the lipid components of colostrum and the fatty-acid (FA) composition of the colostrum and serum of Iraqi mothers, whether their delivery be fullterm (FT) or preterm (PT).Design: A collection of colostrum and serum samples of FT and PT delivering Iraqi mothers.Setting: Mosul province (in the north of Iraq).Subjects: Colostrum and blood samples were obtained from FT and
Y Y Al-Tamer; AA Mahmood
A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alter- native to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality,limitedcolostrumreserves,ortobreakthecycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. How- ever, it is important to make sure these
G. W. Smith; D. M. Foster
Yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; YC) have been added to diets for dry and lactating dairy cows to attempt to improve ruminal fermentation, potentially increasing dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. Jer- sey cows (14 primigravid and 25 multigravid) were fed total mixed rations prepartum and postpartum that were either supplemented or not supplemented with YC. The YC was a
H. M. Dann; J. K. Drackley; G. C. McCoy; M. F. Hutjens; J. E. Garrett
The objectives of this study were to identify control points for bacterial contamination of bovine colostrum during the harvesting and feeding processes, and to describe the effects of refrigeration and use of pot- assium sorbate preservative on bacteria counts in stored fresh colostrum. For objective 1, first-milking colostrum samples were collected aseptically directly from the mammary glands of 39 cows,
S. Stewart; S. Godden; R. Bey; P. Rapnicki; J. Fetrow; R. Farnsworth; M. Scanlon; Y. Arnold; L. Clow; K. Mueller
The concentration levels of typical persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global aquatic products from major producing countries were summarized. Daily intakes of these compounds via consumption of various aquatic products for global consumers were also estimated based on available literature data. Risk assessment based upon existing criteria for OCPs and PBDEs shows that there is minimal risk to global consumers from consumption of aquatic products, with the exception of products from specific regions located around known heavy-point sources. Exposure to dioxins through consumption of aquatic products, excluding marine fish, is also in the range of the acceptable level, lower than 4 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ)/kg bw/d; however, dioxin intake via marine fish may cause hazards to human health, especially for Europeans. Regarding PCBs, there is cancer risk for global consumers via consumption of aquatic products, especially marine fish, based on cancer and noncancer hazard ratio assessment. Generally, European consumers have higher exposure levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, while Americans and Asians have relatively higher exposure levels of OCPs and PCBs. In contrast, all global populations are found to have lower exposure levels of PBDEs, which may be attributed to its relatively shorter history of use compared with PCBs and OCPs. Finally, the estimated total amounts of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs stored in global aquatic products constitute only a small portion of the total amount that has been used, and the majority obviously occurs in other environmental media or even remains in commercial products. PMID:20872674
Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Eddy Y
Background: Consumption of wholegrain (WG) products may protect against colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations between total and individual WG product consumption and colon and rectal cancer risk were prospectively examined using data on 461 incident cases of colon cancer and 283 incident cases of rectal cancer that developed during 10.6 years (median) of follow-up among 26?630 men and 29?189 women taking part in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer related to total or individual WG product intake were calculated using Cox regression. Results: Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77–0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80–1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50?g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined to intake of WG bread in particular. No consistent associations between total or individual WG product consumption and colon or rectal cancer risk were observed in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that higher total WG product intake is associated with a lower risk of colon and perhaps rectal cancer in men, but not in women.
Egeberg, R; Olsen, A; Loft, S; Christensen, J; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Tj?nneland, A
Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356
Skrbi?, B; Predojevi?, Z
Three experiments involving a total of 550 laying hens were conducted to study the effects of low level lactose feeding on the egg production characteristics of laying hens. The specific purposes were to determine if lactose influenced calcium utilization and feed intake and if there were any important interactions between lactose and calcium. There was a consistent significant improvement in egg shell breaking strength as a result of lactose supplementation. One percent dietary lactose appeared to be adequate to achieve this improvement. The addition of 2 or 3% lactose did not result in any greater improvement than 1%. There were no consistent influences of lactose, lactose source, or calcium level on feed intake or any of the other variables examined in the three experiments. As was expected, 61-week-old hens laid significantly fewer and larger eggs with weaker shells than 47-week-old hens. There were four statistically significant interaction effects: lactose level X calcium level on egg production; lactose level X calcium level on egg shell strength; and age X lactose level on egg shell strength. Even though these effects were statistically significant, it is questionable whether or not they are of practical importance in feeding laying hens. PMID:6984508
Gleaves, E W; Salim, A A
Energy intake and milk production were measured in 12 mink dams raising litters of 3, 6 and 9 kits one to four weeks post partum by means of balance experiments and measurements of milk intake of the kits by the water isotope dilution technique. The dams were fed ad libitum on a conventional wet mink diet (DM: 323 g/kg; CP: 173 g/kg; ME: 4.4 MJ/kg). Milk samples collected from dams with corresponding litter sizes and lactation weeks, and body composition of kits nursed by these dams, were analysed for content of DM, ash, N and fat. The ME and drinking water consumption were higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The N and water balances as well as the live weight of dams were not affected by litter size. Daily milk production was higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The DM, N and fat content of the milk increased during lactation, but were not affected by litter size. Individual kit live weight was higher in litters of 3 than in litters of 6 and 9 kits four weeks post partum. The DM and fat content of the kits were lowest in kits from litters of 9 kits, whereas these kits had the highest protein content. Daily ME for maintenance of kits and the efficiency of utilisation of ME in milk for body gain were estimated to 356 kJ/kg0.75, kp approximately 0.53 and kf approximately 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, daily milk production increased with increasing litter size, but not in proportion to the number of kits, indicating that milk production limits the growth rate of the young. In the fourth week of lactation, milk production was not different between dams nursing 6 or 9 kits, indicating a maximum capacity. PMID:12098836
Fink, R; Tauson, A H; Hansen, K B; Wamberg, S; Kristensen, N B
A survey of the usage patterns of the artificial sweetener, saccharin, in edible products and a study of its intake pattern in different population groups has been carried out. Of the different edible commodities, ice candy (87 samples) and crushed ice (14 samples), commonly consumed by children, and pan masala (16 samples) and pan flavourings (10 samples), consumed by the habitual population, were collected from different areas of Lucknow, India. Saccharin was extracted from the samples according to an AOAC method and analysed by HPLC. The consumption pattern of ice candy and crushed ice was determined for 6-20 year olds from a household dietary survey using the food frequency recall method (414 families having 1039 subjects). The consumption of pan masala and pan was assessed by a survey of habitual adult consumers comprising 782 and 1141 subjects, respectively. The average and maximum amounts of saccharin in pan masala samples were 12 750 and 24 300 mg kg-1, respectively, which are 1.6- and 3-fold higher than the maximum permitted levels allowed under Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act of India. In pan flavourings, the average and maximum amount of saccharin was 12.2 and 20.1%, i.e. 1.52- and 2.5-fold higher than the permissible limits of the PFA Act. The samples of ice candy and crushed ice showed average and maximum levels of 200 and 700 mg kg-1 and 280 and 460 mg kg-1, respectively. The average intake of saccharin through ice candy and crushed ice was less than 21% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (5 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1). However, the maximum intake of saccharin, especially in the 6-10-year age group, contributed 57 and 68% of the ADI through ice candy and crushed ice, respectively. Maximum consumption of saccharin in all the age groups, if consuming both ice candy and crushed ice, results in exceeding the ADI by 54% for subjects in the 6-10-year age group. Hence, the 6-10-year age group population may be at risk of exceeding the ADI for saccharin. The average and maximum theoretical daily intake of saccharin through pan masala alone was 1.84 and 13.33 mg kg-1 bw day-1, contributing 37 and 267% of the ADI, whereas the estimated (maximum) daily intake was 810% of the ADI. The estimated maximum daily intake (EDI) of saccharin through pan was 6.87 mg kg-1 bw day-1, which was 137% of the ADI. Thus, individuals in the maximum consumption group for pan masala or pan may be susceptible to toxic effects of saccharin, including bladder distention, elevated urine osmolality and bladder cancer. PMID:17118869
Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul
Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these
Sluijs van der I; N. G. Forouhi; J. W. Beulens; Schouw van der Y. T; E. J. M. Feskens
Background: Although increased consumption of dietary fiber and grain products is widely recommended to maintain healthy body weight, little is known about the relation of whole grains to body weight and long-term weight changes. Objective: We examined the associations between the intakes of dietary fiber and whole- or refined-grain products and weight gain over time. Design: In a prospective cohort
Simin Liu; Walter C Willett; JoAnn E Manson; Frank B Hu; Bernard Rosner; Graham Colditz
Parturition is a necessary event for production in dairy cattle, and assistance at calving is common. There is limited use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the alleviation of calving pain and a paucity of research on the effects of these drugs on postpartum health and performance. This randomized triple blind clinical trial involved Holstein cows (n=42) and heifers (n=61) that experienced an assisted parturition. These animals received either 1 injection of meloxicam (0.5mg/kg of body weight) or placebo subcutaneously 24h following calving. Outcome measures included dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production for the first 14d in milk, blood metabolites sampled over 12d, health events for the first 60d in milk, as well as lying and feeding behavior 24h following injection. Continuous data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Binary outcomes were analyzed using a mixed logistic model with cow modeled using a random intercept. This study failed to show any significant effects of treatment on DMI, milk production, blood metabolites, or health events. A possible explanation for the lack of treatment differences could be that the meloxicam was administered too late after calving. Meloxicam increased feeding time as well as bunk visit frequency in the 24h following injection. Regardless of treatment, animals that had retained fetal membranes produced less milk and had higher serum haptoglobin concentrations. Future research is warranted to examine the effects of antiinflammatory drugs administered closer to the time of calving on health and production. PMID:23567050
Newby, Nathalie C; Pearl, David L; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Duffield, Todd F
Seventy-six Angus steers chosen from breeding lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) were studied to quantify the relationship between RFI and the daily rate of methane production (MPR). A 70-d feeding test using a barley-based ration was conducted in which the voluntary DMI, feeding characteristics, and BW of steers were monitored. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for RFI (RFI(EBV)) for each steer had been calculated from 70-d RFI tests conducted on its parents. Methane production rate (g/d) was measured on each steer using SF(6) as a tracer gas in a series of 10-d measurement periods. Daily DMI of steers was lower during the methane measurement period than when methane was not being measured (11.18 vs. 11.88 kg; P = 0.001). A significant relationship existed between MPR and RFI when RFI (RFI(15d)) was estimated over the 15 d when steers were harnessed for methane collection (MPR = 13.3 x RFI(15d) + 179; r(2) = 0.12; P = 0.01). Animals expressing lower RFI had lower daily MPR. The relationship established between MPR and RFI(15d) was used to calculate a reduction in daily methane emission of 13.38 g accompanied a 1 kg/d reduction in RFI(EBV) in cattle consuming ad libitum a diet of 12.1 MJ of ME/kg. The magnitude of this emission reduction was between that predicted on the basis of intake reduction alone (18 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)) and that predicted by a model incorporating steer midtest BW and level of intake relative to maintenance (5 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)). Comparison of data from steers exhibiting the greatest (n = 10) and lowest (n = 10) RFI(15d) showed the low RFI(15d) group to not only have lower MPR (P = 0.017) but also reduced methane cost of growth (by 41.2 g of CH(4)/kg of ADG; P = 0.09). Although the opportunity to abate livestock MPR by selection against RFI seems great, RFI explained only a small proportion of the observed variation in MPR. A genotype x nutrition interaction can be anticipated, and the MPR:RFI(EBV) relationship will need to be defined over a range of diet types to account for this. PMID:17296777
Hegarty, R S; Goopy, J P; Herd, R M; McCorkell, B
Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows. PMID:20965343
DeGroot, M A; Block, E; French, P D
Twenty-seven dairy cows in midlactation were utilized in two experiments using 15 and 12 cows to determine effects of varying the delivery of ruminally undegraded protein on feed intake, milk production, and some rumen and plasma characteristics. In Experiment 1, cows consumed alfalfa silage ad libitum and one of three barley-based concentrates with either soybean meal (a rapidly rumen degraded protein source), corn gluten meal (a slowly degraded protein source), or an equal mixture of the two, fed at the rate of .36 kg/kg of milk produced. In Experiment 2, cows were fed total mixed diets based upon alfalfa silage, barley, and either soybean meal, corn gluten meal, or a mixture of soybean meal and whey powder (a protein source very rapidly degraded in the rumen). In sacco incubation procedures were used to estimate degradability of protein in all diets. All diets exceeded Agricultural Research Council recommendations for rumen degraded and undegraded protein as well as NRC recommendations for degraded protein. However, one to three of the six total diets, depending upon assumed ruminal turnover rates, did not meet NRC recommendations for undegraded protein. Production parameters, include DMI as well as milk yield and composition, were not influenced by diet in either experiment. Results do not support NRC recommendations for ruminally undegraded protein for midlactation dairy cows producing about 30 kg/d of milk and broadly support the lower recommendations of the Agricultural Research Council. Results also appear to question use of dietary energy intake to predict net rumen microbial protein yield. PMID:1880269
Robinson, P H; McQueen, R E; Burgess, P L
Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and
Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin
An attempt was made to see if it was possible to produce antimicrobial activity in colostrum after killed Escherichia coli O111 vaccine had been given orally to expectant mothers. The colostral samples were used in vitro for the inhibition test immediately after the start of lactation. The colostrum from 7 of the 47 vaccine-treated mothers inhibited the growth of E. coli O111 compared with only one colostrum from 101 controls. No complication has occurred either in the vaccine-treated mothers or their suckling babies. The association between the presence of antimicrobial activity in the colostrum and the time of vaccine application was insignificant. Images Figure
Dluholucky, S; Siragy, P; Dolezel, P; Svac, J; Bolgac, A
Background The anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties of soy have been demonstrated in experimental studies. To evaluate the relationship between soy product intake and mortality from several types of cancer and heart disease, an ecological analysis was performed in 47 prefectures in Japan. Methods Age-standardized mortality rates for heart disease and stomach, colorectal, lung, breast and prostate cancer were obtained from
The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptides modulate food intake and psychostimulant drug actions. Several CART peptides that contain multiple disulfide bonds were produced by overexpression in Escherichia coli bacteria as fusion products with a C-terminal histidine tag. Since these peptides were found denatured in inclusion bodies, in vitro refolding was used to reconstitute their biological activity. These CART peptides were
Pastor R Couceyro; Tammi Fritz
Key developments in the understanding of the immune functions of milk and colostrum are reviewed, focusing on their proteinaceous\\u000a components. The topics covered include the immunoglobulins, immune cells, immunomodulatory substances, and antimicrobial proteins.\\u000a The contributions of new technologies and the introduction of fresh approaches from other fields are highlighted, as are the\\u000a contributions that mammary biology research has made to
Thomas T. Wheeler; Alison J. Hodgkinson; Colin G. Prosser; Stephen R. Davis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maternal colostrum (MC), a plasma-derived (PDCR) or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer (CDCR) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves. Preplanned contrasts were performed for MC versus CR (PDCR combined with CDCR) and PDCR versus CDCR. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: MC (n=49), 3.8L of maternal colostrum; PDCR (n=49), 550 g (1 dose; 150 g of IgG) of a PDCR; or CDCR (n=49), 470 g (1 dose; 100g IgG) of a CDCR. The best total protein cutoff for determining passive transfer was >5.2, 5.6, and 5.1g/dL for MC, PDCR, and CDCR, respectively. Serum total protein was greater for calves fed MC (mean ± SE; 6.14 ± 0.11 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (5.29 ± 0.11 g/dL) and CDCR (5.27 ± 0.11 g/dL). Serum IgG concentrations were greater for calves fed MC (2,098 ± 108 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (927 ± 107 g/dL) or CDCR (1,139 ± 108 g/dL). Apparent efficiency of absorption was greater for CDCR than PDCR (38.8 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 3.0%). Adequate passive transfer was greatest for MC (91.8%), followed by CDCR (49%) and PDCR (28.6%). Calves fed MC had greater weaning weights and body weight gain than calves fed CR. Morbidity was lower for calves fed MC (46.9%) than for calves fed PDCR (71.4%) or CDCR (67.3%). Calves fed MC tended to have lower mortality than calves fed CR. Given the conditions of this trial, feeding 3.8L of MC was superior to feeding one dose of CR. Further research is needed to evaluate calf performance when a higher dose of CR is fed. PMID:23497992
Priestley, D; Bittar, J H; Ibarbia, L; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N
Holstein heifer and bull calves (n = 52) at Ames Plantation (Grand Junction, TN) and Piedmont Research Station (Salisbury, NC) were blocked by sex and assigned randomly to receive 3.8 L of mater- nal colostrum in one feeding, 1.9 L in two feedings at a 10- to 12-h interval, or 1.9 L in two feedings at a 10- to 12-h
B. A. Hopkins; J. D. Quigley III
Variation in the composition of whey proteins from camel (Camelus dromedarius) colostrum and milk was recorded over a 192h period following parturition. Whey proteins were separated by cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography and identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The main components of whey proteins in camel milk and colostrum were similar to that in bovine, except for the lack in
Halima El-Hatmi; Jean-Michel Girardet; Jean-Luc Gaillard; Mohamed Habib Yahyaoui; Hamadi Attia
An attempt was made to see if it was possible to produce antimicrobial activity in colostrum after killed Escherichia coli O111 vaccine had been given orally to expectant mothers. The colostral samples were used in vitro for the inhibition test immediately after the start of lactation. The colostrum from 7 of the 47 vaccine-treated mothers inhibited the growth of E.
S Dluholucký; P Sirágy; P Dolezel; J Svác; A Bolgác
Unfermented, frozen colostrum from the first three postpartum milkings of 10 cows was thawed, pooled, and treated to produce three diets: 1) unfermented, 2) fermented (7 days at 25 to 27 C), and 3) fermented (as in 2) with pH adjusted to match that of unfermented colostrum. Eighteen newborn, unsuckled Holstein calves were assigned randomly to one of the three
J. A. Foley; A. G. Hunter; D. E. Otterby
Thirty-six Holstein calves were fed 3.6 kg of one of three liquid diets once daily from birth until weaning at 4 wk. Diets were: (1) colostrum (collected for five milkings postpartum and frozen), (2) whole milk, and (3) whole milk plus sufficient whey proteinconcentrate to bring diets 1 and 3 to similar whey pro- tein. Compared to whole milk, colostrum
L. D. Muller; M. J. Owens; G. L. Beardsley; D. J. Schingoethe
This study intends to clarify the effects of hands-on dairy farming experience on the consumption of milk and dairy products. A survey was conducted on 474 elementary schoolchildren and their parents at eight elementary schools that offered hands-on dairy farming experience at four dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan. In the survey, questionnaires were used to inquire about the children's milk and dairy product intake before and after the hands-on experience. In addition, milk intake at school was investigated weekly for 3 months after the hands-on experience. The parents were asked about the children's intake of milk and dairy products at home before and after the hands-on experience. Analysis of the survey results indicated a significant increase in the amount and frequency of milk consumed and the frequency of yogurt consumed at home by the children immediately after the hands-on experience. Accordingly, the study suggested that the hands-on dairy farming experience had the effect of increasing children's milk and dairy product consumption at home. PMID:23384360
Seo, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Masayuki; Kashiwamura, Fumiro
Background: Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC).Methods: The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.Results: Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268).Conclusions: Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23812102
Ko, Kwang-Pil; Park, Sue K; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Gwack, Jin; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Yeonju; Kang, Daehee; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young
Bactrian camel milk and colostrum are commonly used as foods in Mongolia, whose people believe that these products promote human health. It has been hypothesized that milk oligosaccharides are biologically significant components of human milk, acting as receptor analogs that inhibit the attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to the colonic mucosa, and as prebiotics, which stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria within the infant colon. To evaluate their biological significance, we studied the oligosaccharides present in samples of Bactrian camel milk and colostrum. Using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified and characterized the following oligosaccharides of camel colostrum: Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (3-fucosyllactose), Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(?1-6)Gal(?1-4)Glc (6'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(?2-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal(?1-4)Glc (6'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(?2-3)Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (sialyl-3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-tetraose c), Neu5Ac(?2-3)Gal(?1-3)[Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-6)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(?1-3)[Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-6)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose b); and Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-3)[Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-6)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (monosialyllacto-N-neohexaose). The oligosaccharides in the mature camel milk were characterized as 3'-galactosyllactose, Gal(?1-3)[Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-6)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I), and 3'-sialyllactose. PMID:21094729
Fukuda, K; Yamamoto, A; Ganzorig, K; Khuukhenbaatar, J; Senda, A; Saito, T; Urashima, T
Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 503kg of body weight and 61 days in milk were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design with 20-day experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded soybeans treated, or not, with 30g\\/kg lignosulfonate on apparent whole tract digestibility, feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and milk fatty acid profile. Milk yield
C. A. Neves; G. T. Santos; M. Matsushita; E. M. Alves; R. L. Oliveira; A. F. Branco; D. C. Silva; A. C. Furlan; H. V. Petit
Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The four diets used prepartum were Control (DCAD +20 meq\\/100 g DM), BioChlor® (DCAD -12 meq\\/100 g DM), Fermenten® (DCAD -10 meq\\/100
M. A. DeGroot; P. D. French
In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of in- creasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, diges- tion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoreti- cal chop length
E. C. Schwab; R. D. Shaver; K. J. Shinners; J. G. Lauer; J. G. Coors
Background\\/Objectives: To examine the daily intake of bone health-related nutrients and to explore the association between diet composition and estimated net endogenous acid production (estimated NEAP) in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.Subject\\/Methods: In total, 171 boys and 180 girls aged 10–12 years of Chinese origin from nine primary schools from the Hong Kong Adolescent Bone Health Cohort Study. The study design
R S M Chan; J Woo; D C C Chan; C S K Cheung; D H S Lo; RSM Chan
The value of bovine colostrum as a biologic in medicine is documented in clinical trials and supported by relatively large databases containing case reports and anecdotal findings. The main actions include an antibacterial effect and modulation of the immune response. The ability of bovine colostrum concentrates (BCC are polyvalent bovine colostrum concentrates produced from the colostrums of several 100 cows) to neutralize lipopolysaccharides, i.e. endotoxins arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and to inhibit enterogenic endotoxemia in animal models as shown in the last review to have its counterpart in patient therapy. Clinical trials with BCC provide evidence that oral application reduces the influx of LPS from the gut and this appears to be a major mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock; data from two well-controlled clinical studies with a total of 100 surgical patients have shown that the inhibition of intestinal LPS absorption measured after the application of BCC not only reduced the LPS levels in the peripheral blood but also inflammatory parameters like IL-6 and CRP were found to be diminished. The usual daily dose of the commercially available BCC preparation, LactobinA (LC1) is 10 â 20 g daily, but higher doses can be used in the majority of patients because of the low incidence of intolerance problems. In chronic diarrhea involving severe forms of secondary immunodeficiencies, patients receiving LC1 were disease-free for about 4 weeks but the response may be lower in patients with AIDS. BCC is effective in infants with hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by infections with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and reduces the likelihood of the disease progressing to a hemolytic uremic syndrome. The safety of newer BCC products obtained from BSE-free regions seems now beyond contention. In the case of LC1, which was used as a commercial dietary foodstuff in Germany until 1992 and tested in three Phase 1 and 5 clinical studies (two trials in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies, one in surgical patients with gastrointestinal disorders, one in patients undergoing open heart surgery and one in pediatric patients with EHEC infections), there were no cases of BSE-associated disease such as the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Side effects of clinical relevance are limited to possible intolerance to lactose and sensitivity to milk proteins as these are also present in many commonly used foodstuffs. Important synergistic actions with conventional drug therapies have been observed with BCC including a reduction in LPS plasma levels in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections treated with bactericidal antibiotics. In healthy persons there are only small concentrations of LPS detectable in peripheral blood (normal values: 3 â 10 pg/ ml plasma, i.e. approximately 0.1 EU/ml). In contrast, elevated systemic levels with concentrations > 300 pg/ml are common in patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. Raised LPS levels occur mainly in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections who have been treated with bacteriocidal antibiotics. The LPS-lowering effects of BCC are probably due to the numerous active components present in BCC which have their origin in the innate humoral and adaptive immune system of their biologic source, the cow. PMID:18538107
Struff, W G; Sprotte, G
Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.
Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621
Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug
Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults.
Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung
Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were
R. M Tripathi; R Raghunath; V. N Sastry; T. M Krishnamoorthy
|Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role.…
Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.
Intake of colostrum by neonatal calves and early transition to calf starter are two important factors in successful calf programs. Thirty-one Holstein calves were used to determine health and performance of calves that were 1) allowed to remain with their dams for 3 d and suckle (suckled calves) or were removed from their dams and fed colostrum only by bottle (bottle calves); and were 2) fed ground, pelleted, or textured starters, formulated to be isonitrogenous. Bottle calves were removed from their dams at birth, fed 2.84 L of colostrum, placed in individual hutches, and fed 1.89 L of colostrum 12 h after the first feeding. Suckled calves were removed from their dams after 3 d and placed in individual hutches. Once calves were housed in hutches, they were fed 2 L of whole milk twice daily and were provided starters and water beginning on d 3. Calves were weighed at birth and weekly for 6 wk. Blood samples were obtained at birth, 24 h, and weekly for serum protein determination. Starter intake, fecal scores, and electrolyte treatments were recorded daily. Weaning began when calves had consumed 0.68 kg starter for 2 d consecutively. There were no differences in treatment means between suckled and bottle calves for total gain, grain consumption, days with fecal scores >2, or electrolyte treatments per calf. Average days to weaning was greater for bottle calves compared with suckled calves. Mean serum protein concentration at 24 h was greater for bottle (6.0 g/dl) compared with suckled calves (5.8 g/dl) and only 2 of 15 bottle calves had serum protein concentrations <5.0 g/dl compared with 6 of 16 suckled calves. For starter treatments, calves fed textured starter consumed more total grain, were weaned earlier, and weighed more at 6 wk of age than calves fed pelleted starter. Based on 24-h serum protein concentrations, transfer of passive immunity was greater for bottle calves compared with suckled calves. PMID:12836951
Franklin, S T; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Jackson, J A; Campbell, A A
Sixteen dairy cows in midlactation were fed four isonitrogenous (mean 2.46% N) mixed rations containing 46.4% DM and 40.7% NDF in a 16-wk Latin square design experiment. Diets were 42% barley-based concentrate, on a DM basis; forage was provided by combinations of two timothy silages of either slow (poor timothy) or rapid (good timothy) rumen fermentability and an alfalfa silage. Differences between the timothy forages caused the 24-h in sacco mixed diet NDF fermentability, determined in dry cows fed hay, to be 53.8, 56.0, 60.2, and 62.1% in the four diets formulated to rise from 0% [as a percentage of total timothy DM] to 33, 66, and 100% good timothy. Intake of DM and NDF were not influenced by forage source. Rumen pool sizes of OM and NDF were similarly unaffected by treatment. Milk production increased linearly as the proportion of rapidly fermentable NDF in the diet increased, although the increases were small and not statistically significant, whereas BW gain declined (nonsignificantly). As a result, total net energy output was not influenced by diet. Although cows appeared able to extract more energy than expected from the slower fermenting forage, increasing levels in the diet resulted in a shift in energy output from milk products to BW gain, supported by a shift in rumen fermentation end products from propionic to acetic acid. Results do not appear to support the concept that NDF quality influences and can be used to predict voluntary feed intake. There is no indication that cows responded to more rapidly fermentable dietary NDF by increasing feed intake or extent of NDF fermentation in the rumen. PMID:1313842
Robinson, P H; McQueen, R E
The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and 11 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from 322 commercial, cured meat products and 14 home-grilled meat samples as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme during 2001-2005. The maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg kg(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene was exceeded in 3.4% of samples. The highest PAH concentrations were detected in home-grilled pork samples. Using of disposable grilling unit resulted in 1.6 times higher PAH concentrations compared to the traditional wood-burning grill. The average intake of benzo[a]pyrene and sum of 12 PAHs from meat products was estimated for children (age 1-16 years) on the basis of an individual food consumption questionnaire and, for the general population, based on national food consumption data. The highest total PAH concentrations detected were 16 microg kg(-1) in smoked meat and ham, 19 microg kg(-1) in smoked sausage and 6.5 microg kg(-1) in smoked chicken samples. Since smoking and grilling are prevalent meat-cooking methods in Estonia, the impact of meat products is assessed to be significant in overall PAH intake. PMID:17454117
Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A
The levels of immunoglobulins A, M and G were measured in dog serum, colostrum, milk, parotid saliva and small bowel fluid using the single radial immunodiffusion method. All the external secretions except early colostrum, by contrast with serum, were found to be rich in IgA with small quantities of IgM and IgG. Exocrine immunoglobulins were partially characterized by gel filtration.
Heddle, R J; Rowley, D
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune Th1\\/Th2 response in weaned piglets. After weaning at 21 d, 3 groups of 7 piglets were fed ad libitum with a starter diet and received daily 0, 1 or 5 g of spray-dried bovine colostrum. Spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT): ileal Peyer's patch (iPP),
C. Boudry; A. Buldgen; D. Portetelle; P. Gianello; A THEWISA; P. Leterme; J. P. Dehoux
BACKGROUNDNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for arthritis but cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a rich source of growth factors and is marketed as a health food supplement.AIMSTo examine whether spray dried, defatted colostrum or milk preparations could reduce gastrointestinal injury caused by indomethacin.METHODSEffects of test solutions, administered orally, were examined using an indomethacin restraint rat model of gastric
R J Playford; D N Floyd; C E Macdonald; D P Calnan; R O Adenekan; W Johnson; R A Goodlad; T Marchbank
Newborn Holstein bull calves (n = 32) were assigned to receive a colostrum supplement (CS) containing de- fibrinated bovine plasma or a colostrum replacer (CR) containing an immunoglobulin concentrate obtained by concentrating the immunoglobulin (Ig)G fraction of bo- vine plasma. The CS and CR contained 11.1 and 21.2% of dry matter as IgG, respectively. Each animal was fed two 454-g
J. D. Quigley III; C. J. Kost; T. M. Wolfe
Many epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between dairy products and prostate cancer. Calcium or saturated fatty acid in dairy products has been suspected as the causative agent. To investigate the association between dairy products, calcium, and saturated fatty acid and prostate cancer in Japan, where both the intake of these items and the incidence of prostate cancer are low, we conducted a population-based prospective study in 43,435 Japanese men ages 45 to 74 years. Participants responded to a validated questionnaire that included 138 food items. During 7.5 years of follow-up, 329 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Dairy products were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of prostate cancer. The relative risks (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of total dairy products, milk, and yogurt were 1.63 (1.14-2.32), 1.53 (1.07-2.19), and 1.52 (1.10-2.12), respectively. A statistically significant increase in risk was observed for both calcium and saturated fatty acid, but the associations for these were attenuated after controlling for potential confounding factors. Some specific saturated fatty acids increased the risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) on comparison of the highest with the lowest quartiles of myristic acid and palmitic acid were 1.62 (1.15-2.29) and 1.53 (1.07-2.20), respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that the intake of dairy products may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18398033
Kurahashi, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, And Shoichiro
Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred
H. G. Jung; D. R. Mertens; R. L. Phillips
Bovine colostrum is a rich source of tissue repair and growth factors, and inhibits gastrointestinal injury induced by the side effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as indomethacin. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic effects, but in higher doses they have inflammatory effects. The pathogenesis of small intestinal damage caused by NSAID is unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the antiinflammatory effects of skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum on intestinal injury induced by side effects of NSAID, and then to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum for intestinal tissue. In Japan, the sale of bovine colostrum within 5 d after parturition is prohibited by law. Therefore, we focused on bovine late colostrum obtained from healthy lactating cows 6 to 7 d after parturition. Proliferation of small intestine epithelial cells was stimulated in mice fed the colostrum for 1 wk. With regard to indomethacin-induced enteropathy, both prefeeding and postfeeding with colostrum facilitated growth of the intestinal villi, indicating preventive and healing effects. Furthermore, to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum responsible for this effect, the casein and whey fractions were prepared from the colostrum and fed to normal mice. Only the colostrum casein fraction stimulated intestinal villus elongation, whereas the whey fraction and mature milk casein showed no such effect. Taken together, these observations indicate that the skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum, especially the casein fraction, could be used to treat the injurious effects of NSAID in the intestine and could be effective for treatment of other ulcerative conditions in the bowel, suggesting that the colostrum has therapeutic potential for intestinal inflammation. PMID:23295115
Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, M; Muranishi, H; Inagaki, M; Uchida, K; Yamashita, K; Saito, S; Yabe, T; Kanamaru, Y
Leptin is a 16-kDa protein synthesized by adipose tissue and is involved in regulation of feed intake, energy balance, fertility, and immune functions. Since evidence of a genetic correlation between start of luteal activity and energy balance, milk yield, and live weights is present, we investigated the association of genetic differences in the bovine leptin gene with these traits. Between 1990 and 1997, a total of 613 Holstein-Friesian heifers of two genetic groups with known pedigree were followed from parturition until d 105 of lactation. During the first 15 wk of lactation live weight, feed intake, and milk yield were measured for 565 cows. The start of luteal activity was set at the first day with a progesterone concentration higher than 3 ng/ml. In addition to the interval between calving and start of luteal activity, analyses were performed for average milk yield, percentage fat, protein, and lactose in milk, dry matter intake, feed intake, energy balance, and live weight over the first 15 wk of lactation. All 613 cows were genotyped for two restricted fragment length polymorphisms and for the BM1500 microsatellite, all located at the leptin gene locus. Significances of the genotype effects were estimated using the approximated F-statistic provided by ASREML. Fixed effects were year-season, genetic group, and a quadratic polynomial for age at calving. Animal was fitted as a random effect including the additive relationship between animals to account for background genes. Firstly, each genotype effect was fitted in turn, and secondly the other restriction fragment length polymorphisms were fitted as a cofactor to take into account effects of linkage disequilibrium. Thirdly, sire x genotype interaction was investigated. Heifers with the RFLP1-AB genotype produce 1.32 kg/d more milk and consume 0.73 kg/d more food compared with the RFLP1-AA genotype. No effects were found for start of luteal activity. When linkage disequilibrium with the other markers was taken into account and DMI was included as fixed effect in the model a 0.96 kg/d higher milk yield was still found. Assuming that no pleiotropic effects on traits such as immunity and milk production in later lactations exist, future breeding programs favoring the RFLP1 B-allele can yield a higher milk production without negatively affecting energy balance and fertility. The prospects are good because in this study the frequency of the RFLP1 AB- and BB-genotypes were only 18.5 and 0.2%, respectively. PMID:12146498
Liefers, S C; te Pas, M F W; Veerkamp, R F; van der Lende, T
In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866
Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G
Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P < 0.01) as animals got older in connection with marked increases in urinary glucose and urea excretion. The AHP and TEF components of HP were not affected by stage or FL and averaged 8.4% and 7.8% of ME intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are proposed according to a new approach, which considers that MEm (expressed per kg BW0.85) depends on ME intake (kJ/kg BW0.85) according to the following relationship: MEm = 197 + 0.25 × ME intake. The corresponding marginal efficiencies of ME utilization for protein and fat deposition are then 82% and 87%, respectively. PMID:22444380
Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J
In bovine colostrum which was defatted and totally hydrolyzed by protcolytic enzymes, isopeptides were identified by ionexchange chromatography and preparative separation. Isopeptides were identified in two of seven samples of colostrum. It is still to be...
H. Klostermeyer K. Rabbel E. H. Reimerdes
BACKGROUND—Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for arthritis but cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a rich source of growth factors and is marketed as a health food supplement. ?AIMS—To examine whether spray dried, defatted colostrum or milk preparations could reduce gastrointestinal injury caused by indomethacin. ?METHODS—Effects of test solutions, administered orally, were examined using an indomethacin restraint rat model of gastric damage and an indomethacin mouse model of small intestinal injury. Effects on migration of the human colonic carcinoma cell line HT-29 and rat small intestinal cell line RIE-1 were assessed using a wounded monolayer assay system (used as an in vitro model of wound repair) and effects on proliferation determined using [3H]thymidine incorporation. ?RESULTS—Pretreatment with 0.5 or 1 ml colostral preparation reduced gastric injury by 30% and 60% respectively in rats. A milk preparation was much less efficacious. Recombinant transforming growth factor ? added at a dose similar to that found in the colostrum preparation (12.5 ng/rat), reduced injury by about 60%. Addition of colostrum to drinking water (10% vol/vol) prevented villus shortening in the mouse model of small intestinal injury. Addition of milk preparation was ineffective. Colostrum increased proliferation and cell migration of RIE-1 and HT-29 cells. These effects were mainly due to constituents of the colostrum with molecular weights greater than 30kDa. ?CONCLUSIONS—Bovine colostrum could provide a novel, inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of NSAIDs on the gut and may also be of value for the treatment of other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. ?? Keywords: gastrointestinal tract; intestinal injury; repair; nutrition
Playford, R; Floyd, D; Macdonald, C; Calnan, D; Adenekan, R; Johnson, W; Goodlad, R; Marchbank, T
Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves.
Human colostra and sera collected from Mexican mothers and their children at birth and 6 months thereafter were studied for the presence of antibodies against the bundle-forming pilus and several chromosomal virulence gene products (intimin and secreted proteins EspA and EspB) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Among 21 colostrum samples studied, 76, 71.5, 57, and 47% of them contained immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against EspA, intimin, EspB, and BfpA, respectively. Interestingly, there was a difference in IgG response to EPEC antigens between the sera from neonates and sera from the same children 6 months later. While the number of neonates reacting to Esps and intimin diminished when they reached 6 months of age, those reacting with BfpA increased from 9 to 71%. Intimin from an enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain was also recognized by most of the samples reacting with EPEC intimin. These data suggest that Bfp and Esps elicit an antibody response during the early days of life of neonates and support the value of breast-feeding in areas of the world where bacterial diarrheal infections are endemic.
Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Parissi-Crivelli, Joaquin M.; Giron, Jorge A.
Induction of immunoglobulin secretion by human colostrum was investigated using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and Epstein-Barr virus transformed human B lymphoblastoid cells. Stimulation of the cells with colostrum induced IgA plaque forming cells but neither IgG nor IgM plaque forming cells, indicating the occurrence of IgA specific helper factor (alpha HF) in human colostrum. alpha HF activity was eluted into fractions with an apparent molecular weight of about 80 kD by gel filtration, and with a PI range of 5.8 to 6.2 by chromatofocusing. IgA secreted by PBL stimulated with alpha HF had a similar molecular weight distribution to that of IgA in human colostrum. From these results a hypothesis is proposed; IgA-committed B cells in the mammary gland differentiate to plasma cells producing dimeric IgA after stimulation by alpha HF so that the dominant immunoglobulin in human colostrum is IgA.
Shinmoto, H; Kawakami, H; Dosako, S; Sogo, Y
We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions.
Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.
The present study investigated the effects of a bovine colostrum-supplemented diet on gut post-weaning adaptation and health in piglets. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were allocated to one of the three following dietary treatments: sow-reared (SR), weaned on a control starter diet (WCtrl) or on a starter diet supplemented with bovine colostrum (WCol) until slaughter at 28 d or 35 d of age. Gastric pH and intestinal bacteriological, structural and functional parameters were determined. Compared to WCtrl, the gastric pH was lower (P < 0.05) and the duodenal lactobacilli:coliform ratio was higher (P = 0.05) in WCol piglets. The relative small intestine weight was 18% (P < 0.05) higher in WCol piglets than in SR piglets. Duodenal villous height was lower (P < 0.01) in WCtrl than in SR piglets, whereas the value for WCol piglets was intermediate. The weaning-increased crypt cell proliferation was not affected by bovine colostrum supplementation. The mucosal ribosomal capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in W than in SR piglets. In conclusion, a diet supplemented with colostrum induced, although not always significantly, variations of gut parameters, suggesting that globally, colostrum may limit weaning-induced gut structural and microbial alterations. The observed effects occurred early and were maintained throughout the post-weaning adaptive phase. PMID:16597422
Huguet, Antoine; Sève, Bernard; Le Dividich, Jean; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle
Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) an COX-2(+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (low salt, LS) or 4% (high salt, HS) NaCl for 18 days. Arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using indwelling catheters. Food and water intake and diuresis were measured in metabolic cages. Urine osmolality and excretion of electrolytes, cGMP, cAMP, and NOx were determined, as well as plasma NOx and cGMP. There was a significant dependence of blood pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS versus LS (102.3 ± 1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9 ± 0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases during the awake phase (night) that were larger in COX-2(-/-) on HS diet compared with COX-2(+/+). Water intake, diuresis, Na(+), and osmolyte excretions and NOx and cGMP excretions were significantly and similarly elevated with HS in COX-2(-/-) and COX-2(+/+). In summary, C57BL6 mice exhibit a salt intake-dependent increase in arterial blood pressure with increased renal NO production. COX-2 activity has a general lowering effect on arterial blood pressure. COX-2 dampens NaCl-induced increases in arterial blood pressure in the awake phase. In conclusion, COX-2 activity attenuates the changes in nocturnal blood pressure during high salt intake, and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal nitric oxide formation during elevated NaCl intake. PMID:23535462
Stæhr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Nüsing, Rolf M; Jensen, Boye L
In Western countries food products containing soybean proteins are primarily directed to some specific classes of consumers, in particular vegetarians, milk-intolerant or gluten-intolerant subjects, and hypercholesterolemic patients. The consumption of these products is associated with the presence of isoflavones, which recently have become a very controversial issue because their beneficial properties are counterbalanced by some undesirable effects. Taking into account
Sheila Morandi; Alessandra D’Agostina; Francesca Ferrario; Anna Arnoldi
Selection applied to populations of dairy cattle has produced a genetic increase in milk production. This will be increased further in the Netherlands by the introduction of Holstein Friesians. In general the high yielding cow is not capable of taking in enough nutrients to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. However the knowledge of the variation in feed
Introduction: Human colostrum and mature milk samples from rural mothers were separately screened for organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). The samples were assessed for the pollution load they are transmitting to the nursing infant to determine potential toxicity. The role of colostrum for toxicity monitoring was assessed in comparison to mature milk as it is the very first infant food. Materials and
S Srivastava; SS Narvi; SC Prasad
Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (-7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980
Buckley, Jonathan D; Butler, Ross N; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D
Food purchasing and preparation practices were modified in two boarding high schools to increase the polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio (P\\/S) of the diet of students by changing food products rather than attempting to change eating behaviors. During years when fat-modified products were served, the P\\/S of males increased by 75 percent, versus a decrease of 6 percent during control years. For
R. Curtis Ellison; Robert J. Goldberg; Jelia C. Witschi; Ann L. Capper; Elaine Puleo; Fredrick J. Stare
The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. The studies were done in the fall-winter season on 20 pregnant sows (Polish Landrace) divided into four groups, five animals each. The sows were clinically healthy and unvaccinated. Group I received isoprinosine, group II (TFX), group III (HMB), and group IV served a control. The immunostimulants were applicated 4-6 weeks before the expected date of delivery. The following parameters were determined in colostrum taken from sows after completed delivery: specific gravidity; total proteins, lysozyme activity, IgG level. It was found that the nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows increased in colostrum the level of IgG, total protein content and lysozyme activity. PMID:12052346
Krakowski, Leszek; Krzyzanowski, Jan; Wrona, Zygmunt; Kostro, Krzysztof; Siwicki, Andrzej K
The objective of this experiment was to assess if feed- ing glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One al- falfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient
D. K. Combs; G. F. Hartnell
The effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea (Desvaux) O. Kuntze to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition was studied in the dry tropics\\u000a in Nicaragua. The treatments were sorghum silage ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Cratylia on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos
N. R. Sánchez; I. Ledin
Whole-plant corn was harvested at early dent, quarter milkline, two-thirds milkline, and black layer stages to evaluate the effects of maturity on intake, digestion, and milk production when corn was fed as silage in the diet. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets contain- ing
M. A. Bal; J. G. Coors; R. D. Shaver
The objectives of this study were to identify control points for bacterial contamination of bovine colostrum during the harvesting and feeding processes, and to describe the effects of refrigeration and use of potassium sorbate preservative on bacteria counts in stored fresh colostrum. For objective 1, first-milking colostrum samples were collected aseptically directly from the mammary glands of 39 cows, from the milking bucket, and from the esophageal feeder tube. For objective 2, 15-mL aliquots of colostrum were collected from the milking bucket and allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1) refrigeration, 2) ambient temperature, 3) refrigeration with potassium sorbate preservative, and 4) ambient temperature with potassium sorbate preservative. Subsamples from each treatment group were collected after 24, 48, and 96 h of storage. All samples underwent bacteriological culture for total plate count and coliform count. Bacteria counts were generally low or zero in colostrum collected directly from the gland [mean (SD) log10 cfu/mL(udder) = 1.44 (1.45)]. However, significant bacterial contamination occurred during the harvest process [mean (SD) log10 cfu/mL(bucket) = 4.99 (1.95)]. No additional bacterial contamination occurred between the bucket and the esophageal feeder tube. Storing colostrum at warm ambient temperatures resulted in the most rapid increase in bacteria counts, followed by intermediate rates of growth in nonpreserved refrigerated samples or preserved samples stored at ambient temperature. The most effective treatment studied was the use of potassium sorbate preservative in refrigerated samples, for which total plate count and total coliform counts dropped significantly and then remained constant during the 96-h storage period. PMID:15956318
Stewart, S; Godden, S; Bey, R; Rapnicki, P; Fetrow, J; Farnsworth, R; Scanlon, M; Arnold, Y; Clow, L; Mueller, K; Ferrouillet, C
The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50?µg?kg. There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species,
I. Sahuquillo; M. J. Lagarda; M. D. Silvestre; R. Farré
Breast milk constitutes the best form of newborn alimentation because of its nutritional and immunological properties. Banked human milk is stored at low temperature, which may produce losses of some bioactive milk components. During lactation, colostrum provides the requirements of the newborn during the first days of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling storage at 4°C and freezing storage at -20°C and -80°C on bioactive factors in human colostrum. For this purpose, the content of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and TGF-?2, and some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and its type I receptor TNF-RI, were quantified. Some colostrum samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at 4°C and others were frozen at -20°C or -80°C for 6 and 12 mo. We quantified IgA, epidermal growth factor, TGF-?1, and TGF-?2 by indirect ELISA. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-? cytokines, IL-8 chemokine, and TNF-RI were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Bioactive immunological factors measured in this study were retained in colostrum after cooling storage at 4°C for at least 48h, with the exception of IL-10. None of the initial bioactive factor concentrations was modified after 6 mo of freezing storage at either -20°C or -80°C. However, freezing storage of colostrum at -20°C and -80°C for 12 mo produced a decrease in the concentrations of IgA, IL-8, and TGF-?1. In summary, colostrum can be stored at 4°C for up to 48 h or at -20°C or -80°C for at least 6 mo without losing its immunological properties. Future studies are necessary to develop quality assurance guidelines for the storage of colostrum in human milk banks, and to focus not only on the microbiological safety but also on the maintenance of the immunological properties of colostrum. PMID:22541460
Ramírez-Santana, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Audí, C; Castell, M; Moretones, M G; López-Sabater, M C; Castellote, C; Franch, A
Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (P P = 0.0341).
Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki
This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g of milk fatty acids) and conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (0.36, 1.09, 1.79, and 1.87 g/100g of milk fatty acids). Addition of DHA did not affect total emissions of CH4 (543, 563, 553, and 520 g/cow per d), nor emissions in terms of milk production (24.9, 22.1, 24.3, and 23.4 g of CH4/kg of milk), but emissions were increased with respect to total intake (22.6, 23.5, 24.5, and 24.4 g of CH4/kg of DM). These findings indicate that CH4 emissions were not reduced when dairy cows were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DHA from algal meal. PMID:23498011
Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J
Diet-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute significantly to accumulation of AGEs in renal insufficiency. To test whether modulation of dietary AGEs would impact on progression of chronic renal disease, 5\\/6 nephrectomy rats were randomly placed on three diets that differed only in AGEs content (low AGEs diet (LAD), high AGEs diet (HAD), and standard rodent diet (SRD)) for 5–13
J X Feng; F F Hou; M Liang; G B Wang; X Zhang; H Y Li; D Xie; J W Tian; Z Q Liu
In two consecutive years, primi- and multiparous, spring-calving Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows (n = 32, yr 1; n = 42, yr 2 ) were used to determine the effects of supplements and lactational status on forage intake, digestibility, and energy intake. Cows were randomly allotted to treatments after being blocked by age, breed, and weight. Supplements fed during
T. T. Marston; K. S. Lusby
Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032
Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M
Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value?=?0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR?=?1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value?=?0.974 ), omphalitis (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value?=?0.956), or mortality (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value?=?0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd.
1.00 (referent) 0.95 (0.76 to 1.19) 0.87 (0.68 to 1.12) 0.98 (0.72 to 1.33) .9 — Calcium (density) 1.00 (referent) 1.15 (0.93 to 1.42) 1.05 (0.84 to 1.30) 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27) .9 — Dairy product 1.00 (referent) 0.99 (0.80 to 1.23) 1.16 (0.93 to 1.44) 0.99 (0.78 to 1.26) .8 — Butter 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (0.80 to 1.24) 0.90
The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research.
Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M.; Harding, John C.S.
Purpose: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of low dose bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in cyclists over a 10 week period that included 5 days of high intensity training (HIT).Methods: Over 7 days of preliminary testing, 29 highly trained male road cyclists completed a VO2max test (in which their ventilatory threshold was estimated), a
C M Shing; D G Jenkins; L Stevenson; J S Coombes
?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. This paper presents the detection of bovine AGP (boAGP) in mammary secretions (colostrum and milk) and mammary gland tissue. Bovine AGP was detected by Western blotting in all the samples analysed, and could be
Fabrizio Ceciliani; Vanessa Pocacqua; Elena Provasi; Claudio Comunian; Alessandra Bertolini; Valerio Bronzo; Paolo Moroni; Paola Sartorelli
Objective:Mothers of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients sometimes bring expressed milk that is blood tinged to the NICU. In certain instances, the blood contamination appears minimal, whereas in others, the milk is quite dark pink. We have observed inconsistencies in practice regarding whether or not to feed blood-tinged colostrum or milk to NICU patients. We know of no evidence
M M Phelps; W S Bedard; E Henry; S S Christensen; R W Gardner; T Karp; S E Wiedmeier; R D Christensen
The study aims to explore ideas about bad milk found among women in Guinea-Bissau. Interviews were held with 20 elderly knowledgeable rural women. Interinformant agreement was high within each ethnic group studied. All the informants recognized colostrum but disliked its consistency. Depending on ethnical background, it was considered good, of no special value or harmful to the newborn baby. Further,
Geir Gunnlaugsson; Jónína Einarsdóttir
Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...
Studies in adults have shown that the oropharyngeal route can be used to effectively and safely administer interferon-?, an immune cell-derived cytokine, to patients who are unable to tolerate its parenteral administration. The mechanism for this appears to be the stimulatory effects of the cytokine, on the oropharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue system. Own mother's colostrum (OMC) is rich in cytokines and
N A Rodriguez; P P Meier; M W Groer; J M Zeller; NA Rodriguez
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353
Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-Il; Oh, Sang Woo
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans.
Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il
: This study was designed to compare calcium bioavailability and serum parathyroid hormone acute changes after oral intake\\u000a of 500 mg of elemental calcium from liquid milk, yogurt, calcium-citrate-enriched powdered milk or a calcium carbonate pill;\\u000a or after intake of soybean imitation-milk. After a 12-h fast, blood samples were drawn both at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 4\\u000a h
J. R. Talbot; P. Guardo; S. Seccia; L. Gear; D. R. Lubary; G. Saad; M. L. Roberts; E. Fradinger; A. Marino; J. R. Zanchetta
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST?), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms.
Herrera-Rodriguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, Maria Alejandra; Lopez-Rincon, Gonzalo; Bojorquez-Narvaez, Luis; Padilla-Ramirez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto
Grazing management is a key factor in pasture-based dairy systems, which can be improved given advanced knowledge of the effects of pregrazing pasture mass (PM) on the performance of dairy cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of PM on the pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of strip- or rotational-grazing dairy cows, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. A database was created that included experiments in which the effects of PM on pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows were studied. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PM were compared under similar experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture allowance (SPA). The final database included 15 papers with 27 PM comparisons. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height at which pasture allowance was determined; that is, where PM were compared at the SPA above ground level (SPA(0) subset), above 2 to 3 cm (SPA(3) subset), and above 4 to 5 cm (SPA(5) subset). Statistical analyses were conducted on the entire database (global analysis) and within each subset using linear model procedures. An interaction between PM and estimation height was found for pasture intake and milk production in the global analysis. On the basis of the predictive equations, pasture intake increased by 1.58 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(0), was not affected by PM when PM were compared at SPA(3), and decreased by 0.65 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(5). This is consistent with the effect of PM on milk production, which was positive and negative (1.04 and -0.79 kg/t of PM, respectively) when PM were compared at SPA(0) and SPA(5), respectively. Grazing time was only slightly affected by PM, irrespective of estimation height, because the effect of PM on pasture intake was mainly dependent on the variation in pasture intake rate. Pasture intake rate increased with increasing PM at SPA(0) but decreased with increasing PM at SPA(5). This meta-analysis clearly demonstrates that the effects of PM on pasture intake, milk production, and behavior of strip-grazing dairy cows depend largely on the height at which the PM and pasture allowance are measured. These results have methodological implications for future grazing research because it can be recommended that PM be compared at similar levels of pasture availability (i.e., at the same pasture allowance above 2 to 3 cm) to avoid possible misinterpretations of results. They also reveal the benefits of improving grazing management and intake prediction through modeling in pasture-based dairy systems. PMID:22916937
Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R
In this study, we examined the available evidence and sources of heterogeneity for studies of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D intake and the risk of prostate cancer. We pooled data from 45 observational studies using a general variance-based, meta-analytic method employing CIs. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated for specific dairy products such as milk and dairy micronutrients. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of these summary measures of effect. Cohort studies showed no evidence of an association between dairy [RR = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92-1.22] or milk intake (RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.91-1.23) and risk of prostate cancer. This was supported by pooled results of case-control analyses (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.00-1.29), although studies using milk as the exposure of interest were heterogeneous and could not be combined. Calcium data from cohort studies were heterogeneous. Case-control analyses using calcium as the exposure of interest demonstrated no association with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.90-1.15). Dietary intake of vitamin D also was not related to prostate cancer risk (RR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.38). The data from observational studies do not support an association between dairy product use and an increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18584476
Huncharek, Michael; Muscat, Joshua; Kupelnick, Bruce
Colostrum contains cellular components that convey immunological protection to offspring. In the present study the main subsets of lymphocytes present in colostrum and in peripheral blood of healthy screened mothers were compared through the evaluation of >15 different flow cytometry markers. Colostrum and peripheral blood samples were collected within 3 days after full-term delivery. Flow cytometry assays and laboratory tests were performed soon after collection. Among B cells, percentages of CD19(+)CD5(+) cells, pertaining to natural immunity system, were significantly higher in colostrum than in peripheral blood (33 vs. 5%, p = 0.047). CD4(+) T cells, effector cells (CD45RA(+)/CD27(-)) and effector memory cells (CD45RA(-)/CD27(-)) were significantly higher in colostrum (p < 0.001) than in peripheral blood, as well as activated CD4(+) T cells (HLA(-)DR(+)) (36% vs. 6% p = 0.0022) and CD4(+) terminally differentiated effector T cells (CD57(+)) (p < 0.001). With regards to CD8(+) T cells, a comparable significant increase in effector (p < 0.02) and effector memory cells (p < 0.001) was also observed. Moreover, an increased surface expression of HLA-DR and CD57 (p < 0.001) on CD8(+) T cells in colostrum was detected. Colostrum contains a different distribution of lymphocyte subsets with respect to peripheral blood from mothers, confirming the observation that lymphocytes probably migrate in milk in a selective way. Colostrum T and B lymphocytes appear to be enriched with subsets possessing effector functions or belonging to the innate immune system, what could transfer a prompt line of defence to offspring. PMID:23013166
Peroni, Diego G; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Veneri, Dino; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Tenero, Laura; Vella, Antonio; Ortolani, Riccardo; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Boner, Attilio L
Changes in the protein content, protein fractions and amino acid composition of mare's colostrum and milk, and the biological value of milk protein during the first 45 days of lactation were studied. Milk samples (averaging 300–800 cm3) from 29 lactating mares were collected daily at the beginning of lactation and weekly from the 5th to 45th days post-partum. Colostrum samples
Zs. Csapó-Kiss; J. Stefler; T. G. Martin; S. Makray; J. Csapó
Concentrated separator by-product (CSB) is produced when beet molasses goes through an industrial desugaring process. To investigate the nutritional value of CSB as a supplement for grass hay diets (12.5% CP; DM basis), 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (332 +/- 2.3 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were intake level: ad libitum (AL) vs. restricted (RE; 1.25% of BW, DM basis) and dietary CSB addition (0 vs. 10%; DM basis). Experimental periods were 21 d in length, with the last 7 d used for collections. By design, intakes of both DM and OM (g/kg of BW) were greater (P < 0.01; 18.8 vs. 13.1 +/- 0.69 and 16.8 vs. 11.7 +/- 0.62, respectively) for animals consuming AL compared with RE diets. Main effect means for intake were not affected by CSB (P = 0.59). However, within AL-fed steers, CSB tended (P = 0.12) to improve DMI (6,018 vs. 6,585 +/- 185 g for 0 and 10% CSB, respectively). Feeding CSB resulted in similar total tract DM and OM digestion compared with controls (P = 0.50 and 0.87, respectively). There were no effects of CSB on apparent total tract NDF (P = 0.27) or ADF (P = 0.35) digestion; however, apparent N absorption increased (P = 0.10) with CSB addition. Total tract NDF, ADF, or N digestion coefficients were not different between AL- and RE-fed steers. Nitrogen intake (P = 0.02), total duodenal N flow (P = 0.02), and feed N escaping to the small intestine (P = 0.02) were increased with CSB addition. Microbial efficiency was unaffected by treatment (P = 0.17). Supplementation with CSB increased the rate of DM disappearance (P = 0.001; 4.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.33 %/h). Restricted intake increased the rate of in situ DM disappearance (P = 0.03; 6.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.33 %/h) compared with AL-fed steers. Ruminal DM fill was greater (P = 0.01) in AL compared with RE. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for CSB compared with controls; however, ammonia concentrations were reduced (P = 0.03) with CSB addition. At different levels of dietary intake, supplementing medium-quality forage with 10% CSB increased N intake, small intestinal protein supply, and total ruminal VFA. PMID:16699111
Shellito, S M; Ward, M A; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S
Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production. PMID:22843214
Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however, increased with greater amounts of water added to the TMR. The increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery were enhanced by higher ambient temperatures; this may be indicative of feed spoilage and thus may have contributed to the reduced DMI observed. Overall, these results suggest that the addition of water to high-moisture TMR (less than 60% DM) containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources will not always discourage cows from sorting, but rather may increase this behavior and limit the nutrient consumption of cows, particularly when ambient temperature is high. PMID:20494174
Felton, C A; DeVries, T J
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) change of cows offered diets differing in energy density in the last 4 wk of gestation and in the first 8 wk of lactation. Three diets (grass silage:straw, 75:25 on a dry
S. McNamara; F. P. O’Mara; M. Rath; J. J. Murphy
Twenty-four cows were allotted at par- turition to receive one of four rations for 180 days. Rations were regular ad libitum (about 20% crude fiber), concentrate ad libitum (about 10% crude fiber), and re- stricted to recommended energy intake, and intermediate ration (14% crude fiber) ad libitum. Cows on concentrate con- sumed less dry matter, fiber, and protein than intermediate
D. ZaÑartu; C. E. Polan; L. E. Ferreri; M. L. McGilliard
Ghrelin is a peptide mainly produced by the stomach that increases food intake and body weight. Ghrelin expression increases with fasting and is diminished by re-feeding, but although the expression of this hormone is regulated by the feeding state, the relation with diet composition is not yet well established. We have studied the inhibitory effect of the in- take of
JUANA SANCHEZ; PAULA OLIVER; ANDREU PALOU
Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P excretion levels. To conclude, new selection indexes including RFI can be envisaged to efficiently disentangle the responses to selection on growth rate and body composition from those on feed efficiency, with favorable impacts on N and P excretions, particularly in sire pig breeds. However, the switch from FCR to RFI in selection indexes should not resolve the genetic antagonism between feed efficiency and meat quality. PMID:23482579
Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H
Low molecular weight trypsin inhibitors were purified from swine colostrum on a large scale under mild conditions. Ammonium sulfate fractionation and metal chelate chromatography on zinc chelate Sepharose and phenyl Sepharose were used for removal of the bulk of proteins. The inhibitors showed only a weak hydrophobic interaction with phenyl Sepharose even in the presence of 1 M (Nll4)2SO4, and
Makoto Yoshimoto; M. Laskowski Sr
Eleven samples of dromedary camel colostrum in Kazakhstan, which originated from one farm only, were collected to study the\\u000a changes in the physico-chemical composition (total fat, total protein, iodine index, lactose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin\\u000a C, urea, ammonia, density, Dornic acidity, pH, and skimmed dry matter) all along the first postpartum week. At that time,\\u000a the fat matter decreased from
G. Konuspayeva; B. Faye; G. Loiseau; M. Narmuratova; A. Ivashchenko; A. Meldebekova; S. Davletov
It has been reported that bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation improves buffer capacity (ß) during exercise, but whether the improvement results from changes in tissue and\\/or blood buffer systems has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of supplementation with BC on blood buffer systems. Thirteen elite females rowers were supplemented with 60 g·day -1
Grant D. Brinkworth; Jonathan D. Buckley
This paper represents the first report of DNA-hydrolysing activity of IgG fraction from bulk bovine colostrum. Ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, protein G affinity chromatography and dialysis were used to obtain the IgG fraction, which was isolated and finally purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. pBR322 DNA in the incubated mixture with the IgG fraction, which was subjected to electrophoresis in 0.8%
Jinsong Cao; Changhong Guo; Xiaoqin Wang; Chunyan He; Pingtai Zhang
trans Isometric fatty acids of partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO) consist oftrans 20?1 andtrans 22?1 in addition to thetrans isomers of 18?1, which are abundant in hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as in partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO).\\u000a The effects of dietarytrans fatty acids in PHFO and PHSBO on the fatty acid composition of milk were studied at 0 (colostrum) and
Jan Pettersen; Johannes Opstvedt
This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed inter-cropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows between wk 9 and 10 of lactation were used in a cyclical changeover design with three 28-d periods. Cows were fed the bi-crop silages and 6 kg of concentrates or second-cut grass silage supplemented with 6 (GS6) or 9 (GS9) kg/d of concentrates. Forage intakes were higher when bi-crops were fed (10.3 to 11.4 kg dry matter [DM]/d) than when grass silage was fed (8.6 kg DM/d). Total DM intake was similar among cows fed the bi-crop silages and GS9 diets, but intakes for GS6 were at least 1.7 kg DM/d lower. Increasing the pea inclusion rate increased the crude protein (CP) content of the ration, but it did not enhance forage quality or animal performance. The rate of intake of the different forages was similar, so that the higher intakes of bi-crop silages were associated with more time spent at the feedbunk and an increased number of meals. Diet digestibility ranged from 531 to 650 g/kg, and the highest value was given by the Cut 1 bi-crop silage diet. Milk yield tended to be similar for cows fed the Cut 2 bi-crop and GS9 diets, and these values were at least 1.7 kg higher than those for cows fed on other treatments. Generally, the bi-crop diets resulted in higher milk fat contents and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. Milk protein content was highest for cows fed the GS9 diet. Blood metabolite content was unaffected by treatment except for blood urea nitrogen content, which was higher in cows fed the bi-crop silages, reflecting reduced N-use efficiency with these diets. The study showed that pea-wheat bi-crop silages can be used to replace moderate-quality grass silage in dairy cow rations, but their role as alternatives to high-quality forages requires additional investigation. PMID:12487469
Salawu, M B; Adesogan, A T; Dewhurst, R J
Although the concentrations of carbohydrate in the colostrum and in the mid-lactation milk of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) were similar, the oligosaccharide patterns differed. The colostrum sample contained Neu5Ac(?2-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (3?-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), GalNAc(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide), Fuc(?1-2)Gal(?1-4)Glc (2?-fucosyllactose) and Gal(?1-4)Glc (lactose). The mid-lactation milk contained Gal(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), GalNAc(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (A-pentasaccharide), Gal(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), A-tetrasaccharide, Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (3-fucosylisoglobotriose), Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and lactose. The dominant saccharides in the colostrum
Tadasu Urashima; Hiromi Nagata; Tadashi Nakamura; Ikichi Arai; Tadao Saito; Koji Imazu; Teruaki Hayashi; Andrew E. Derocher; Oystein Wiig
In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum.
Liang, Yafei; Wang, Xuewan; Wu, Mianbin; Zhu, Wanping
The objective of this work was to assess the potential of near infrared spectroscopy to predict the immunoglobulin G (IgG) content in bovine colostrum. Liquid colostrum samples (n=157) were collected from Holstein cows from 2 dairy farms in southern Chile. Samples were obtained within 1h of parturition and scanned in folded transmission (transflectance) in the visible-near infrared range. Multivariate regression models (modified partial least squares) were developed with spectral data against IgG content measured by radial immunodiffusion. The best calibration included a mathematical treatment of the spectra by a second derivative plus standard normal variate and detrending. The best equation explained a high proportion of the variation in IgG content (R(2) of 0.95 in calibration and 0.94 in cross-validation). Average (91.5 g/L), standard deviation (37.6g/L), and range, as highest minus lowest values (171.9 g/L) of reference values were 10.1, 4.2, and 19 times the value of the root mean square error of cross-validation (9.03 g/L) respectively. Near-infrared spectroscopy, scanned in folded transmission, is an effective tool to predict the IgG content in liquid colostrum. PMID:22365223
Rivero, M J; Valderrama, X; Haines, D; Alomar, D
In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum. PMID:22016715
Liang, Yafei; Wang, Xuewan; Wu, Mianbin; Zhu, Wanping
Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 x 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 had lower yields of dry matter (DM), higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, and higher in vitro true DM disappearance compared with Pioneer 3861. Mycogen TMF94 had a higher yield of DM than Cargill F337 despite having a lower plant population. However, Cargill F337 had a higher in vitro true DM disappearance than Mycogen TMF94. In the intake trial, six individually penned Holstein heifers were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three total mixed rations containing 79% (DM basis) Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337, or Pioneer 3861 corn silages in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares. Heifers fed the Pioneer 3861-based TMR had lower DMI than heifers fed Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337-based TMR. In the lactation trial, 75 midlactation Holstein cows were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three total mixed rations containing 31% (DM basis) Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337, or Pioneer 3861 corn silages used in the intake trial. Milk production was highest for cows fed Cargill F337-based total mixed rations. It is concluded from this study that Mycogen TMF94 was higher yielding, but less digestible, and resulted in lower milk production by lactating cows than Cargill F337. In addition, Mycogen TMF94 had higher in vitro true DM disappearance, and similar DM yield and milk production by lactating cows when compared with Pioneer 3861. PMID:11233029
Ballard, C S; Thomas, E D; Tsang, D S; Mandebvu, P; Sniffen, C J; Endres, M I; Carter, M P
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x 5 Latin square experiment with 15 dairy cows was repeated during early and late lactation. The 5 treatments were a TMR with (all on dry matter basis) 55% roughage (a 50:50 mixture of corn silage and grass silage) and 45% concentrate (a 50:50 mixture of concentrate rich in structural carbohydrates and concentrate rich in nonstructural carbohydrates; treatment CON), a TMR with the concentrate mixture and 55% grass silage (RGS) or 55% corn silage (RCS), and a TMR with the roughage mixture and 45% of the concentrate rich in structural carbohydrates (CSC) or the concentrate rich in nonstructural carbohydrates (CNS). Meal criteria, determined using the Gaussian-Gaussian-Weibull method per animal per treatment, showed an interaction between lactation stage and treatment. Feed intake behavior variables were therefore calculated with meal criteria per treatment-lactation stage combination. Differences in feed intake behavior were more pronounced between treatments differing in roughage composition than between treatments differing in concentrate composition, probably related to larger differences in chemical composition and particle size between corn silage and grass silage than between the 2 concentrates. The number of meals was similar between treatments, but eating time was greater in RGS (227 min/d) and lesser in RCS (177 min/d) than the other treatments. Intake rate increased when the amount of grass silage decreased, whereas meal duration decreased simultaneously. These effects were in line with a decreased DMI of the RGS diet vs. the other treatments, probably related to the high neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. However, this effect was not found in CSC, although NDF content of the TMR, fractional clearance rate of NDF, and fractional degradation rate of NDF was similar between CSC and RGS. Rumen fluid pH was lesser, and molar proportions of acetic acid and of propionic acid were lesser and greater, respectively, in RCS compared with all other diets. Milk production did not differ between treatments. There was no effect of type of concentrate on milk composition, but diet RCS resulted in a lesser milk fat content and greater milk protein content than diet RGS. Lactation stage did affect short-term feed intake behavior and DMI, although different grass silages were fed during early and late lactation. The results indicate that short-term feed intake behavior is related to DMI and therefore may be a helpful tool in optimizing DMI and milk production in high-production dairy cows. PMID:19038953
Abrahamse, P A; Vlaeminck, B; Tamminga, S; Dijkstra, J
Background Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele. Results Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 4–5 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection. Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapie-affected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests. Conclusions Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test.
Whole-plant corn was harvested at early dent, quarter milkline, two-thirds milkline, and black layer stages to evaluate the effects of maturity on intake, digestion, and milk production when corn was fed as silage in the diet. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated experiment with a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis) were fed as total mixed rations. Moisture contents were 69.9, 67.6, 64.9, and 58.0% for silages from corn harvested at early dent, quarter milkline, two-thirds milkline, and black layer stages, respectively. Intakes of dry matter were similar across the four treatments and ranged from 3.73 to 3.79% of body weight. Milk production was highest (33.4 kg/d) for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the two-thirds milkline stage and lowest (32.4 kg/d) for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the early dent stage. Milk protein production was highest for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the two-thirds milkline stage (1.17 vs. 1.12 to 1.13 kg/d). Apparent total tract digestion of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and starch was lowest for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the black layer stage. Although starch intake was similar for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the two-thirds milkline stage and for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the black layer stage (9 kg/d), intake of digestible starch was 0.4 kg/d lower for cows fed silage from corn harvested at the black layer stage. The optimum stage for corn that was ensiled was two-thirds milkline with some flexibility between quarter and two-thirds milkline. PMID:9361221
Bal, M A; Coors, J G; Shaver, R D
Two experiments were conducted to determine the voluntary feed intake and performance of lactating sows fed diets containing a sucrose/milk chocolate product (MCP) blend (Exp. 1) or dried porcine solubles (DPS; Exp. 2). Dried porcine solubles is a coproduct of heparin extraction from porcine small intestines. In Exp. 1, mixed-parity sows (n = 108) at two research centers were assigned to a corn-soybean-meal-based diet formulated to contain 0.9% total lysine or a similar diet that contained 4% sucrose and 2% MCP on an as-fed basis. Sows were allowed ad libitum access to dietary treatments from the day of farrowing until pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d postpartum. Diet had no significant effect on voluntary feed intake of sows during lactation, backfat depth, or postweaning interval to estrus, but it had variable effects on body weight changes. Inclusion of the sucrose/MCP blend in diets elicited a 2% improvement in litter weaning weight at one research center and a 6% depression in litter weaning weight at the other center (diet x research center, P < 0.05). Litter size throughout lactation was unaffected by dietary treatment. In Exp. 2, mixed-parity sows (n = 119) at two research centers were assigned to corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated to contain 0.9% total lysine with 0, 1.5, or 3.0% added DPS. Sows were assigned to dietary treatments within research center, farrowing group, and parity at parturition. Dried porcine solubles tended to increase (P < 0.10) total feed consumed in the first 9 d of lactation and average daily feed intake over the entire lactation (6.03, 6.53, and 6.30 kg) for sows fed 0, 1.5, and 3.0% DPS, respectively. Litter size and weight on d 18 of lactation were not affected by concentration of DPS in the diet. Days from weaning to estrus and percentage of sows displaying estrus were not influenced by diet. We conclude that inclusion of the sucrose/MCP blend in the diet for lactating sows had no consistent effect on voluntary feed intake of sows and weight gain of nursing pigs. Inclusion of DPS at 1.5 or 3.0% tended to improve feed intake of lactating sows but had no significant influence on litter performance. PMID:14552374
Johnston, L J; Pettigrew, J E; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C; Walker, R D
A total of 48 neonatal pigs were used to determine whether intubation with colostrum or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) would enhance glucose homeostasis and survival. Pigs were removed from the sow prior to nursing and allotted to three treatment groups. Fasted pigs received only water for 30 h, whereas those allotted to supplemented groups received either 30 ml of colostrum or
Allan J. Lepine; R. Dean Boyd; Janet A. Welch; Karl R. Roneker
Daily pasture allowance (PA) is defined as the product of pregrazing pasture mass and offered area, and is the major grazing management factor determining pasture utilization per unit area and daily performance of grazing dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis reviewing the effect of PA on pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of dairy cows. Experiments studying the effect of PA on pasture intake or milk production, which eventually included milk composition or grazing behavior data, or both, were selected to create a database. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PA were compared under the same experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture mass (i.e., where PA levels were only obtained through changes in daily offered area). The final database included 97 PA comparisons reported in 56 papers. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height (EH) at which PA was determined; that is, PA above ground level (PA0 subset), PA above 2.5 to 3.5cm (PA3 subset), and PA above 4 to 5cm (PA5 subset). Statistical analyses were conducted independently on the PA0, PA3, and PA5 subsets and on the whole database (global analysis) by using linear and nonlinear mixed-model procedures. The curves, either exponential, quadratic, or linear, describing the effects of PA on pasture intake, milk production, or grazing behavior of dairy cows are conceptually similar, whatever the EH. The equations describing these curves are, however, specific for each EH. Accordingly, from typical low to high PA, the increase in pasture intake (0.13 vs. 0.21 vs. 0.28kg/kg of PA), milk production (0.11 vs. 0.17 vs. 0.24kg/kg of PA), and milk solids production (0.008 vs. 0.010 vs. 0.013kg/kg of PA) per kilogram of increase in PA was lower for PA0 than for PA3, and for PA3 than for PA5. Grazing time increased from low to medium PA and did not vary from medium to high PA. Pasture intake rate seemed to increase from low to medium PA because of greater bite mass, whereas it increased from medium to high PA because of greater biting rate. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the general relationship between PA and any dependent variable is quite strong and independent of EH. This suggests no specific relationship for some parts of the world or methodology approach, with a high portability of the global equations calculated here. These results are useful for improving grazing management and modeling on pasture-based dairy systems. PMID:23958002
Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R
Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans. PMID:19811696
Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari
Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and seventy neonates were followed from birth to 28 days. Overall, neonatal banana feeding decreased 18.3% and colostrum feeding increased 32.8%. Religious leaders, who had strong community influence, had the highest health module execution. Moreover, their influence on the community was important. Overall, the use of ethnographic study data to identify specific cues to action of individuals in a community, such as community religious leaders, is an effective and appropriate method for reducing the detrimental customs of both early solid-food feeding of banana and colostrum discharge prior to breast-feeding, positively affecting community perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:15642757
Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M
The details of a small study on the volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced by beef cows at the first milking immediately after calving and the serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins attained by beef calves are reported. The mean volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced were 2990 ± 2100 (SD) mL and 314.75 ± 211.8 (SD) g respectively. The mean serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins were 29.9 ± 10.1 (SD) ZST units (n = 40, Ranch A) and 19.2 ± 7.5 (SD) ZST units (n = 42, Ranch B). The main reason for this difference appeared to be nutritional; the cows on ranch B being in much poorer condition and almost certainly producing less colostrum than those on ranch A.
Petrie, L.; Acres, S. D.; McCartney, D. H.
Aims: Biochemical investigations have shown that an indigenous milk enzyme - alkaline phosphatase (ALP) - which is detectable in the lactocytes, plays a very important diagnostic role in clinical medicine, since its activity varies in different tissues and serves as a specific indicator of disease states. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ALP activity in human colostrum as a possible early predictive biomarker for lactational mastitis in nursing mothers. Patients & methods: During a period from May to July 2010, a total of 60 healthy nursing mothers were recruited for this study. Results: The mean level of colostrum ALP activity from the affected breasts was significantly higher when compared with ALP activity from the contralateral asymptomatic as well as 'healthy' breasts (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Determining ALP activity in colostrum could be a valuable biochemical marker for an early prediction of mastitis in nursing mothers. PMID:22917156
Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Zivkovic, Nikola; Stojanovi?, Dusica; Sokolovic, Danka; Mladenovic-Ciric, Ivana; Sokolovic, Dusan
We aimed here to assess the impact of dietary counselling during pregnancy on dietary intake of vitamins and the vitamin status of women and their children. At the first trimester of pregnancy, 89 women from allergic families were randomized to a control group (n = 45) or to receive individual dietary counselling (n = 44). Women's vitamin intakes and serum concentrations were analyzed during and after pregnancy. Further, vitamin concentrations were measured from breast milk and infant serum at one month of age. The study is registered as clinical study (NCT00167000; section 3, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ). Dietary counselling resulted in a higher intake of beta-carotene and vitamin E compared to controls. Further, in women lower serum beta-carotene and higher colostrum vitamin A concentrations were found in the intervention group compared to controls. Dietary counselling during pregnancy improves women's vitamin intakes but does not provide unambiguous effects on vitamin status of women or children. PMID:23373762
Vähämiko, Sanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi
Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in humans. Unlike in humans, C. jejuni is a commensal within the avian host. Heavily colonized chickens often fail to display intestinal disease, and no cellular attachment or invasion has been demonstrated in-vivo. Recently, researchers have shown that the reason for the attenuation of C. jejuni virulence may be attributed to the presence of chicken intestinal mucus and more specifically chicken mucin. Since mucins are heavily glycosylated molecules this observation would suggest that glycan-based compounds may act as anti-infectives against C. jejuni. Considering this, we have investigated naturally sourced foods for potential anti-infective glycans. Bovine colostrum rich in neutral and acidic oligosaccharides has been identified as a potential source of anti-infective glycans. In this study, we tested oligosaccharides isolated and purified from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows for anti-infective activity against a highly invasive strain of C. jejuni. During our initial studies we structurally defined 37 bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) by HILIC-HPLC coupled with exoglycosidase digests and off-line mass spectroscopy, and demonstrated the ability of C. jejuni to bind to some of these structures, in-vitro. We also examined the effect of BCO on C. jejuni adhesion to, invasion of and translocation of HT-29 cells. BCO dramatically reduced the cellular invasion and translocation of C. jejuni, in a concentration dependent manner. Periodate treatment of the BCO prior to inhibition studies resulted in a loss of the anti-infective activity of the glycans suggesting a direct oligosaccharide-bacterial interaction. This was confirmed when the BCO completely prevented C. jejuni binding to chicken intestinal mucin, in-vitro. This study builds a strong case for the inclusion of oligosaccharides sourced from cow's milk in functional foods. However, it is only through further understanding the structure and function of milk oligosaccharides that such compounds can reach their potential as food ingredients. PMID:22647676
Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Naughton, Julie; Kavanaugh, Devon; Clyne, Marguerite; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of colostrum (ARD Colostrum) in association with the immunomodulator Bifivir in the prevention of flu episodes compared with anti-flu vaccination. The registry groups included no prevention, vaccination, vaccination+immunomodulators, and immunomodulators only. Groups were comparable for age and sex distribution. In the group without prevention there were 8 major episodes and 12 minor episodes out of 34 subjects (8-12/34); in the vaccination group the respective figures were 8-13/38; in the group treated with a combination of vaccination and immunomodulators (ARD Colostrum + Bifivir) the figures were 4-9/33; and in the group treated with immunomodulators only there were 11 viral episodes (3-8) in 36 subjects. The episodes in the vaccination+immunomodulators and immunomodulators only groups were significantly lower compared with the other two groups (P<0.05). The number of episodes registered with the immunnomodulators was significantly lower than those observed in patients using vaccination or no prevention (P<0.05). The number of days of disease was higher in untreated controls compared to the groups treated with immunomodulators (P<0.05) and 2 times higher in the vaccination group compared to the same groups (P<0.05). The average relative costs were significantly lower (2.3 times) in the immunomodulators groups in comparison with the other groups (P<0.05). No problems concerning tolerability or side effects were observed during the study. Compliance was very good. In conclusion, the administration of immunomodulators is very cost effective and appears to be more effective than vaccination to prevent flu. PMID:21183886
Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Cornelli, U; Pellegini, L; Ledda, A; Grossi, M G; Dugall, M; Ruffini, I; Fano, F; Ricci, A; Stuard, S; Luzzi, R; Grossi, M G; Hosoi, M
Immunoaffinity columns were made with specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (Ig) Y against bovine IgG1 and IgG2 and were used to isolate pure IgG1 and IgG2 from Cheddar cheese whey or colostrum. About 10% of the IgY was specific for IgG, and 3% of the IgY was subclass-specific after hyperimmunization of laying hens with either IgG1 or IgG2. Up to 38%
E. M. Akita; E. C. Y. Li-Chan
The ban of antibiotic growth promoters in pig diet required the development of alternative strategies and reinforced the importance of maternal immunity to protect neonates from intestinal disorders. Milk from sows fed active dry yeasts during gestation and lactation exhibited higher immunoglobulin (Ig) and protein content in milk at day 21 of lactation. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins (Sc01, Sc02, Sb03) to sows during late gestation and lactation could induce higher Ig content in colostrum and milk. Results show that yeast supplementation did not increase significantly sow body weight at days 112 of gestation and 18 of lactation as well as piglet body weight gain from birth to weaning. In contrast, the IgG level in colostrum was increased in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc01 at both 0.05 and 0.5% (p<0.05) and Sb03 at 0.5% (p<0.01). During the lactation, the level of milk IgG remained significantly higher in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc02 at 0.05% and 0.5% and with Sb03 at 0.5%. Furthermore, in comparison with the control sows, the level of milk IgA was significantly maintained in sows supplemented with the 3 yeast strains at 0.05%. The incidence of piglet diarrhoea was decreased in groups Sc01 at both 0.05% and 0.5% and Sc02 at 0.05%. Thus, these results show that the 3 yeast strains display immunostimulatory effects on maternal immunity, but only Sc01 supplementation at 0.05% allowed jointly the increase of IgG level in colostrum, the maintenance of IgA level in milk and the decrease of piglet diarrhoea incidence. This stimulation of maternal immunity could be associated with a better systemic (colostrum IgG) and local (milk IgA) protection of neonates and suggests that dietary yeasts may have stimulated the local gut immune system of sows. PMID:23092748
Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, François; Serreau, Delphine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Berri, Mustapha; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri
A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1,071 newborn calves from 6 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning period. A secondary objective was to complete a path analysis to identify intermediate factors that may explain how feeding heat-treated colostrum reduced the risk for illness. On each farm, colostrum was collected each day, pooled, and divided into 2 aliquots; then, one aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60 min. Samples of fresh and heat-treated colostrum were collected for standard microbial culture (total plate count and total coliform count, cfu/mL) and for measurement of immunoglobulin G concentrations (mg/mL). Newborn calves were removed from the dam, generally within 30 to 60 min of birth, and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8L of either fresh (FR, n=518) or heat-treated colostrum (HT, n=553) within 2h of birth. Venous blood samples were collected from calves between 1 and 7d of age for measurement of serum IgG concentrations (mg/mL). All treatment and mortality events were recorded by farm staff between birth and weaning. Regression models found that serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed HT colostrum (18.0 ± 1.5 mg/mL) compared with calves fed FR colostrum (15.4 ± 1.5 mg/ml). Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression indicated a significant increase in risk for a treatment event (any cause) in calves fed FR colostrum (36.5%, hazard ratio=1.25) compared with calves fed HT colostrum (30.9%). In addition, we observed a significant increase in risk for treatment for scours in calves fed FR colostrum (20.7%, hazard ratio=1.32) compared with calves fed HT colostrum (16.5%). Path analysis suggested that calves fed HT colostrum were at lower risk for illness because the heat-treatment process caused a significant reduction in colostrum total coliform count, which was associated with a reduced risk for illness as a function of improved serum IgG concentrations. PMID:22720957
Godden, S M; Smolenski, D J; Donahue, M; Oakes, J M; Bey, R; Wells, S; Sreevatsan, S; Stabel, J; Fetrow, J
Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum. Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production. PMID:21943763
Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effects at the level of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A probiotic yogurt initiative was thus established in Mwanza, Tanzania, to improve gastrointestinal (GI) integrity and reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections among people with HIV. The research objective was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as an adjunct to the diet of people living with HIV on systemic and GI symptoms, daily routine activities, and nutritional intake. Eighty-five people with HIV consuming probiotic yogurt and 86 controls were interviewed. Demographics and HIV disease stage were comparable between groups. Probiotic yogurt consumers reported an ability to work a median of 2 hours more daily (P = .01), experienced a lower fever incidence (P = .01), and were more likely to achieve daily nutrient requirements for vitamin A, several B complex vitamins, and calcium (P = .02). Antiretroviral users experienced less drug-induced stomach pain (P = .02) and a lower overall impact of GI symptoms on routine activities (P = .03). The results of this study need be further substantiated because of limits imposed by the observational, retrospective study design; however, results suggest that yogurt supplemented with L rhamnosus may effectively alleviate GI symptoms and improve productivity, nutritional intake, and tolerance to antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV in Mwanza. PMID:22153512
Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh
This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
Immunoaffinity columns were made with specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (Ig) Y against bovine IgG1 and IgG2 and were used to isolate pure IgG1 and IgG2 from Cheddar cheese whey or colostrum. About 10% of the IgY was specific for IgG, and 3% of the IgY was subclass-specific after hyperimmunization of laying hens with either IgG1 or IgG2. Up to 38% of the potential binding capacity of IgY was obtained after immobilization by reductive amination. The IgY columns were stable, and one column could be reused for more than 50 times for over a year with minimal loss in binding capacity. Milk that was free of either IgG subclass was successfully produced by the selective removal of IgG1 or IgG2 subclasses. Double-immunodiffusion analysis confirmed the isolation of subclasses from whey and colostrum and also confirmed that their removal from milk was specific. PMID:9493082
Akita, E M; Li-Chan, E C
Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3(+)TcR1-N12(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), and major histocompatibility complex class II(+)CD14(-) lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD26(+) lymphocytes and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving. PMID:20592843
Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R; Morris, Stephen
Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3+TcR1-N12+, CD3+, CD4+, and major histocompatibility complex class II+CD14? lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD26+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving.
Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R.; Morris, Stephen
While the need for colostrum in neonates is well established, the systemic effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to adult humans is gaining increasing attention. However, no systematic studies evaluating the immunomodulatory effect of BC in dogs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dietary supplementation of BC in dogs. The study was conducted in two phases: pre-test (8 weeks) and test (40 weeks), with twenty-four dogs (mean age 2·5 years) randomised into two groups. In the 'pre-test' phase, both groups were fed a nutritionally complete diet. At the end of the 'pre-test' phase, all dogs received a canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine, and dogs in the 'test group' were switched to a diet supplemented with 0·1 % spray-dried BC. Response to the CDV vaccine was evaluated by measuring vaccine-specific plasma IgG levels. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue response was assessed by measuring faecal IgA levels. Gut microbiota were evaluated by the temporal temperature gel electrophoresis methodology. Dogs fed the BC-supplemented diet demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine response and higher levels of faecal IgA when compared with the control group. Supplementing diets with BC also resulted in significantly increased gut microbiota diversity and stability in the test group. In conclusion, diets supplemented with BC significantly influence immune response in dogs. PMID:23773360
Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Reynolds, Arleigh; Pelker, Robyn; Labuda, Jeff; Zhang, Peifang; Sun, Peichuan
Four multiparous Holstein cows were fed a basal diet balanced with the Cornell Net Protein and Carbohydrate System (CNCPS). Diets were formulated to be co-limiting in intestinally absorbable supplies of methionine, lysine, and isoleucine. Cows were supplemented with no amino acids (control); lysine and methionine in a ruminally protected form; isoleucine by abomasal infusion; or lysine, methionine, and isoleucine in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 28-d periods. Performance of cows on all treatments was lower than expected due to low intake of DM that could have been caused by the high fiber level of the basal diet. This high fiber level was likely responsible for the high daily chewing times for cows fed all diets, which was consistent with the high ruminal pH values. Intake of DM and its components were not influenced by any treatment. Milk protein percentage tended to be higher when cows were fed diets supplemented with ruminally protected lysine and methionine; however, production of milk, milk fat, and milk lactose were not affected by any treatment. Cows tended to have a higher milk lactose proportion and tended to produce more milk and milk lactose when they were abomasally infused with isoleucine alone. However, when cows were supplemented with all three amino acids, milk production and composition did not differ from that of cows fed the unsupplemented diet. Use of the CNCPS to evaluate the performance of the cows fed the unsupplemented diet suggested that these cows may have been colimited by intestinally absorbable supplies of lysine, isoleucine, and methionine in addition to metabolizable protein. Evaluation of the unsupplemented diet with an alternate model, Shield, suggested that cows fed the unsupplemented diet may have been colimited by intestinally absorbable supplies of lysine, isoleucine, and arginine. Results suggest that enhanced delivery of intestinally absorbable isoleucine may stimulate milk lactose synthesis. PMID:10521041
Robinson, P H; Chalupa, W; Sniffen, C J; Julien, W E; Sato, H; Fujieda, T; Watanabe, K; Suzuki, H
In rats, sucking milk reduces anxiety and promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and in calves it induces resting but the effect on sleep is unknown. Here, we investigated how calves’ sleep was affected by colostrum feeding methods. Forty-one calves were blocked by birth date and randomly allotted within blocks to the experimental treatments. Calves were housed for four days
Laura Hänninen; Helena Hepola; Satu Raussi; Hannu Saloniemi
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...
The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...
Cow's milk stimulates growth in neonates and supplementation with specific milk proteins may benefit immuno-compromized neonates exhibiting poor growth. We investigated the effects of specific milk proteins (casein and whey) and plant protein (hydrolysed soy) on body and organ growth and bone mineralization in colostrum-deprived newborn pigs. Six days after birth, both casein and whey increased body and small intestinal
C. R. Bjornvad; T. Thymann; A. Z. Budek; D. H. Nielsen; C. Mølgaard; K. F. Michaelsen; P. T. Sangild
In contrast to breast milk, little is known about the bacterial composition of human colostrum. The objective of this work was to analyze the bacterial diversity of colostrum obtained from healthy women and to characterize the dominant bacterial species for the presence of possible virulence factors. Samples of colostrum obtained from 36 healthy women were inoculated into different culture media. Several isolates from each medium were selected and identified. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling. One representative of each profile was included in a genetic and phenotypic characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits/genes and sensitivity to antibiotics. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were the dominant species, followed by Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Among the 48 S. epidermidis isolates selected on the basis of their genetic profiles, the biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were detected in only 11 and six isolates, respectively. In parallel, 10 enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA, vanA, vanB, vanD, vanE and vanG genes. All of them were sensitive to vancomycin. There were no indications that the colostrum samples contained harmful bacteria. PMID:18845249
Jiménez, Esther; Delgado, Susana; Fernández, Leonides; García, Natalia; Albújar, Mar; Gómez, Adolfo; Rodríguez, Juan M
|Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…
Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ?PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ?PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ?PCB, ?PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (<15%), although larger mean differences (?40%) were observed in some fish products (e.g., catfish). PMID:23237106
Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel
AIM: To examine the possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats. METHODS: Female rats were fed a standard diet and received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception. In study 1, neonatal rats were randomly subjected to blood tests to investigate autism. In study 2, the 1st group was fed by the mother after an injection of interferon-? (IFN-?) and administration of gliadin. The pups in the 2nd group were prevented from accessing maternal milk, injected IFN-?, administered gliadin, and hand-fed human colostrum. The normal littermates fed by the table mothers were injected with physiological saline and served as normal controls in this study. RESULTS: The protein concentration was higher in group 2 than in group 1 in the duodenum (161.6 ± 9 and 135.4 ± 7 mg/g of tissue, respectively, P < 0.01). A significant increase (P < 0.001) in body weight was detected in human colostrum-treated pups on post natal day (PND) 7 and 21 vs suckling pups in group 1. A delay in eye opening was noticed in the treated rats in group 1 on PND 13 compared with the control group and group 2. Administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception resulted in significantly reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in study 1 compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). However, human colostrum uptake inhibited increases in the level of transglutaminase antibody in autistic pups with coeliac disease. CONCLUSION: The effects of early-life nutrition and human colostrum on the functional maturation of the duodenal villi in autistic rats with coeliac disease that might limit or prevent the coeliac risk with autism.
Selim, Manar E; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y
This study examined the effect of bovine colostrum (Dynamic colostrum) supplementation on blood and saliva variables (study 1) and the absorption of orally administered human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (rhIGF-I) labeled with 123I (123I-rhIGF-I) (study 2). In study 1, adult male and female athletes were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either an experimental (Dynamic; n = 19) or a control (Placebo; n = 11) group. The former consumed daily 20 g of Dynamic supplement, and the latter 20 g of maltodextrin during a 2-wk training period. After bovine colostrum supplementation, significant increases were noticed in serum IGF-I (P < 0.01) and saliva IgA (P < 0.01) in Dynamic compared with Placebo. In study 2, gel electrophoresis was carried out in 12 adult subjects with serum samples taken 60 min after ingestion of 123I-rhIGF-I and showed peaks at 0.6 and at 40-90 kDa, with the former inducing 96% and the latter 4% of the total radioactivity. It was concluded that a long-term supplementation of bovine colostrum (Dynamic) increases serum IGF-I and saliva IgA concentration in athletes during training. Absorption data show that ingested 123I-rhIGF-I is fragmented in circulation and that no radioactive IGF-I is eluted at the positions of free, or the IGF, binding proteins, giving no support to the absorption of IGF-I from bovine colostrum. PMID:12133885
Mero, Antti; Kähkönen, Jonne; Nykänen, Tarja; Parviainen, Tapani; Jokinen, Ilmari; Takala, Timo; Nikula, Tuomo; Rasi, Simo; Leppäluoto, Juhani
Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables.Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed in parallel for six months. Volunteers had free access to 44 different foods
J. A. Weststrate; KH van het Hof; H van den Berg; EJM Velthuis-te-Wierik; C de Graaf; NJH Zimmermanns; K. R. Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga; WPHG Verboeket-van de Venne
Effect of supplementing napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) with sunflower meal or poultry litter-based concentrates on feed intake, live-weight changes and economics of milk production in Friesian cows
A study was conducted using a randomized complete block design to determine feed intake, live-weight changes, milk yield and cost of milk production in Friesian cows fed napier grass (NG) at 10 weeks (MNG) or 15 weeks (ONG) of maturity. The MNG or ONG was supplemented with equal amounts of sunflower (SFBC) or poultry litter (PLBC) based concentrates in experiment
J. M. K Muia; S Tamminga; P. N Mbugua
Polymorphism at the ?S1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high ?S1-casein (?S1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low ?S1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for ?S2-CN, ?-CN, and ?-CN but a different genotype for ?S1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for ?S1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets. PMID:23403186
Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M
Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA) in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model.
Re-introductions are increasingly used conservation tools. Often, criteria for re-introducing species are based on policies or politics and little attention paid, albeit theoretical, to understanding what ecological possibilities habitats may have in sustaining introduced animals. Assessing potential carrying capacities is complex but easier for grazers, since biomass of these herbivores is empirically correlated with habitat primary productivity.
John E. Fa
In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2-4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbial sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4)
Gordon T. Taylor; Dongqiang Zheng
The synergistic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums on the immunity of mice in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Eight- to ten-week-old mice were used\\u000a for two series experiments; one part of mice were immunocompromised by intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide. In\\u000a series I, immunocompromised mice were continuously fed with diet A (L. rhamnosus ZDY114 5?×?107 CFU\\/kg), B (bovine colostrums
Hua Wei; Yang Xu; Bocai Cheng; Yonghua Xiong
An experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of Neosporacaninum for dogs. For this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived N.caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledonary tissue from N.caninum seropositive cows. One dog served as a negative control during the
Th Dijkstra; M Eysker; G Schares; F. J Conraths; W Wouda; H. W Barkema
Two questions were asked in the present study; does Atlantic salmon taste and discriminate against oxidised feed and are lipid\\u000a oxidation products absorbed from the intestine. In Experiment 1, a control diet, a medium oxidised diet and a highly oxidised\\u000a diet were prepared (TBARS levels: 34±5, 61±4 and 76±2 nmol g?1, respectively). The control diet was marked with holmium and the experimental diets
Kristin Hamre; Kjersti Kolås; Kjartan Sandnes; Kåre Julshamn; Anders Kiessling
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes. PMID:10478419
Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F
?-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk ?-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk ?-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 ± 2 ?M, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393
Rohit, A C; Sathisha, K; Aparna, H S
Eleven samples of dromedary camel colostrum in Kazakhstan, which originated from one farm only, were collected to study the changes in the physico-chemical composition (total fat, total protein, iodine index, lactose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C, urea, ammonia, density, Dornic acidity, pH, and skimmed dry matter) all along the first postpartum week. At that time, the fat matter decreased from 25.9% to 3.1% and protein from 17.2% to 4.2%, in contrast to vitamin C which increased. Minerals showed high variations with lower values the first day after parturition and variable changes up to the end of the week where the values were stabilized. The iron concentration decreased from the second day postpartum. No clear changes of the other parameters were observed, notably for the non-protein nitrogen (urea and ammonia). PMID:19763867
Konuspayeva, G; Faye, B; Loiseau, G; Narmuratova, M; Ivashchenko, A; Meldebekova, A; Davletov, S
Background Parturition is supposed to be related to oxidative stress, not only for the mother, but also for the newborn. Moreover, it is not clear whether consecutive pregnancies, parturitions, and lactations are similar to each other in regards to intensity of metabolic processes or differ from each other. The aim of the study was to compare dynamic changes of antioxidative parameters in colostrum and milk of sows taken during 72 h postpartum from animals in consecutive lactations. Activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GSH-Tr), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and amount of vitamin A and C were measured. Healthy pregnant animals were divided into 4 groups according to the assessed lactation: A -1st lactation (n = 10), B - 2nd and 3rd lactation (n = 7), C - 4th and 5th lactation (n = 11), D - 6th - 8th lactation (n = 8). The colostrum was sampled immediately after parturition and after 6, 12, 18 and 36 h while the milk was assessed at 72 h after parturition. Spectrophotometric methods were used for measurements. Results The activity of antioxidative enzymes and the concentration of vitamin A increased with time postpartum. The concentration of vitamin C was the highest between the 18th and 36th h postpartum. Conclusions Dynamic changes in the values of antioxidant parameters measured during the study showed that sows milk provides the highest concentration of antioxidants in the 2nd and 3rd and 4th and 5th lactation giving the best defence against reactive oxygen species to newborns and mammary glands.
An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-?, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-? remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-? expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro.
Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg
It has long been known that the brain, especially the hypothalamus, can modulate both insulin secretion and hepatic glucose fluxes, via the modulation of the sympathetic system (promoting glycogen breakdown) and the parasympathetic system (stimulating glycogen deposition). Central insulin signalling or hypothalamic long-chain fatty acid oxidation can also control insulin's suppression of endogenous glucose production. Interestingly, intestinal gluconeogenesis can initiate a portal glucose signal, transmitted to the hypothalamus via the gastrointestinal nervous system. This signal may modulate the sensation of hunger and satiety and insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose fluxes as well. The rapid improvements of glucose control taking place after gastric bypass surgery in obese diabetics has long been mysterious. Actually, the specificity of gastric bypass in obese diabetic mice relates to major changes in the sensations of hunger and to rapid improvement in insulin sensitivity of endogenous glucose production. We have shown that an induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis plays a major role in these phenomena. In addition, the restoration of the secretion of glucagon like peptide 1 and consequently of insulin plays a key additional role to improve postprandial glucose tolerance. Therefore, a synergy between incretin effects and intestinal gluconeogenesis might be a key feature explaining the rapid improvement of glucose control in obese diabetics after bypass surgery. PMID:23834054
A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was analysed for its polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PCB levels (sum of 23 congeners), an average daily dietary intake estimate of PCBs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest
Stefan Voorspoels; Adrian Covaci; Hugo Neels
This study evaluated the effects of supplementing sow diets with oregano essential oils (OEO) during gestation and lactation on sow colostrum and milk composition and on the growth pattern and immune status of suckling pigs. A total of 70 second-parity sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 gestation dietary treatments within 24 h after service: control (CON) or CON + 250 mg/kg of OEO (OREG). In lactation, sows were again assigned to either the CON or OREG dietary treatment. Thus, the lactation treatments were CON-CON, CON-OREG, OREG-CON, and OREG-OREG. Colostrum and blood samples were collected from 6 sows per lactation dietary treatment. Thymus lymphocyte (T lymphocyte) subpopulations (??, cluster of differentiation 8, and 32 cluster of differentiation 4) were enumerated in blood and mammary secretions along with IGF-1, IgG, and IgA concentrations. Piglet growth rate were determined from 18, 17, 17, and 18 litters from the CON-CON, CON-OREG, OREG-CON, and OREG-OREG lactation dietary treatments, respectively. Growth rates were determined in 630 piglets, and piglets were individually identified and weighed on 1, 5, 9, 12, 16, and 19 d of age. Oregano essential oil supplementation during gestation or lactation had no effect (P > 0.05) on GE, CP, GE:CP, GE:fat, and IGF-1 in sow milk. Reductions of the fat percentage in milk on d 7 (P < 0.05) and d 14 (P = 0.07) were found in sows supplemented with OEO during lactation compared with those in the CON treatment. Milk from sows supplemented with OEO during lactation had the greatest number of T lymphocytes compared with those in the lactation CON treatment on d 14 of lactation (P < 0.01). The number of T lymphocytes in milk was greater for sows in the CON-OREG treatment compared with those other treatments on d 14 of lactation (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on d 1 to 5 in piglets from sows fed OEO during gestation than those from sows in the CON treatment (P < 0.05). A trend (P = 0.10) for greater milk intake was observed in piglets from sows supplemented with OEO during gestation compared with those from sows in the CON treatment. Similarly, a tendency for an increase in ADG on d 1 to 5 was found in piglets from sows supplemented with OEO during gestation compared with those from sows in the CON treatment (P = 0.10). Insulin-like growth factor-1 at birth and on d 7 and 14 of lactation did not differ among piglets from sows assigned to the different dietary treatments. Oregano essential oil supplementation of sow diets did not affect (P > 0.05) immunoglobulin concentrations in piglets after suckling. Supplementing sow diets with OEO during gestation or lactation did not affect (P > 0.05) the T lymphocytes, percentage of T-lymphocyte subpopulations, and natural killer cell activity of piglets during lactation. Supplementing sow diets with 250 mg/kg of OEO during gestation and lactation did not affect the growth potential of and immune responses in suckling piglets. PMID:21415421
Ariza-Nieto, C; Bandrick, M; Baidoo, S K; Anil, L; Molitor, T W; Hathaway, M R
Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21d of age. The diets were 4L/head per day of WM (M); 4L/head per day of WM plus 200g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4L/head per day of WM plus 200g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. PMID:23958020
Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W
Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243
Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul
In this study, we examined the concentration of bovine IL?18 in the sera of pregnant cows, their fetuses and newborn calves, and in colostrum in order to examine the role of IL?18 in bovine pregnancy and the neonatal period. A sandwich?ELISA to quantify bovine IL?18 was established using anti?porcine IL?18 monoclonal antibodies, which cross?reacted with bovine IL?18, and used it
Yoshihiro Muneta; Kazuhiro Yoshihara; Yu Minagawa; Reiko Nagata; Yasuyuki Mori; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Kazuaki Takehara
This study examined the effect of bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation on the tissue composition of resistance trained (T) and untrained (UT) limbs. Using a double-blind design, subjects were randomly allocated to 60 g day -1 of BC ( n=17) or whey protein (WP) ( n=17) during 8 weeks of resistance training of the elbow flexors (EF) of their non-dominant arm (T). Axial magnetic
Grant D. Brinkworth; Jonathan D. Buckley; John P. Slavotinek; Andrew P. Kurmis
Forty-eightHolsteinbullcalveswereassignedtoa2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized block design. Main effects were colostrum versus a se- rum-derivedcolostrumsupplement,0versus1goftryp- sin inhibitor added at the initial 2 feedings, and milk replacer containing 0 or 50% CP from whole egg. Calves werebledat0,6,12,18,and24hafterbirthfordetermi- nation of serum immunoglobulin (Ig). G. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves consuming the co- lostrum supplement
H. M. Santoro; P. S. Erickson; N. L. Whitehouse; A. M. McLaughlin; C. G. Schwab; J. D. Quigley III
To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, and amino acid composition. The DM content was higher (p < 0.05) in milk sampled at parturition than at 24 and 48 h postpartum. Also, the crude protein content decreased (p < 0.05) after the first 24 h postpartum. However, the fat, carbohydrate and ash contents did not change (p > 0.05) during the first week of lactation. The proportion of essential amino acids tended to decrease during the first 24 h postpartum. During the first week of lactation, the phenylalanine and tyrosine contents decreased while the cysteine content increased. However, in general, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival. PMID:17988351
Fink, R; Rasmussen, A; Tauson, A-H
An increased susceptibility to disease in neonatal calves may be attributable to high glucocorticoid levels that influence immune reactions. We tested whether dexamethasone (DEXA) administration influences the proliferation, apoptosis, and number of B- and T-lymphocytes in Peyer's patches (PP) and thymus in calves fed colostrum (C) or a milk-derived formula. All calves were subcutaneously administered bovine colostrum-derived immunoglobulin G and fed chicken-egg derived immunoglobulins that protected against rotavirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli. The DEXA (30 microg/kg of BW daily) was injected for 4 d into groups fed colostrum on the first 3 d (CD+) and those fed the formula that contained nutrients in amounts as in colostrum but no immunoglubulin G (FD+). Groups CD- and FD were fed the same as the other two groups, but did not receive DEXA. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate cell proliferation rates (by labeling of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), apoptosis rates (by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling). Numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes were determined with antibodies specific for CD3 and CD79 surface proteins. There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of DEXA treatment (decrease of cell proliferation rates in follicles of PP and thymus, increase of apoptotic rate in follicles of PP and thymus, decrease of B-lymphocyte numbers in follicles of PP, increase of B-lymphocyte numbers in domes of PP, increase of T-lymphocyte numbers in follicles of PP, and a decrease of intraepithelial T-lymphocyte numbers). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of C feeding (decrease of cell proliferation rates in follicles of PP and of B-lymphocyte numbers in interfollicular areas, domes, and follicular-associated epithelium of PP, and an increase of cell proliferation rate in the thymus). A DEXA x feeding interaction (P < 0.001) was found for cell proliferation rate in the thymus. In conclusion, DEXA treatment decreased cell proliferation rates in follicles of PP and thymus and enhanced apoptotic rates in follicles of PP. Colostrum feeding decreased cell proliferation rates, likely of B-lymphocytes, in follicles of PP and numbers of B-lymphocytes in domes, follicular-associated epithelium, and interfollicular areas of PP and enhanced cell proliferation rates and selectively modified DEXA effects in the thymus. PMID:12968708
Norrman, J; David, C W; Sauter, S N; Hammon, H M; Blum, J W
Effects of Corn Silage Derived from a Genetically Modified Variety Containing Two Transgenes on Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Composition, and the Absence of Detectable Transgenic Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Milk in Holstein Dairy Cows
Theobjectivesweretocomparethechemicalcomposi- tion, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages con- taining 2transgenes (2GM: herbicidetolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy
S. Calsamiglia; B. Hernandez; G. F. Hartnell; R. Phipps
Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composi- tion, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to Euro- pean corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt- MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole
S. S. Donkin; J. C. Velez; A. K. Totten; E. P Stanisiewski; G. F. Hartnell
Korea's food culture includes the consumption of seaweed, which is abundant and has a high iodine content. Because it is customary to serve seaweed soup to new mothers, the consumption of seaweed increases dramatically when a woman is lactating. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the iodine content in human milk of Korean lactating mothers according to dietary iodine intake. The iodine content of human milk and dietary iodine intake from 50 lactating mothers were analyzed at 2 to 5 days and at 4 weeks postpartum. The dietary iodine intake was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The iodine content in human milk was analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The average daily iodine intake of lactating mothers was 2744 micrograms at 2 to 5 days postpartum, decreasing significantly to 1295 micrograms at 4 weeks postpartum. The major sources of iodine were seaweed (87%) and cows' milk (7%). The average iodine content in colostrum and mature milk was 2170 micrograms/l and 892 micrograms/l, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the levels of iodine in human milk depending on the lactation period. A significant correlation between maternal iodine intake and iodine content of human milk was observed (P < 0.0001). The frequency of seaweed soup intake in lactating mothers seems to be a modifying factor in the iodine intake level and the iodine content in human milk. The level of dietary iodine intake and the iodine content of breast milk of Korean lactating mothers is found to be much higher than in other countries. PMID:10627832
Moon, S; Kim, J
Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 ?g/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition. PMID:22440417
Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F
Piglets suckled by dams that had been vaccinated with K88 antigen were significantly more resistant to deaths caused by neonatal diarrhea after challenge with a large dose of a K88-positive enteropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli than piglets suckled by control dams. The factors most likely to be involved in protection of the piglets were investigated by comparing the antibacterial activities of serum and mammary secretions from the two groups of dams. Vaccination stimulated the production of K88 antibodies, which were associated with anti-adhesive activity directed against the adhesive properties of the K88 antigen, and of O8 antibodies; the latter antibodies were attributed to traces of O8 antigen in the vaccine. Neutralizing activity against heat-labile enterotoxin was present in several dams before vaccination but was not stimulated by bacteriostatic activities were similar in serum and mammary secretions from both groups of dams and appeared to play no significant role in the protective after parturition were atrributed to exposure of the dams to the challenge strain excreted by the piglets. It was concluded that neutralization of the adhesive properties of K88 antigen by K88 antibodies in colostrum and in milk contributed significantly to the protection of piglets from vaccinated dams. However, the contribution of antibacterial activities associated with the greater levels of O8 antibodies in colstrum from the vaccinated group cannot be entirely excluded.
Rutter, J M; Jones, G W; Brown, G T; Burrows, M R; Luther, P D
1. Three neutral oligosaccharides were obtained from horse colostrum by ion-exchange, activated charcoal column and preparative paper chromatographies. 2. The following structures were elucidated by methanolysis, methylation analysis and 75 MHz 13C-NMR spectroscopy; Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc (HM-3a), Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6Gal beta 1-4Glc (HM-3b) and Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3[Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6]Gal beta 1-4Glc (HM-5). 3. HM-3a and HM-5 have been found in human milk, named as lacto-N-neotetraose and lacto-N-neohexaose, respectively. HM-3b has been isolated from goat milk. 4. An homology and heterogeneity were assumed among the following animal species' milk oligosaccharides: horse, human, goat and tammar wallaby. PMID:1756618
Urashima, T; Saito, T; Kimura, T
Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730
Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J
Objective: To assess the distribution of dietary vitamin A intake among Dutch women aged 16–50 and among pregnant women, and to evaluate the effect of the use of a vitamin A (1200 RE) containing multivitamin supplement in terms of nutritional and teratogenic risk. Study design: Data from the 2nd Dutch national food consumption survey (1992) were used for calculation of
H. van den Berg; K. F. A. M. Hulshof; J. P. Deslypere
Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of purified alcohol extracts (PAES) from soybean meal (PAES I) and soy protein isolate (PAES II) on feed intake, growth and intestinal mucosa of chinook salmon and rainbow trout. The PAES were prepared by an extraction process aiming at the isolation of soyasaponins. In the first study, a series of diets were
Dominique P Bureau; Andrew M Harris; C Young Cho
Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea.
Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M
This study evaluated whether or not bovine colostrum (BC) is able to treat or prevent intestinal barrier damage, bacterial translocation, and the related systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injured rat model. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats' intestinal I/R injuries were induced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 30 minutes. After 3 hours of reperfusion and then twice daily reclamping during the experiment, the experimental group was given BC (4 mL/kg/day) perorally, and the other groups received 0.9% saline and low fat milk (LFM) after intestinal I/R injury. Seventy-two hours later we assessed (1) intestinal damage and intestinal permeability, (2) enteric bacterial count and bacterial translocation, (3) serum albumin, protein, and hepatic enzyme levels, (4) pathologic findings of ileum and lung, (5) activity of oxygen-free radical species, and (6) pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta). Intestinal damage, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to other organs were significantly reduced in rats fed with BC after I/R when compared to rats fed LFM/saline after I/R (P < .05). In the evaluation of acute lung injury, neutrophils were found only in the lungs of the saline-fed group after I/R, and the wet/dry ratio of the lung tissue was significantly reduced in the BC-fed group after I/R compared to other I/R groups. A marked difference was found between LFM/saline-fed groups and BC-fed groups regarding malondialdehyde (P < .05) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < .01). In conclusion, BC may have beneficial effects in treating and preventing intestinal barrier damage, bacterial translocation and the related SIRS and MODS in the intestinal I/R-injured rat model. PMID:19298194
Choi, Han Sung; Jung, Kyung Hee; Lee, Seung Chul; Yim, Sung Vin; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kim, Youn Wha; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Hong, Hoon Pyo; Ko, Young Gwan; Kim, Chul-Ho; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Kang, Soon Ah
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids found in cell membranes and human milk with important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, adhesion, migration, signalling and apoptosis. Similar changes in ganglioside composition occur during embryonic development, lactation and cancer cell differentiation. It is not known, however, whether ganglioside compositional changes that occur in differentiating colon cancer cells reflect changes that occur during intestinal development. The Caco-2 cell line is commonly used to study physiological and pathophysiological processes in the small intestine and colon. Therefore, to examine this question, undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were grown and total lipid was extracted from cell supernatant fractions using the Folch method. The upper aqueous phase containing gangliosides was collected and purified. Total gangliosides were measured as ganglioside-bound N-acetyl neuraminic acid, while individual ganglioside content was quantified via a colorimetric assay for sialic acid and scanning densitometry. The total ganglioside content of differentiated Caco-2 cells was 2.5 times higher compared with undifferentiated cells. Differentiated Caco-2 cells had significantly more (N-acetylneuraminyl) 2-galactosylglucosyl ceramide (GD3) and polar gangliosides, and a lower N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3):GD3 ratio than undifferentiated cells. The present study demonstrates that the total ganglioside content and individual ganglioside composition of differentiated Caco-2 cells are similar to those of human colostrum and neonatal rat intestine. Differentiated Caco-2 cells may therefore be an alternative model for studying physiological and pathological processes in the small intestine and colon, and may help to elucidate possible functions for specific gangliosides in development and differentiation. Further research using more sensitive techniques of ganglioside analysis is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:18713482
Schnabl, Kareena L; Field, Catherine; Clandinin, M T
Forty heifers at the late stage of gestation were randomly assigned into five groups. Heifers were balanced for age, weight, and time of calving in each group. Four and 2 weeks before expected time of calving, the heifers were injected with 0 ml (C), 10 ml (T1), 20 ml (T2), 30 ml (T3), and 40 ml (T4) Se and VE supplements, respectively. Each milliliter of the supplement contained of 0.5 mg Se as sodium selenite and 50 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Blood samples were collected from the heifers 4 weeks before expected calving and at calving day and from the calves at birth and 7 days of age. The serum Se and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations, white blood cell and differential leukocyte counts were measured. The Se concentrations in the sera of the heifers before the injections of Se and VE supplements were the same among the groups (P?>?0.05), but after calving were significantly increased in the treated heifers (P?0.05). Similarly, the serum Se levels of calves of the treated heifers were higher (P?0.05). The Se concentrations in the colostrums of the heifers were affected by treatments (P?0.05). Colostrum and daily milk productions at 8-week lactation were increased in treated heifers compared with the controls (P?0.05). Likewise, the milk somatic cell counts decreased in the treated heifers compared with the controls. The changes of the mean serum IgG levels did not differ among calves (P?>?0.05). The white blood cell counts were higher in calves of heifers in groups T3 and T4 compared with the control group at 7 days of age (P?0.05). PMID:21833648
Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Kiani, Amir; Mikaeili, Elham; Shabankareh, Hamed Karami
Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes
Two Iranian corn hybrids, Single Cross 704 (S.C.704) and Three Way Cross 647 (T.W.C.647) TM TM were used to evaluate the effects of hybrid and maturity on intake, milk yield and composition when corn was fed as silage in the diet of Holstein cows. Corn hybrid S.C.704 harvested at one-third milk-line and black layer (BL) while harvesting times for hybrid
This study evaluated the effects of supplemental low- and high-purity glycerine on silage intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolites and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. A total of 42 cows of the Swedish Red Breed, housed in individual tie stalls, were fed 0.25 kg of low- or high-purity glycerine on top of concentrate, twice daily, during the first 4 weeks of lactation. One-third of the cows acted as controls, receiving no glycerine. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and concentrate was fed at restricted level of intake, about 6 kg/day for primiparous cows and 7 kg/day for multiparous cows. Feed refusals were weighed daily. Cows were milked twice daily, milk yield was recorded on four occasions per week and milk samples were collected simultaneously. Blood samples were drawn from the coccygeal vessel once a week. Low- and high-purity glycerine had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake (P = 0.38 and P = 0.75, respectively) or on BCS (P = 0.45). Cows fed high-purity glycerine tended to have higher milk yield than control cows (P = 0.06). Milk composition tended to differ among treatments. No main effects of treatment on concentration of glycerine (P = 0.44), glucose (P = 0.78), insulin (P = 0.33), non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.33) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.15) in plasma. These data indicate that high-purity glycerine has the potential to increase milk yield, as well as enhance the milk protein concentration and milk fat + protein yield. PMID:23800400
Omazic, A Werner; Tråvén, M; Bertilsson, J; Holtenius, K
Eighty first-calf Brahman heifers and 51 mature Brahman cows were allotted to one of three diets based on parity, sex of calf, and breed of calf sire (Angus, Brahman, or Tuli) to evaluate rumen un- degraded intake protein's (UIP) influence on produc- tion characteristics and reproductive performance. Supplements contained either 38.1% (low), 56.3% (medium), or 75.6% (high) UIP. Supplements were
B. L. Triplett; D. A. Neuendorff; R. D. Randel
Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 × 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 had lower yields of dry matter (DM), higher concentrations of
C. S. Ballard; E. D. Thomas; D. S. Tsang; P. Mandebvu; C. J. Sniffen; M. I. Endres; M. P. Carter
Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecu- tive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 ± 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured dailyinindividualCalanelectronicheadgates.Acclima- tion to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after
A. M. Encinias; G. P. Lardy; J. L. Leupp; H. B. Encinias; L. P. Reynolds; J. S. Caton
Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.
Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.
The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397
Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.
Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers
Intakeofcolostrumbyneonatalcalvesandearlytran- sition to calf starter are two important factors in suc- cessful calf programs. Thirty-one Holstein calves were used to determine health and performance of calves that were 1) allowed to remain with their dams for 3 d and suckle (suckled calves) or were removed from their dams and fed colostrum only by bottle (bottle calves); and were 2) fed
S. T. Franklin; D. M. Amaral-Phillips; J. A. Jackson; A. A. Campbell
In all total of 1200 mothers from different social strata having children upto the age of two years were interviewed for breast feeding practice and its role in pregnancy prevention. Only 16.4 per cent women believed that breast feeding prevents pregnancy and 31.7 per cent had no knowledge about it. Colostrum feeding practice was common among the sample respondents but
S. Bhatnagar; Nutan P. Jain; Jaishree Gupta
The effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on the concentration of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves. The hypotheses were that the variable method and time of first colostrum feeding might affect the level of serum Ig and in turn the growth performance and health status of the claves during the early age. The newborn calves were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental groups - G-1: allowed to suckle the dam at own choice, G-2: separated immediately after birth and allowed to suckle the dam first at 6 h and then at own choice, G-3: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam first at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h, G-4: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam within 1 h, at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were lowest (p < 0.01) at birth and increased following colostrum feeding irrespective of the experimental group. Highest concentrations of all the Ig classes were observed at 12-24 h after birth. The concentrations then transiently decreased from day 7 to 14, and then steadily increased after day 28. The concentrations of IgG (p < 0.01) and IgA (p < 0.05) were higher in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the first week after birth. Similarly, higher concentration of IgA (p < 0.05) was found in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the rest of the experimental period. The apparent absorption efficiency of colostral IgG was higher (p < 0.05) in G-4 in relation to G-3. Growth rate and health status were not influenced by the method and time of first colostrum feeding. In conclusion, a 6-h delay in the first colostrum feeding reduced the level of serum Ig noticeably. PMID:21198956
Mech, A; Dhali, A; Baruah, K K; Singh, R K; Mondal, S K; Rajkhowa, C
The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits. PMID:1374988
Bär, A; Biermann, C
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production, such as growth of beef cattle and milk production in dairy cattle. RFI has been shown to be linked with a reduction in CH4 emissions in studies that used grain based diets. Our study quantified CH4 emissions from 48 Angus
F. M. Jones; F. A. Phillips; T. Naylor; N. B. Mercer
In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572
Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete
Introduction Breastfeeding effects on cognition are attributed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), but controversy persists. Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes has been overlooked when studying the effects of LC-PUFAs supply on cognition. We aimed to: 1) to determine whether maternal genetic variants in the FADS cluster and ELOVL genes contribute to differences in LC-PUFA levels in colostrum; 2) to analyze whether these maternal variants are related to child cognition; and 3) to assess whether children's variants modify breastfeeding effects on cognition. Methods Data come from two population-based birth cohorts (n?=?400 mother-child pairs from INMA-Sabadell; and n?=?340 children from INMA-Menorca). LC-PUFAs were measured in 270 colostrum samples from INMA-Sabadell. Tag SNPs were genotyped both in mothers and children (13 in the FADS cluster, 6 in ELOVL2, and 7 in ELOVL5). Child cognition was assessed at 14 mo and 4 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, respectively. Results Children of mothers carrying genetic variants associated with lower FADS1 activity (regulating AA and EPA synthesis), higher FADS2 activity (regulating DHA synthesis), and with higher EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios in colostrum showed a significant advantage in cognition at 14 mo (3.5 to 5.3 points). Not being breastfed conferred an 8- to 9-point disadvantage in cognition among children GG homozygote for rs174468 (low FADS1 activity) but not among those with the A allele. Moreover, not being breastfed resulted in a disadvantage in cognition (5 to 8 points) among children CC homozygote for rs2397142 (low ELOVL5 activity), but not among those carrying the G allele. Conclusion Genetically determined maternal supplies of LC-PUFAs during pregnancy and lactation appear to be crucial for child cognition. Breastfeeding effects on cognition are modified by child genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase and elongase enzymes.
Morales, Eva; Bustamante, Mariona; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Guxens, Monica; Torrent, Maties; Mendez, Michelle; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Vrijheid, Martine; Molto-Puigmarti, Carolina; Lopez-Sabater, Carmen; Estivill, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi
This paper relies on 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 3350 students to analyze the dietary intakes of students. Most US students eat at least five times during the day, and nearly all eat at least three times per day. The average daily intake of vitamins and minerals at least meets the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). Overall, students consume more food energy on average than recommended, suggesting that some may be at risk of consuming more food energy than is optimal. Students also consume more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended for good health. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at lunch meet the program goal of at least one-third of the RDA. NSLP participants, however, consume more fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at breakfast also exceed the program goal of one-fourth of the RDA. However, their breakfast intakes of saturated fat as a percentage of food energy, cholesterol, and sodium exceed dietary recommendations. PMID:7832167
Devaney, B L; Gordon, A R; Burghardt, J A
Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness. PMID:23521162
Teimouri Yansari, A
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v) Triton X-114, 200 ?L of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v) sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
Zhang, Fan; Qi, Xiaohua; Zou, Mingqiang; Li, Jinfeng
ABSTRACT After intramammary,immunization,with horserad- ish peroxidase, bovine colostrum containing anti- peroxidase,immunoglobulins,(Ig) was,obtained. Thermoresistance,of the,antigen-binding,region,of these,Ig was,studied,using,a,direct,competitive ELISA. This technique,is based,on,the competition between,the anti-peroxidase,IgG coated,to the plate and,the anti-peroxidase,IgG contained,in the colos- trum to bind peroxidase, the antigen, and the enzyme responsible,for development,of the color of the assay. Thus, the degree of denaturation of the antigen- binding,region in the IgG molecule,can
E. Dominguez; M. D. Perez; M. Calvo
This patent describes an intake air heating apparatus adapted to be positioned in the air intake passage of an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a heater member of semiconductive ceramic material in the configuration of a grid having apertures for passing air therethrough between opposite sides thereof; spaced frame members supporting therebetween edge portions of the heater member; a pair of electric terminals fixed to at least one of the frame members; electrode lead members connected to the terminals and extending adjacent one side of the heater member; and metal plate members inserted between the heater member one side and the electrode lead members and making electrical contact therebetween.
Hori, M.; Nomura, E.; Niwa, H.; Mukai, H.; Tanaka, T.
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080
Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe
Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708
Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C
Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 ± 2.5?kcal/100?mL), transitional milk (57.7 ± 4.2?kcal/100?mL), and mature milk (65.2 ± 1.1?kcal/100?mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67?kcal/100?mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 ± 0.2?g/100?mL) and transitional milk (1.7 ± 0.1?g/100?mL) was higher than formula (1.4?g/100?mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 ± 0.1?g/100?mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity.
Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major factors that determine the body burden of inorganic fluoride. Fluoride intake 25 or more years ago was determined mainly by measurement of the concentration of the ion in the drinking water supply. This is not necessarily true today because of ingestion from fluoride-containing dental products, the "halo effect", the consumption of bottled water, and the use of water purification systems in the home. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water may not be a reliable indicator of previous intake. Under most conditions, fluoride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of gastric absorption is inversely related to the pH of the gastric contents. Overall absorption is reduced by calcium and certain other cations and by elevated plasma fluoride levels. Fluoride removal from plasma occurs by calcified tissue uptake and urinary excretion. About 99% of the body burden of fluoride is associated with calcified tissues, and most of it is not exchangeable. In general, the clearance of fluoride from plasma by the skeleton is inversely related to the stage of skeletal development. Skeletal uptake, however, can be positive or negative, depending on the level of fluoride intake, hormonal status, and other factors. Dentin fluoride concentrations tend to increase throughout life and appear to be similar to those in bone. Research to determine whether dentin is a reliable biomarker for the body burden of fluoride is recommended. The renal clearance of fluoride is high compared with other halogens. It is directly related to urinary pH. Factors that acidify the urine increase the retention of fluoride and vice versa. The renal clearance of fluoride decreases and tissue levels increase when the glomerular filtration rate is depressed on a chronic basis. PMID:7993560
Whitford, G M
The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...
A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities of Campinas, São Paulo and Curitiba, Paraná. Potential daily intakes by individuals were calculated for each sweetener by combining each person's consumption of sweetener-containing food and beverages with information generated by the determination of the concentrations of the sweeteners used in these products. The data showed that 72% of the studied population consumed saccharin, 67% cyclamate and 40% aspartame. The main reasons alleged for the use of intense sweeteners were weight-control diet (36%), diabetes (35%) and weight loss (23%). Table-top sweeteners were the major source of sweeteners, followed by soft drinks. The median daily intake of aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin represented approximately 2.9, 15.5, and 16-4% of the corresponding ADI, respectively. Diabetics in general had a much higher intake within the studied population. PMID:8608854
Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H
Colostrum is a complex mixture of bioactives that promotes neonate growth. Recently, we have found by in vivo study that skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC), obtained from a Holstein herd on days 6-7 after parturition, had an ability to maintain intestinal integrity. In the present study we investigated effects of SCBLC on rat intestinal IEC-6 cell proliferation in vitro. A fraction containing ?s1-casein was found to have a robust stimulation effect as compared to other protein fractions from SCBLC and even the ?s1-casein fraction from milk from other Holstein herds. Furthermore, the SCBLC ?s1-casein molecule demonstrated not only slightly slower mobility on both SDS- and native-PAGE than other bovine milk ?s1-caseins, but also a peculiar conformation reminiscent of moltenglobule in the circular dichroism spectrum. These findings may be of relevant to the competence of SCBLC to preserve intestinal integrity. PMID:23649260
Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Xijier; Inagaki, Mizuho; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Saito, Shouichiro; Yabe, Tomio; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro
BACKGROUND: Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP) and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced
Liza AH Rosén; Elin M Östman; Inger ME Björck
Feeding strategies of transition dairy cows contribute to the risk factors associated with metabolic disorders that limit production in the ensuing lactation. To inves- tigate the effects of prepartum dietary crude protein (CP) concentration and amount of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on postpartum health and production, 44 multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and assigned to one of
R. B. Greenfield; M. J. Cecava; T. R. Johnson; S. S. Donkin
Although dairy products have been found to be associated with an elevated risk of prostate cancer, studies investigating the potential effect of Ca are limited, and findings are inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to test the relationship between the risk of prostate cancer and consumption of dairy products and Ca. The analysis included 2776 men from the
E. Kesse; S. Bertrais; P. Astorg; A. Jaouen; A. Arnault; P. Galan; S. Hercberg
The study evaluates the cause of the high pre-weaning kid mortality rate in South African Nguni goat (SANG) kids maintained on Leucaena leucocephala-grass pasture (LGP) as feed sources during gestation via reproductive performance, colostrum and milk constituents of mimosine-adapted South African Nguni dams. Does grazing LGP plots gained 2.9 (P<0.05) and 5.2kg (P<0.01) more in body weight between gestation and
A. A Akingbade; I. V Nsahlai; C. D Morris
Freshly prepared organ cultures of human placentae and amniotic membranes at term show different sensitivity to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. In six of 16 amniotic membranes and seven of 17 placentae VSV replicated to relatively high titres (103–106TCID50\\/ml). The others were partially or completely resistant to virus infection (<101–102TCID50\\/ml). Addition of the immunomodulating agent, proline-rich-polypeptide (PRP) from ovine colostrum
B Domaraczenko; M Janusz; B Orzechowska; W Jarosz; Z B?Ach-Olszewska
Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1–3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of
Fabiano P. Ferreira; Wilma A. Starke-Buzetti
Several independent studies have presented evidence for the involvement of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in the aetiology of\\u000a human breast cancer, while others have reported the opposite findings. Here, we have analysed by a high sensitive multiplex\\u000a PCR-based method the prevalence of alpha mucosal and beta cutaneous HPV DNA in 90 ductal lavages, colostrum and milk. Ten\\u000a of the 70 DLs
Massimiliano Cazzaniga; Tarik Gheit; Chiara Casadio; Noureen Khan; Debora Macis; Francesco Valenti; Mara Jo Miller; Bakary S. Sylla; Suminori Akiba; Bernardo Bonanni; Andrea Decensi; Umberto Veronesi; Massimo Tommasino
In order to calculate the dietary fumonisin intake of the German consumer, a large survey was carried out on a variety of potentially contaminated products in the period between December 1998 and July 2001. A total of 1960 food samples comprising all known relevant groups of products were analysed for fumonisins. Furthermore, 272 of these samples were also analysed for hydrolysed fumonisins (HFB). For routine analysis enzyme immunoassay was used, confirmatory and control analyses were performed using HPLC-FLD after precolumn derivatisation, or by LC-MS/MS. Daily intake of fumonisins was calculated by combining fumonisin contamination data obtained in this study with available food consumption data for Germany. In a "mean case" scenario, median fumonisin levels in foods and mean food intake values were used. To generate a "bad case" scenario, the 90(th) percentile of fumonisin levels in foods and mean food intake values were combined. The overall daily fumonisin intake by the German consumer was 1.1 ?g in the "mean case" scenario, and 21 ?g in the "bad case" scenario. It was concluded that in general there is no increased risk for the German consumer in aspects of exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake of fumonisins (2 ?g/kg body weight). However, certain products (and certain brands of products) were repeatedly found to contain elevated fumonisin levels, which in a "worst case" scenario ("high" food intake of maize-based products) could pose a potential risk for the consumer, in particular concerning foods for infants and young children. High fumonisin levels were found in infant foods in 1999, but contamination levels decreased strongly in the following years. HFBs (mostly HFB1) were frequently found in processed cereals such as corn flakes, but in relatively low concentrations. According to our findings, the new European Union maximum levels for fumonisins are suitable to eliminate peak contamination levels of fumonisins in foods, but would lead to a regular excess of the TDI for infants and young children if these maximum levels would indeed be exhausted. PMID:23606079
Zimmer, I; Usleber, E; Klaffke, H; Weber, R; Majerus, P; Otteneder, H; Gareis, M; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E
In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products present in the silage. These include organic acids (lactic acid, volatile fatty acids) and N-containing
Os van M
Human milk is usually the only source of food for infants during the first 4 to 5 months of their life. Maternal environmental mercury exposure is directly related to fish consumption or amalgam filling. In this research, 38 human milk samples were collected from mothers of Lenjan area who were not occupationally exposed with mercury. Mercury concentration in human milk was determined by AMA254 Mercury Analyzer. A level of mercury was examined in relation to somatometric, demographic and dental amalgam parameters. Obtained results showed that only dental amalgam significantly increased the mercury level in human milk (p?< 0.001). The mean mercury concentrations in milk of mothers without teeth fillings (n?= 13), with one to three teeth fillings (n?= 10), and four to eight teeth fillings (n?= 15) were 2.87, 5.47, and 13.33 ?g/l, respectively. The result of this study also showed a positive correlation of mercury milk levels with the number of teeth fillings of the mother (p?< 0.05, r?= 0.755). The estimated weekly intake of mercury of a breastfed infant in this study was, in some cases, higher than provisional tolerance weekly intake recommended by FAO/WHO, which pose a threat to their health. PMID:21494835
Norouzi, Elaheh; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud
Fat-soluble vitamins and their metabolites modulate immune function in a variety of animal species. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of fat-soluble vitamins in colostrum and milk in the development of specific aspects of immune function in the calf during the 1st wk postpartum. During this period, control calves (n = 6) were fed normal colostrum and milk, and calves in the treatment group (n = 6) were fed skimmed colostrum and skimmed milk supplemented with coconut oil. Treated calves did not experience the progressive increase in concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or retinoic acids in serum that was observed in control calves. Acquisition of passive immunity, which is indicated by concentrations of immunoglobulin G1 in serum, was unaffected by treatment. Composition and functional capacities of populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes that were collected from birth to 7 d postpartum were also unaffected by treatment. Major changes in the function and composition of mononuclear leukocyte populations from all calves occurred during the experimental period and were unrelated to the concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in serum. Populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes from calves were functionally hyporesponsive and compositionally different from populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes from adult nongravid cows. These differences likely reflected the immaturity of the immune system of the neonatal calf and may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the calf to infectious disease. PMID:9361210
Rajaraman, V; Nonnecke, B J; Horst, R L
Direct ingestion of the infectious BSE agent via meat and bone meal (MBM) is commonly regarded as the main route of infection for cattle. I propose that another plausible route of infection has been overlooked so far, namely the ingestion of MBM by mother animals who susequently pass on the infectious agent in their colostrum and thus infect their offspring. This theory could explain why, although infection is thought to occur at very early stages in life, many BSE animals had not received MBM containing feeds when calves. Literature evidence on intact protein absorption in adult mammals, on the presence of the infectious BSE agent in the blood in the pre-symptomatic stage, and on the incorporation of intact dietary protein into colostrum or milk in humans and pigs, support this hypothesis. This hypothesis does not necessarily mean that colostrum or milk from BSE-positive animals is infectious. Rather, the mother animals in the hypothesis scenario will be themselves infected, but probably not develop the disease due to its long incubation period, thus occurring in statistics as 'negative' animals. PMID:13679008
Probiotic lactobacilli have been proposed as a potential oral bacteriotherapeutic means of modulating immune phenotype expression in vivo, via their ability to promote cytokine production. This study investigated the ability of a known interferon (IFN)%-promoting probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001) to modulate cytokine production in mice expressing an on-going Th2-type immune response. BALB\\/c mice were primed to ovalbumin in alum adjuvant
Martin L. Cross; Rikke R. Mortensen; Jane Kudsk; Harsharnjit S. Gill
Faecal Eimeria oocyst excretion and levels of antibodies to first generation merozoite antigen of E. bovis in sera and colostra were followed in 86 and 70 cow-calf pairs in northern (group EF) and central Germany (group H), respectively, over periods of 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after calving in cows and from birth to an age of 63 days in calves. Oocysts were found in 30 and 7.7% of cows in groups EF and H, respectively. They belonged to 10 (group EF) and four Eimeria spp. (group H) with E. bovis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. auburnensis and E. zuerni as the most frequently occurring species. Prevalence and intensity of oocyst excretion varied with time resulting in peak values around the date of parturition, particularly in the case of E. bovis. Peak values at the time of parturition were also seen in case of strongyle egg excretion. Seven (group H) and nine Eimeria spp. (group EF) were found in the calves. The predominant species E. ellipsoidalis, E. zuerni, E. bovis and E. auburnensis were detected for the first time earlier after birth (3-5 weeks) than the others. The prevalence of Eimeria infections increased to 67.1% (group EF) and 50.1% (group H) 9 weeks after birth. Specific IgM and IgA antibody levels (the latter only determined in group EF) in cow sera remained almost constant throughout the observation period, whereas IgG(1) and IgG(2) levels were reduced at the time of parturition. Levels of specific antibodies in sera and colostra were significantly correlated. Except IgM antibodies, significant inverse correlations were found in cows between intensity of infection with E. bovis and specific serum IgG (group H) and IgG(2) (group EF) antibodies. Antibodies to E. bovis were detected in calves sera only after colostrum intake with significant correlations between levels in calves sera and colostra. Levels decreased, starting within the first week of life (most conspicuously in case of IgM and IgA) until the third week. Subsequently, but except IgG(1) antibody concentrations increased until the end of the observation period. Interrelations between antibody levels and the total amount of E. bovis oocysts excreted by the calves until the ninth week of life varied with the age of the animals. Inverse relationships in the first 3 weeks of life as suggested by negative correlation coefficients could not be proven statistically. Thus, there is no unambiguous proof for immunoprotection of calves against E. bovis via maternal immunity. Considering antibody levels in the 3-9 weeks old calves significant direct correlations with E. bovis oocyst excretion were found in case of IgM, IgG(2) and IgA, reflecting an active immune response of young calves to coccidial infection. PMID:11779651
Faber, Jan-Enno; Kollmann, Dirk; Heise, Andrea; Bauer, Christian; Failing, Klaus; Bürger, Hans-Jürgen; Zahner, Horst
Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse.
Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.
Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ? 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188
Ferrando, Arny A
Four neutral trisaccharides were isolated from goat colostrum by dialysis, and ion-exchange, activated charcoal column, preparative paper, and Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatography. The following structures were elucidated by GC analysis of hydrolysis products and by 400-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy: alpha-L-Fuc p-(1-->2)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc, alpha-D-Gal p- (1-->3)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc, beta-D-Gal p-(1-->3)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc, and beta-D-Gal p-(1-->6)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc. beta-D-Glc pNAc-(1-->6)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc, previously reported to be present in goat milk, was not detected in this study. beta-D-Glc pNAc-(1-->6)-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc (6'-N- acetylglucosaminyllactose) was prepared by beta-D-galactosidase digestion of beta-D-Gal p-(1-->3)[beta-D-Glc pNAc-(1-->6)]-beta-D-Gal p-(1-->4)-D-Glc (lacto-N-novotetraose) and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy at 600 MHz. PMID:7982214
Urashima, T; Bubb, W A; Messer, M; Tsuji, Y; Taneda, Y
The objectives of this experiment were to determine a NE value for pressed beet pulp and the value of concentrated separator by-product (de-sugared molasses) as a ruminal N source in growing and finishing diets for beef cattle. One hundred forty-four cross-bred beef steers (282 +/- 23 kg of initial BW) were used in 2 experiments (growing and finishing). A randomized complete block design was used, with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (level of pressed beet pulp and inclusion of concentrated separator by-product) for both studies. Steers were blocked by BW and allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments. In the growing study, the control diet contained 49.5% corn, 31.5% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, and 9.0% supplement (DM basis). Pressed beet pulp replaced corn at 0, 20, or 40% of dietary DM, and concentrated separator by-product replaced corn and urea at 10% of dietary DM. The growing study lasted for 84 d. Initial BW was an average of 2-d BW after a 3-d, restricted (1.75% of BW) feeding of 50% alfalfa hay and 50% corn silage (DM basis), and final BW was an average of 2-d BW after a 3-d, restricted (1.75% of BW) feeding of 31.5% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 25.0% dry-rolled corn, 20.0% pressed beet pulp, 5.0% concentrated separator by-product, and 8.5% supplement (DM basis). After the growing study, the steers were weighed (415 +/- 32 kg), rerandomized, and allotted to 1 of 6 finishing diets. The control diet for the finishing study included 45% dry-rolled corn, 40% high-moisture corn, 5% brome hay, 5% pressed beet pulp, and 5% supplement. Pressed beet pulp replaced high-moisture corn at 5.0, 12.5, and 20.0% of the dietary DM, and concentrated separator by-product replaced high-moisture corn and supplement at 10.0% of diet DM. Steers were slaughtered on d 83 or 98 of the study. In the growing study, the addition of pressed beet pulp to growing diets linearly decreased (P = 0.001) DMI and ADG and inclusion of 10% concentrated separator by-product decreased (P = 0.001) G:F. Increased levels of pressed beet pulp in the finishing diets caused a linear decrease (P = 0.001) in ADG and tended (P = 0.06 and 0.07 for kg/d and % of BW, respectively) to quadratically decrease DMI, whereas addition of concentrated separator by-product increased (P = 0.02 and 0.001 for kg/d and % of BW, respectively) DMI. Apparent NEg of pressed beet pulp was 94.2% of that of corn in the growing study and 81.5% of that of corn in the finishing study. PMID:17504950
Bauer, M L; Schimek, D E; Reed, J J; Caton, J S; Berg, P T; Lardy, G P
Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones.
Booth, Sarah L.
Twenty-three cesarean derived, colostrum deprived pigs were obtained at 5 wk of age and inoculated intranasally with either 1.4 x 10(8) colony forming units of Haemophilus parasuis or sterile phosphate buffered saline. Pigs were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, 26, or 36 h post-inoculation and tissues from the oropharynx and respiratory tract were obtained for qualitative bacterial culture, immunohistochemistry for H. parasuis antigens, and light and transmission electron microscopy. Haemophilus parasuis was consistently isolated from the nasal cavity (17/17, 100%) and trachea (13/17, 76%) and rarely isolated from the lung (3/17, 18%) and blood stream (1/17, 6%) of infected pigs. Antigens of H. parasuis were sporadically detected on the nasal mucosa (6/17, 35%) and trachea (8/17, 47%). Light microscopic lesions included submucosal and intraepithelial infiltrates of neutrophils and infrequent, patchy loss of cilia. Ultrastructural changes in nasal mucosal epithelial cells included cell protrusion, loss of cilia, and dilation of the cytocavitary network. Bacteria were infrequently identified and were either within an amorphous material at the apical surface of the cilia or were between individual cilia. These results suggest H. parasuis associates with the nasal mucosa and can induce a suppurative rhinitis with nasal mucosal epithelial cell degeneration. This process may represent an initial event in the pathogenesis of H. parasuis infection of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.
Vahle, J L; Haynes, J S; Andrews, J J
To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans. PMID:15081738
Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A
Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...
\\u000aBackground: Calcium has been identified as a nutrient which many individuals are lacking in their diets. Furthermore, the calcium intake of low income individuals tends to be lower than their higher income counterparts. The purpose of this research study was to specifically assess the overall calcium intake level and knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding consumption of milk products for low-income
Amber D. Riggin
Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean
K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker
Purpose To determine the safety of oropharyngeal administration of own mother’s colostrum to ELBW infants in first days of life. A secondary purpose was to investigate the feasibility of (1) delivering this intervention to ELBW infants in the first days of life, and (2) measuring concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lactoferrin in tracheal aspirate secretions and urine of these infants. Subjects Five ELBW infants (mean BW and gestational age = 657 grams and 25.5 weeks, respectively). Design Quasi experimental, one group, pretest-posttest design. Methods Subjects received 0.2 mL of OMC administered oropharyngeally every two hours for 48 consecutive hours, beginning at 48 hours of life. Concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin were measured in tracheal aspirates and urine of each subject at baseline, at the completion of the intervention and again 2 weeks later. Results All infants completed the entire treatment protocol, each receiving 24 treatments. A total of 15 urine specimens were collected and 14 were sufficient in volume for analysis. A total of 15 tracheal aspirates were collected, but only 7 specimens (47%) were sufficient in volume for analysis. There was wide variation in concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin in urine and tracheal aspirates among the five infants; however several results were outside the limits of assay detection. All infants began to suck on the endotracheal tube during the administration of colostrum drops. Oxygen saturation measures remained stable or increased slightly during each of the treatment sessions. There were no episodes of apnea, bradycardia, hypotension or other adverse effects associated with the administration of colostrum. Conclusions Oropharyngeal administration of OMC is easy, inexpensive, and well-tolerated by even the smallest and sickest ELBW infants. Future research should continue to examine the optimal procedure for measuring the direct immune effects of this therapy, as well as the clinical outcomes such as infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Meier, Paula P.; Groer, Maureen W.; Zeller, Janice M.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Fogg, Lou
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein involved in retinol transportation, and recent evidence in rodents suggests that RBP4 is also a metabolic regulator that modifies insulin sensitivity. To assess how RBP4 levels are regulated in ruminants, we determined the RBP4 concentrations in bovine plasma and milk using Western blot analysis. Plasma RBP4 levels in non-pregnant non-lactating (control) cows were around 45 microg/ml, which were sustained during 60-h fasting, but decreased significantly 4 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Basal plasma retinol concentration was around 30 microg/dl, but this decreased to approximately one-third and one-half of these values during fasting and 8 h after LPS challenge, respectively. Plasma RBP4 and retinol levels in cows 3-6 d before parturition were comparable to those of the controls. However, on the day of parturition both were significantly decreased and had returned to basal levels by two weeks after calving. Interestingly, RBP4 was clearly detected in colostrum (16.4+/-5.6 microg/ml) but was only faintly detected in milk from cows at 7 d and 15 d after calving. Retinol concentrations in colostrum were almost 10-fold higher than those in plasma, while those in milk were comparable to those in plasma. These results suggest that RBP4 and retinol levels are independently regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions and that RBP4, like retinol, is transferred from maternal stores to calves through colostrum. PMID:19785912
Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Kamikawa, Akihiro; Soliman, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Terao, Akira; Miyamoto, Toru; Kimura, Kazuhiro
Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.
Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.
Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women1-5
Background: The Western diet may be a risk factor for osteoporo- sis. Excess acid generated from high protein intakes increases cal- ciumexcretionandboneresorption.Fruitandvegetableintakecould balance this excess acidity by providing alkaline salts of potassium. Algorithms based on dietary intakes of key nutrients can be used to approximatenetendogenousacidproduction(NEAP)andtoexplore the association between dietary acidity and bone health. Objective: We investigated the relation between dietary
Helen M Macdonald; William D Fraser; Marion K Campbell; David M Reid
Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. This study was focused on the characterization of the acute-phase response after immunization and infection of colostrum-deprived pigs with H. parasuis serovar 5, by measuring serum concentrations of three positive acute-phase proteins (APPs) (pig major acute-phase protein pig, MAP; haptoglobin, HPG; C-reactive protein, CRP) and one negative APP (apolipoprotein A-I, ApoA-I). Six experimental groups were established: a non-immunized but infected control group (CTL); two groups immunized with either a recombinant transferrin-binding protein (Tbp) A or TbpB fragment from H. parasuis Nagasaki strain (rTbpA and rTbpB, respectively); two groups immunized with native outer membrane proteins with affinity to porcine transferrin (NPAPT), one of them inoculated intramuscularly (NPAPTim) and the other intratracheally (NPAPTit), and the last group receiving a commercially available bacterin (PG). The greatest concentrations of the three positive APPs and the lowest concentration of the negative APP were detected in CTL group, as well as in those animals belonging to rTbpA or rTbpB groups that died in response to challenge. Significant differences (P<0.005) were found in these groups when comparing challenge with the following days after it. However, no significant differences were seen for the remaining vaccinated groups (NPAPTim, NPAPTit and PG), which were effectively protected against Glässer's disease. Therefore, APPs could be used as useful biomarkers for both evaluating disease progression and determining vaccination effectiveness. PMID:21816489
Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Frandoloso, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Lampreave, Fermín; García-Iglesias, María José; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F
Humans live in symbiosis with 1014 commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with Gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of Gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with Gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for Gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system.
Mathias, Amandine; Corthesy, Blaise
Background: Marine-derived n?3 (omega-3) PUFAs may reduce risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, few studies have investigated the association of n?3 PUFA intakes on colorectal polyp risk. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary PUFA intake on risk of colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Design: This was a colonoscopy-based case-control study that included 3166 polyp-free control subjects, 1597 adenomatous polyp cases, and 544 hyperplastic polyp cases. Dietary PUFA intake was calculated from food-frequency questionnaires and tested for association by using unconditional logistic regression. The urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite, which is a biomarker of prostaglandin E2 production, was measured in 896 participants by using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Results: n?6 PUFAs were not associated with adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps in either men or women. Marine-derived n?3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in women only, with an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.97) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest quintile of intake (P-trend = 0.01). Dietary intake of ?-linolenic acid was associated with an increased risk of hyperplastic polyps in men (P-trend = 0.03), which was not seen in women. In women, but not in men, dietary intake of marine-derived n?3 PUFAs was negatively correlated with urinary prostaglandin E2 production (r = ?0.18; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Higher intakes of marine-derived n?3 PUFAs are associated with lower risk of adenomatous polyps in women, and the association may be mediated in part through a reduction in the production of prostaglandin E2. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00625066.
Shrubsole, Martha J; Cai, Qiuyin; Smalley, Walter E; Dai, Qi; Milne, Ginger L; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei
Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes
Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes
One hundred and three women who were habitual distance runners and 74 age-matched physically inactive women provided three-day diet records. Intergroup differences in intakes of energy nutrients, micronutrients, cholesterol and fiber were evaluated via analysis of variance and, to assess qualitative differences, via analysis of covariance with total caloric intake entered as the covariate. Women runners reported consuming more carbohydrate (192.4 vs 165.0 g.d-1) and less fat (57.5 vs 66.1 g.d-1) than did the inactive women (p less than .05). After controlling for the non-significant intergroup difference in caloric intake, these differences persisted and protein intake was lower in the runners. Cholesterol and saturated fat intakes were lower and fiber intake was greater in the runners, with and without control for differences in caloric intake. These data suggest that female runners, when compared to inactive counterparts, tend to follow dietary practices that conform more closely to the current recommendations of health authorities. PMID:1962760
Pate, R R; Sargent, R G; Baldwin, C; Burgess, M L
Hereford and Charolais steers were fed at three levels of feed intake (low, medium or ad libitum) to similar weights within breed groups to evaluate effects of energy intake on energetic efficiency and body composition. Two methods were employed to partition metabolizable energy intake into use for maintenance and gain. Method one used an assumed daily fasting heat production of
W. N. Garrett
11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bovine colostrum supplementation (Bioenervi) on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), immunoglobulin G, hormone, and amino acid and saliva immunoglobulin A concentrations during a strength and speed training period. Nine male sprinters and jumpers underwent three randomized experimental training treatments of 8 days separated by 13 days. The only difference in the treatments was the drink of 125 ml consumed per day. Posttraining increases were noticed for serum IGF-I in the 25-ml Bioenervi treatment (125 ml contained 25 ml Bioenervi) and especially in the 125-ml Bioenervi treatment (125 ml contained 125 ml Bioenervi) compared with the placebo (normal milk whey) treatment (P < 0.05). The change in IGF-I concentration during the 8-day periods correlated positively with the change in insulin concentration during the same periods with 25-ml Bioenervi treatment (r = 0.68; P = 0.045) and with 125-ml Bioenervi treatment (r = 0.69; P = 0.038). Serum immunoglobulin G, hormone, and amino acid and saliva immunoglobulin A responses were similar during the three treatments. It appears that a bovine colostrum supplement (Bioenervi) may increase serum IGF-I concentration in athletes during strength and speed training. PMID:9338422
Mero, A; Miikkulainen, H; Riski, J; Pakkanen, R; Aalto, J; Takala, T
The objectives of the current study were to 1) determine whether a fish-meal-supplemented diet fed to ewes during late gestation and early lactation would increase the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in colostrum and milk and 2) examine the subsequent effect on the plasma fatty acid profile of nursing lambs. Eight gestating ewes (Rideau-Arcott; 97 +/- 5 kg of initial BW; 100 d of gestation) were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually housed and fed a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal) or a fish-meal-supplemented diet for 6 wk before lambing and throughout 7 wk of lactation. Colostrum at d 0 and milk samples at d 36 and 49 of lactation were collected. Blood samples were collected from lambs throughout the preweaning period (at 0, 36, and 49 d of age). Fatty acids of the samples were analyzed by GLC. The ewes fed the fish-meal-supplemented diet had greater (P
Or-Rashid, M M; Fisher, R; Karrow, N; Alzahal, O; McBride, B W
|Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)|
Brender, Jean D.; And Others
ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level
K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders
Objective To describe the dietary intake of American and Western Samoans, with emphasis on nutrients conventionally related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Design Cross-sectional dietary survey. Intake estimates were based on 24-hour recall interviews.Subject Community-based samples of 946 men and women (455 American Samoans, 491 Western Samoans) aged 25 to 55 years.Statistical analyses Tests of differences in means (t tests)
DANIEL J GALANIS; STEPHEN T McGARVEY; CHRISTINE QUESTED; BRENDA SIO; SALEI' AAFELE-FA'AMULI
ObjectiveHigh sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing NADPH for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging via the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that high sugar intake would
Peter A. Hecker; Tatiana F. Galvao; Karen M. O'Shea; Bethany H. Brown; Reney Henderson; Heather Riggle; Sachin A. Gupte; William C. Stanley
Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians\\/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for ?-linolenic acid (ALA)
Penny M. Kris-Etherton; Jessica A. Grieger; Terry D. Etherton
Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134
Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K
To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of glucose tolerance correlated positively with the degree of adiposity but tended to be negatively correlated with total food energy intake and its component nutrients (total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fat). This inverse trend was largely accounted for by highly significant inverse correlations between food energy intake and adiposity, a relation found in both sexes and in all three population samples and which extended across the whole range of nutrient intake and BMI. These findings suggest that greater degrees of adiposity are associated with lower than average food energy intakes and hence lower total energy expenditures. The association of increased adiposity with low food energy consumption may indicate an underlying "low energy throughput" state, and it may be the mechanisms of this, as well as the obesity, that are responsible for disease.
Keen, H; Thomas, B J; Jarrett, R J; Fuller, J H
Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake. PMID:20416129
Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A
The Japanese population routinely consumes iodine-rich seaweed, thereby probably making Japan the nation with the highest iodine intake worldwide. The present study aimed to estimate the duration of dietary records (DRs) needed to calculate the usual iodine intake and to ascertain the frequency of iodine intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese. Four 3-d DRs for the 4 seasons within a year were collected for 55 men and 58 women. On the basis of analysis of variance, the total variance in iodine intake was classified into inter-individual and intra-individual components. The frequency of appearance for high iodine intakes was estimated. The most commonly consumed types of iodine-containing food items were seaweed, milk and milk products, fish and shellfish, and tofu. The percentage contribution of intra-individual variance was markedly greater than that of inter-individual variance, and the excessive iodine intake was intermittent rather than continuous. The duration for which dietary records were required to assess the usual intake of iodine within 10% of their true mean was 6,276 d for men and 4,953 d for women. The period that transpired until a value was exceeded once was 6.3 d/occurrence for values above UL (2,200 ?g), 8.5 d/occurrence for values above 3,000 ?g, 9.8 d/occurrence for values above 4,000 ?g, 11.2 d/occurrence for values above 5,000 ?g, and 16.7 d/occurrence for values above 10,000 ?g. To avoid errors in interpretation, it is inappropriate to assess the habitual nutrient intake of a nutrient that is intermittently consumed at maximal levels. It is important to assess the iodine intake in consideration of the range of the nutrient intake and of the time period in which the upper limit is exceeded. PMID:24064731
Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Nakade, Makiko; Matsumoto, Teruki; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Tsubono, Yoshitaka
The primary objective was to determine the effects of partial replacement of whole milk with soymilk on preweaning calf performance and weaning costs. Following 3 d of colostrum and transition milk feeding, 18 male and 9 female neonatal Holstein calves (41.6 +/- 1.6 kg of body weight; mean +/- SE) were assigned in a completely randomized design to 3 treatments offered at 10% of body weight (wet basis) including 1) whole milk (control), 2) 75% whole milk + 25% soymilk (S25), or 3) 50% whole milk + 50% soymilk (S50). The weaning criterion was defined as the calf age at a daily intake of >/=900 g of starter concentrate. During the first 2 wk of the experiment, treatments did not differ in starter intake and fecal score. Calves fed S25 gained similar amount of body weight as calves fed whole milk diet. By 49 d of age, also, calves on S25 gained similar body weight as did calves on whole milk diet. Calves on S25 and S50 achieved the weaning criterion, respectively, about 10 and 12 d earlier than did peers on whole milk. The soymilk-fed calves consumed less milk than control calves to meet the weaning criterion owing to promoted starter intake. Feed-related weaning costs dropped by about 35% when soymilk was fed because whole milk was about 50% more expensive than both soymilk and starter concentrate. Feeding soymilk at up to 50% of the milk diet maintained health during the first 2 to 4 wk of age when the neonate calf is highly sensitive to nonmilk proteins and plant antinutrients. Results introduce soymilk as an economic partial substitute for whole milk in calf-raising facilities. PMID:18024761
Ghorbani, G R; Kowsar, R; Alikhani, M; Nikkhah, A
This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products – i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) – experience the highest increase in fiber intake from
Jonas Nordström; Linda Thunström
In Sweden, milk and milk products are important sources of daily energy intake but the role of milk with preschool lunch meals has been debated frequently and water is often alternatively given today. We studied the effects of milk or water on lunch energy intake. Water or milk alternatively was served in a controlled, within-subject design on 12 occasions to
ANNA HÄGG; TOMMY JACOBSON; GERHARD NORDLUND; STEPHAN RÖSSNER
The precision of estimating protein intake of patients with chronic renal failure.BackgroundBiochemical methods for estimating protein intake are based on the concept that nitrogen-containing products of protein in diet plus the products arising from endogenous protein are excreted as either urea or non-urea nitrogen (NUN). This formulation is based on the fact that the urea is the principal end product
Tahsin Masud; Amita Manatunga; George Cotsonis; William E Mitch
Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. Only intake of toxicologically significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of chemicals in foods this is based on three major aspects: (i) how to determine quantitatively the presence of a chemical in individual foods and diets, including its fate during the processes within the food production chain; (ii) how to determine the consumption patterns of the individual foods containing the relevant chemicals; (iii) how to integrate both the likelihood of consumers eating large amounts of the given foods and of the relevant chemical being present in these foods at high levels. The techniques used for the evaluation of these three aspects have been critically reviewed in this paper to determine those areas where the current approaches provide a solid basis for assessments and those areas where improvements are needed or desirable. For those latter areas, options for improvements are being suggested, including, for example, the development of a pan-European food composition database, activities to understand better effects of processing on individual food chemicals, harmonisation of food consumption survey methods with the option of a regular pan-European survey, evaluation of probabilistic models and the development of models to assess exposure to food allergens. In all three areas, the limitations of the approaches currently used lead to uncertainties which can either cause an over- or underestimation of real intakes and thus risks. Given these imprecisions, risk assessors tend to build in additional uncertainty factors to avoid health-relevant underestimates. This is partly done by using screening methods designed to look for "worst case" situations. Such worse case assumptions lead to intake estimates that are higher than reality. These screening methods are used to screen all those chemicals with a safe intake distribution. For chemicals with a potential risk, more information is needed to allow more refined screening or even the most accurate estimation. More information and more refined methods however, require more resources. The ultimate aims are: (1) to obtain appropriate estimations for the presence and quantity of a given chemical in a food and in the diet in general; (2) to assess the consumption patterns for the foods containing these substances, including especially those parts of the population with high consumption and thus potentially high intakes; and (3) to develop and apply tools to predict reliably the likelihood of high end consumption with the presence of high levels of the relevant substances. It has thus been demonstrated that a tiered approach at all three steps can be helpful to optimise the use of the available resources: if relatively crude tools - designed to provide a "worst case" estimate - do not suggest a toxicologically significant exposure (or a relevant deficit of a particular nutrient) it may not be necessary to use more sophisticated tools. These will be needed if initially high intakes are indicated for at least parts of the population. Existing pragmatic approaches are a first crude step to model food chemical intake. It is recommended to extend, refine and validate this approach in the near future. This has to result in a cost-effective exposure assessment system to be used for existing and potential categories of chemicals. This system of knowledge (with information on sensitivities, accuracy, etc.) will guide future data collection. PMID:11893401
Kroes, R; Müller, D; Lambe, J; Löwik, M R H; van Klaveren, J; Kleiner, J; Massey, R; Mayer, S; Urieta, I; Verger, P; Visconti, A
A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was assembled and analysed for its polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PBDE levels, an average daily dietary intake estimate of PBDEs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest average
Stefan Voorspoels; Adrian Covaci; Hugo Neels; Paul Schepens
summary Differences in protein requirements for athletes and nonathletes, and different types of athletes (i.e., en- durance vs. strength\\/power) are well acknowledged. This has led many athletes to use protein supplements as a means of achieving required protein intakes. Recent research has begun to examine the importance of protein timing. Specifically, does it make a difference when the pro- tein
Jay R. Hoffman
Amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, identified in 1987, is a naturally occurring hormone, released by the ? cells of the pancreas and consists of 37 amino acids. Amylin seems to decrease food intake through both central and peripheral mechanisms and indirectly by slowing gastric emptying. The mean basal amylin concentration is higher in obese than in lean human
Tarek K. Reda; Allan Geliebter; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer
This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)
Amschler, Denise H.
Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in
M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend
Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five
H. C. Reid
To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of
H Keen; B J Thomas; R J Jarrett; J H Fuller
Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564
Among other nutrients of breast milk, the amino acid pattern is considered normative throughout infancy. Exclusive breastfeeding by a healthy mother should be the standard from birth to 6 months. During the breastfeeding period the protein intake is low in the human being compared too many other animals. The protein content in breast milk is about 1 g\\/100 ml and
Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345
Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W
This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI. PMID:1894884
Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N
Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of
John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett
Background\\/Aim: The objective of this review was to collect data on the dietary intake of total fat and saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (LA), ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids, in adults from various countries and to compare them with current recommendations for fat intake. Methods: Weighted mean intake data were collected from
I. Elmadfa; M. Kornsteiner
Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-
Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL
This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods. The database was complemented with data from recent literature and information from food manufacturers. In addition, data on intake of vitamin A are presented, which are based on the most recent update of the Dutch Food Composition Table. Intake of vitamin A was calculated for adult participants of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey in 1992, whereas intake of carotenoids was calculated for participants of the Dutch Cohort Study on diet and cancer, aged 55 to 69 in 1986. Mean intake of vitamin A amounted to 1.1 and 0.9 mg RE/day for men and women, respectively; the contributions of meat, fats and oils, vegetables and dairy products to total intake were 35%, 24%, 16%, and 16%, respectively. Mean intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin was 0.7, 3.0, and 2.5 mg/day respectively for both men and women, while mean intake of lycopene was 1.0 mg/day for men and 1.3 mg/day for women. The most important foods contributing to intake of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin were carrots (beta-carotene only), spinach, endive and kale. PMID:9857265
Goldbohm, R A; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; van den Brandt, P A
Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification. PMID:20399268
Vatanparast, Hassanali; Calvo, Mona S; Green, Timothy J; Whiting, Susan J
likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were non- consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Con- sumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. Conclusions: On average, consumption
CAROL D. FRARY; RACHEL K. JOHNSON; MIN QI WANG
Heterotypic passive immunity to IND (PG6) bovine rotavirus (BRV) was evaluated. Three groups of calves (n = 5 per group) were fed 1% pooled colostrum supplements (birth to 7 days of age) from BRV seropositive cows vaccinated with recombinant SA11(PG3) rotavirus-like particles (VLPs), recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particles (CLPs), or inactivated SA11 rotavirus (SA11). Control calves (n = 5 per
F. M. Fernandez; M. E. Conner; D. C. Hodgins; A. V. Parwani; P. R. Nielsen; S. E. Crawford; M. K. Estes; L. J. Saif
The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...
Background: Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. Objective: We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Design: This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks). Analyses were adjusted for the covariates of parity, maternal educational level, and physical activity. Results: Pregnancies that resulted in spontaneous preterm delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Conclusion: Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.
Myhre, Ronny; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Hakon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo
Dietary selenium (Se) can be supplemented from organic or inorganic sources and this may affect Se metabolism and functional outcome such as antioxidative status and immune functions in dairy cows. A feeding trial was performed with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fed with a total mixed ration (0.18 mg Se/kg dry matter (DM)) either without Se supplement (Control, n = 5), or with Se from sodium selenite (Group SeS, n = 5) or Se yeast (Group SeY, n = 6). In Groups SeS and SeY, the Se supplementation amounted to an additional intake of 4 mg Se and 6 mg Se/d during gestation and lactation, respectively. The effect of both Se sources was characterised by milk Se and antioxidant levels, and the phenotyping and functional assessment of phagocytic activity of milk immune cells. Se yeast has been found to increase (p ? 0.001) the milk Se and antioxidant levels markedly compared to the control group. The experimental treatment did not affect the immune parameters of the cows. Lymphocyte subpopulations and phagocytosis activity of neutrophilic granulocytes were affected neither by the Se intake nor by the two different dietary supplements. It can be concluded that sodium selenite and Se yeast differ considerably in their effects on antioxidant status in dairy cows. However, the basal dietary Se concentration of 0.18 mg/kg DM seemed to be high enough for the measured immune variables. PMID:23298256
Salman, Saeed; Dinse, Daniela; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schreiner, Matthias; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Zentek, Jürgen
Limits to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during lactation in Swiss mice have been suggested to reflect the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. However, an alternative explanation is that milk production and food intake are regulated to match the limited growth capacity of the offspring. In the present study, female Swiss mice were experimentally manipulated in two ways - litter sizes were adjusted to be between 1 and 9 pups and mice were exposed to either warm (21°C) or cold (5°C) conditions from day 10 of lactation. Energy intake, number of pups and litter mass, milk energy output (MEO), thermogenesis, mass of the mammary glands and brown adipose tissue cytochrome c oxidase activity of the mothers were measured. At 21 and 5°C, pup mass at weaning was almost independent of litter size. Positive correlations were observed between the number of pups, litter mass, asymptotic food intake and MEO. These data were consistent with the suggestion that in small litters, pup requirements may be the major factor limiting milk production. Pups raised at 5°C had significantly lower body masses than those raised at 21°C. This was despite the fact that milk production and energy intake at the same litter sizes were both substantially higher in females raising pups at 5°C. This suggests that pup growth capacity is lower in the cold, perhaps due to pups allocating ingested energy to fuel thermogenesis. Differences in observed levels of milk production under different conditions may then reflect a complex interplay between factors limiting maternal performance (peripheral limitation and heat dissipation: generally better when it is cooler) and factors influencing maximum pup growth (litter size and temperature: generally better when it is hotter), and may together result in an optimal temperature favouring reproduction. PMID:23720804
Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Song, De-Guang; Su, Zhen-Cheng; Wei, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xian-Bin; Speakman, John R
\\u000a The objective of our chapter is to provide convincing evidence of how changes in food consumption patterns, judicious fortification\\u000a of food staples, and targeted supplementation of at-risk groups could be effective public health strategies to help increase\\u000a vitamin D intake, maintain bone health, and potentially prevent chronic disease. We demonstrate the limitations of the Canadian\\u000a and American food supply to
Mona S. Calvo; Susan J. Whiting
Previous studies have shown that fluoride is present in beverages prepared with fluoridated water. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of fluoride from beverages consumed in adjacent fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities taking into account fluoride supplementation regimens. Children in grade six were invited to participate in recording of beverage intake in two cities in Alberta, Canada: Wetaskiwin, with water supplies fluoridated at 1.08 ppm F, and Camrose, non-fluoridated with water supplies at 0.23 ppm F. Three-day beverage intake records--"Drink Diaries"--were collected from 179 children in Wetaskiwin and 230 children in Camrose. Fluoride values, based on the analyses of Hargreaves, were assigned to the reported consumption of the children with the three highest and three lowest total beverage intakes in each community. A wide range of available fluoride was found. A substantial source of fluoride was shown to be available in the non-fluoridated community from beverages other than water, primarily from carbonated beverages commercially prepared with fluoridated water. Available beverages and actual consumption should be considered in the prescription of fluoride supplementation for children with minimal fluoride in their drinking water. PMID:3422610
Clovis, J; Hargreaves, J A
Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p < 0.05 for all values). Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness.
Shahar, Suzana; Chee, Kan Yin; Wan Chik, Wan Chak Pa'
Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research) was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n?=?291) were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings). Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24?±?1.07?years and Hispanic children 2.84?±?1.12?years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7?±?51 vs. 96.9?±?33, p?0.05). Hispanics consumed more fruits (22.0?±?10.7% vs. 14.7?±?13.7%, p?0.05), while African Americans consumed more grains (25.7?±?7.8% vs. 18.1?±?6.4%, p?0.05), meats (20.7?±?9.0% vs. 15.4?±?6.1%, p?0.05), fats (9.8?±?5.4% vs. 7.0?±?5.8%, p?0.05), sweet drinks (58.7?±?17.1% vs. 41.3?±?14.8%, p?0.05) and low-fat dairy products (39.5?±?19.3% vs. 28.9?±?12.6%, p?0.05). Among Hispanics, the proportional intake of fruits, fats and grains varied by total caloric intake, while no difference by total caloric intake was found for the dietary patterns of African Americans. Micronutrient intake also differed significantly between African American and Hispanic children. Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.
In this study, the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA of pre-school children in Flanders, Belgium, was evaluated, and recommendations to address the very low intake of long-chain PUFA are presented. Food consumption data (based on parentally reported 3 d dietary records obtained from October 2002 to February 2003) of 661 children (338 boys, 323 girls) between 2.5 and 6.5 years of age and the PUFA concentrations obtained from various food composition databases were used. The actual PUFA intake levels were compared to Belgian, European and American recommendations. Only the intake of linoleic acid (LA) fell within the recommended ranges. Margarine, bread, biscuits and chocolate products contributed most to LA intake. The intake of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) was low compared to the recommendations and was obtained mostly from the consumption of margarines and fatty sauces. This resulted in a high LA/LNA ratio. The intake of all long-chain PUFA was far below the recommended levels. Meat and meat products were the most important sources of arachidonic acid. Consumption of fish and other seafood was very low, though these were the most important sources of long-chain n-3 PUFA. In conclusion, Flemish pre-school children should consume more n-3-rich products in order to increase their LNA intake and decrease their LA/LNA ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of meat products rich in SFA by poultry would increase the arachidonic acid intake. As well, fatty fish consumption needs to be increased, as it is a rich source of long-chain n-3 PUFA. PMID:17678564
Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Verbeke, Wim; Camp, John Van; De Henauw, Stefaan
Objective Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relations between dairy intake and CT lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women, aged 45–84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3,965 MESA participants. Results Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with FVC (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and the lowest quintile of total dairy intake was ?0.92 (p for trend=0.04) for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL (p=0.01) for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 (p=0.02) and ?0.98 (p=0.01) for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. Conclusions Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density.
Jiang, Rui; Jacobs, David R.; He, Ka; Hoffman, Eric; Hankinson, John; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Barr, R. Graham
Animals, including humans, can achieve precise regulation of caloric intake by adjusting consumption in response to covert changes in energy density. It remains unknown, however, whether the presence of flavour cues are required for the ability to maintain constant caloric intake. Also unknown are the brain circuits that may function as the central calorie monitors that control adaptive adjustments in energy intake. Here we show that mice trained to lick a dry spout in order to receive intra-gastric infusions of a fat emulsion maintained constant hourly caloric intake by adjusting the number of dry licks in response to changes in caloric density. Animals also increased dry licking according to hunger levels, and developed conditioned preferences for dry sippers associated with high calorie infusions. Importantly, striatal dopamine levels were closely associated with the amount of calories ingested, rather than with the number of dry licks produced. Dopamine levels in dorsal and ventral striatum also reflected caloric density in mice passively receiving intra-gastric infusions of fat emulsions. Consistent with the above, systemic administration of the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol markedly increased the production of dry licks needed to obtain high-calorie infusions, as if the caloric density of the infusions had been diluted. Conversely, haloperidol markedly decreased the production of dry licks needed to obtain low-calorie infusions. Taken together, our results support the proposition that brain dopamine circuits function as one central sensor of calorie ingestion, since (1) extracellular striatal dopamine levels fluctuate in proportion to the caloric density of nutrients infused in the gut; and (2) inhibiting dopamine receptor signalling disrupts the animals’ ability to maintain constant caloric intake across experimental sessions.
Ferreira, Jozelia G; Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E
Nutritional status influences hormone secretion from specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gut mucosa. These hormones regulate food intake by mediating information to central neurocircuitries in the brainstem and forebrain (eg, hypothalamic nuclei). Intestinal enteroendocrine cells were believed to be the main source of gut peptides regulating food intake. However, recent evidence highlights a specific endocrine cell within the oxyntic glands of the stomach as an important player in appetite control. Acylated ghrelin is the only known orexigenic hormone peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake. Recent advances led to the assumption that des-acylated ghrelin, coreleased with acylated ghrelin, is also involved in regulating food intake. This, and the novel observation that nesfatin-1, which inhibits food intake, is expressed in ghrelin-producing cells of the stomach, supports an important role for gastric X/A-like cells in regulating food intake. Another peptide, obestatin, was initially described as a ghrelin gene product inhibiting food intake, but subsequent studies produced controversial data and its action as an anorexic factor is doubtful. Importantly, synergistic interactions between ghrelin and intestinal peptides seem to orchestrate food intake and body weight regulation, which may have implications for understanding mechanisms leading to the treatment of obesity.
Stengel, Andreas; Tache, Yvette
New, highly effective detergent/dispersants for use in spark ignition fuels are described. They are Mannich condensation products formed from (i) one mole part of hydroxyaromatic compound having on the ring an aliphatic hydrocarbyl substituent derived from a polyolefin having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 500 to about 3000, (ii) from 0.8 to 1.5 mole part(s) of aliphatic polyamine having one and only one primary or secondary amino group in the molecule capable of participating in the Mannich condensation reaction, and (iii) from 0.8 to 1.3 mole part(s) of aldehyde, provided that the mole ratio of aldehyde to amine is 1.2 or less. Carrier fluids such as poly(oxyalkylene) compounds further enhance the effectiveness of these Mannich condensation products in minimizing or reducing intake valve deposits and/or intake valve sticking.
The aim of this work was evaluation of lutein intake in group of 110 adolescents from big city (Warsaw) and little town (I?za). The group consisted of 56 girls and 54 boys, high school attending persons, aged 16 - 20. The study was carried in the spring of 2007, with the use of three-days dietary food records method. The mean intake of lutein was 1.87 mg/person/ day and it was dependent on respondents sex. Girls consumed 1.67 mg per day of lutein, while boys consumed 2.07 mg per day. Index of BMI, place of dwelling, place of study, physical activity, mother occupation as well as amount of siblings did not have an impact on the intake of lutein. The main sources of lutein in adolescents food rations were vegetables (64%), including dark-green leafy vegetables (40%), eggs (12%) and cereal products (12%). Potatoes (5%), fruit (3%) and juices (3%) did not contribute significant amount to dietary intake of lutein. PMID:20803901
Hamu?ka, Jadwiga; Slifierska, Agnieszka
Menstrual pain, dysmenorrhea, which is known to be prostaglandin mediated, can possibly be influenced by the dietary ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The prostaglandins derived from marine omega-3 fatty acids are normally less aggressive and therefore expected to be associated with milder menstrual symptoms. This hypothesis was surveyed in an epidemiological study in Danish women based upon self administered questionnaires concerning menstrual history, present symptoms, general health, socio-economic factors, and general dietary habits. Two prospective four-day dietary records were used to estimate average daily nutrient intake. The subjects were recruited by advertising, they were 20-45 years of age, not pregnant, and did not use oral contraceptives. No correlations were found between socioeconomic or anthropometric data and menstrual problems. However, certain dietary habits e.g. low intakes of animal and fish products, and low intakes of specific nutrients (omega-3 PUFA, B12 and omega-3/omega-6 ratio) were correlated with menstrual pain. The other nutrients in the diet were not significantly related to menstrual pain. The results were highly significant and mutually consistent and supported the hypothesis that a higher intake of marine, omega-3 fatty acids correlate with milder menstrual symptoms. PMID:8701537
Fenofibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activator and is prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. The mechanism through which PPAR? agonists reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity remains unclear. One explanation for the reduction of food intake is that fenofibrate promotes fatty acid oxidation and increases the production of ketone bodies upon a standard experimental dose of the drug (100~300 mg/kg/day). We observed that low-dose treatment of fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day), which does not cause significant changes in ketone body synthesis, reduced food intake in Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats. LETO rats are the physiologically normal controls for Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which are obese and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor deficient. We hypothesized that the reduced food intake by fenofibrate-treated LETO rats may be associated with CCK production. To investigate the anorexic effects of fenofibrate in vivo and to determine whether CCK production may be involved, we examined the amount of food intake and CCK production. Fenofibrate-treated OLETF rats did not significantly change their food intake while LETO rats decreased their food intake. Treatment of fenofibrate increased CCK synthesis in the duodenal epithelial cells of both LETO and OLETF rats. The absence of a change in the food intake of OLETF rats, despite the increase in CCK production, may be explained by the absence of CCK-A receptors. Contrary to the OLETF rats, LETO rats, which have normal CCK receptors, presented a decrease in food intake and an increase in CCK production. These results suggest that reduced food intake by fenofibrate treatment may be associated with CCK production.
Park, Mi-Kyoung; Han, Ying; Kim, Mi Sun; Seo, Eunhui; Kang, Soojeong; Park, So-Young; Koh, Hyeongjong; Kim, Duk Kyu
Our purpose was to conduct a new analysis to update and extend previously published trends of fructose availability and estimated fructose intake and food sources of dietary fructose from the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) data. We estimated fructose usual intake with data from NHANES 1999-2004 for 25,165 individuals (1 y and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women and breast-fed infants) using the Iowa State C-SIDE software. We applied food group-specific conversion factors to individual measures of sugar intakes following the earlier study. Sweetener availability in the United States increased from 1978, peaked in 1999, and declined through 2005. The high-fructose corn syrup percentage of sweeteners increased from 16% in 1978 to 42% in 1998 and then stabilized. Since 1978, mean daily intakes of added and total fructose increased in all gender and age groups, whereas naturally occurring (N) fructose intake decreased or remained constant. Total fructose intake as percentage of energy and as percentage of carbohydrate increased 1 and 1.2%, whereas daily energy and carbohydrate intakes increased 18 and 41%, respectively. Similar to 1978 results, nonalcoholic beverages and grain products were the principal food sources of added fructose. Fruits and fruit products were the main dietary sources of N fructose in 2004; in 1978, grain products and vegetables were more predominant food sources. Although comparison of estimates of fructose intakes between data from the 1977-1978 NFCS and the NHANES 1999-2004 showed an increase, this increase was dwarfed by greater increases in total daily energy and carbohydrate intakes. PMID:19403716
Marriott, Bernadette P; Cole, Nancy; Lee, Ellen
Four groups of colostrum-deprived pigs were immunized with Porcilis Glässer® (PG) or with subunit vaccines developed by us (rTbpA, NPAPT(M) or NPAPT(Cp)) against Glässer's disease, and they were challenged with 3×10(8)CFU of Haemophilus parasuis. A strong reduction in CD3(+)??TCR(+) cells was seen in non-immunized control and scarcely protected (rTbpA) groups, suggesting that these cells could represent a target of H. parasuis infection. A significant increase in CD172?(+)CD163(+) cells was detected in all groups but PG, while a reduction in SLAIIDR(+) molecules expression was observed after challenge in control animals. Significant increases in CD3?(+)CD8?(+)CD8?(+) and B cells were detected respectively in control and NPAPT groups, and in scarcely (rTbpA) and well-protected (NPAPT(M) and NPAPT(Cp)) groups. Finally, a greater response in CD4(+)CD8?(-) cells was observed in NPAPT(Cp) compared to NPAPT(M) and PG groups. These results state the potential of NPAPT antigen for developing effective vaccines against Glässer's disease. PMID:22721860
Frandoloso, R; Martínez-Martínez, S; Yubero, S; Rodríguez-Ferri, E F; Gutiérrez-Martín, C B
The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results.
Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William
The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)
Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes. PMID:23877425
Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C
Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed. PMID:23588778
Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan
A model which describes the response of groups of laying hens to different levels of amino acid intake is presented. The model is based on the assumption of simple linear relationships between amino acid intake and the output characteristics, egg production and maintenance, for individual birds. The response for a group of birds is then derived as the average of
C. Fisher; T. R. Morris; R. C. Jennings
This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products – i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) – experience the highest increase in fiber intake from
Jonas Nordström; Linda Thunström
1. Indirect calorimetry was used to study the effects on the energy metabolism of cockerels and hens after peak lay of a hybrid layer strain of regulating food or energy intake to 80% of ad libitum for an extended period of time.2. Regulation of food intake decreased fasting and fed heat productions per bird and per unit metabolic body weight
M. G. MacLeod; S. G. Tullett; T. R. Jewitt
Background: Folate intake increases plasma folate and reduces total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which may lower coro- nary artery disease (CAD) and cancer risks. Folate metabolism may be altered by alcohol intake and 2 common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase(MTHFR)gene,677C3Tand 1298A3C. Objective: We examined whether the associations between folate intake and plasma folate and tHcy concentrations were modified by alcohol intake or
Stephanie E Chiuve; Edward L Giovannucci; Susan E Hankinson; David J Hunter; Meir J Stampfer; Walter C Willett; Eric B Rimm
The Core Food Model was recently used to provide the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Food and Nutrition Board with data on intakes of selected minerals. The information was requested for review by the Committee charged with establishing dietary reference intakes (DRI) for micronutrients. The current Model uses the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994–1996 survey files and
Objective: To determine whether low fat intake is associated with increased risk of nutritional inadequacy in children 2 to 8 years old and to identify eating patterns associated with differences in fat intake. Study design: Using 2 days of recall from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996, we classified 2802 children into quartiles of
Carol Ballew; Sarah Kuester; Mary Serdula; Barbara Bowman; William Dietz
Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese. PMID:22380537
Dougkas, Anestis; Minihane, Anne M; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Yaqoob, Parveen
This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake\\u000a from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich\\u000a products—i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience\\u000a the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they
Jonas Nordström; Linda Thunströmb
Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products.\\u000a Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the\\u000a association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone\\u000a receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study
Grete S. Pedersen; Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Leo J. Schouten; Erik J. M. Konings; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Piet A. van den Brandt
Dietary intakes oftwo groups of vegetarians (ofAsian Indian and of Amen- can origin) residing in the United States were compared with intakes ofa group of nonvegetari- ans. Mineral intakes and balances were determined for all three groups for a 7-d period. The vegetarians had a significantly higher percent of energy intake from carbohydrate and signifi- cantly higher intakes ofcrude fiber
June L Kelsay; Cynthia WFrazier; Elizabeth S Prather; John J Canary; Willa M Clark
Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values. PMID:23869904
Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael
Researchers compared data on 33 pregnant women attending nutrition education classes regularly over a 13-week period (nutrition education group) with data on 33 other pregnant women who did not receive such education (controls) to examine the impact of nutrition education on the pregnant women's food and nutrient intake. The 66 pregnant women were selected from two hospitals and two urban family welfare centers in Ludhiana city, India. All were from the low socioeconomic group (i.e., per capita income of Rs. 369/month). A dietary survey was conducted at 20 weeks gestation and again at 36 weeks gestation. At 20 weeks, the two groups were not statistically different. The intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar and jagger were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI). On the other hand, intake was more than RDI for milk and milk products, other vegetables, and roots and tubers. Except thiamine and ascorbic acid, intake of nutrients was inadequate. In both the nutrition education group and the control group, nutrient intake was higher at 36 weeks than at 20 weeks due to the increased food requirements of pregnancy. Women in the nutrition education group were more likely than the control group to consume more protein, vitamin A, thiamine, folic acid, and vitamin C. This likely reflects a higher consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits, and vegetables as well as adopting favorable nutritional practices (e.g., use of sprouted grains). Nevertheless, intake was below RDIs for many nutrients, even for women in the nutrition education group. These findings suggest that nutrition education for pregnant women does improve nutrient intake but also that more needs to be done to bring intake levels up even higher. PMID:12320377
Paramjit; Chawla, K; Puri, R
Unexplained weight loss is common in late old age due to a decrease in energy intake relative to energy expenditure and is given the term 'anorexia in aging.' There is evidence from multiple studies that a loss of the ability to accurately regulate food intake may be an important contributing factor...
Both hypertension and osteoporosis have common underlying nutritional aetiology, with regards to dietary cations intake. We tested the hypothesis that sodium intake reflected in urinary Na\\/Cr and blood pressure would be negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD), whereas other cations may have opposite associations. Subjects were part of a study of bone health in 4000 men and women aged
J Woo; T Kwok; J Leung; N Tang
The study of feed intake has been greatly facilitated by the recent development of computerized systems that monitor the feed intake of individual animals within a group. Such equipment was originally designed for use by breeding stock supply organizations in the performance testing of pigs in group situations. The majority of selection programs for pigs place considerable emphasis on feed
A numerical and experimental analysis of a Scramjet intake has been initiated at RWTH Aachen University. The paper presents an overview of the ongoing work on the nu- merical simulations of compression ramp and air intake flow of a Scramjet propulsion us- ing two different, well validated Reynolds av- eraged Navier Stokes flow solvers. The anal- ysed geometry concepts have
M. Krause; B. Reinartz; J. Ballmann
Dietary calcium intake has been shown to vary both between and within populations. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessment of dietary calcium in the local population of postmenopausal Chinese women. The intake was measured using 24h dietary recall as well as a food frequency questionnaire. There was a high correlation in the measurement of
C. J. Haines; T. K. H. Chung; P. C. Leung; Denis H Y Leung; M. Y. Wong; L. L. Lam
Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...
Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...
Background: Magnesium deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes and may have a negative impact on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, as well as on the evolution of complications such as retinopathy, thrombosis and hypertension.Objective: To assess the dietary magnesium intake of patients with type 2 diabetes in Zurich, Switzerland and to compare the magnesium intake of diabetic and non-diabetic
MK Wälti; MB Zimmermann; GA Spinas; S Jacob; RF Hurrell
Previous studies indicate that the presence of peers influences children's food consumption. It is assumed that one factor producing this effect in children is child modeling of food intake. The present study assesses the effect of a video model on the food intake of overweight (n=22) and nonoverweight (n=22) preadolescent girls. A 2 (weight status)×2 (small vs large serving size)
Natalie D. Romero; Leonard H. Epstein; Sarah-Jeanne Salvy
A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener?containing food
M. C. F. Toledo; S. H. Ioshi
The relationship between genetic and the environment represents a pathway to better understand individual variations in nutrition intake and food preferences. However, the present literature is weakened somewhat by methodological flaws (e.g., overreliance on self-report questionnaires), discrepancies in statistical approaches, and inconsistent findings. Little research on this topic to date has included examination of micronutrient intake. The purpose of this study is to improve the existing literature on genetic and environmental influences on energy and nutrient intake by addressing these gaps. Twin pairs (N = 358; age 11-13 years) provided 3-day food intake diaries, which were assessed for intake of total energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Structural equation modeling revealed that genetic influences accounted for a significant portion of the total variance in total energy (48 %), macronutrients (35-45 %), minerals (45 %), and vitamins (21 %). Consistent with previous studies, the shared environment appeared to contribute little to nutritional intake. Findings on vitamin and mineral intake are novel and are particularly beneficial for further research on the contribution of micronutrients to individual physical health status. Better understanding of the linkage between genes, environment, and nutritional intake and deficiencies can clarify behavioral and physical outcomes, potentially informing risk reduction, primary prevention, and intervention strategies. PMID:23055091
Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura
Epidemiologic studies consistently report asso- ciations between obesity and dietary fat but not total energy intake. We measured ad libitum food intake in a laboratory setting and evaluated its relation to body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and macronutrient utilization in 28 women of Pima- Papago heritage (aged 27 ± 7 y, 85.3 ± 19.0 kg, 44 ± 6% body
D Enette Larson; Pietro A Tataranni; Robert T Ferraro; Eric Ravussin
The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation. PMID:22785030
Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo
The quality and quantity of food intake affect body weight, but little is known about the genetics of such human dietary intake patterns in relation to the genetics of BMI. We aimed to estimate the heritability of dietary intake patterns and genetic correlation with BMI in participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. The study included 1,690 individuals (42 % men; age range, 19-92), of whom 41.4 % were overweight and 15.9 % were obese. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the number of days (0-7) on which participants consumed vegetables, fruit, fruit juice, fish, unhealthy snacks, fastfood, and soft drinks. Principal component analysis was applied to examine the correlations between the questionnaire items and to generate dietary intake pattern scores. Heritability and the shared genetic and shared non-genetic (environmental) correlations were estimated using the family structure of the cohort. Principal component analysis suggested that the questionnaire items could be grouped in a healthy and unhealthy dietary intake pattern, explaining 22 and 18 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The dietary intake patterns had a heritability of 0.32 for the healthy and 0.27 for the unhealthy pattern. Genetic correlations between the dietary intake patterns and BMI were not significant, but we found a significant environmental correlation between the unhealthy dietary intake pattern and BMI. Specific dietary intake patterns are associated with the risk of obesity and are heritable traits. The genetic factors that determine specific dietary intake patterns do not significantly overlap with the genetic factors that determine BMI. PMID:22415036
van den Berg, Linda; Henneman, Peter; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W
The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5–6.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.
Huybrechts, Inge; Matthys, Christophe; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Temme, Elisabeth HM; Van Oyen, Herman; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors. PMID:17723994
Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn
The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d.
Fjeld, C.R.; Brown, K.H.; Schoeller, D.A.
Purpose This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [<50 g/day (0<50 g/day), 50-200 g/day, and >200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). Results After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Conclusion Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.
Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju