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Sample records for intake colostrum production

  1. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 LandraceLarge White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.90.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (21624 vs. 13722 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17?, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T24 (P=0.02) in HF than LF sows (at T0: 8.61.1 vs. 11.91.1 mg/mL; at T24: 2.50.7 vs. 4.80.7 mg/mL). In conclusion, dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis. PMID:23989876

  2. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

  3. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    PubMed

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low blood concentrations of adiponectin and placental transfer of adiponectin to the bovine fetus is unlikely. In conclusion, colostrum intake is essential for the postnatal increase of circulating adiponectin in newborn calves. PMID:26277307

  4. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Srensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P<0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P<0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected neither CI nor CY, but the prefarrowing diet with coconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the new mechanistic predictive model for CI suggests that the previous empirical predictive model underestimates CI of sow-reared piglets by 30%. It was also concluded that nutrition of sows during gestation affected CY and colostrum composition. PMID:25367518

  5. Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schnhusen, U; Metges, C C

    2013-02-01

    In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from colostrum in neonatal calves, unlike in rodents where systemic effects of colostral leptin are demonstrated. Therefore, glucose availability in neonatal calves is promoted by perinatal maturation of eGP and colostrum intake. There may be long-lasting effects of an improved colostrum supply and glucose status on postnatal growth and development, and colostrum supply may contribute to neonatal programming of performance (milk and growth) in later life, but data proving this concept are missing. PMID:23100594

  6. Effect of human colostrum on interleukin-2 production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, L.; Straussberg, R.; Notti, I.; Bessler, H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of human colostrum on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and on natural killer (NK) cell activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in 50 healthy women. At concentrations as low as 0.5%, human colostrum stimulated IL-2 production; at a higher concentration (10%), IL-2 secretion was inhibited. A time and dose dependent inhibitory effect of colostrum on NK cytotoxicity was also observed. This inhibition could be reversed by the addition of human recombinant IL-2 (hrIL-2). The stimulation of IL-2 production induced by human colostrum might compensate for its inhibitory effect on NK cell activity. These findings suggest an additional mechanism by which breast feeding may affect the neonatal immune system. PMID:7583615

  7. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking into account the birth weight, and parity order of sows. Colostrum intake from birth to 24h after birth was estimated in 300 piglets each from primiparous and multiparous sows. The piglets were cross-fostered in 25 primiparous and 25 multiparous sows at 25.90.09 h after farrowing. The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined in the sows after the end of farrowing and in the piglets before cross-fostering (24h after farrowing), at 10 and 20 days of age. For high birth weight piglets (HBW - >1.3-1.7 kg) the probability of death was low regardless of their colostrum intake. Intermediate birth weight (IBW - >1.2-1.3 kg) and low birth weight (LBW - 1.1-1.2 kg) piglets had the same probability of death compared to HBW piglets, when colostrum intake reached 200 and 250 g, respectively. The probability of low performance (<9.5 kg) was lower in HBW than in LBW and IBW piglets, regardless of colostrum intake. HBW piglets had higher weight at 14, 20, 28 and 42 days of age (P<0.05) than LBW piglets, and higher weight than IBW piglets at 28 and 42 days. Colostrum intake >250 g increased (P<0.05) the weight of piglets at 28 and 42 days of age, regardless of their birth weight. Piglets from primiparous biological dams consumed less colostrum (P<0.003) than piglets from multiparous dams, but their serum IgG concentrations at 24h after birth and their performance were similar (P>0.05). Piglets suckled by primiparous foster sows showed lower weight (P<0.05) at 20, 28 and 42 days than piglets suckled by multiparous sows. Piglets that died before 42 days of age had lower (P<0.05) birth weight, colostrum intake and serum IgG at 24 h after birth compared to surviving piglets, and lower values were also observed in piglets with low performance compared to high (>9.5 kg) performance piglets. There were no differences in serum IgG concentrations at 10 and 20 days of age (P>0.05) between high and low performance piglets. In conclusion, both colostrum intake and birth weight are important for survival and growth of suckling piglets. LBW and IBW piglets are more dependent on colostrum intake than HBW piglets to assure higher survival and better development up to 42 days of age. Piglets suckled by multiparous sows have better development than those suckled by primiparous sows. PMID:24674020

  8. Short communication: serum immunoglobulin G and total protein concentrations in dairy calves fed a colostrum-replacement product.

    PubMed

    Fidler, A P; Alley, M L; Smith, G W

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal calf health is largely dependent on the ingestion and absorption of maternally derived antibodies via colostrum administration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum-replacement (CR) product as compared with bovine colostrum. Holstein calves were removed from the dam immediately after birth and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 calves (n=22) were fed 1 package of the CR product; group 2 calves (n=22) were fed 2 packages of the CR product; and group 3 calves (n=22) were fed 3 L of bovine colostrum. Blood samples were collected from all calves 24h after colostrum or CR feeding and analyzed for serum IgG and total protein concentrations. Calves fed bovine colostrum had significantly higher serum IgG and total protein concentration than calves in either group fed the CR product. Group 1 calves (1 package of CR product) had a significantly higher incidence of failure of transfer of passive immunity than calves in groups 2 or 3. The results of this study indicated that 2 packages of this CR product achieved adequate IgG concentrations in calves. However, calves fed 1 package of this CR product consistently had failure of transfer of passive immunity. PMID:21700049

  9. Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fbio P Leivas

    2014-11-01

    Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24?h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves. PMID:24990486

  10. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Quesnel, H

    2014-07-01

    Piglet survival is a major problem, especially during the first 3 days after birth. Piglets are born deficient of energy, but at the same time they have a very high energy requirement because of high physical activity, high need for thermoregulation (because of their lean body with low insulation) and high heat production in muscle tissues. To be able to survive, newborn piglets may rely upon three different sources of energy, namely, glycogen, colostrum and transient milk, which orchestrate to cover their energy requirements. Piglets are born with limited amounts of energy in glycogen depots in the liver and muscle tissues and these depots are sufficient for normal activity for ?16 h. Intake and oxidation of fat and lactose from colostrum must supply sufficient amount of energy to cover at least another 18 h until transient milk becomes available in the sow udder ?34 h after the first piglet is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different attempts have been made to increase the short-term survival of piglets, that is, survival until day 3 of lactation, by focusing on improving transfer of vital maternal energy to the offspring, either in utero or via mammary secretions. Thus, the present review addresses how sow nutrition in late gestation may favor survival of newborn piglets by increasing glycogen depots, improving colostrum yield or colostrum composition, or by increasing production of transient milk. PMID:24762853

  11. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  12. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils supplementation on digestion, colostrum production of dairy ewes and lamb mortality and growth.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Joy, Margalida; Hajji, Hadhami; Alabart, José Luis; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary essential oils (REO) and the forage nature on ewes' performances, immune response and lambs' growth and mortality. Forty-eight dairy ewes (Sicilo-Sarde) were fed oat-hay or oat-silage supplemented with 400 g of concentrate during pregnancy and 600 g during postpartum. The experimental concentrate contained the same mixture as the control (barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement) more 0.6 g/kg of REO. Two groups were obtained with each forage (Hay groups: H-C and H-REO; Silage groups: S-C and S-REO). REO increased the dry matter (DM) intake, the nitrogen intake and retention being higher with the silage groups (P < 0.05). REO increased solid non-fat (P = 0.004) and fat contents of colostrum which was higher with hay (P = 0.002). REO decreased lamb mortality (P < 0.05) which averaged 21% for control groups and 6% for H-REO, while no mortality was recorded with S-REO. REO dietary supply improved forage intake and tended to ameliorate colostrum production; it could be a natural additive to improve ewes' performances. PMID:25597515

  13. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230... Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a device... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production...

  14. Bovine colostrum modulates cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Shing, Cecilia M; Peake, Jonathan M; Suzuki, Katsukiko; Jenkins, David G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2009-01-01

    Bovine colostrum has been shown to influence the cytokine production of bovine leukocytes. However, it remains unknown whether processed bovine colostrum, a supplement popular among athletes to enhance immune function, is able to modulate cytokine secretion of human lymphocytes and monocytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of a commercially available bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC) to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Blood was sampled from four healthy male endurance athletes who had abstained from exercise for 48 h. PBMCs were separated and cultured with bovine CPC concentrations of 0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, and 5% with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (3 microg/mL) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (2.5 microg/mL). Cell supernatants were collected at 6 and 24 h of culture for the determination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-2 concentrations. Bovine CPC significantly stimulated the release of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-2 (p < 0.03). The addition of LPS to PBMCs cocultured with bovine CPC significantly stimulated the release of IL-2 and inhibited the early release of TNF, IL-6, and IL-4 (p < 0.02). Phytohemagglutinin stimulation in combination with bovine CPC significantly increased the secretion of IL-10 and IL-2 at 6 h of culture and inhibited IFN-gamma and TNF (p < 0.05). This data show that a commercial bovine CPC is able to modulate in vitro cytokine production of human PBMCs. Alterations in cytokine secretion may be a potential mechanism for reported benefits associated with supplementation. PMID:19014336

  15. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Jensen, S K; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs. 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs. 97 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07). The piglet mortality during the first week of lactation tended to be higher for sows fed CLA than for CON sows (6.8 vs. 2.3%, respectively; P = 0.10), and the number of piglets that died or were moved to others sows to ensure survival during the first week was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows. PMID:23365381

  16. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  17. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by study conclusion was not different for animals originally fed HT (68.0%) versus FR (71.7%) colostrum. Although a previous study showed that feeding HT colostrum (60°C for 60min) produces short-term benefits, including improved passive transfer of IgG and reduced morbidity in the preweaning period, the current study found no benefit of feeding HT colostrum on long-term outcomes including risk for transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production in the first and second lactation, and longevity within the herd. PMID:26074228

  18. Efficacy of mannanoligosaccharides additive to sows diets on colostrum, blood immunoglobulin content and production parameters of piglets.

    PubMed

    Czech, A; Grela, E R; Mokrzycka, A; Pejsak, Z

    2010-01-01

    The present results suggest that mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) included in a sow nutrition may affect its immune system and humoral antibody production in colostrum and milk, and thus increase the piglet immunity at the postnatal period. The studies involved sows of the Polish Landrace breed mated with boars (Hampshire x Duroc). In each experiment, the sows were assigned to two groups: control and experimental (MOS). Each group consisted of 16 sows managed in pens (2 animals in each) during pregnancy, whereas at farrowing and lactation period they were placed in individual pens. The basal diet during pregnancy (PR-S) and lactation (LC-S) period contained wheat (40% in experiment I--groups 1 and 2) or triticale (40% in experiment II--groups 3 and 4), as well as barley, soybean meal, soybean oil and mineral-vitamin premix. Throughout both experiments, the sows from the experimental group had a dietary supplement of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) preparation for 4 of weeks prepartum and 4 weeks of post partum period. A level of the MOS supplementation (8 g of MOS per sow daily) based on the recommendations of the manufacturer. Blood samples were collected from the sows on days 84 (the start of trial) and 110 of pregnancy, after farrowing, and on day 21 of lactation period, while from the piglets at birth and on day 21 of age. Colostrum was collected between 1-3, 12, 24 and 48 h after farrowing. The blood samples taken from sows and piglets as well as the samples of sow colostrum and milk were evaluated for the presence of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies. The present study has provided considerable evidence that MOS supplementation of sows feedstuff before and after farrowing (4 weeks before and 4 weeks after) exerts a positive effect on IgG content in the colostrum and plasma of sows and following this on serum IgG level in the suckling piglets. Higher level of colostral (passive) immunity influences positively body weight gain and survival rate of the piglets at weaning. PMID:21033568

  19. Effect of ?-hydroxy ?-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether ?-hydroxy ?-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.05). The HMB supplementation did not affect colostrum composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 0.30%; P < 0.05), dry matter (19.0 vs. 18.2 0.26; P < 0.05), and energy (4.81 vs. 4.47 0.12 kJ/g; P < 0.05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 1.0 mm; P < 0.05). The HMB piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 0.20 kg; P < 0.01), although the milk yield was not reduced. Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) ?M; P < 0.05] whereas plasma 3-hydroxy butyrate was reduced in HMB sows during lactation. In conclusion, HMB supplemented to sows improved the colostrum production but inhibited piglet growth at peak lactation. PMID:23365383

  20. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk production and longevity in Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled clinical trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. ...

  1. Association between Endocrine Disrupting Phenols in Colostrums and Maternal and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Yi, B.; Kim, C.; Park, M.; Han, Y.; Park, J. Y.; Yang, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) are well-known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may threat the next generations' health. We performed biomonitoring of these phenols in colostrums to assess risk of the phenols in breast-fed neonates. Study subjects were the lactating mothers who delivered babies within 2 weeks (N = 325; 30.67 3.45 years) and their neonates (N = 326; embryonic period, 39.1 1.5 weeks). BPA, nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) in colostrums were quantified with LC/MS/MS. Information for environmental exposure sources of the phenols was obtained by questionnaires. As results, median level of BPA in colostrums was 7.8?ng/mL, while most NP or OP was not detected. Regarding health risks of phenols, levels of total NP in colostrums were elevated among sick mothers with toxemia, thyroid disorders, gastritis, and so forth than health mothers (3.51 4.98 versus 2.04 3.71?ng/mL, P = 0.02). Dairy products intake and detergents use were positively correlated with total BPA levels (Ps < 0.05). In conclusion, we estimate most neonates who are exposed to BPA rather than NP or OP via colostrums and recommend continuous biomonitoring of the phenols to clarify their suspected health risk on neonates and pregnant or gestation mothers. PMID:23737772

  2. Technological options for the production of health-promoting proteins and peptides derived from milk and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Pihlanto, A

    2007-01-01

    Milk proteins are known to exert a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological activities. Apart from being a balanced source of valuable amino acids, milk proteins contribute to the consistency and sensory properties of various dairy products. Furthermore, many milk proteins possess specific biological properties which make them potential ingredients of health-promoting foods. These properties are attributed to both native protein molecules and to physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein molecules. Considerable progress has been made over the last twenty years in technologies aimed at separation, fractionation and isolation in a purified form of many interesting proteins occurring in bovine colostrum and milk. Industrial-scale methods have been developed for native whey proteins such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Their large-scale manufacture and commercial exploitation is still limited although validated research data about their physiological health benefits is rapidly accumulating. Promising product concepts and novel fields of use have emerged recently, and some of these molecules have already found commercial applications. The same applies to bioactive peptides derived from different milk proteins. Active peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or milk fermentation with proteolytic enzymes. Such peptides may exert a number of physiological effects in vivo on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, nervous and other body systems. However, at present the industrial-scale production of such peptides is limited by a lack of suitable technologies. On the other hand, a number of bioactive peptides have been identified in fermented dairy products, and there are already a few commercial dairy products enriched with blood pressure-reducing milk protein peptides. There is a need to develop methods to optimise the activity of bioactive peptides in food systems and to enable their optimum utilisation in the body. This review highlights existing modern technologies applicable for the isolation of bioactive native proteins and peptides derived from bovine colostrum, milk and cheese whey, and discusses aspects of their current and potential applications for human nutrition and promotion of human health. PMID:17430184

  3. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P.; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  4. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

  5. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  6. Heat-treatment of Colostrum on Commercial Dairy Farms: Effects on Colostrum Characteristics and Calf Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Colostrum provides immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may be a source of exposure to significant pathogens including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Pilot studies have suggested that heat-treatment of colostrum...

  7. Colostrum composition of Santa Ins sheep and passive transfer of immunity to lambs.

    PubMed

    Alves, A C; Alves, N G; Ascari, I J; Junqueira, F B; Coutinho, A S; Lima, R R; Prez, J R O; De Paula, S O; Furusho-Garcia, I F; Abreu, L R

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Ins ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 4015 min (meanSE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS)<2.75, but did not differ between primiparous and multiparous with BCS?2.75 (interaction parity and BCS). The IgG concentration and fat, protein, lactose, and defatted dry extract percentages were not affected by the BCS of the ewe at lambing or by the parity. The total solids percentage in the colostrum was higher in ewes with BCS<2.75 (interaction BCS and time). The production and the protein, total solid, and defatted dry extract percentages showed quadratic behavior, the fat percentage decreased linearly, and the lactose percentage increased linearly with time postpartum. The IgG concentration in the colostrum was not correlated with the ewe's weight or BCS at the time of lambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of absorption was 38.10%, with values between 0.02% and 98.80%. The serum IgG concentration was correlated with the total protein concentration (according to the enzymatic colorimetric method), the gamma-globulin concentration, and the absorption efficiency. The extreme variation on apparent efficiency of absorption may have an effect on the success of PIT. Lambs should consume at least 30 g of IgG in the first 24 h of life to ensure adequate PIT. PMID:25828655

  8. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet. PMID:23365360

  9. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products. PMID:26102159

  10. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  11. Does a calf's motivation to ingest colostrum depend on time since birth, calf vigor, or provision of heat?

    PubMed

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passill, A M

    2009-08-01

    Dairy producers often complain that calves have difficulty consuming the recommended amount of colostrum. A better understanding of factors affecting calves' motivation to ingest colostrum could help develop better management. Thirty-six Holstein calves were tested to evaluate effects of time since birth (2 vs. 6 h) and provision of a heat lamp on motivation to ingest colostrum in a 2 x 2 factorial model. Calves were randomly assigned to treatments balancing for birth weight and sex. Calves were provided colostrum (>68 g of Ig/L) ad libitum from a teat-bottle. We tested the calf's suckling reflex by examining the response to orofacial stimulation and assessed the calf's vigor from the duration of time spent standing or attempting to stand in the hour after birth and standing during colostrum feeding. During the first meal, 42% of calves consumed 4 L or more of colostrum, 25% consumed 3 to 4 L, 11% consumed 2 to 3 L, and 22% consumed <2 L. There were no significant effects of heat supply or time since birth on consumption. The quantity of colostrum ingested was best predicted (r(2) = 0.61) by a combination of birth weight, vigor during colostrum feeding, and vigor during the first hour of life, whereas meal duration was predicted (r(2) = 0.34) jointly by room temperature and having suckled the dam. Colostrum intake was lower for small calves and calves with a low degree of vigor. Differences among calves in the strength of the sucking reflex were not related to colostrum intake. PMID:19620674

  12. Evaluation of methods for dehydration of bovine colostrum for total replacement of normal colostrum in calves

    PubMed Central

    Chelack, Brian J.; Morley, Paul S.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1993-01-01

    Different methods for the dry preservation of colostrum to be used as a total replacement for bovine colostrum were evaluated. Pooled colostrum from the first and second postpartum milkings from multiparous dairy cows containing immunoglobulin in excess of 40 g/L was freeze-dried, microwave vacuum evaporated, and spray-dried. Spray-drying produced a dried colostrum in which immunoglobulin quantity and function were preserved and was the most cost-effective. Other dehydration methods, although effectively conserving immunoglobulins, were too slow and costly to be used to produce a bovine colostrum replacer. Newborn, colostrum-deprived, dairy calves fed spray-dried colostrum containing 126 grams of immunoglobulin reconstituted in three liters of water as their sole source of immunoglobulin achieved normal mean serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Spray-dried colostrum with high concentrations of immunoglobulin may be produced economically and used as an effective and convenient colostrum replacer in newborn calves. PMID:17424250

  13. Feeding corn during the last 12 days of gestation improved colostrum production and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Ramrez-Vera, S; Terrazas, A; Delgadillo, J A; Serafn, N; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Hernndez, H

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to investigate if partial substitution of a grazing diet with a supplemental high-starch feed during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goat does grazing semi-arid rangeland. For the first objective, 25 pregnant does were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) grazing only (control; n = 11), and 2) grazing plus 0.6 kg/d of supplemental corn (as fed), a high starch feed, during the last 12 1.0 d before parturition (SC; n = 14). Colostrum was collected at parturition and again at 1, 3, 6, and 10 h postpartum for yield and composition. In all goats, blood concentrations of glucose and plasma progesterone were determined. Total colostrum yield/10 h was greater (P = 0.002) in the SC does (1,102 144 g) than in control does (405 50 g). From 6 to 10 h postpartum, contents of colostrum protein and solids not fat were less (P ? 0.012) whereas lactose contents were greater (P = 0.035) in the SC does than in control does. Concentration of glucose in the blood at parturition was greater (P = 0.037) in the SC does (160 13 mg/dL) than in control does (115 12 mg/dL). A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in plasma progesterone concentrations occurred 1 d before parturition in control does, whereas the decrease (P = 0.008) occurred 3 d before parturition in SC does. For the second objective, 20 does (10 per group) and their single kids were randomly assigned to the same treatments as above for evaluation of dietary treatment on neonatal activity. Kid activity was assessed using videos recorded during the first 90 min after birth. Frequency of low-pitched bleats was greater (P < 0.001) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Frequencies and durations of teat seeking from 30 to 90 min after birth and of suckling activity were greater (P ? 0.015) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Duration of parturition was longer (P = 0.001) in control does (58 10.2 min) than in SC does (21 2.8 min). Finally, percentage of fetal malpresentation was greater (P = 0.036) in control does (33.3%) than in SC does (9.0%). We conclude that partial substitution of the grazing diet with a high-starch feed, corn, during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland. PMID:22266993

  14. C-reactive protein and antibacterial activity in blood plasma of colostrum-fed calves and the effect of lactulose.

    PubMed

    Schroedl, W; Jaekel, L; Krueger, M

    2003-10-01

    Several milk proteins are very important for immunological defense and can be absorbed in the intestine of calves in the first hours after birth. The influence of colostrum intake and the effect of additional lactulose application on the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood were investigated. The CRP is known as a mediator of innate immunity. Results were compared to the bovine acute phase protein haptoglobin, and to lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulins in plasma from calves. After colostrum intake, the concentration of most proteins were strongly increased. The data show, for the first time, a significant increase of CRP in the blood of calves 1 d after colostrum intake (nonlactulose group, n = 10), and an even more significant increase in CRP concentration (1 d postpartum) was measured in the group of animals with additional application of lactulose (lactulose group, n = 10) when compared to the nonlactulose group. In an in vitro assay with the plasma of these animals, an increased bactericidal activity was detected against Morganella morganii (1 d postpartum) in both groups, but again a higher activity occurred in the lactulose group. The results of these investigations emphasize the importance of colostrum intake during the first hours after birth for the defense potential of newborn calves. In addition, lactulose may have a positive effect in the period of passive transfer of colostrum proteins and in the immune defense. PMID:14594250

  15. The influence of colostrum on early Schistosoma mattheei infections in calves.

    PubMed

    Gabril, S; De Bont, J; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, A M; Billiouw, M; Vercruysse, J

    2002-12-01

    The study investigated whether the susceptibility of calves to an early Schistosoma mattheei infection may be modified by intake of colostrum from infected cows. Twelve calves born to non-infected mothers were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6. The animals from group 1 were fed colostrum originating from a pool collected from non-infected cows, the calves from group 2 received colostrum from a pool collected from cows infected with S. mattheei. One month after birth all calves were infected by exposure to 1000 cercariae of a local strain of S. mattheei, and perfused 12 weeks later to determine the worm- and tissue egg counts. IgG(H+L), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA levels against soluble adult worm antigen preparation of S. bovis (SWAP bovis) were analysed in both colostrum pools and in the serum from the calves collected during the study before and after receiving colostrum, then on days 7, 30, 73 and 122. Faecal egg counts were determined from day 73 onwards. The IgG(H+L), IgG1 and IgA levels of the positive colostrum pool were higher than those of the negative pool. Calves of group 2 showed significantly higher levels of IgG(H+L) and IgG1 until day 73, to reach equal levels at necropsy. Calves of group 2 showed significant reductions of 42, 28 and 42% in total worm counts, female worm counts, and tissue egg counts, respectively, and a reduction of 25% in cumulative faecal egg counts. These findings indicate that there was a significant impact of colostrum on the parasitological and serological course of early S. mattheei infections. PMID:12553572

  16. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23112910

  17. Bovine colostrum fraction as a serum substitute for the cultivation of mouse hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Pakkanen, R; Kanttinen, A; Satama, L; Aalto, J

    1992-07-01

    Fractions of bovine colostrum were prepared and their ability to support the growth of mouse-mouse hybridomas in culture was tested. Whey was prepared from defatted colostrum by removal of casein using acid precipitation. An ultrafiltrate was obtained from cleared whey by filtration through membranes with a nominal molecular mass cut-off of 100,000 Da. Colostrum ultrafiltrate contained 1.16 milligrams protein, 0.24 milligrams immunoglobulin G (IgG) and less than 0.24 EU (endotoxin unit)/ml endotoxins. The effect of defatted colostrum, whey and ultrafiltrate as serum substitutes was examined by cultivation of hybridoma cells in minimal essential medium containing different concentrations of the supplements. Under optimal conditions in ultrafiltrate-supplemented medium, the maximal cell concentration was 35-40% of that obtained using 10% foetal bovine serum, and IgG production per cell was equal to that achieved using serum. In 1% defatted colostrum the maximum hybridoma concentration was about 30% of that in 10% serum, but at higher concentrations hybridoma growth was significantly reduced. The growth-promoting activity of whey was low. The results show that bovine colostrum ultrafiltrate provides a very attractive alternative to serum for production of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:1368467

  18. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    PubMed

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1?, interleukin-1?, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in formula- than in colostrum-fed groups. Hepatic mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor was higher after quercetin feeding and expression of C-reactive protein was higher after formula feeding. Data confirm that colostrum improves neonatal health and indicate that quercetin feeding cannot compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. PMID:26752173

  19. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in formula- than in colostrum-fed groups. Hepatic mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor was higher after quercetin feeding and expression of C-reactive protein was higher after formula feeding. Data confirm that colostrum improves neonatal health and indicate that quercetin feeding cannot compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. PMID:26752173

  20. Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.

    PubMed

    Mechor, G D; Grhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

  1. Short communication: Variation of total immunoglobulin G and ?-lactoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hodgins, D C; Miglior, F; Corredig, M; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate IgG and ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) concentrations in colostrum and milk of Canadian Holsteins (n=108) classified as high (H), average (A), or low (L) for antibody-mediated (AMIR) or cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) based on estimated breeding values. It was hypothesized that H-AMIR and H-CMIR cows produce colostrum (first milking) and milk (d 5 postcalving) with higher concentrations of IgG and ?-LG. Data for IgG and ?-LG in colostrum and milk were analyzed independently using mixed linear models. Least squares means were compared using Tukey's test. Cows classified as H-AMIR had higher IgG and ?-LG concentrations in colostrum compared with A- and L-AMIR cows; 84% of H-AMIR, 69% of A-AMIR, and 68% of L-AMIR cows had over 5,000mg/dL IgG in colostrum. No differences in IgG and ?-LG concentrations in colostrum were noted among cows ranked on CMIR or in milk of cows ranked on AMIR. ?-Lactoglobulin and IgG concentrations were positively correlated in colostrum. Breeding cows for H-AMIR status may reduce failure of passive transfer of IgG in their calves; ?-LG may play a role in bovine immune defenses. Colostrum from H-AMIR cows may serve as a more economical feedstock source for manufacturing natural health products. PMID:26774725

  2. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal piglets. The present study showed that the physiology of piglets in the colostrum period was affected by IUGR status at birth and their intermediary metabolism was altered due to different colostrum intakes. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the head shape of newborn piglets is a good selection criteria for identifying piglets that need oral supplementation during the neonatal stage. PMID:24085405

  3. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a...

  4. Chemical changes in bovine colostrum preserved with formalin or by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bush, R S; McQueen, R E; Nicholson, J W

    1980-03-01

    Fresh bovine colstrum from second and third milkings postpartum was inoculated with either a yogurt culture or Streptococcus lactis or preserved with .1% formalin in two separate experiments. There was a rapid decrease in pH of the fermented samples which corresponded to decreased lactose concentrations and increased lactate and titratable acidity. Titratable acidity in the fermented colostrums increased further after 10 days from the production of volatile fatty acids, but pH did not decrease. The pH of the yogurt fermentations in Experiment 2 decreased to 3.8, and the continued increase in titratable acidity was from lactic acid rather than volatile fatty acids. The lowest pH of all other fermentations was 4.1. The extent of metabolism of the formalin-preserved colostrum was much less than for the colostrum fermented by either culture. PMID:6768780

  5. A survey of bovine colostrum composition and colostrum management practices on Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S I; Jayarao, B M; Heinrichs, A J

    2007-09-01

    Colostrum composition and management were surveyed via sample and data collection from 55 dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Colostrum samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, ash, Ig, lactoferrin, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals. Mean percentages of fat, protein, and lactose in colostrum were 6.7, 14.9, and 2.5, respectively. Concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin were 35.0, 6.0, 1.7, 4.3, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. Mean concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, including retinol, tocopherol, and beta-carotene, were 4.9, 2.9, and 0.7 microg/g, respectively. Mean concentrations of water-soluble vitamins were 0.34, 0.90, 4.55, 0.60, 0.15, 0.21, and 0.04 microg/mL for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine, respectively. Mean concentrations (mg/kg) of selected minerals in colostrum were also determined (Ca 4,716; P 4,452; Mg 733; Na 1,058; K 2,845; Zn 38; Fe 5.3; Cu 0.3; S 2,595; and Mn 0.1). The findings of this study revealed that the mean concentrations of most nutrients in colostrum have increased when compared with values previously reported. Results also showed that management practices have improved over time, particularly with regard to colostrum storage and feeding. Additionally, we observed that herd size influenced colostrum management and quality. It can be inferred, based on these findings, that although improvements have been made with regard to colostrum management and quality, there is still a need to educate producers on issues related to storage and timely feeding of colostrum to increase passive transfer and decrease the rate of calf morbidity and mortality. PMID:17699028

  6. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  7. Evaluating the links between intake of milk/dairy products and cancer.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carlos E A; Rogero, Marcelo M; Martini, Lgia A

    2012-05-01

    Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice. PMID:22537215

  8. Relative prolactin-to-progesterone concentrations around farrowing influence colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; van Hees, H; Quesnel, H

    2015-10-01

    In swine, colostrum production is induced by the drop of progesterone (P4) concentrations which leads to the prepartum peak of prolactin (PRL). PRL regulates mammary cell turnover and stimulates lacteal nutrient synthesis. P4 inhibits PRL secretion and downregulates the PRL receptor in the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine if the relative prepartum concentrations of P4 and PRL (PRL/P4 ratio) influence sow colostrum production. The performance of 29 Landrace Large White primiparous sows was analyzed. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24h starting at the onset of parturition (T0) using litter weight gains. Colostrum was collected at T0 and 24h later (T24). Repeated jugular blood samples were collected during the peripartum period, that is, from -72 to +24h related to farrowing and were assayed for P4 and PRL. Sows were retrospectively categorized in 2 groups according to their PRL/P4 ratio 24h before farrowing being either <2 (low PRL/P4, n = 16) or >3 (high PRL/P4, n = 13). During the peripartum period, the circulating concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of PRL tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows. Colostrum yield was greater in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (4.11 vs 3.48kg [root mean square error = 0.69], P < 0.05). Colostrum composition (dry matter, energy, protein, lipid, and lactose contents) and IgG and IgA concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups of sows (P > 0.10). The Na/K ratio in colostrum 24h after the onset of farrowing was lower in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (P < 0.05). Piglet mortality between birth and T24 averaged 10.0% in low PRL/P4 litters and 7.0% in high PRL/P4 litters (P = 0.29). In conclusion, a greater PRL/P4 ratio 24h prepartum, characterized by lower P4 concentrations and a trend for greater PRL concentrations peripartum, led to increased colostrum yield in primiparous sows. PMID:26051790

  9. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84–1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80–1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70–1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63–1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:26877260

  10. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84-1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80-1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70-1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63-1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:26877260

  11. THE USE OF SCHOOL FOOD PRODUCTION RECORDS AS A SURROGATE MEASURE OF STUDENT INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National School Lunch Program meals provide an important source of fruit, vegetables, and milk for students. In intervention studies, measuring individual dietary intake is expensive. This study investigated whether food production records could be used as a surrogate measure of student consumption....

  12. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving interval (9%) and mature weight of cows (11%) in strategy A and B, respectively. The sums of the relative economic weights over categories for RFI were 6 and 7% in strategy A and B, respectively. Under production conditions in 2011, the relative economic weights for the studied feed efficiency traits were low. However, it is possible that the relative importance of feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal will increase in the future due to increasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. PMID:24342692

  13. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n=106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the YangtzeRiver outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93?gg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p<0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (-)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.337.34?gkg(-1)bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01mgkg(-1) bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:26650085

  14. Nutritional importance of colostrum in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Aumaitre, A; Seve, B

    1978-01-01

    Suckling of colostrum by piglets is very important in order to improve the survival rate. Colostrum provides maternal antibodies, energy and protein. Rearing piglets suckling an artificial milk of a similar chemical composition to that of sow's milk failed when the animals were housed in conventional conditions although numerous research workers succeeded in rearing 90% of animals delivered and fed in sterile conditions. Studies on the chemical analysis of colostrum showed a high dry matter content (30-40% higher than that of milk) in particular a high protein level (twice that of milk). The high proportion of globulins, i.e. 38% during farrowing, drops to 12% of the protein 4 days later; conversely the casein content rather low at birth doubles over the same period. Colostrum proteins are not used to proved energetic nutrients; some of them are absorbed without hydrolysis and have a special physiological rle. The transmission of maternal immunity by gamma globulins is well known; lactotransferrin plays an important rle as a transporter and a bacteriostatic factor. Enzymatic proteins such as lyzozyme govern the metabolism of glycoproteins. Hydrolyzed albumins, casein and proteose-peptone fraction provide the essential amino acids for de novo protein synthesis. The fat content is relatively low during the first 24 hours and increases threefold in the 4 days after farrowing. It provides the majority of the energy required by the young animal. A high proportion of some fatty acids, mostly oleic and linoleic acids, are used preferentially as sources of energy. Other components, including enzymes of the mammary cells, were found, but their particular rle has not been explained. Colostrum contains in addition numerous vitamins (vitamins A and E) and some particular trace elements (iodine and selenium), and their transfer from the maternal diet to the young is particularity efficient by colostrum suckling. The nutritional rle of those nutrients is important and their levels could affect the survival rate of the piglets. Hypotheses concerning the digestion and absorption of nutrients and antibodies are summarized, and finally, recommendations are made for further research and for the minimum amount of colostrum required by each piglet for survival and efficient postnatal growth to be assessed. PMID:371502

  15. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  16. Calf's sex, parity and the hour of harvest after calving affect colostrum quality of dairy cows grazing under high tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Joaquin; Gmez, Luis Miguel; Mahecha, Liliana; Meja, Estefana; Henao, Javier; Mesa, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    High-quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health, and quality assessment is essential to obtain good health results. This research evaluated the effects of the calf's sex, the parity of the cow and the hour of colostrum harvest after parity on the fat, nonfat solids, protein and Ig contents in Holstein colostrum for cows under high grazing conditions in the tropics. The effects of the calf's sex and parity on somatic cell count (SCC) at the first milking postpartum were determined. A comparison was made between a laboratory method and a farm method for the estimation of the fat and protein content of colostrum. Thirty-three cows were sampled in the study. The calf's sex was shown to have an effect on the amount of colostrum, on the concentration of fat, and on the amount of milk produced by lactating Holstein cows; all were higher in cows that gave birth to a female calf. Colostrum protein decreased after the first hour postpartum, and the Ig concentration had a tendency to decrease after 4h. The cows that had parity 1-2 had lower Ig concentrations and total production of Igs, and higher SCC at the first milking postpartum. Ekomilk was a reliable method to measure the colostrum fat on the farm. PMID:25708565

  17. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Many defense factors of the mothers colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. METHODS: Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. RESULTS: The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. CONCLUSION: Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children. PMID:14991951

  18. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

    2007-06-01

    Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606

  19. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

  20. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  1. Short communication: Changes in the composition of yak colostrum during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mi, J D; Zhou, J W; Ding, L M; Wang, L; Long, R J

    2016-01-01

    Although the great interest has been paid to colostrum utilization for calves, no systematic studies evaluating the compositional changes of yak colostrum during the first week after parturition have been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate such postpartum nutritional changes. Colostrum samples from 12 multiparous (2-7 lactations) yaks, grazed on alpine pasture, were collected at exactly 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168h postpartum. Gross composition (fat, total solids, protein, and ash) were measured, as well as fat and water-soluble vitamins, fatty acid and mineral composition, and IgG. The colostrum, collected 1h postpartum, had the highest concentrations of crude protein, total solids, ash, vitamin A and E, ?-carotene, and most minerals (Na, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe). These components decreased rapidly within 24h. Similarly, at 24h postpartum, IgG content decreased to 7.5% of the value (87.78mg/mL) at 1h postpartum. In contrast, the concentration of vitamin C increased from 1 to 24h and then decreased consistently thereafter to the lowest value at 168h. Phosphorus and Ca contents showed an increasing trend from 24 to 168h after calving. Lactose content increased from 2.88% at 1h to 4.96% at 48h postpartum and was steady to 168h. Total n-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3-to-n-6 fatty acid ratio were proportionally similar as a percentage of total fatty acid methyl esters during the first 168h of milk production. However, the proportion of total n-6 fatty acid content to total fatty acid methyl esters decreased from 3.07% at 1h to 2.60% at 24h. In summary, experimental results indicate colostrum should be provided to yak calves as soon as possible after birth to provide nutrients and enhance passive immunity. PMID:26547651

  2. Reducing salt in food; setting product-specific criteria aiming at a salt intake of 5?g per day

    PubMed Central

    Dtsch-Klerk, M; PMM Goossens, W; Meijer, G W; van het Hof, K H

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: There is an increasing public health concern regarding high salt intake, which is generally between 9 and 12?g per day, and much higher than the 5?g recommended by World Health Organization. Several relevant sectors of the food industry are engaged in salt reduction, but it is a challenge to reduce salt in products without compromising on taste, shelf-life or expense for consumers. The objective was to develop globally applicable salt reduction criteria as guidance for product reformulation. Subjects/Methods: Two sets of product group-specific sodium criteria were developed to reduce salt levels in foods to help consumers reduce their intake towards an interim intake goal of 6?g/day, andon the longer term5?g/day. Data modelling using survey data from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands was performed to assess the potential impact on population salt intake of cross-industry food product reformulation towards these criteria. Results: Modelling with 6 and 5?g/day criteria resulted in estimated reductions in population salt intake of 25 and 30% for the three countries, respectively, the latter representing an absolute decrease in the median salt intake of 1.82.2?g/day. Conclusions: The sodium criteria described in this paper can serve as guidance for salt reduction in foods. However, to enable achieving an intake of 5?g/day, salt reduction should not be limited to product reformulation. A multi-stakeholder approach is needed to make consumers aware of the need to reduce their salt intake. Nevertheless, dietary impact modelling shows that product reformulation by food industry has the potential to contribute substantially to salt-intake reduction. PMID:25690867

  3. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  4. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system....

  5. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  6. Intake to Production Ratio: A Measure of Exposure Intimacy for Manufactured Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health. Objectives: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. Methods: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population’s economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use. Results: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000–24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan. Conclusion: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. PMID:23222017

  7. Heat-treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms: Effects on colostrum characteristics and calf health and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to describe the effect of heat-treatment, at 60 deg C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and IgG concentration, and describe the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on preweaning calf health and performance. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical tri...

  8. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donn; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  9. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  10. Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.48.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.870.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone. PMID:26123777

  11. Identification of QTL affecting a piglets ability to acquire and absorb gamma-immunoglobulin from colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an adequate amount of colostrum is critical to a piglets survival and productivity. The immunocrit is an inexpensive rapid measurement of the amount of gamma-immunoglobulin absorbed by a piglet. Genetic analysis of immunocrits on 5,312 piglets indicated that the heritabilities (se) f...

  12. Usage of saccharin in food products and its intake by the population of Lucknow, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2006-12-01

    A survey of the usage patterns of the artificial sweetener, saccharin, in edible products and a study of its intake pattern in different population groups has been carried out. Of the different edible commodities, ice candy (87 samples) and crushed ice (14 samples), commonly consumed by children, and pan masala (16 samples) and pan flavourings (10 samples), consumed by the habitual population, were collected from different areas of Lucknow, India. Saccharin was extracted from the samples according to an AOAC method and analysed by HPLC. The consumption pattern of ice candy and crushed ice was determined for 6-20 year olds from a household dietary survey using the food frequency recall method (414 families having 1039 subjects). The consumption of pan masala and pan was assessed by a survey of habitual adult consumers comprising 782 and 1141 subjects, respectively. The average and maximum amounts of saccharin in pan masala samples were 12 750 and 24 300 mg kg-1, respectively, which are 1.6- and 3-fold higher than the maximum permitted levels allowed under Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act of India. In pan flavourings, the average and maximum amount of saccharin was 12.2 and 20.1%, i.e. 1.52- and 2.5-fold higher than the permissible limits of the PFA Act. The samples of ice candy and crushed ice showed average and maximum levels of 200 and 700 mg kg-1 and 280 and 460 mg kg-1, respectively. The average intake of saccharin through ice candy and crushed ice was less than 21% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (5 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1). However, the maximum intake of saccharin, especially in the 6-10-year age group, contributed 57 and 68% of the ADI through ice candy and crushed ice, respectively. Maximum consumption of saccharin in all the age groups, if consuming both ice candy and crushed ice, results in exceeding the ADI by 54% for subjects in the 6-10-year age group. Hence, the 6-10-year age group population may be at risk of exceeding the ADI for saccharin. The average and maximum theoretical daily intake of saccharin through pan masala alone was 1.84 and 13.33 mg kg-1 bw day-1, contributing 37 and 267% of the ADI, whereas the estimated (maximum) daily intake was 810% of the ADI. The estimated maximum daily intake (EDI) of saccharin through pan was 6.87 mg kg-1 bw day-1, which was 137% of the ADI. Thus, individuals in the maximum consumption group for pan masala or pan may be susceptible to toxic effects of saccharin, including bladder distention, elevated urine osmolality and bladder cancer. PMID:17118869

  13. Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season. Specific feeding in the summer season (on pasture) did lead in more concentrated colostrum in dry substance, fatty acids and cholesterol. PMID:23442377

  14. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez, Gernimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (p<0.0001). Provirus was detected in colostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission. PMID:25829243

  15. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurlien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milne; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8 8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7 g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42 32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs. PMID:26186389

  16. Dielectric properties of human colostrum at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lonappan, Anil; Rajasekharan, Chadrasekharan; Thomas, Vinu; Bindu, Gopinathan; Mathew, Kattackal Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article communicates the study of both the dielectric properties of human colostrums and breast milk at microwave frequencies. The colostrum samples were taken immediately after child birth and breast milk samples were collected at weekly intervals following the delivery. Rectangular cavity perturbation technique is used for the measurements of dielectric properties at the S-band of microwave frequency. The dielectric constants of the colostrums samples and breast milk samples are found to increase as weeks elapse, which is attributed to the reduced fat content and increased lactose concentration. The conductivity of these samples is similarly found to increase due to the increased dilution. PMID:18161420

  17. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-Kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Jing-Li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-Yee; Tang, Jun-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-Jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system. PMID:26843032

  18. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-11-01

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait. PMID:25601813

  19. Intake of dairy fat and dairy products, and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Biong, Anne S; Rebnord, Hege M; Fimreite, Ragnhild L; Trygg, Kerstin U; Ringstad, Jetmund; Thelle, Dag S; Pedersen, Jan I

    2008-03-01

    The role of dairy fat in the aetiology of myocardial infarction (MI) is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between intake of dairy fat and dairy products, and risk of a first acute MI. A total of 111 MI patients with a first acute MI and 107 population controls (men and women, age 45 75 years) were studied. Diet was assessed using a 180-item food frequency questionnaire. The MI cases had higher intake of total fat, but lower intake of saturated fat and dairy fat than the control persons. No effect of dairy fat or saturated fat on the odds ratio for MI was observed, however. A significant inverse trend in odds of MI for intake of cheese was observed, but the trend was no longer significant after adjustment for smoking. The results suggest that intake of fat from dairy products may not be associated with increased risk of having a first MI. The healthy control persons had a diet that differed from the diet of the MI patients in many aspects, and dairy products were a part of this diet. This may have protected them from having a first MI. PMID:17886080

  20. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; DellAquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tamm, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  1. Relation of Lycopene Intake and Consumption of Tomato Products to Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Paul F.; Lyass, Asya; Massaro, Joseph M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for cardioprotective effects of lycopene is inconsistent. Studies of circulating lycopene generally report inverse associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but studies based on lycopene intake do not. The failure of the dietary studies to support the findings based on biomarkers may be due in part to misclassification of lycopene intakes. To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterize the relation between lycopene intake and incidence of CVD (n=314), coronary heart disease (CHD, n=171) and stroke (n=99) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Hazards ratios (HR) for incident outcomes were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models using logarithmically transformed lycopene intake adjusted for CVD risk factors and correlates of lycopene intake. HRs were interpreted as the increased risk for a 2.7-fold difference in lycopene intake, a difference approximately equal to its inter-quartile range. Using an average of three intake measures with a 9 year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (hazards ratio (HR): 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence. Our study of lycopene intake and CVD provides supporting evidence for an inverse association between lycopene and CVD risk but additional research is needed to determine if lycopene or other components of tomatoes, the major dietary source of lycopene, are responsible for the observed association. PMID:23317928

  2. Colostrum from cows immunized with a vaccine associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia contains allo-antibodies that cross-react with human MHC-I molecules.

    PubMed

    Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G; Bastian, Max

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

  3. Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W.; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G.; Bastian, Max

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

  4. Performance and metabolic responses of Holstein calves to supplemental chromium in colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood ?-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099

  5. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rathe, Mathias; Mller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  6. Interrelationships between dairy product intake, microflora metabolism, faecal properties and plasmid dissemination in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Sylvie; Ouriet, Marie-France; Duval-Iflah, Yvonne

    2002-02-01

    We previously described the effects of intake of dairy products on plasmid dissemination in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human faecal flora (HFF) and found that yoghurt, heat-treated yoghurt (HTY) and milk reduced population levels of transconjugants compared with findings in mice fed a standard mouse diet. In the case of lactose intake, transconjugants were not detected. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible interrelationships between these observations and other variables (bacterial ecology, pH, moisture, enzyme activities, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents, lactic acid contents). Much of the interest of the present comparison lies in the fact that the animals were homogeneous in terms of age, gender, food and intestinal microflora, owing to the gnotobiotic mouse model maintained in sterile isolators. We observed no variation in SCFA and lactic acid contents or in the population levels of strictly anaerobic strains of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium, and of the facultative anaerobic recipient Escherichia coli PG1 strain. The main modifications were the reduction of population levels of transconjugants in mice receiving yoghurt, HTY and milk, and concomitantly an increase of beta-galactosidase and a decrease of beta-glucosidase activities, compared with control mice fed a standard diet. Total inhibition of plasmid transfer was observed in HFF mice consuming lactose, and concomitantly the two enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase) were increased, compared with the findings in control mice fed a standard diet. In axenic mice consuming lactose, plasmid transfer occurred, beta-galactosidase was not detected and beta-glucosidase was decreased. It is therefore proposed that these two enzyme activities influence plasmid transfer and persistence of transconjugants in the digestive tract of HFF associated mice. When both activities were increased there was a total inhibition of plasmid transfer (case of lactose intake). When beta-galactosidase increased and beta-glucosidase decreased (case of yoghurt, HTY and milk), plasmid transfer occurred at a lower efficiency than in the control group, resulting in lower population levels of transconjugants. PMID:11895164

  7. Experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in sheep: Occurrence of transplacental transmission and mice infection by parasite present in the colostrum and milk of infected ewes.

    PubMed

    Campigotto, Gabriela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Volpato, Andreia; Balzan, Alexandre; Radavelli, Willian M; Sold, Natan M; Grosskopf, Hyolanda M; Stefani, Lenita M; Bianchi, Anderson E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Weiss, Paulo H E; Miletti, Luiz C; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2015-09-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate vertical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi in sheep experimentally infected, in addition to the mammary transmission by colostrum or milk of these infected sheep to mice. Three pregnant sheep were used: one uninfected, four months pregnant (Sheep A); and two (Sheep B and C) infected intravenously by T. evansi trypomastigotes (4.610(6) per animal) on the third (Sheep C) and fourth (Sheep B) month of pregnancy. Both infected sheep developed low and oscillating parasitemia measured by blood smears. Hemogram was performed at seven day intervals, showing anemia, leukocytosis, and lymphocytosis on sheep B and C. Three sheep had twins, where sheep A delivered healthy lambs and both infected sheep had delivered at least one stillborn. Additionally, lambs from sheep B and C died 24 and 72 h post-partum, respectively. Before colostrum intake, four lambs from infected sheep were positives for T. evansi according to blood smear evaluation, serology (CATT/T. evansi), and PCR. Sheep colostrum and milk samples collected from the first four days post-partum were positives for T. evansi on PCR, and these samples were able to infect seven mice (out of 10) orally (n=4/5) and intraperitoneally (n=3/5). Therefore, we conclude that the vertical transmission of T. evansi occurs in pregnant sheep, in addition to a strong possibility of the transmission by colostrum and milk. PMID:26223153

  8. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  9. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain

  10. Effects of gestational dietary metabolizable protein level and dry matter intake on subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers. Tw...

  11. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIETARY METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN LEVEL AND DRY MATTER INTAKE ON SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION TRAITS IN PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous h...

  12. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  13. Alternative and classical complement pathway activity in sera from colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, H W; Gilmore, R J

    1980-01-01

    Haemolytic assays were used to compare alternative and classical complement (C) pathway activities in sera obtained from neonatal pigs reared on porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet. Dramatic increases in immunoglobulin concentrations were noted in the colostrum-fed animals during the first day of life, but there was not a concurrent, marked increase in either classical or alternative C pathway activity. Whether fed on homologous or heterologous colostrum, neonatal pigs had a similar gradual increase in alternative and classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period. If direct passive absorption of C components occurs in newborn pigs, it has only a minor influence on functional levels of alternative and classical C pathway activity in their sera. In pigs fed homologous and heterologous colostrum there was, respectively, an 83% and 80% increase in classical pathway activity, but only a 13% and 12% increase in alternative pathway activity during the first 3 days of life. Pigs fed the immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet had a 37% increase in classical C and a 24% increase in alternative C pathway activity. Part of the increase in classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period may be caused by a stimulating factor in colostrum. Most if not all of the increase in alternative C pathway activity and some of the increase in classical C pathway activity is most likely caused by normal humoral homeostatic mechanisms in the neonatal pig. PMID:7429550

  14. Effect of milk chocolate product on week-1 feed intake and growth performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, V D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2010-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of dried whey (DW; 70% lactose) or milk chocolate product (MCP; 20% lactose and 60% sugars) on wk-1 feed intake and growth performance of pigs. Diets contained 1.60, 1.40, 1.40, and 1.20% total Lys for phase 1 (d 0 to 7), 2 (d 7 to 14), 3 (d 14 to 21), and 4 (d 21 to 35), respectively. Pigs were blocked by initial BW; sex and littermates were balanced across treatment; treatments were replicated with a minimum of 5 pens of 4 pigs each. Pigs were weaned at 24, 19, and 24 d of age with an initial BW of 6.5, 6.0, or 6.3 kg for Exp. 1 to 3, respectively. In Exp. 1 and 2, the treatments were 1) negative control (NC), no lactose added, 2) positive control (PC) with DW, 3) 25% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (25MCP), and 4) 50% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (50MCP). The level of DW or combinations of DW and MCP were 20, 10, and 5% for phases 1, 2, and 3 respectively. A common diet with no lactose was fed during phase 4. In Exp. 3, the treatments were 1) NC, 2) PC, and 3) 100% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (100MCP). In the combined data of Exp. 1 and 2, daily collected feed intake during wk 1 was increased (P < 0.10) from d 3 to 7 for the PC pigs; on d 2, 3, 4, and 7 for the 25MCP pigs; and from d 2 to 7 for the 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. There was no difference (P > 0.10) on any day of wk 1 among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. During phase 1, ADG and ADFI were increased (P < 0.10) for the PC, 25MCP, and 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs, but G:F was not affected (P > 0.10). During phases 2, 3, 4, and overall, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in growth performance among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. In Exp. 3, collected daily feed intake during wk 1 was increased (P < 0.10) from d 2 to 5 for PC pigs and on d 1 and 2 for the 100MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. However, there was no difference (P > 0.10) on any day of wk 1 between the PC and 100MCP pigs. Growth performance was not affected (P > 0.10) during any phase of the experiment. Combined data from Exp. 1, 2, and 3 using the NC and PC diets indicated that dietary DW increased (P < 0.10) final BW and increased ADG and ADFI during phases 1, 2, 3, and overall. These results indicate that partial or total replacement of DW with MCP had no effect on wk-1 feed intake or growth performance of weanling pigs and that MCP could be considered as a formulation alternative to DW. PMID:20382873

  15. Serum lipid response to oat product intake with a fat-modified diet.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, L V; Liu, K; Parker, D; Emidy, L; Liao, Y L; Pan, W H; Giumetti, D; Hewitt, J; Stamler, J

    1986-06-01

    Healthy adult volunteers (no. = 208), men and women aged 30 to 65 years, participated in a 12-week study on dietary fat modification plus oat product ingestion (60 gm/day) to test whether moderate daily intake of oat bran and oatmeal enhanced serum lipid response. During weeks 0 to 6, all participants followed the American Heart Association fat-modified eating style. At 6 weeks, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All participants continued to follow the fat-modified eating pattern; groups 1 and 2 were asked during weeks 7 to 12 to consume two servings of either oat bran or oatmeal per day, for a total of 60 gm/day isocalorically substituted for other carbohydrates. Group 3 ingested no oat products. At baseline, the group mean cholesterol level was 208.4 mg/dl. After 6 weeks of dietary fat intervention, the level was 197.6--a fall of 10.8 mg/dl (5.2%). At 12 weeks, the mean serum cholesterol level fell further, by 5.6, 6.5, and 1.2 mg/dl for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Group mean weight loss was small--1.9 lb during the first 6 weeks and 0.6 to 0.8 for the three groups during weeks 7 to 12. Reported oat product ingestion was 39 and 35 gm per person per day, respectively, for groups 1 and 2 (2.2 and 1.4 servings per person per day, respectively). Dietary fat composition remained similar among the three groups during weeks 7 to 12. Pooled results indicated that the addition of oat products at a moderate and practical level enhanced serum lipid response (p less than .05) to a fat-modified eating pattern among free-living adults. PMID:3011876

  16. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  17. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries. PMID:26387688

  18. HEAT TREATMENT OF BOVINE COLOSTRUM. I: EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G LEVEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of Temperature on Viscosity and Immunoglobulin G Concentration After Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. By McMartin et al. Heat-treating colostrum may represent one management tool to reduce pathogen exposure to dairy calves. However pasteurizing colostrum at conventional temperatures can...

  19. Pasteurization of Colostrum Reduces the Incidence of Paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding colostrum from infected dams to neonatal calves is one mode of transmission of paratuberculosis (Johnes disease). Recent studies have demonstrated improved morbidity and mortality rates in calves fed colostrum replacers or pasteurized colostrum. In the present study, the potential benefit...

  20. Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-11-01

    Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4715h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 500%, a specificity of 495%, and a negative predictive value of 879%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk. PMID:25226021

  1. Tackling inadequate vitamin D intakes within the population: fortification of dairy products with vitamin D may not be enough.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations for vitamin D are designed by authoritative agencies to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the population, and while individual target intakes around the globe vary, they are generally between 10 and 20?g/day [400-800IU/day], depending on age, assuming little or no sunshine exposure. National dietary surveys report usual intakes of vitamin D that are much lower than these targets, at about 3-7?g/day [120-280IU/day], depending on usual diet, age, sex, and mandatory or voluntary fortification practices, and there is widespread dietary inadequacy around the globe. While acknowledging the valuable contribution fortified milk makes to vitamin D intakes among consumers, particularly in children, and the continued need for fortification of milk and other dairy products, additional strategic approaches to fortification, including biofortification, of a wider range of foods, have the potential to increase vitamin D intakes in the population and minimize the prevalence of low serum 25(OH)D without increasing the risk of excessive dosing. Careful consideration must be given to the range of products used for fortification and the amount of vitamin D used in each; there is a need for well-designed and sustainable fortification, and biofortification strategies for vitamin D, which use a range of foods to accommodate dietary diversity. Clinical patients may require additional consideration in terms of addressing low vitamin D status. PMID:26260695

  2. Colostrum and amniotic fluid from different species exhibit similar immunomodulating effects in bacterium-stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    M Ller, Hanne K; Fink, Lisbeth N; Sangild, Per T; Fr Ki R, Hanne

    2011-11-01

    The fetus and newborn are immunologically immature. Bioactive compounds in amniotic fluid (AF) and maternal milk therefore play a key role in the immunological development of the infant intestine. We hypothesized that colostrum and AF exert similar immunomodulatory effects on the developing immune system. Hence, bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells (BMDCs) were co-incubated with Clostridium perfringens A or Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and porcine, bovine, or human AF, colostrum/milk whey fractions. Interleukin (IL) 10, IL-12, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production was measured. IL-12 production was reduced with all AFs and wheys, and IL-6 and TNF-? were also reduced by porcine AF. Porcine and bovine whey both reduced TNF-? production. Overall, the reductions were most pronounced with the porcine fluids. Only bovine fluids caused strong induction of IL-10. Overall, effects of AF and whey from same species were similar. Viability of stimulated BMDCs was not significantly affected by the fluids. Neutralization of IL-10, transforming growth factor ?, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) did not remove the IL-12-inhibiting effect, but EGF neutralization increased IL-10 production. Addition of EFG to DCs enhanced the bacterium-induced cytokine production contrary to the effect of AF and colostrums, ruling out EGF as the inhibitory component in the fluids. PMID:21777143

  3. Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45–0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

  4. Presence of arsenic in agricultural products from arsenic-endemic areas and strategies to reduce arsenic intake in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Vzquez-Arajo, Laura; Burl, Francisco; Sengupta, Bhaskar

    2009-05-01

    About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas. PMID:19382147

  5. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoa; Calleja-Fernndez, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Roco; Cano-Rodrguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, Mara D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030). PMID:25412019

  6. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training.

    PubMed

    Williams, Deniece R; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-01-01

    Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

  7. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.

    2014-01-01

    Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

  8. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOSTRUM TO THE NEW-BORN CALF.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Little, R B

    1922-07-31

    All of ten calves which were permitted to take colostrum after birth survived. Eight out of twelve calves which did not get colostrum died and one was killed moribund. One calf, killed on the 27th day, harbored miscellaneous bacteria in its organs. The kidneys were sclerotic and one joint diseased. Of the remaining two calves, one had transitory joint troubles, the other rhinitis. One was sold and the other killed when 2 months old. In the latter the organs were normal and sterile. PMID:19868663

  9. Occurrence and intake of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based products marketed in Korea during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ok, H E; Chang, H-J; Choi, S-W; Cho, T Y; Oh, K S; Chun, H S

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was investigated in 514 cereal-based products (corn-based, n = 125; barley-based, n = 96; wheat-based, n = 94; rice-based, n = 199) marketed in Korea during 2007-2008, and estimates of DON intake were determined. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light (UV) detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.2 and 5.6 g kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries and repeatability expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were 82.3-100% and 2.4-15.3% in beer, bread and dried corn. The incidences and mean levels of DON were 56% and 68.9 g kg(-1) for corn-based products, 49% and 24.1 g kg(-1) for wheat-based products, 43% and 7.5 g kg(-1) for barley-based products, and 16% and 3.4 g kg(-1) for rice-based products, respectively. The estimated daily intake of DON from the consumption of rice-based, wheat-based, barley-based and corn-based products were 0.0038 g kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0032 g kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0015 g kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 0.0002 g kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These values represent 0.38%, 0.32%, 0.25% and 0.01% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 g kg(-1) bw day(-1). These results indicate that rice-based products are major contributors to DON exposure in Korea, even though the current exposure level is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. PMID:24785178

  10. Effects of colostrum feeding and glucocorticoid administration on insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, B H; Zbinden, Y; Schneiter, P; Tappy, L; Blum, J W; Hammon, H M

    2006-10-01

    Colostrum feeding and glucocorticoid administration affect glucose metabolism and insulin release in calves. We have tested the hypothesis that dexamethasone as well as colostrum feeding influence insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in neonatal calves using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Newborn calves were fed either colostrum or a milk-based formula (n=14 per group) and in each feeding group, half of the calves were treated with dexamethasone (30 microg/[kg body weight per day]). Preprandial blood samples were taken on days 1, 2, and 4. On day 5, insulin was infused for 3h and plasma glucose concentrations were kept at 5 mmol/L+/-10%. Clamps were combined with [(13)C]-bicarbonate and [6,6-(2)H]-glucose infusions for 5.5h (i.e., from -150 to 180 min, relative to insulin infusion) to determine glucose turnover, glucose appearance rate (Ra), endogenous glucose production (eGP), and gluconeogenesis before and at the end of the clamp. After the clamp liver biopsies were taken to measure mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC). Dexamethasone increased plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations in the pre-clamp period thus necessitating a reduction in the rate of glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia during the clamp. Glucose turnover and Ra increased during the clamp and were lower at the end of the clamp in dexamethasone-treated calves. Dexamethasone treatment did not affect basal gluconeogenesis or eGP. At the end of the clamp, dexamethasone reduced eGP and PC mRNA levels, whereas mitochondrial PEPCK mRNA levels increased. In conclusion, insulin increased glucose turnover and dexamethasone impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism, and this was independent of different feeding. PMID:16360295

  11. Soy and Soy Products Intake, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japan: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-07-01

    Soy and soy products are popular ingredients in the Japanese diet. This study aimed to determine whether soy or soy products intake was associated with all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort in Japan. A total of 11 066 participants were obtained from an annual community-based health examination program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning soy and soy products intake and potential confounding factors. Associations between soy and soy products intake and all-cause mortality were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs). After adjusting for all factors, morality was significantly higher in men with infrequent soy intake (HR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.07) and with almost daily intake (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.19-2.03) compared with intake 1 to 2 times per week. Cancer mortality was higher among men who reported rarely eating soy (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.08-2.79). Soy products intake was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in both sexes. PMID:24958613

  12. Comparative analysis of zinc status, food products' frequency intake and food habits of 11-year-old healthy children.

    PubMed

    Schlegel-Zawadzka, M; Zachwieja, Z; Huzior-Baajewicz, A; Pietrzyk, J J

    2002-10-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to zinc (Zn) deficiency during periods of rapid growth and development such as infancy and adolescence. The aim was to find the relationship between food frequency, intake, food habits and zinc status in 11-year-old healthy children from southern Poland. The study group comprised children (n = 157) in the age range 11.0 +/- 0.4 years. The level of Zn in serum, erythrocytes and hair samples was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The parents of children examined completed a special food frequency questionnaire. The Zn concentration in hair (boys 182.98 +/- 65.63 microg x g(-1), n = 78; girls 203.82 +/- 39.80 microg x g(-1), n = 79; p = 0.0171), erythrocytes (8.60 +/- 2.76 mg x l(-1), n = 50) and blood serum (0.79 +/- 0.15 mg x l(-1)) correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with frequency intake of different products (hair: meat, rolls, fruit juices without additives, brawn, pate, barley, black pudding, fish canned, chips, margarine used for cooking, bacon; erythrocytes: fruits, matured cheese, dishes of meal, white cottage cheese, fruit juices without additives, cakes and cakes with cream, margarine used for bread spread; blood serum: bread, fruits, milk, kefir, yoghurt). The relationship of the Zn amount in food products, food frequency intake and the concentration in different healthy children tissues is influenced by many internal and external factors. PMID:12443558

  13. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk production responses compared with perennial ryegrass. PMID:26409973

  14. Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

    2003-01-01

    Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains…

  15. Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

    2003-01-01

    Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains

  16. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  17. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230 Section 866.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after childbirth. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  18. Oligosaccharides in colostrum of Italian and Burkinabe women.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Maria; Simpore, Jacques; D'Agata, Alfonsina; Sotgiu, Stefano; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2006-09-01

    Human milk contains a large number of compounds to provide nutrition and defense for the newborn. Among these, oligosaccharides are present in concentrations up to 12 g/L, and their composition varies during lactation. Colostrum from 53 Burkinabe women were collected at the maternity department of St Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, West Africa). Colostrum from 50 Italian women were collected at the maternity department of St Bambino Hospital in Catania (Catania, East Sicily, Italy). All mothers spontaneously delivered at term. Italian mothers received an injection of the ergot derivative ergotamine after delivery. Ergotamine, notoriously, delays breastfeeding initiation up to 2 to 3 days. Chromatographic separation of colostrum from both Burkinabe and Italian women showed a progressive appearance of oligosaccharides in the first 3 days. Burkinabe women showed high concentrations of 2-fucosyllactose and lower concentrations of lacto-N-fucopentaose I. By contrast, Italian women showed inverted behaviour. A comparable percentage of the secretor genotype for the Lewis blood group phenotype in both Burkinabe and Italian women was found. According to the different ethnicity, different milk oligosaccharide profiles were documented in the present study. 2-Fucosyllactose in milk should be biologically significant for Burkinabe infants because of the high levels found in their mothers' colostrum after the second day of lactation. PMID:16954962

  19. Effect of peripartal feeding strategy on colostrum yield and composition in sows.

    PubMed

    Decaluw, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J

    2014-08-01

    Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feedd(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feedd(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (<17 mm, n = 15), moderate (17 to 23 mm, n = 21), fat (>23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheff post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p < 0.001) but a lower concentration of protein (p = 0.040) in colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p < 0.001, C4: p = 0.016) reserves but had a greater ratio urea:NEFA (p < 0.001) and less ketone bodies (3-OH-C4: p < 0.001) compared with the L group. This indicates a more balanced entry of metabolites in the citric acid cycle and thus a better support of the maternal peripartal metabolism in the H group. Serum parameters did not differ between BC groups. Both CY and composition can be influenced by the peripartal feeding strategy and BC. The highest CY and most beneficial colostrum composition were obtained when sows entered the farrowing unit in a moderate BC and were provided a high peripartal feeding strategy. PMID:24981570

  20. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P <0.01). Nine treated calves developed diarrhoea during the study and four were humanely euthanased due to progressive clinical deterioration. None of the calves in the CG showed signs of disease or died during the study. The dose of IgG used in this trial effectively provided an adequate sIgG concentration in colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease. PMID:26831168

  1. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entres under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

  2. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in meat products and estimated PAH intake by children and the general population in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A

    2007-04-01

    The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and 11 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from 322 commercial, cured meat products and 14 home-grilled meat samples as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme during 2001-2005. The maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg kg(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene was exceeded in 3.4% of samples. The highest PAH concentrations were detected in home-grilled pork samples. Using of disposable grilling unit resulted in 1.6 times higher PAH concentrations compared to the traditional wood-burning grill. The average intake of benzo[a]pyrene and sum of 12 PAHs from meat products was estimated for children (age 1-16 years) on the basis of an individual food consumption questionnaire and, for the general population, based on national food consumption data. The highest total PAH concentrations detected were 16 microg kg(-1) in smoked meat and ham, 19 microg kg(-1) in smoked sausage and 6.5 microg kg(-1) in smoked chicken samples. Since smoking and grilling are prevalent meat-cooking methods in Estonia, the impact of meat products is assessed to be significant in overall PAH intake. PMID:17454117

  4. Experiences of expressing and storing colostrum antenatally: A qualitative study of mothers in regional Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Brisbane, Joanna M; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences and breastfeeding outcomes of a group of mothers who expressed colostrum in the antenatal period. In-depth interviews were conducted over the telephone with 12 women who had attended a unique antenatal lactation clinic appointment at 37 weeks' gestation. Seven main response themes were identified. Most women reflected positively upon their attendance and reported that the experience of expressing colostrum allowed them to become familiar with their breasts and gave them a sense of security by having a supply of colostrum stored for possible use after birth. The main negative emotions reported were a sense of embarrassment at expressing the colostrum, particularly in front of another person, the difficulties with expressing colostrum and in one instance, the physical pain associated with the process. Antenatal expression of colostrum may improve maternal breastfeeding confidence. Further research using long-term records will determine whether this practice improves breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:24154845

  5. Intake, growth and carcass traits in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2009-06-01

    Validation of economic indexes under a controlled experimental environment, can aid in their acceptance and use as breeding tools to increase herd profitability. The objective of this study was to compare intake, growth and carcass traits in bull and steer progeny of high and low ranking sires, for genetic merit in an economic index. The Beef Carcass Index (BCI; expressed in euro () and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat scores) was generated by the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation as a tool to compare animals on genetic merit for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 male suckler herd progeny, from 22 late-maturing 'continental' beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) BCI were compared under either a bull or steer production system, and slaughtered at approximately 16 and 24 months of age, respectively. All progeny were purchased after weaning at approximately 6 to 8 months of age. Dry matter (DM) intake and live-weight gain in steer progeny offered grazed grass or grass silage alone, did not differ between the two genetic groups. Similarly, DM intake and feed efficiency did not differ between genetic groups during an ad libitum concentrate-finishing period on either production system. Carcasses of progeny of high BCI sires were 14 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than those of low BCI sires. In a series of regression analyses, increasing sire BCI resulted in increases in carcass weight (P < 0.01) and carcass conformation (P = 0.051) scores, and decreases in carcass fat (P < 0.001) scores, but had no effect on weaning weight or DM intake of the progeny. Each unit increase in sire expected progeny difference led to an increase in progeny weaning weight, DM intake, carcass weight, carcass conformation score and carcass fat score of 1.0 (s.e. = 0.53) kg, 1.1 (s.e. = 0.32) kg, 1.3 (s.e. = 0.31) kg, 0.9 (s.e. = 0.32; scale 1 to 15) and 1.0 (s.e. = 0.25; scale 1 to 15), respectively, none of which differed from the theoretical expectation of unity. The expected difference in profitability at slaughter between progeny of the high and low BCI sires was 42, whereas the observed phenotypic profit differential of the progeny was 53 in favour of the high BCI sires. Results from this study indicate that the BCI is a useful tool in the selection of genetically superior sires, and that actual progeny performance under the conditions of this study is within expectations for both bull and steer beef production systems. PMID:22444765

  6. Evaluation of on-farm tools for colostrum quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Bartier, A L; Windeyer, M C; Doepel, L

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the immunoglobulin G (IgG) content of colostrum on Alberta dairy farms and to determine which on-farm tool, the colostrometer or the Brix refractometer, was more highly correlated with IgG content as determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID). Colostrum samples (n=569) were collected between February and July 2012 from 13 commercial dairy farms in central Alberta, with herds ranging in size from 60 to 300 lactating cows. Immunoglobulin G content was determined directly by RID and indirectly by a colostrometer (specific gravity) and Brix refractometer (total solids). The Spearman correlation was used for the colostrometer and Brix refractometer data. According to RID analysis, 29.1% of the colostrum samples contained <50 mg/mL IgG. Concentrations ranged from 8.3 to 128.6 mg/mL IgG, with a median of 65.1 mg/mL. Third or greater parity cows had higher colostral IgG content (69.51.98 mg/mL) than second parity (59.802.06 mg/mL) or first parity (62.21.73 mg/mL) cows. The colostrometer data were more highly correlated with RID results (r=0.77) than were the Brix refractometer data (r=0.64). Specificity and sensitivity were determined for the colostrometer and Brix refractometer compared with a cut-point of 50 mg/mL IgG as determined by RID. The highest combined value for sensitivity and specificity occurred at 80 mg/mL for the colostrometer (84.1 and 77.0%, respectively) and 23% Brix (65.7 and 82.8%, respectively). This study indicates that although the colostrometer data are better correlated with true IgG values, the user-friendly Brix refractometer is a more specific tool to detect colostrum of adequate quality. PMID:25582586

  7. Glycome characterization of immunoglobulin G from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum.

    PubMed

    Bhanu, L S Mamatha; Amano, M; Nishimura, S-I; Aparna, H S

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a major glycoprotein in ruminant colostrum. First day buffalo colostrum protein was purified on Sephadex G-100 and its mass was determined by MALDI-TOF as 147.848 KDa. The PMF data of protein subunits revealed its homology to IgG, which was supported by the identification of peptide sequences LLIYGATSR and VYNEYLPAPIVR corresponding to light and heavy chains of IgG by CID MS/MS analysis. The N-glycan microheterogeneity was established based on chemoselective glycoblotting technique with the identification of high mannose, neutral complex/hybrid and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans. A complete structural assignment of 54 N-linked oligosaccharides were identified and the ratio of sialyl oligosaccharides was found to be higher compared to neutral saccharides. The fucosylation observed in more than 20 oligosaccharides, high mannose and trisialyl oligosaccharides were present in diminutive amount. The high non-fucosyl and sialyl oligosaccharides in buffalo colostrum IgG provide ample scope for its utilization in targeted therapies to elicit effective ADCC and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:26239923

  8. Fractionized milk composition during removal of colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, C E; Bruckmaier, R M; Blum, J W

    2003-06-01

    Experiments were designed to study compositional differences in colostrum and mature milk and during the course of milk removal. Fractionized milk samples during the course of machine milking were analyzed in single (right rear) quarters in the cisternal fraction, after 25, 50, 75, and 100% of spontaneously removed milk, in residual milk, and in composite samples from all quarters on d 2 (colostrum) and in wk 4 (mature milk) of lactation. Somatic cell counts; concentrations of dry matter, total protein, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, prolactin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Na, and Cl; gamma-glutamyltransferase activity; and electrical conductivity were higher, whereas lactose concentration was lower on d 2 than in wk 4. Concentrations of fat, potassium chloride, and osmolarity did not differ between lactational periods. During the course of milking, concentrations of dry matter, fat, lactose, and potassium, and osmolarity increased, whereas somatic cell counts, protein, insulin like-growth factor-I, insulin, prolactin, and sodium concentrations, electrical conductivity and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity decreased on d 2, and protein, sodium, and electrical conductivity decreased in wk 4. In conclusion, various milk constituents differed considerably between lactational periods (colostrum and mature milk). Milk isotonicity was only in part associated with lactose concentration. Electrical conductivity was associated with Na, K, and fat concentrations and was highest in the cisternal fraction. Changes in milk constituents during milking need to be considered if milk samples are taken for analytical purposes and to evaluate the health status of the udder. PMID:12836936

  9. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  10. Effect of Feeding Raw Versus Heat-treated Colostrum on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction The importance of timing, volume and quality of colostrum fed has long been understood, but the improvement of colostrum quality via on farm heat-treatment is a concept developed only within the last few years. Bacterial contamination of colostrum is not only a potential source of patho...

  11. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  12. Blood-stained colostrum and human milk during pregnancy and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Barco, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Barco, Jos; Badia, Angels; Piqueras, Merc; Garca, Antonio; Pessarrodona, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    Blood-stained colostrum occurs occasionally during pregnancy and lactation due to a conspicuous increase in lobuloalveolar growth. We report on a case of bilateral frank blood-stained colostrum secreted during pregnancy and early postpartum, emphasizing the transitory nature of this condition and the need to reinforce breastfeeding. PMID:24925862

  13. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-wk old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 o...

  14. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ?1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and NEFA concentrations over time were highest in group H and lowest in group C, whereas milk production was not affected by prepartum plane of energy. Analysis of milk fatty acid composition showed a higher yield of preformed fatty acids in group H compared with group C, suggesting higher lipid mobilization for cows fed H. In this study, a 1-group, controlled-energy dry period approach decreased the degree of negative energy balance as well as the number of episodes and degree of hyperketonemia postpartum. PMID:25771059

  15. Detection of Bovine Leukaemia Virus Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Colostrum Replacers.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Finnegan, C; Phillips, A; Horigan, M; Pollard, T; Steinbach, F

    2015-10-01

    Great Britain has been bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) disease free since 1999. We recently reported three separate incidents of BLV seropositivity on farms with home-reared cattle due to the use of colostrum replacer rather than infection with BLV (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19, 2013, 1027). These cases were all linked via the use of the same brand of colostrum replacer. Here, we investigate further by examining multiple brands of colostrum replacer for proviral DNA and BLV antibodies. BLV antibodies were detected in 7 of the colostrum replacers tested, with PCR concurring in two cases. Thus, the use of these BLV antibody-positive colostrum replacers may also lead to false-positive serological diagnostics. PMID:24268042

  16. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

  17. EFFECT OF PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY ON INTAKE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF LIVESTOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland ecology is concerned primarily with those factors influencing the composition of plant species under grazing conditions, particularly how they relate to sustaining productive plant communities. With the recent trend of livestock operations opting for less capital-intensive production syst...

  18. Improved diet quality and increased nutrient intakes associated with grape product consumption by U.S. children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Keast, Debra R; Painter, James E; Romano, Courtney S; Wightman, JoLynne D

    2013-06-01

    Fruit contributes to dietary nutrient density and consumption of fruit in several forms (whole, dried, or 100% juice) has been reported to be associated with a healthier dietary pattern. The goal of this study was to examine the associations of the consumption of grapes (including fresh grapes, raisins, and 100% grape juice) with diet quality and food group/nutrient intake. A secondary analysis of Natl. Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003 to 2008 data was conducted to compare grape consumers (GC) with nongrape consumers (NGC) among children aged 2 to 19 y (n = 9622) and adults 20+ y (n = 12251). GC were defined as those who mentioned the consumption of fresh grapes, raisins, or 100% grape juice during 1 or both 24-h recall interviews. Compared to NGC, GC had higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores and higher intakes of total and whole fruit along with lower intakes of solid fat, added sugars, and calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). Among adults, GC also had higher intakes than NGC of total and dark green/orange vegetables. Among both age groups, GC had higher intake than NGC of several key nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Consumption of grape products is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and higher intake of key nutrients by both children and adults. PMID:23789930

  19. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60C for 60 min and then stored at -20C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60C for 60 min and then stored at -20C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=0.45, DTB=1.08) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=3.82, FR=4.80). Mean 24-h serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher for calves in the PU (41.0 mg/mL) and DTB (40.6 mg/mL) groups compared with FF (35.1 mg/mL) and FR (35.5 mg/mL) groups. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was significantly higher for the PU (37%) and DTB (37%) groups compared with the FF (32%) and FR (32%) groups. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum (PU or DTB) experienced significantly improved AEA and serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25597970

  20. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  1. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A.; Deepak, D.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  2. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  3. Invited review: Dairy intake and bone health: a viewpoint from the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Poli, A; Ricotta, D; Banfi, G; Cocchi, D

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this review was to focus on the complex relationships between milk and dairy products intake and bone health, with particular emphasis on osteoporosis. The literature was extensively examined to provide an objective overview of the most significant achievements on the subject. Osteoporosis can be defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Although the major determinants of peak bone mass and strength are genetic, major factors during childhood and adolescence may affect the ability to achieve peak bone mass. These include nutrition, particularly calcium and protein intake, physical activity, endocrine status, as well as exposure to a wide variety of risk factors. The role of calcium intake in determining bone mineral mass is well recognized to be the most critical nutritional factor to achieve optimal peak bone mass. The greatest amount of dietary calcium is obtained from milk and dairy foods, which also provide the human diet with vitamin D (particularly for products fortified with vitamin D), potassium, and other macro- and micronutrients. Although studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or calcium on bone health are predominant in the literature, perplexity or discordance on this subject was expressed by some authors. Discordant data, mainly on the risk of fractures, provided limited proof of the unfavorable effect of dairy intake. More often, discordant works indicate no effect of dairy consumption on bone safety. Some considerations can be drawn from this viewpoint. Milk and dairy products are an optimal source of calcium as well as of other limiting nutrients (e.g., potassium and magnesium), with important effects on bone health. Bioactive components occurring in milk and dairy products may play an essential role on bone metabolism, as shown by in vivo and in vitro studies on colostrum acidic proteins and milk basic proteins. Calcium intake positively affects bone mass and is crucial in childhood and youth for correct bone development. In elderly people, calcium intake as well as vitamin D availability should be carefully checked. As a general conclusion, calcium is essential for bone health, although it will not prevent bone loss due to other factors; in this context, milk and dairy foods are bioavailable, relatively inexpensive sources of calcium for the human diet. PMID:22032348

  4. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. Impact of ferulate cross linking on DMI, milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow perfo...

  5. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  6. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  7. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g of milk fatty acids) and conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (0.36, 1.09, 1.79, and 1.87 g/100g of milk fatty acids). Addition of DHA did not affect total emissions of CH4 (543, 563, 553, and 520 g/cow per d), nor emissions in terms of milk production (24.9, 22.1, 24.3, and 23.4 g of CH4/kg of milk), but emissions were increased with respect to total intake (22.6, 23.5, 24.5, and 24.4 g of CH4/kg of DM). These findings indicate that CH4 emissions were not reduced when dairy cows were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DHA from algal meal. PMID:23498011

  8. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best described by the nonlinear model where the maximal responses were 1.92, 1.11, and 4.82kg/d, respectively. The expected increments in DMI, milk production, and 3.5% FCM by increasing DCAD from 0 to 500mEq/kg were 1.7, 1.2, and 3.4kg/cow per day, respectively. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that DCAD has significant effects on intake, milk production and composition, digestion, and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26409960

  9. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exerciseinduced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise. PMID:23173926

  10. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  11. Corn bran versus corn grain at 2 levels of forage: Intake, apparent digestibility, and production responses by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Armentano, L E; Hall, M B

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of substituting corn bran (CB) for dried ground corn grain (CG) in the nonforage portion of high-forage (HF) and low-forage (LF) diets. Twelve multiparous and 12 primiparous Holsteins were assigned to 4 diets using six 4 Latin squares with 3-wk periods. Forage was 64 or 38% of the total mixed ration (% of dry matter). On a dry matter basis, the HFCG diet had 20% CG, the LFCG diet had 39% CG, the HFCB diet had 19% CB, and the LFCB diet had 38% CB. Digestible organic matter intake (OMI) and milk energy yield were lower for CB compared with CG within forage level. Digestible OMI was greater (1.9kg/d) for the LFCG compared with the HFCG treatment. When CB replaced forage (LFCB vs. HFCB), digestible OMI was not different but milk energy yield was greater with the LFCB diet. The LFCG diet supported the greatest milk, milk protein, and milk energy yield. Decreased concentration of milk protein and increased concentration of milk urea nitrogen when feeding CB compared with CG suggests that lack of fermentable energy in the CB diets may have limited rumen microbial protein synthesis. Total substitution of CG with CB in the nonforage portion did not support maximum milk production, even when forage was reduced at the same time (HFCG vs. LFCB). Predicted neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility at 1 times maintenance, based on chemical analysis of the individual feeds, was 22 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 46.9%). In vitro NDF digestibility (30h) was 19.4 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 49.5%). However, in vivo NDF digestibility of the diet when CB replaced forage (HFCB vs. LFCB) was similar (44.1 vs. 44.5%). Similarly, predicted total digestible nutrients at the production level of intake, based on chemical analysis, were greater for the CB treatments and lower for the CG treatments than those observed in vivo. PMID:24997669

  12. The comparison of antioxidative/oxidative profile in colostrum, milk and blood of early post-partum cows during their first and second lactation.

    PubMed

    Albera, E; Kankofer, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare antioxidative/oxidative profile in blood, colostrum and milk of early post-partum cows during their first and second lactation. A total of 19 healthy, primiparous cows were included in experiment and samples were collected during 2 years from the same animals immediately after parturition, 24, 48?h as well as 6 and 12?days later. All parameters including the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the content of vitamin A, C as well as the contents of products of lipid and protein peroxidation were determined by the use of spectrophotometric methods. Comparing the profile within lactation, TAC and GSH-Px activity in blood showed decreasing trends, while parameters of lipid and protein peroxidation fluctuated. All examined parameters in colostrum and milk except from intermediates of lipid peroxidation exhibited increasing trends. These results which showed dynamic changes of antioxidative/oxidative profile not only in blood but also in colostrum/milk within examined period of time suggested appropriate answer of organism to current challenge. Moreover, not uniform but detectable changes between first and second lactation suggested that two consecutive lactations are not the same. Comparing first and second lactation, TAC and parameters of lipid and protein peroxidation in blood showed increasing tendency in second as first lactation while GSH-Px activity was opposite. The content of antioxidative vitamins and SH groups in colostrum/milk showed increasing tendency in second as first lactation, while TAC and content of end products of lipid peroxidation showed opposite trend, and GSH-Px together with intermediates of lipid peroxidation remained stable. Molecular and biochemical background for it require further elucidation. PMID:20210886

  13. Chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk.

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Wen, P C; Liang, Q; Liu, H N; Zhang, W B; Wang, P J; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in the chemical composition of yak colostrum and transient milk. Samples were collected from 12 yaks on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 post-partum (PP). The gross composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, amino acid (AA) profile and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed. All the components decreased rapidly during the first 3days except lactose which increased. The ratio of whey protein to casein protein decreased from 46:54 to 17:83 during the first 7days PP. The content of all the AAs decreased, while the percentages of eight essential AAs in protein of samples increased during the study period. Monounsaturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs decreased in the first 7days PP, whereas saturated FAs increased. In conclusion, the changes in chemical composition were remarkable during the first 3days. The slight variations, happened during the transient period, are not negligible, which also should be taken into account in the development of yak colostrum supplements. PMID:25545664

  14. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032

  15. Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus in Childhood and Age at Menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Moslehi, Nazanin; Asghari, Golaleh; Gholami, Roya; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) with menarcheal age were also examined. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ? 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. Results The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.035.05)], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.397.42)], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.125.27)] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.447.87) after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1). Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ? 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. Conclusions Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche. PMID:23451261

  16. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  17. Technical note: Comparison of radial immunodiffusion and ELISA for quantification of bovine immunoglobulin G in colostrum and plasma.

    PubMed

    Gelsinger, S L; Smith, A M; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-06-01

    Historically, radial immunodiffusion (RID) has been the only method that directly measures IgG; however, recent studies have reported IgG concentrations in colostrum, milk, and plasma as measured using an ELISA. To our knowledge no comparison between RID and ELISA methods has been made for bovine colostrum or plasma. The objective of this study was to compare IgG concentrations measured by both methods in samples of bovine colostrum before and after heat treatment and bovine plasma. Concentration of IgG was quantified using a commercially available RID kit and a modified ELISA. Samples of bovine colostrum and plasma were collected from individual animals and colostrum was tested before and after heat treatment at 60C for 30 min. All samples were tested using both methods. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for RID and ELISA values from unheated colostrum, heat-treated colostrum, and plasma samples. Mixed models were used to determine the effect of assay on IgG measurement in colostrum and plasma and effect of heat treatment on IgG concentration in colostrum. A weak correlation was found between ELISA and RID results in plasma and unheated colostrum. Concentration of IgG was significantly lower in all sample types when measured by ELISA compared to RID. Thus, direct comparison of ELISA and RID results is not recommended. Colostrum IgG concentration significantly decreased after heat treatment as measured by ELISA, but means were not different when measured by RID. Correlation plots between colostrum values measured before and after heat treatment indicated changes in the colostrum protein matrix due to heat affected RID and ELISA assays differently. This investigation compared RID and ELISA results, but no conclusions could be drawn as to the accuracy of either assay. PMID:25841961

  18. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that spot measurements could be made in association with feed efficiency tests made over 70 days. Spot measurements of enteric emissions can be used to define DMP but the number of animals and samples are larger than are needed when day-long measures are made. PMID:26301870

  19. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305gkg(-1)) and FB2 (651gkg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2gkg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  20. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 11414d in milk and weighed 53356kg were used in a replicated 55 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 g/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.11.33kg/d and 19.70.56kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.910.20%, 3.850.10%, and 4.700.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.280.03 g/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.570.13 g/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.010.06 g/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.100.06 g/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.320.06 g/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11.86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, 1.71 g/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.070.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.320.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. PMID:26709170

  1. Farm investigations of anaemia in lambs caused by feeding cow colostrum.

    PubMed

    Winter, A C; Clarkson, M J

    1992-09-01

    The deaths on nine farms of lambs which had been fed cow colostrum as a substitute for ewe colostrum were investigated. Of 105 lambs which received cow colostrum, 65 (61.9 per cent) showed clinical signs of anaemia and 42 (40 per cent) died. The signs of anaemia usually appeared when the lambs were between eight and 12 days old. The most significant post mortem finding was the appearance of the bone marrow which was cream or grey rather than the normal bright red. The types of treatment which were given are summarised. Whey from samples of the colostrum fed to the lambs was tested for its effect on sheep red blood cells. Haemolysis or agglutination of the red cells occurred with some, though not all, of the samples which caused anaemia. PMID:1441106

  2. IgG1 variations in the colostrum of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Le Cozler, Y; Guatteo, R; Le Dran, E; Turban, H; Leboeuf, F; Pecceu, K; Guinard-Flament, J

    2016-02-01

    High-immune quality colostrum (IgG1 concentration ?50 g/l) is crucial for the health and development of the young calf. Studies on colostrum quality tend to focus on external factors such as breed, parity or dry period length, but few have focused on within-cow variations. Here we ran experiments to gain a deeper insight into within-cow variation in IgG1 concentrations in dairy cow colostrum. Trials were performed in an experimental farm, located in the Western part of France. Colostrum from each quarter and a composite sample (mix of four quarters) were concomitantly collected on 77 Holstein dairy cows just after calving to assess the influence of sample type on IgG1 concentrations. Variation in IgG1 concentrations during the first milking was studied on samples from nine cows collected every minute from the start of milking. Repeatability of colostral IgG1 concentration was estimated from 2009 and 2010 data on 16 healthy cows. IgG1 concentrations were tested using a radial immunodiffusion method. Sensitivity and specificity were similar regardless of sample type tested (individual quarter or composite milk). Mean average IgG1 concentration was 54.1 g/l in composite colostrum, and was significantly higher in hind quarter teats (56.2 g/l) than front quarter teats (53.1 g/l). Average IgG1 concentration did not change significantly during colostrum milking, and the variations observed (15% or less) were likely due to the laboratory method (CV 15%). IgG1 concentrations in dam colostrum increased slightly from 2009 to 2010 due to BW and parity effects. In 56% of cases, colostrum quality could have been assessed on either individual or composite colostrum samples collected at any time during the first milking without affecting the reliability of the measurement. However, in other cases, differences were significant enough to mean that estimates of average IgG1 concentration in colostrum from any one quarter would not be reliable. It is concluded that colostrum quality, from an IgG1 concentration point of view, could be assessed with a composite sample taken at any time during the first milking. PMID:26776495

  3. Covariance structures of fat and protein influence the estimation of IgG in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Lkke, Mette Marie; Engelbrecht, Rikke; Wiking, Lars

    2016-02-01

    On-farm instruments for assessing colostrum quality are needed in order to ensure that the calf is supplied with enough IgG to avoid failure of passive transfer. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for estimating the IgG concentration in cows' colostrum. This research included 126 colostrum samples from 21 Danish farms with different breeds, ensuring a broad variation pattern in IgG, total protein and fat concentration. Approximately one third of the samples did not fulfil the recommendation of >50 g IgG/l colostrum, and the IgG concentration decreased with time from calving to milking. The ratio of IgG to total protein varied from 6 to 61%, however IgG and total protein were correlated with r 2 = 070. The variation in fat was independent of variations in protein and IgG. The IgG concentration was measured by ELISA and compared to fast measurements by specific gravity by colostrometer, Brix by refractometer and prediction from infrared spectroscopy. The three fast methods were all correlated to the total protein concentration of colostrum; however specific gravity was also influenced by the fat concentration. Furthermore, specific gravity generally overestimated the IgG concentration, and the cut-off level should be raised to 1050 in order to ensure adequate IgG in colostrum. None of the methods estimated IgG concentration better than the correlation of total protein and IgG, meaning that they all depended on the indirect correlation between total protein and IgG. The results suggest that using a refractometer for quality control of colostrum is an easy and feasible method, and a cut-off level of Brix 22 seems sufficient to assure adequate IgG concentration in colostrum fed to the calf. PMID:26869112

  4. Serum antibodies and shedding of infectious porcine circovirus 2 into colostrum and milk of vaccinated and unvaccinated naturally infected sows.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Garrocho, Flvia M; Lana, Angela M Q; Lobato, Zlia I P

    2011-05-01

    Serum antibodies and shedding of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) into lacteal secretions were examined in naturally infected sows. Total (TA) and neutralising (NA) antibodies against PCV2 were evaluated in serum and colostrum from 20 vaccinated (Vac) and 21 unvaccinated (N-vac) sows. Anti-PCV2 IgA titres and PCV2 infectious titres were determined in colostrum and milk. All sows had high TA and NA levels in serum and colostrum. Infectious PCV2 was detected in 22/41 colostrum samples (7/20 Vac and 15/21N-Vac sows) and 5/20 milk samples (1/5 Vac and 4/15N-Vac sows). Anti-PCV2 IgA was found in high levels in colostrum and varying levels in milk. Infectious PCV2 may be present in milk and colostrum of naturally infected sows, even in the presence of NA. PMID:20409736

  5. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in Holstein-Friesian colostrum during the first 3 days of lactation measured by high performance liquid chromatography on a microfluidic chip and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Barile, D.; Marotta, M.; Chu, C.; Mehra, R.; Grimm, R.; Lebrilla, C. B.; German, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Oligosaccharides (OS) from bovine milk are a class of bioactive molecules that are receiving increasing commercial attention for their potential health benefits. In the present work we measured, comprehensively and systematically, free milk OS in the colostrum of 7 Holstein-Friesian cows during the first 3 d of lactation in 12-h intervals by HPLC-chip/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine the biological variation of free milk OS in early lactation. The high sensitivity and resolution of the analytical technique made it possible to monitor all OS species, thus providing a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of OS variations during colostrum production. This study confirmed that although sialyllactose is the major OS in bovine colostrum, several neutral OS species are present in significant abundance even at the third day of lactation. Furthermore, variation in terms of OS species and relative abundances of OS between cows suggest individual animal variation. These variations are likely due to genetic factors because environmental factors such as nutrition, lactation number, and accommodation were the same for all cows. This investigation revealed that colostrum milk from Holstein-Friesian cows is a rich source of neutral and acidic OS for the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:20723667

  6. Biochemical parameters in the blood of Holstein calves given immunoglobulin Y-supplemented colostrums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. Results No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route. PMID:25022282

  7. Studies of composition and major protein level in milk and colostrum of mares.

    PubMed

    Pecka, Ewa; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Szulc, Tadeusz; Czy?, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the changes in composition and physicochemical features (pH, density, thermostability and acidity) of mare colostrum and milk, and of protein fraction contribution (serum albumin, ?-casein, ?-casein, ?-lactalbumin, G class immunoglobulins) depending on lactation stage. The research material was colostrum and milk samples from 12 Arabian mares. Colostrum samples were collected within 2 h after parturition and milk samples were collected twice, in the 3rd and 6th weeks of lactation. The level of basic milk components decreased significantly (only lactose content increased) as compared to colostrum. Total bacteria count and somatic cell count decreased significantly with an increase in resistance and urea level. The changes observed were connected to differentiated contribution of particular protein fractions and their relative proportions. Lower levels of ?-casein (P ? 0.05), ?-casein, serum albumin as well as ?-lactalbumin were observed in colostrum as compared to those in milk. Any relationship between lactation stage and ?-casein content was observed. Serum albumin and ?-lactalbumin content increased in subsequent milkings. The level of G class immunoglobulins decreased significantly and its highest level was noted in colostrum. Any significant differences between the 3rd and 6th lactation weeks were obtained. PMID:22339698

  8. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Snchez-Macas, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. PMID:25468691

  9. [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk].

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in innate immunity when transferred to the offspring and may accelerate maturation of the immune system in neonates. The immunotropic properties of these proteins prompted investigators research their potential application in prevention and therapy. Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitice, and antitumoral activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals. LF was tried in the treatment of hepatitis C infection and the intestinal form of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) demonstrated a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders. PRP, in the form of chewable tablets (Colostrinin) was recently found to improve or stabilize the health status of Alzheimer's disease patients. Casein and casein-derived peptides showed protective activities in enamel demineralization and as caries-preventing agents. The protein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced tumor growth, had antihypertensive activity and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a peptide derived from kappa-casein, exhibited various antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. Alpha-lactalbumin (LA) demonstrated antiviral, antitumoral and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea, and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. HAMLET, a complex of LA and oleic acid, was effective in patients with cutaneous papillomas. Lysozyme found application in infant formulas, the treatment of periodentitis, and the prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. Interesting, antibacterial properties were exhibited by lactoperoxidase. Both lysozyme and lactoperoxidase required cooperative action with LF in combating bacteria. In conclusion, preparations derived from milk and colostrum are effective, easily bioaccessible, and safe, finding wide application in prevention and therapy for newborns and adults. PMID:15995598

  10. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means ( SD) of 6.2 1.4 kg/d, 187 38 L/d, and 30.4 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means ( SD) of 34 4.6, 238 37, 357 45, and 471 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means ( SD) of 3.8 2.6 mm, 5.4 3.8 mm, and 61 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r SE) with DMI (0.65 0.02), MY (0.72 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r SE) with DMI (-0.02 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0.01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering. PMID:25349368

  11. Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

  12. Effects of a supplemental liquid yeast product on feed intake, ruminal profiles, and yield, composition, and organoleptic characteristics of milk from lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Besong, S; Jackson, J A; Hicks, C L; Hemken, R W

    1996-09-01

    A liquid yeast product (about 11% DM), produced as a by-product of riboflavin synthesis, was incorporated into a TMR at three concentrations to determine the maximal inclusion rate and acceptability as a feed supplement in diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein cows in midlactation were randomly assigned to TMR treatments containing (as-fed basis) 1) no yeast product (control), 2) 20% dietary yeast product, or 3) 40% dietary yeast product in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary DM contents were 90, 74.2, and 58.4% for the 0, 20, and 40% yeast product TMR, respectively. The control TMR was based on a 45:55 ratio (DM basis) of mixed concentrate and chopped alfalfa hay. The DMI decreased linearly with increasing percentages of dietary yeast product. Milk yield and milk protein percentage were not altered by inclusion of the dietary yeast product. Milk fat tended to respond quadratically to increases in the percentage of dietary yeast product in the TMR. The supplemental dietary yeast product had no effect on ruminal pH; however, the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and propionate percentage tended to increase, as supplementation of the yeast product increased. Addition of yeast product to the TMR had no adverse effect on milk flavor. Milk from cows fed yeast product had better flavor than milk from control cows. Results indicate that inclusion of this yeast product at 40% depressed feed intake. PMID:8899533

  13. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  14. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however, increased with greater amounts of water added to the TMR. The increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery were enhanced by higher ambient temperatures; this may be indicative of feed spoilage and thus may have contributed to the reduced DMI observed. Overall, these results suggest that the addition of water to high-moisture TMR (less than 60% DM) containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources will not always discourage cows from sorting, but rather may increase this behavior and limit the nutrient consumption of cows, particularly when ambient temperature is high. PMID:20494174

  15. Hormones, IgG and lactose changes around parturition in plasma, and colostrum or saliva of multiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Devillers, Nicolas; Farmer, Chantal; Mounier, Anne-Marie; Le Dividich, Jean; Prunier, Armelle

    2004-01-01

    Blood, colostrum and saliva samples were serially taken from 6 multiparous sows from day 109 of gestation until day 3 postpartum. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol-17beta (E2), progesterone (P4), prolactin (PRL), cortisol, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactose. Colostrum was assayed for E2, P4, IgG and lactose. Lactoserum, obtained after ultra centrifugation of colostrum, was assayed for PRL. Saliva was assayed for cortisol. Time-related variations in hormone, IgG and lactose concentrations measured in plasma were parallel to those measured in colostrum, lactoserum or saliva. However, the concentrations were higher in colostrum or lactoserum and lower in saliva than in plasma. Ratios of concentrations of cortisol in saliva and PRL in lactoserum over those in plasma did not vary with time and averaged 0.2 and 1.6, respectively. Conversely, the ratios of concentrations of E2 and P4 in colostrum over those in plasma varied with time (P < 0.05) but were quite constant before the end of parturition, averaging 2.7 and 3.6, respectively. The ratios of concentrations of IgG and lactose in colostrum over those in plasma also varied with time (P < 0.05). The concentrations of hormones in plasma on the one hand and in colostrum, lactoserum or saliva on the other hand were significantly correlated but correlations varied with time (PRL across periods: r = 0.31; cortisol across periods: r = 0.60; E2 during parturition: r = 0.83; P4 before parturition: r = 0.82; P4 during parturition: r = 0.67). The present results indicate that around parturition, assays of hormones in colostrum or saliva can be used to study the hormonal status of sows. Furthermore, variations in colostrum and plasma concentrations of IgG and lactose are good indicators of the transition from colostrum to milk synthesis. PMID:15535470

  16. Intakes of dairy products and dietary supplements are positively associated with iodine status among U.S. children

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Cria G.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Flores, Rafael; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Although pregnant women and some groups of reproductive age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency, data also suggest that iodine intake among many U.S. children may be above requirements. Our objective was to describe the association of iodine sources with iodine status among children. We analyzed 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data of urine iodine concentration (UIC) spot tests for children 6–12 y (n=1553), and used World Health Organization criteria for iodine status (median UIC 100–199 μg/L=adequate; 200–299 μg/L=above requirements; ≥300μg/L=excess). Overall median UIC was above requirements for children 6–12 y (211 μg/L, 95% CI: 194, 228μg/L). Median UIC increased by quartile of previous day dairy intake, ranging from adequate in the lowest quartile (157 μg/L, 95% CI: 141, 170 μg/L) to above requirements in the highest quartile (278 μg/L, 95% CI: 252, 336 μg/L). Median UIC was 303 μg/L (95% CI: 238, 345 μg/L) among the 17% of children who had taken a dietary supplement containing iodine the previous day, compared with 198 μg/L (95% CI: 182, 214 μg/L) among those who had not. In adjusted regression analyses recent dairy intake and recent supplement use were significantly positively associated with UIC levels, while recent grain intake was negatively associated. Adding salt to food at the table was not associated with UIC. Iodine containing supplements are likely not needed by most schoolchildren in the U.S. because dietary iodine intake is adequate in this age group. PMID:23700343

  17. Impact of dietary rumen undegradable protein and rumen-protected choline on intake, peripartum liver triacylglyceride, plasma metabolites and milk production in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, J R; Cecava, M J; Donkin, S S

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) level of prepartum diets, the supplementation of a rumen-protected choline product, and their interactions on milk production, feed intake, body weight and condition, blood metabolites, and liver triacylglycerides in dairy cows. Rumen-protected choline (RPC) was fed with two levels of RUP to 48 multiparous Holstein cows in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Beginning 28 d before expected calving, cows were fed 10% rumen degradable protein, either 0, 6, or 12 g/d of RPC as CapShure (Balchem Corp., Slate Hill, NY) and either 4.0 or 6.2% RUP. After calving and through 120 d of lactation, cows received a common diet and continued RPC as per their prepartum assignment. Prepartum dry matter intake (kg/d) was not affected by RPC or RUP. Postpartum intake decreased when 6.2% RUP was fed prepartum. Milk production to 56 d in milk was decreased when cows were fed 6.2% RUP prepartum. Milk protein (kg/d) decreased when additional RUP was fed prepartum. Cows fed RPC lost more weight during the study period and tended to lose more body condition. Plasma urea nitrogen levels in the prepartum period were reduced for cows fed 4.0% RUP prepartum. Mean liver triacylglyceride determined from samples obtained at -28, -14, +1, +28, and +56 d in milk was not affected by RPC, prepartum RUP, or their combinations. Feeding 12 g of RPC/d in conjunction with 4.0% RUP increased milk production, but feeding RPC with 6.2% RUP prepartum and through 56 d in milk decreased production. The data indicate that 6.2% RUP does not benefit close-up dry cows, and the response to RPC depends the RUP content of the prepartum diet. PMID:11132863

  18. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  19. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of animals grouped on alternative definitions of feed efficiency showed that conventional definitions such as feed conversion efficiency or residual feed intake may be inappropriate measures of efficiency for lactating dairy cows. An alternative definition, residual solids production, is proposed. This definition of feed efficiency identifies animals that produce greater volumes of milk solids at similar levels of feed intake without excessive body tissue mobilization and with improved fertility performance. The results also suggest that although there are differences in feed efficiency between strains of Holstein-Friesian, there is also variation within genotypes so that improvements in feed efficiency can be realized if the appropriate definition of feed efficiency is incorporated into breeding programs. PMID:20723705

  20. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum: Identification of a colostrum-derived inhibitory lipid

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:98090]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoitehost cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoitehost cell interactions. PMID:18675305

  1. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  2. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  3. Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 C for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

  4. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  5. In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defence.

    PubMed

    van Hooijdonk, A C; Kussendrager, K D; Steijns, J M

    2000-11-01

    The in vivo evidence of the antimicrobial and antiviral activity of bovine milk and colostrum derived components are reviewed with special emphasis on lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. Their mode of action and the rationale for their application in efficacy trials with rodents, farm animals, fish and humans, to give protection against infectious agents, are described. A distinction is made between efficacy obtained by oral and non-oral administration of these non-specific defence factors which can be commercially applied in large quantities due to major achievements in dairy technology. From the in vivo studies one can infer that lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are very promising, naturally occurring antimicrobials for use in fish farming, husbandry, oral hygiene and functional foods. Other promising milk-derived compounds include lipids, from which anti-infective degradation products are generated during digestion, and antimicrobial peptides hidden in the casein molecules. PMID:11242457

  6. Enterotoxigenic colibacillosis in colostrum-fed calves: pathologic changes.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, J E; Acres, S D

    1979-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic colibacillosis was experimentally produced in 8 of 9 colostrum-fed calves orally given 10(11) Escherichia coli. The eight calves developed profuse diarrhea accompanied by dehydration and depression. At 12 hours after exposure, all calves were euthanatized for necropsy and for collection of tissues for microscopic examination. Histopathologic changes included stunted villi in the jejunum and ileum, focal degeneration and exfoliation of absorptive epithelial cells at the tips of jejunal and ileal villi, and focal emigration of neutrophils which was especially prominent above the dome area of aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's patches). A layer of E coli adhered to the epithelial surface of the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenum, lesions were minimal or absent and bacteria were not adhering to the mucosa. Histopathologic changes were not observed in other tissues. In two calves examined 24 hours after they were inoculated and in two calves euthanatized 24 to 36 hours after spontaneously developing enteric colibacillosis, lesions were similar to those observed in the calves at 12 hours after exposure. PMID:393141

  7. Bovine colostrum supplementation during running training increases intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Butler, Ross N; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2009-02-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 4.7 yr; mean SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 140%) compared with WP (21 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (-7 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980

  8. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 ?g of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense. PMID:24650098

  9. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Research Design and Methods Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula into the lateral (LV) or third (3V) ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v.) injection of Tran35S (100 µCi) followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW), enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF), synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF) or vehicle (aCSF), or an i.v. injection of PYY3–36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS) or vehicle (PBS). Results Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively). NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3–36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. Conclusion In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species. PMID:23460782

  10. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training.

    PubMed

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Rooke, Julianne J; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Krentz, Joel R; Haines, Deborah M

    2014-06-01

    Bovine colostrum is the first milk secreted by cows after parturition and has high levels of protein, immunoglobulins, and various growth factors. We determined the effects of 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation versus whey protein during resistance training in older adults. Males (N = 15, 59.1 ± 5.4 y) and females (N = 25, 59.0 ± 6.7 y) randomly received (double-blind) 60 g/d of colostrum or whey protein complex (containing 38 g protein) while participating in a resistance training program (12 exercises, 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 days/ week). Strength (bench press and leg press 1-RM), body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), muscle thickness of the biceps and quadriceps (by ultrasound), cognitive function (by questionnaire), plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, as a marker of inflammation), and urinary N-telopeptides (Ntx, a marker of bone resorption) were determined before and after the intervention. Participants on colostrum increased leg press strength (24 ± 29 kg; p < .01) to a greater extent than participants on whey protein (8 ± 16 kg) and had a greater reduction in Ntx compared with participants on whey protein (-15 ± 40% vs. 10 ± 42%; p < .05). Bench press strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and cognitive scores increased over time (p < .05) with no difference between groups. There were no changes in IGF-1 or CRP. Colostrum supplementation during resistance training was beneficial for increasing leg press strength and reducing bone resorption in older adults. Both colostrum and whey protein groups improved upper body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, and cognitive function. PMID:24281841

  11. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  12. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to elicit a milk yield response, it did reduce the concentration of BHBA postpartum. PMID:19164682

  13. Efficacy of sucrose and milk chocolate product or dried porcine solubles to increase feed intake and improve performance of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L J; Pettigrew, J E; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C; Walker, R D

    2003-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the voluntary feed intake and performance of lactating sows fed diets containing a sucrose/milk chocolate product (MCP) blend (Exp. 1) or dried porcine solubles (DPS; Exp. 2). Dried porcine solubles is a coproduct of heparin extraction from porcine small intestines. In Exp. 1, mixed-parity sows (n = 108) at two research centers were assigned to a corn-soybean-meal-based diet formulated to contain 0.9% total lysine or a similar diet that contained 4% sucrose and 2% MCP on an as-fed basis. Sows were allowed ad libitum access to dietary treatments from the day of farrowing until pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d postpartum. Diet had no significant effect on voluntary feed intake of sows during lactation, backfat depth, or postweaning interval to estrus, but it had variable effects on body weight changes. Inclusion of the sucrose/MCP blend in diets elicited a 2% improvement in litter weaning weight at one research center and a 6% depression in litter weaning weight at the other center (diet x research center, P < 0.05). Litter size throughout lactation was unaffected by dietary treatment. In Exp. 2, mixed-parity sows (n = 119) at two research centers were assigned to corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated to contain 0.9% total lysine with 0, 1.5, or 3.0% added DPS. Sows were assigned to dietary treatments within research center, farrowing group, and parity at parturition. Dried porcine solubles tended to increase (P < 0.10) total feed consumed in the first 9 d of lactation and average daily feed intake over the entire lactation (6.03, 6.53, and 6.30 kg) for sows fed 0, 1.5, and 3.0% DPS, respectively. Litter size and weight on d 18 of lactation were not affected by concentration of DPS in the diet. Days from weaning to estrus and percentage of sows displaying estrus were not influenced by diet. We conclude that inclusion of the sucrose/MCP blend in the diet for lactating sows had no consistent effect on voluntary feed intake of sows and weight gain of nursing pigs. Inclusion of DPS at 1.5 or 3.0% tended to improve feed intake of lactating sows but had no significant influence on litter performance. PMID:14552374

  14. Short communication: Effect of a stable pen management strategy for precalving cows on dry matter intake, plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Coonen, J M; Maroney, M J; Crump, P M; Grummer, R R

    2011-05-01

    During the close-up transition period, dairy cows are at risk for negative energy balance due to increasing energy demands and decreasing feed intake. This can result in postparturient health problems and decreased milk production after calving. Cows are frequently regrouped during this period, which can negatively affect feeding and resting behavior. The hypothesis was that housing in a stable pen during the close-up transition period should result in a more settled environment resulting in fewer displacements from the feed bunk, which would result in improved feed intake, energy balance [lower nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations], and lactation performance. This study addresses precalving pen grouping strategies, which have the potential to affect feed intake and energy balance. A randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit was used to compare a stable (S) housing strategy (cows with similar calving dates added to a precalving pen at once) to the more traditional dynamic (D) housing strategy (cows added up to 2 times per week to a precalving pen). Twice-weekly blood samples were collected for NEFA analysis and cow interactions within the pen were observed. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and postparturient health problems were recorded. Mean DMI for the duration of the 28 d of the study was not different (S: 25.5 1.6 vs. D: 25.7 1.0 kg/d), and when examined over time relative to calving, no treatment by time interaction was observed. Concentrations of NEFA were not different when cows initially entered the pens (S: 0.21 0.10 vs. D: 0.18 0.04 mEq/L) and remained not different for the time intervals closer to calving (d -9 to -14: S: 0.28 0.09 vs. D: 0.21 0.04; d -3 to -6: S 0.36 0.10, D 0.32 0.05 mEq/L). Pen grouping strategy did not affect DMI, plasma NEFA concentrations, or milk production. PMID:21524532

  15. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 22 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.70.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.80.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.80.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.830.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.00.38 UFL (unit fourragre lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.60.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.80.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.90.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

  16. Effect of dietary protein intake during the pullet-to-breeder transition period on early egg weight and production in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Joseph, N S; Robinson, F E; Korver, D R; Renema, R A

    2000-12-01

    The effects of CP intake on broiler breeder hen performance were evaluated. A flock of pullets was reared in floor pens from 0 d to 20 wk of age. At 20 wk of age, 96 pullets were randomly assigned to one of three feeding regimens with 14, 16, or 18% dietary CP. Daily feed allocation from 20 to 29 wk of age was identical for all three treatments and was based on the BW of the birds fed the 16% CP diet. Photostimulation occurred at 22 wk of age. At 29 wk of age, the hens were killed for determination of carcass characteristics. Dietary protein intake did not influence BW or BW gain throughout the trial. There were no differences in age at sexual maturity among treatments. From 25 to 28 wk of age, the hens on the 16 and 18% CP treatments had a significantly greater egg weight than did hens in the 14% CP group. The 14% CP treatment was unable to sustain as high a level of egg production as the other two treatments at 29 wk of age. The number of settable eggs was also lowest for the 14% CP treatment. The CP level in the diet did not affect the weights of the Pectoralis major or minor. Carcass composition was also not different among the treatments. Increased levels of CP in the prelay and early lay diets increased egg size and production rate although had minimal effect on carcass and ovarian parameters. PMID:11194042

  17. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  18. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    PubMed

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance cow performance during lactation. Forage UIP and microbial protein supply were adequate to meet the metabolizable protein requirements of lactating beef cows under the conditions of this study. PMID:15583059

  19. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225

  20. Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M.; Harding, John C.S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research. PMID:24082397

  1. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-25

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented. PMID:24987806

  2. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control. PMID:12778588

  3. Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplmentation en Vitamines et Minraux Antioxydants) study.

    PubMed

    Kesse, E; Bertrais, S; Astorg, P; Jaouen, A; Arnault, N; Galan, P; Hercberg, S

    2006-03-01

    Although dairy products have been found to be associated with an elevated risk of prostate cancer, studies investigating the potential effect of Ca are limited, and findings are inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to test the relationship between the risk of prostate cancer and consumption of dairy products and Ca. The analysis included 2776 men from the French SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Minraux Antioxydants) prospective study, among whom sixty-nine developed prostate cancer during the follow-up period (median: 7.7 years). Food consumption was assessed at inclusion from repeated 24 h records and nutrient intake was calculated using a food composition table. A higher risk of prostate cancer was observed among subjects with higher dairy product (relative risk (RR; 95 % CI), 4th quartile v. 1st: 1.35 (1.02, 1.78), P = 0.04) and Ca intake (RR (95 % CI), 4th quartile v. 1st: 2.43 (1.05, 5.62), P = 0.04). Nevertheless, we identified a harmful effect of yoghurt consumption upon the risk of prostate cancer (RR (95 % CI), increment 125 g/d: 1.61 (1.07, 2.43), P = 0.02) independently of the Ca content. Our data support the hypothesis that dairy products have a harmful effect with respect to the risk of prostate cancer, largely related to Ca content. The higher risk of prostate cancer with linear increasing yoghurt consumption seems to be independent of Ca and may be related to some other component. PMID:16512941

  4. Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60C for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

  5. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  6. Developmental changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome expression during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  7. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

  8. The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kevin E; Streeter, Robert N; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Lehenbauer, Terry W

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chest-type freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One microM MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 microM MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

  9. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides pattern in colostrum of different horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, E; Willems, H A M; Vendrig, J C; Fink-Gremmels, J; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2015-05-20

    Colostrum oligosaccharides are known to exhibit prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties. Oligosaccharide composition is species-specific, and equine colostrum has been reported to contain unique oligosaccharides. Therefore, equine oligosaccharides (EMOS) from colostrum from different horse breeds were analyzed by CE-LIF, CE-MS(n), HILIC-MS(n), and exoglycosidase degradation. Sixteen EMOS were characterized and quantified, of which half were neutral and half were acidic. EMOS showed about 63% structural overlap with human milk oligosaccharides, known for their bioactivity. Seven EMOS were not reported before in equine oligosaccharides literature: neutral Gal(?1-4)HexNAc, Gal(?1-4)Hex-Hex, ?4'-galactosyllactose, and lactose-N-hexaose, as well as acidic 6'-Sialyl-Hex-Ac-HexNAc, sialyllacto-N-tetraose-a, and disialylacto-N-tetraose (isomer not further specified). In all colostrum samples, the average oligosaccharide concentration ranged from 2.12 to 4.63 g/L; with ? 6'and 3'- galactosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and disialyllactose as the most abundant of all oligosaccharides (27-59, 16-37, 1-8, and 1-6%, respectively). Differences in presence and in abundance of specific EMOS were evident not only between the four breeds but also within the breed. PMID:25924866

  10. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  11. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. PMID:24094144

  12. Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J M; Neese, R A; Turner, S; Dare, D; Hellerstein, M K

    1995-12-01

    Short-term alterations in dietary carbohydrate (CHO) energy are known to alter whole-body fuel selection in humans, but the metabolic mechanisms remain unknown. We used stable isotope-mass spectrometric methods with indirect calorimetry in normal subjects to quantify the metabolic response to six dietary phases (5 d each), ranging from 50% surplus CHO (+50% CHO) to 50% deficient CHO (-50% CHO), and 50% surplus fat (+50% fat). Fasting hepatic glucose production (HGP) varied by > 40% from deficient to surplus CHO diets (1.78 +/- 0.08 vs 2.43 +/- 0.09 mg/kg per min, P < 0.01). Increased HGP on surplus CHO occurred despite significantly higher serum insulin concentrations. Lipolysis correlated inversely with CHO intake as did the proportion of whole-body lipolytic flux oxidized. Fractional de novo hepatic lipogenesis (DNL) increased more than 10-fold on surplus CHO and was unmeasurable on deficient CHO diets; thus, the preceding 5-d CHO intake could be inferred from DNL. Nevertheless, absolute hepatic DNL accounted for < 5g fatty acids synthesized per day even on +50% CHO. Whole-body CHO oxidation increased sixfold and fat oxidation decreased > 90% on surplus CHO diets. CHO oxidation was highly correlated with HGP (r2= 0.60). HGP could account for 85% of fasting CHO oxidation on +25% CHO and 67% on +50% CHO diets. Some oxidation of intracellular CHO stores was therefore also occurring. +50% fat diet had no effects on HGP, DNL, or fuel selection. We conclude that altered CHO intake alters HGP specifically and in a dose-dependent manner, that HGP may mediate the effects of CHO on whole-body fuel selection both by providing substrate and by altering serum insulin concentrations, that altered lipolysis and tissue oxidation efficiency contribute to changes in fat oxidation, and that surplus CHO is not substantially converted by the liver to fat as it spares fat oxidation, but that fractional DNL may nevertheless be a qualitative marker of recent CHO intake. PMID:8675642

  13. The Impact of System Level Factors on Treatment Timeliness: Utilizing the Toyota Production System to Implement Direct Intake Scheduling in a Semi-Rural Community Mental Health Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and childrens treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

  14. Mycobacterium bovis DNA Detection in Colostrum as a Potential Indicator of Vaccination Effectiveness against Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rodrguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, Mara Alejandra; Lpez-Rincn, Gonzlo; Bojorquez-Narvez, Luis; Padilla-Ramrez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Surez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST?), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

  15. A Combination of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Excess Fat/Calorie Intake Accelerates Steatohepatitis by Enhancing Hepatic CC Chemokine Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Tadashi; Nakao, Sachie; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki; Sato, Tadayuki; Iida, Yumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered as a key accelerator of fibrosis in various organs including the liver. However, the production of oxidative stress and progression of liver fibrosis may merely represent the independent consequences of hepatocellular injury caused by the primary disease. Because of a lack of appropriate experimental models to evaluate the sole effects of oxidative stress, it is virtually unknown whether this stress is causatively linked to the progression of liver fibrosis. Here, we examined the direct effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the progression of high fat/calorie diet-induced steatohepatitis using Tet-mev-1 mice, in which a mutated succinate dehydrogenase transgene impairs the mitochondrial electron transport and generates an excess amount of ROS in response to doxycycline administration. Wild type and Tet-mev-1 mice that had been continuously given doxycycline-containing water were subsequently fed either normal chow or a cholesterol-free high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 4 months at approximately 1 or 2 years of age. Histopathological examinations indicated that neither the mitochondrial ROS induced in Tet-mev-1 mice nor the feeding of wild type animals with high-fat/high-sucrose diet alone caused significant liver fibrosis. Only when the Tet-mev-1 mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, it induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes and enhanced hepatic CC chemokine expression. These events were accompanied by increased infiltration of CCR5-positive cells and activation of myofibroblasts, resulting in extensive liver fibrosis. Interestingly, this combinatorial effect of mitochondrial ROS and excess fat/calorie intake on liver fibrosis was observed only in 2-year-old Tet-mev-1 mice, not in the 1-year-old animals. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial ROS in combination with excess fat/calorie intake accelerates liver fibrosis by enhancing CC chemokine production in aged animals. We have provided a good experimental model to explore how high fat/calorie intake increases the susceptibility to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in aged individuals who have impaired mitochondrial adaptation. PMID:26745268

  16. A Combination of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Excess Fat/Calorie Intake Accelerates Steatohepatitis by Enhancing Hepatic CC Chemokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moro, Tadashi; Nakao, Sachie; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki; Sato, Tadayuki; Iida, Yumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered as a key accelerator of fibrosis in various organs including the liver. However, the production of oxidative stress and progression of liver fibrosis may merely represent the independent consequences of hepatocellular injury caused by the primary disease. Because of a lack of appropriate experimental models to evaluate the sole effects of oxidative stress, it is virtually unknown whether this stress is causatively linked to the progression of liver fibrosis. Here, we examined the direct effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the progression of high fat/calorie diet-induced steatohepatitis using Tet-mev-1 mice, in which a mutated succinate dehydrogenase transgene impairs the mitochondrial electron transport and generates an excess amount of ROS in response to doxycycline administration. Wild type and Tet-mev-1 mice that had been continuously given doxycycline-containing water were subsequently fed either normal chow or a cholesterol-free high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 4 months at approximately 1 or 2 years of age. Histopathological examinations indicated that neither the mitochondrial ROS induced in Tet-mev-1 mice nor the feeding of wild type animals with high-fat/high-sucrose diet alone caused significant liver fibrosis. Only when the Tet-mev-1 mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, it induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes and enhanced hepatic CC chemokine expression. These events were accompanied by increased infiltration of CCR5-positive cells and activation of myofibroblasts, resulting in extensive liver fibrosis. Interestingly, this combinatorial effect of mitochondrial ROS and excess fat/calorie intake on liver fibrosis was observed only in 2-year-old Tet-mev-1 mice, not in the 1-year-old animals. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial ROS in combination with excess fat/calorie intake accelerates liver fibrosis by enhancing CC chemokine production in aged animals. We have provided a good experimental model to explore how high fat/calorie intake increases the susceptibility to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in aged individuals who have impaired mitochondrial adaptation. PMID:26745268

  17. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). PMID:25659303

  18. [Nepsilon-(beta-Aspartyl)lysine and Nepsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine crosslinkings in bovine colostrum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klostermeyer, H; Rabbel, K; Reimerdes, E H

    1976-08-01

    In bovine colostrum which was defatted and totally hydrolyzed by proteolytic enzymes, the isopeptides Asp Lys and Glu Lys were identified by ion-exchange chromatography and preparative separation. Isopeptides were identified in two of seven samples of colostrum. It is still to be clarified whether there is a correlation between the amound of gamma-glutamyltransferase and the appearance of these crosslinkings. PMID:976945

  19. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ?PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ngg(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ngg(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ?PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pgg(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pgg(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ?PCB, ?PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (<15%), although larger mean differences (?40%) were observed in some fish products (e.g., catfish). PMID:23237106

  20. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth. PMID:26342981

  1. Evaluation of an on-farm method to assess colostrum IgG content in sows.

    PubMed

    Balzani, A; Cordell, H J; Edwards, S A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the evaluation of swine colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration using the Brix refractometer. Colostrum samples were collected across all teats, from 124 sows of mixed parities. According to sampling time, three categories were created: samples available from 9 h before the onset of parturition until the first piglet was born were classified as before farrowing; samples collected after the first birth until 4 h later were classified as during farrowing; and finally samples collected from this point until 14 h after parturition, were classified as after farrowing. Samples were drawn and divided into three portions; one was immediately analyzed, a second was refrigerated and the third was frozen at -20°C. Fresh and refrigerated colostrum samples were analyzed at the farm with a Brix refractometer. IgG content of frozen samples was analyzed using a Brix refractometer, with a subset of 42 samples also tested with a commercially available radial immune diffusion (RID) kit. The Brix percentage ranged from 18.3% to 33.2%. Brix percentage repeatability, assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was very strong (fresh ICC=0.98, refrigerated ICC=0.88 and frozen ICC=0.99). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed that storage temperature did not affect BRIX percentage of colostrum IgG (P>0.05). ANOVA results show a significant effect of sampling time on colostrum immunoglobulin concentration, measured with both Brix and RID (Brix: P<0.003; RID: P<0.05). Immunoglobulin G concentration measured by RID ranged from 13.27 to 35.08 mg/ml. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that Brix percentage was positively correlated (r=0.56, P<0.001) with RID results (regression equation: RID=1.01 (±0.2) Brix -1.94 (±5.66); R 2=0.31). The results of this study indicate that the Brix refractometer provides a simple, fast and inexpensive estimation of colostrum IgG in sows. PMID:26554447

  2. Assessment of molasses-urea blocks for goat and sheep production in the Sultanate of Oman: intake and growth studies.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E; al-Maqbaly, R; al-Halhali, A; Ritchie, A; Srikandakumar, A

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a molasses-urea block (MUB) for purposes of supplementing trace minerals to domestic ruminant livestock in Oman. To accomplish this, the utility of molasses and date syrup as fermentable energy sources, of straw, date flakes and wheat bran as fibre sources, and of cement and lime as binders were evaluated. The proportion of cement needed for adequate hardening of the block was also studied. Molasses- and date syrup-based blocks hardened equally well. However, the higher cost of date syrup precluded its use. Wheat straw yielded a low-density block that hardened slowly. Date fibre retained moisture and hardened extremely slowly. Wheat bran-based blocks hardened quickly and yielded dense blocks. Hence, wheat bran was judged to be the superior source of fibre. Lime did not effectively bind the blocks. A cement content of 15% allowed hardening of the blocks within 2-3 weeks. A level of 10% cement in the block reduced the hardening rate by about 50%. Sheep and goats consumed both the straw- and wheat bran-based blocks but at different rates. Consumption of the straw-based block by sheep ranged from 50 to 179 g/head per day, whereas the denser wheat bran-based block was consumed at a rate of 8-20 g/head per day. Consumption of the straw-based block by goats was low (8 g/head per day) compared to that of wheat bran-based blocks (16-24 g/head per day). On the basis of the intake of the bran-based block by sheep, a block was designed that would provide approximately 50% of an animal's trace mineral requirements per day. This block consisted of 45% molasses, 10% urea, 5% trace minerals, 2.5% NaCl, 22.5% wheat bran and 15% cement. Sheep consuming this block gained more weight than sheep fed a conventional mineral block or sheep receiving no mineral supplementation. MUBs are inexpensive (9.5 US cents/kg). We conclude that MUBs have utility for providing trace elements in ruminant diets. PMID:12094678

  3. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  4. Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84.62%) and specificity (94.74 and 94.74%, respectively). The 18% Brix cut point resulted in 94.83% of the samples being correctly classified based on IgG concentration. These data support the use of digital refractometer to accurately and rapidly determine IgG concentration in fresh Jersey colostrum. Additionally, these data suggest that IgG concentration determined by RID is affected by multiple FT cycles, whereas estimates obtained by refractometer are not affected by multiple FT cycles. PMID:25465569

  5. Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule on rumen pH, feed intake, and milk production of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, A M; Plaizier, J C; Duffield, T F; Lindinger, M I; Bagg, R; Dick, P; McBride, B W

    2007-02-01

    Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule (CRC) on rumen pH, dry matter intake, and milk production during the transition period and early lactation were determined in 16 multiparous Holstein cows. Cows were divided into blocks of 2 depending on calving date. Cows were fed either a close-up dry cow or a lactating cow total mixed ration ad libitum. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling probes. Monensin did not affect average daily rumen pH, time below pH 6, time below pH 5.6, area below pH 6, and area below pH 5.6 throughout the experiment. Average daily pH, time below pH 6, and time below pH 5.6 before calving were 6.62, 65.6 min/d, and 17.6 min/d, respectively, and did not differ among the weeks before calving. Average daily pH, time below pH 6, and time below pH 5.6 were 6.19, 443.3 min/d, and 115.5 min/d, respectively, during the first week after calving, and were 6.36, 204.3 min/d, and 52.4 min/d, respectively, during the sixth week after calving. In the weeks after calving, average daily pH showed a quadratic increase, time below pH 6 showed a quadratic decrease, and time below pH 5.6 showed a linear decrease. Monensin did not affect dry matter intake and daily yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein. Results suggest that prepartum administration of a monensin CRC did not increase rumen pH in multiparous cows fed the experimental diets during the transition period and early lactation. PMID:17235170

  6. Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-10-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products has increased worldwide in recent years. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in these products. Research shows that caffeine-containing energy products can improve cognitive and physical performance. Presumably, individuals consume caffeine-containing energy products to counteract feelings of low energy in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia, and the time-on-task effect as causes of low energy and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment in healthy adults who had 3 nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2-hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. The review concludes with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  7. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh colostrum be supplemented with 30 g of GAC. PMID:26117349

  8. Escherichia coli Agglutinins in Cow Serum, Colostrum and the Nursing Calf

    PubMed Central

    Jacks, T. M.; Glantz, P. J.

    1970-01-01

    Immunochemical properties of Escherichia coli O antibodies present in bovine serum and colostrum were investigated. Dam and calf serum samples plus colostral whey samples were fractionated by gel filtration, and the 7S and 19S fractions isolated. Antibody activity against the O antigens of four recognized E. coli bovine pathogens was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test on the whole serum and colostral whey samples and the 7S and 19S fractions thereof. Mercaptoethanol reduction was used to chemically study the immunochemistry of the E. coli O antibodies. The E. coli O antibodies in dam serum were entirely 19S macroglobulins and appeared to be IgM immunoglobulins. The antibodies in colostrum and calf serum were both 7S and 19S globulins. Reasons for believing these 7S antibodies may be IgG, and the 19S antibodies IgA, immunoglobulins are presented. PMID:4248443

  9. Occurrence of a unique sialyl tetrasaccharide in colostrum of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Uemura, Yusuke; Asakuma, Sadaki; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Taki, Michihiro; Urashima, Tadasu

    2005-10-10

    Crude oligosaccharides were recovered from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) colostrum after chloroform/methanol extraction of lipids and protein precipitation, and purified using gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their chemical structures characterized by NMR spectroscopy were as follows: GalNAc(beta1-4)[Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)Glc and Gal(alpha1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc. The monosialyltetrasaccharide and neutral trisaccharide have not previously been found as free forms in any natural sources including milk or colostrum, although these structures have been found in the carbohydrate units of glycosphingolipids GM2 and Gb3. PMID:15978735

  10. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats.

    PubMed

    Puchala, R; Animut, G; Patra, A K; Detweiler, G D; Wells, J E; Varel, V H; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-four yearling Boer Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of different forages, either fresh (Exp. 1) or as hay (Exp. 2), on feed intake, digestibilities, heat production, and ruminal methane emission. Treatments were: 1) Sericea lespedeza (SER; Lespedeza cuneata), a legume high in condensed tannins (CT; 20% and 15% in fresh forage and hay, respectively), 2) SER supplemented with polyethylene glycol (SER-PEG; 25 g/d), 3) alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a legume low in CT (ALF), and 4) sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor), a grass low in CT (GRASS). Experiments were 22 d, which included 16 d for acclimatization followed by a 6-d period for fecal and urine collection, and gas exchange measurement (last 2 d). Intake of OM was 867, 823, 694, and 691 g/d (SEM = 20.1) with fresh forage, and 806, 887, 681, and 607 g/d with hay for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively (SEM = 46.6). Apparent total tract N digestion was greater for SER-PEG vs. SER (P < 0.001) with fresh forage (46.3%, 66.5%, 81.7%, and 73.2%; SEM = 1.71) and hay (49.7%, 71.4%, 65.4%, and 54.8% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.57). Intake of ME was similar among treatments with fresh forage (8.24, 8.06, 7.42, and 7.70 MJ/d; SEM = 0.434) and with hay was greater for SER-PEG than ALF (P < 0.03) and GRASS (P < 0.001) (8.63, 10.40, 8.15, and 6.74 MJ/d for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.655). The number of ciliate protozoa in ruminal fluid was least for SER with fresh forage (P < 0.01) (9.8, 20.1, 21.0, and 33.6 10(5)/ml; SEM = 2.76) and hay (P < 0.02) (6.3, 11.4, 13.6, and 12.5 10(5)/ml for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.43). Methane emission as a percentage of DE intake was lower (P < 0.01) for SER vs. ALF and GRASS with fresh forage (6.6, 8.3, 9.4, and 9.2%; SEM = 0.64) and hay (4.3, 4.9, 6.4, and 6.7% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.38). In summary, methane emission in this short-term experiment was similar between a legume and grass low in CT as fresh forage and hay. The CT in SER markedly decreased N digestibility and elicited a moderate decline in ruminal methane emission. Supplementation with PEG alleviated the effect of CT on N digestibility but not ruminal methane emission, presumably because of different modes of action. In conclusion, potential of using CT-containing forage as a means of decreasing ruminal methane emission requires further study, such as with longer feeding periods. PMID:22408087

  11. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p < 0.001) and dietary fiber intake (p = 0.050), whereas IL-10 decreased (p = 0.022). Other cardiovascular-related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes. PMID:24394704

  12. Protection of newborn calves against fatal multisystemic infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by feeding colostrum from vaccinated cows.

    PubMed Central

    Mechor, G D; Rousseaux, C G; Radostits, O M; Babiuk, L A; Petrie, L

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether consumption of colostrum with high levels of serum neutralizing antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 would protect neonatal calves from the frequently fatal multisystemic form of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Holstein calves were fed for 48 h after birth with either pooled colostrum from seropositive vaccinated cows or colostrum from seronegative unvaccinated cows. The serum neutralizing antibody achieved in the former calves was between 64 and 256 and the titer in the latter calves was below 8. At 48 h of age the calves were challenged by aerosolization with bovine herpesvirus 1. All five seronegative calves died or were euthanized in a moribund state between days 5 and 7 of the trial, whereas all five seropositive animals remained healthy throughout the study. Twice daily clinical examination revealed significantly lower scores in the seronegative group from 60 h postinfection. Relative lung weights were greater in the seronegative group, associated with a severe acute necrotizing bronchiolitis with fibrin exudation. The seronegative group of calves also demonstrated an acute necrotizing rumenitis, pharyngitis, glossitis, esophagitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. The seropositive animals had only small areas of subacute necrotizing fibrinopurulent rhinitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1 virus was isolated from all nasal passages of all calves but isolation of virus in the seronegative calves was made from the trachea (5/5), lung (4/5), bronchial lymph nodes (4/5), spleen (4/5), thymus (3/5), liver (2/5), rumen (2/5) and brain (1/5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2839276

  13. Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: The neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Langel, S N; Wark, W A; Garst, S N; James, R E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I

    2015-06-01

    Mortality and decreased weight gain resulting from infection and disease in dairy calves are problems within the dairy industry. The bovine neonate relies solely on colostrum to acquire antibodies through passive transfer. To date, colostrum quality is determined by the concentration of antibodies. However, proteins and cells in the colostrum might also enhance immune development in the neonate. To determine the effect of maternal colostral immune cells on calf health and immune status, maternal colostrum was fed either fresh or after lysis of cells by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Thirty-seven female Holstein and Jersey dairy calves were fed 4 quarts total of whole colostrum (WC) or cell-free colostrum (CFC) at birth. Respiratory and fecal scores were measured from birth to d 45 of life. Calf peripheral blood samples were obtained before and after feeding colostrum as well as on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of life. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected and analyzed for cellular parameters by flow cytometry. Total respiratory scores were greater in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves on d 38 of life. There were fewer CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD62L+CD45RO- T cells on d 1 and fewer CD4+CD62L+CD45RO+ T cells on d 1 and 3 in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves. Compared with WC-fed calves, CFC-fed calves had a greater percentage of CD4+CD62L-CD45RO+ T cells on d 0.25, 1, 3, and 7, and a greater percentage of monocytes on d 7. Our data suggest that colostral cells adoptively transfer and enhance neonatal immunity during the first month of life. PMID:25795487

  14. Aluminium, nickel, cadmium and lead in candy products and assessment of daily intake by children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Martínez, Ruth; Barber, Xavier; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Vilanova, Eugenio; García-Hernández, Vanessa M; Roche, Enrique; Garcia-Garcia, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in a total of 263 samples of 12 types of candies widely consumed in Spain, were evaluated. Samples were analysed using an ICP-MS method after acidic sample mineralization. Concentration ranges of Al, Ni, Cd and Pb were 21.28-62.91 µg g(-1), 0.40-1.27 µg g(-1), 0.12-1.01 µg g(-1) and 1.03-7.14 µg g(-1), respectifgvely. Statistically significant positive correlations were calculated between concentrations of Ni-Al and Pb-Cd (p-values < 0.05). Taking into consideration the relatively high metal content, together with the high caloric density of these products, as well as high content of particular nutrients such as sugars that can induce development of certain pathologies like obesity and caries, indicate that frequent consumption of candy products is not recommended. PMID:26684054

  15. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  16. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP) and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch) with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK) or wheat (WK) kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB) in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2), and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI) was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II) than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38). A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36). RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270) and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min), r = -0.29 and -0.29), which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33). The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min) compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%). A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness), and a higher breath H2 in the late postprandial phase (120-270 and 270-390 min, r = 0.46 and 0.70). High H2 (AUC 120-270 min) also correlated with lower EI (r = -0.34). Conclusions Rye products, rich in indigestible carbohydrates, induce colonic fermentation already post the breakfast meal, and lowers acute insulin responses. A high excretion of breath H2 also correlated with a higher GP. Especially, rye kernels induced a high GP which was associated with a 16% lowering of energy intake at a subsequent lunch meal. The bulking effect of rye fiber, colonically derived fermentation metabolites, a high GP and a low insulin response possibly all contributes to the benefits on glucose- and appetite regulation seen in an acute and semi-acute perspective. PMID:21247415

  17. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established. PMID:26233454

  18. Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele. Results Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 45 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection. Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapie-affected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests. Conclusions Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test. PMID:23651710

  19. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D.

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  20. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243

  1. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P?intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control groups (P?>?0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P?

  2. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravinia, H.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control-), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control+) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain ( P < 0.05) of the birds from days 29 to 35 of age with no differences in feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control groups ( P > 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds ( P < 0.05). Pancreas percentage was increased for the birds received 200 to 500 mg/L SkEO at days 21 and 42 of age compared with that of the control- birds ( P < 0.05). The gall bladder weight was 17.56, 40.50, 12.16, and 38.73 % greater for the birds received 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO compared with that of the control- birds, respectively. The results showed that an addition of 400 mg/L SkEO into drinking water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  3. The effect of dietary bovine colostrum on respiratory syncytial virus infection and immune responses following the infection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infection among young children because of immature T cell immunity of them against hRSV. CD8 T cells play a pivotal role in clearing hRSV and preventing subsequent infection. We examined the effects of dietary bovine colostrum on virus infection and CD8 T cell responses following hRSV infection in the mouse model. Mice received bovine colostrum for 14 days prior to hRSV challenge, and lung indexes (severity of symptom) and lung virus titers were analyzed. In addition, the activation of CD8 T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) of mice receiving bovine colostrum were compared with those in the BALFs of mice receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ribavirin, post virus challenge. The severity of infection and lung virus titers were reduced in the mice receiving bovine colostrum, compared to those receiving PBS. Moreover CD8 T cell responses were selectively enhanced in the former. Our results suggest that dietary bovine colostrum exerts the effects to inhibit hRSV and ameliorate the symptom by hRSV infection, and enhances the CD8 T cell response during the hRSV infection. PMID:26310306

  4. Effect of fractions of Ethiopian And Norwegian colostrum on rotavirus and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Otnaess, A B; Orstavik, I

    1981-01-01

    Samples of colostrum from both Ethiopian and Norwegian women contained antirotavirus activities of immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin nature. No significant differences in rotavirus immunoglobulin A or in rotavirus-inhibiting activity were found between samples from the two countries. The non-immunoglobulin inhibitory activity was trypsin sensitive and heat stable (100 degrees C for 10 min). Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin antibodies were measured in the colostrum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No E. coli enterotoxin-specific immunoglobulin A was detected, possibly due to the high background caused by the nonspecific adsorption of immunoglobulin A to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates in the absence of toxin. A total of 5 of 15 Ethiopian colostrum samples and 0 of 11 Norwegian colostrum samples neutralized the effect of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin on YI adrenal cells. Both the Ethiopian and the Norwegian colostrum samples contained a non-immunoglobulin enterotoxin-inhibitory activity when the toxin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This inhibitory activity was not trypsin sensitive, and extraction by chloroform-methanol indicated that the inhibitor was of a lipid nature. PMID:6268544

  5. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  6. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  7. Short-term response in milk production, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows to changes in postgrazing sward height.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2014-05-01

    Postgrazing sward height (PGSH) can be altered to adjust the allowance of grass in the dairy cow's diet. This study aimed to investigate the short-term dairy cow response to a change in postgrazing height in early lactation. Ninety Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows were randomly assigned across 3 postgrazing height treatments (n=30): 2.7 cm (severe), 3.5 cm (low), and 4.2 cm (moderate) from February 14 to April 24, 2011. From April 25, animals were rerandomized within each treatment to graze across 2 postgrazing heights: 3.5 cm (low) or 4.5 cm (high). Animal production measurements were taken from April 4 to 24 (measurement period 1; M1) and from April 25 to May 15 (measurement period 2; M2). The 6 treatments (n=15) of M2 were severe-low, severe-high, low-low, low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high. During M1, increasing postgrazing height from severe to low to moderate linearly increased daily milk yield (21.5, 24.6 and 25.8 kg/cow per day) and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; 13.2, 14.9, and 15.8 kg of DM/cow per day). Milk solids yield was reduced in the severe (-1,518 g/cow per day) treatment when compared with the low and moderate cows (1,866 g/cow per day, on average). The milk yield (MY) response to change in PGSH between M1 and M2 (VM1-M2) was established using VM1-M2 MY=-1.27-1.89 PGSHM1 + 1.51 PGSHM2 (R(2)=0.64). The MY response associated with each treatment between M1 and M2 (3 wk) were -1.03 kg/cow for severe-low, 0.68 kg/cow for severe-high, -2.56 kg/cow for low-low, -1.11 kg/cow for low-high, -4.17 kg/cow for moderate-low, and -2.39 kg/cow for moderate-high. The large increase in energy intake in severe-high between M1 and M2 was achieved through higher GDMI per minute and GDMI per bite, which supported the positive change in MY. Treatments low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high recorded the highest overall cumulative milk yield (74 kg of milk solids/cow) over the 6-wk period, whereas severe-low and severe-high had the lowest (65 kg of MS/cow). From the animal responses observed in the present study, imposing a postgrazing height of 3.5 cm in early spring provides the opportunity to increase postgrazing height thereafter; the cow increases GDMI accordingly and converts the additional energy intake into milk output. The equations established in this paper provide a decision tool for dairy farmers to anticipate the animal response when postgrazing height is altered or maintained around the tenth week of lactation. PMID:24582439

  8. The Relationship between Intake of Dairy Products and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Who Referred to Isfahan University of Medical Science Clinics in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS. PMID:25013687

  9. The Supplementation of Yam Powder Products Can Give the Nutritional Benefits of the Antioxidant Mineral (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se) Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 ?g/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered. PMID:24471100

  10. The supplementation of yam powder products can give the nutritional benefits of the antioxidant mineral (cu, zn, mn, fe and se) intakes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 ?g/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered. PMID:24471100

  11. Factors Associated with Colostrum Avoidance Among Mothers of Children Aged less than 24 Months in Raya Kobo district, North-eastern Ethiopia: Community-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Demena, Melake; Mesfin, Firehiwot; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Background: UNICEF and WHO recommend colostrum as newborns perfect food that should be initiated within the first hour after birth. Objective: To assess colostrum avoidance practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged <24 months in Raya Kobo district, North-eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative method was used. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Colostrum avoidance was practiced by 13.5% (95% confidence interval: 10.9916.33) of mothers having children aged <24 months. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, giving birth at home, mother-heading households, lack of awareness on the advantages of colostrum and late initiation of breastfeeding remained statistically significant factors associated with colostrum avoidance practices. Conclusion: Promoting institutional delivery, timely initiation of breastfeeding and creating awareness on the advantages of colostrum feeding are recommended interventions to reduce colostrum avoidance. PMID:26141533

  12. Colostrum of healthy Slovenian mothers: microbiota composition and bacteriocin gene prevalence.

    PubMed

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants' gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence. PMID:25919457

  13. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. PMID:26639991

  14. Isolation and purification of immunoglobulin G from bovine colostrums by hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mianbin; Zhang, Feifei; Liang, Yafei; Wang, Rutao; Chen, Zhengjie; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2015-05-01

    Hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography, a novel chromatographic technique for bioseparation, was developed to isolate and purify bovine IgG with high purity. In this work, the raw IgG solution, a precipitate from bovine colostrum powder solution with 40% (wt/vol) ammonium sulfate, was dissolved in 50mM phosphate buffer and used as loading solution for investigating chromatographic conditions on a mercapto-ethyl-pyridine (MEP) HyperCel (Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY) sorbent. The initial IgG concentration had no effect on the dynamic binding capacity of MEP HyperCel resin, but the linear velocity of loading solution had an obvious effect on the dynamic IgG binding capacity and IgG recovery. The maximum linear velocity was optimized as 0.4cm/min of loading solution, and 90% recovery of IgG was achieved. Under these optimized binding conditions, the pH and ionic strength for the elution process were selected as pH 4.5 and 0.5 M NaCl, respectively. Subsequently, hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography was performed on a MEP HyperCel sorbent to isolate IgG using bovine colostrum whey as the loading solution. Under the optimized operation conditions, a remarkable process improvement in IgG purification was received, which includes a yield of 91.5%, a purity of 93.9% (wt/wt), and a purification factor of 6.8. The results indicated that MEP HyperCel chromatography offers an efficient means to purify IgG from bovine colostrums. PMID:25747828

  15. Colostrum of Healthy Slovenian Mothers: Microbiota Composition and Bacteriocin Gene Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Rogelj, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants’ gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence. PMID:25919457

  16. Effects of dietary yeast strains on immunoglobulin in colostrum and milk of sows.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, Franois; Serreau, Delphine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Berri, Mustapha; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri

    2013-03-15

    The ban of antibiotic growth promoters in pig diet required the development of alternative strategies and reinforced the importance of maternal immunity to protect neonates from intestinal disorders. Milk from sows fed active dry yeasts during gestation and lactation exhibited higher immunoglobulin (Ig) and protein content in milk at day 21 of lactation. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins (Sc01, Sc02, Sb03) to sows during late gestation and lactation could induce higher Ig content in colostrum and milk. Results show that yeast supplementation did not increase significantly sow body weight at days 112 of gestation and 18 of lactation as well as piglet body weight gain from birth to weaning. In contrast, the IgG level in colostrum was increased in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc01 at both 0.05 and 0.5% (p<0.05) and Sb03 at 0.5% (p<0.01). During the lactation, the level of milk IgG remained significantly higher in comparison with the control group when sows were supplemented with Sc02 at 0.05% and 0.5% and with Sb03 at 0.5%. Furthermore, in comparison with the control sows, the level of milk IgA was significantly maintained in sows supplemented with the 3 yeast strains at 0.05%. The incidence of piglet diarrhoea was decreased in groups Sc01 at both 0.05% and 0.5% and Sc02 at 0.05%. Thus, these results show that the 3 yeast strains display immunostimulatory effects on maternal immunity, but only Sc01 supplementation at 0.05% allowed jointly the increase of IgG level in colostrum, the maintenance of IgA level in milk and the decrease of piglet diarrhoea incidence. This stimulation of maternal immunity could be associated with a better systemic (colostrum IgG) and local (milk IgA) protection of neonates and suggests that dietary yeasts may have stimulated the local gut immune system of sows. PMID:23092748

  17. Separation of the bovine colostrum M-1 glycoprotein into two components

    PubMed Central

    Bezkorovainy, Anatoly; Grohlich, Dietmar

    1969-01-01

    1. Two glycoproteins were isolated from the M-1 acid glycoprotein fraction of bovine colostrum. 2. The lighter glycoprotein had a molecular weight of 7200, contained about 284% of carbohydrate, and had an absorption maximum at 275nm. The heavier glycoprotein had a molecular weight of 12000, contained 390% of carbohydrate, and had no absorption maxima in the 240300nm. range of the spectrum. 3. The carbohydrate moiety of both glycoproteins was removable from the polypeptide moiety under the conditions of the ?-elimination reaction. 4. Periodate oxidation experiments showed that sialic acid was linked to galactose in both proteins. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4311442

  18. Daily intake of 4-nonylphenol in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Paulus Shyi-Gang; Mao, I-Fang

    2007-10-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study determined NP levels in commonly consumed foodstuffs to assess daily intake of NP in a Taiwanese population. This study analyzes 318 of samples from 25 types of commonly consumed foodstuffs in northern, central, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan and estimates daily intake of NP in 466 subjects. Moreover, daily NP intake for 3915 additional subjects was estimated by analyzing data from the Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The foodstuff samples were analyzed for five alkylphenol compounds simultaneously by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the average compositions of typical foods consumed in Taiwan were investigated. In combination with alkylphenol levels in these foodstuffs, daily intake of NP in Taiwanese was calculated. The average daily intake of NP for the 466 subjects was 28.04+/-25.32 microg/day. Estimated daily intake of NP, based on NP levels in this study as well as the NAHSIT data, was 31.40 microg/day. Rice was the most commonly consumed source of NP, the proportion was 21.46% among daily intake of NP and the following were aquatic products and livestock, which percentage were 17.97% and 17.38%, respectively. Additionally, oysters had the highest NP levels (235.8+/-90.7 ng/g) in four regions of Taiwan, followed by salmon (123.8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average daily NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than daily intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake. PMID:17512594

  19. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or inferiority that will transmit to its offspring. PMID:25529426

  20. Serum igG, blood profiles, growth and survival in goat kids supplemented with artificial colostrum on the first day of life.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Pittroff, W; Garca, J E; Mellado, J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare serum IgG concentrations, blood metabolites indicative of nutritional status, weight gain and mortality rate in goat kids fed a commercial colostral supplement containing immunoglobulins against several pathogen microorganisms, prior to the ingestion of the mother colostrum, and goat kids ingesting natural colostrum only. There was no difference in serum IgG concentrations between 27 kids fed a colostrum supplement (20 g, derived from cow lacteal secretions) prior to the kids' first meal (658+/-703 mg dl(-1)) and 21 kids ingesting maternal colostrum freely (1011+/-1140 mg dl(-1)) at 24 hours of birth. Hematocrit values, serum glucose and urea concentrations at 24 hours and 5 days of age were unaffected by treatment. Serum total proteins were 14% higher (P<0.05) in the unsuplemented group than in the supplemented group at 5 d of age. There was no significant difference between the supplemented and unsupplemented kids in daily weight gain from birth to 70 days of age (92+/-4.8 vs 102+/-5.1 g day(-1)). Mortality was 4% for kids receiving the colostrum supplement as compared with 0.0% for kids ingesting maternal colostrum only. Results suggest that, in intensively managed non-dairy goats with kiddings in summer, the supplementation of this commercial colostrum derived from cow lacteal secretions and containing antibodies against diverse pathogens organisms did not enhanced growth, survival or immunity under the farming conditions of this study. PMID:18422257

  1. [Salt intake in children].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-05-01

    Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

  2. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 01 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 01 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0001, 01 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgGLPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels following oral treatment with 01 or 1 mg of IgGLPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  3. Dietary intake of pesticide residues: cadmium, mercury, and lead.

    PubMed

    Galal-Gorchev, H

    1991-01-01

    Information on the dietary intake of chemical contaminants has been obtained from institutions participating in GEMS/Food. Contaminants studied include certain organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, PCBs, cadmium, mercury, and lead. The intakes are compared with toxicologically acceptable intake levels established by international expert groups. In most cases, dietary intakes of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides are well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of the respective pesticide. Of some 21 countries providing information on the average dietary intake of cadmium, only in one case is the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) exceeded. Several countries identified cereals and cereal products and root and tuber vegetables as the main contributors to the dietary intake of cadmium. For mercury, all reported intakes are below the PTWI of methylmercury. The contribution of fish to the total intake of mercury varied from 20% to 85%, depending on the country. Therefore, the general assumption that fish is the main contributor to the total dietary intake of mercury may, at times, not be justified. Average dietary intake of lead exceeding or approaching the PTWI are reported for adults and infants and children in some countries. Foodstuffs which contribute most to the intake of lead vary from country to country, and have been identified as being alternately drinking water, beverages, cereals, vegetables and fruit. PMID:1812026

  4. Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine

    PubMed Central

    He, YingYing; Liu, ShuBai; Leone, Serena; Newburg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOS) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOS was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by colostrum HMOS (cHMOS), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOS attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1/2, IL-1?), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. 3-, 4-, and 6-galactosyllactoses of cHMOS account for specific immunomodulation of PIC-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOS attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

  5. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  6. Supplementation of diets with bovine colostrum influences immune function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Reynolds, Arleigh; Pelker, Robyn; Labuda, Jeff; Zhang, Peifang; Sun, Peichuan

    2013-12-01

    While the need for colostrum in neonates is well established, the systemic effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to adult humans is gaining increasing attention. However, no systematic studies evaluating the immunomodulatory effect of BC in dogs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dietary supplementation of BC in dogs. The study was conducted in two phases: pre-test (8 weeks) and test (40 weeks), with twenty-four dogs (mean age 2.5 years) randomised into two groups. In the 'pre-test' phase, both groups were fed a nutritionally complete diet. At the end of the 'pre-test' phase, all dogs received a canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine, and dogs in the 'test group' were switched to a diet supplemented with 0.1% spray-dried BC. Response to the CDV vaccine was evaluated by measuring vaccine-specific plasma IgG levels. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue response was assessed by measuring faecal IgA levels. Gut microbiota were evaluated by the temporal temperature gel electrophoresis methodology. Dogs fed the BC-supplemented diet demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine response and higher levels of faecal IgA when compared with the control group. Supplementing diets with BC also resulted in significantly increased gut microbiota diversity and stability in the test group. In conclusion, diets supplemented with BC significantly influence immune response in dogs. PMID:23773360

  7. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  8. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, and siamang milk or colostrum.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Odaka, Go; Asakuma, Sadaki; Uemura, Yusuke; Goto, Kohta; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Fukuda, Kenji; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2009-05-01

    Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk or colostrum of four great ape species (chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)) and one lesser ape species (siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc) were found exclusively (gorilla and siamang) or predominately (chimpanzee, bonobo, and orangutan) over those containing the type I unit (Gal(beta1-3)GlcNAc). In comparison, type I oligosaccharides predominate over type II oligosaccharides in human milk, whereas nonprimate milk almost always contains only type II oligosaccharides. The milk or colostrum of the great apes contained oligosaccharides bearing both N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas human milk contains only the latter. Great ape milk, like that of humans, contained fucosylated oligosaccharides whereas siamang milk did not. Since these analyses are based on a limited number of individuals, further research on additional samples of great and lesser ape milk is needed to confirm phylogenetic patterns. PMID:19164487

  9. The Human Colostrum Whey Proteome Is Altered in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of human milk has been used to identify the comprehensive cargo of proteins involved in immune and cellular function. Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and breast milk components. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GDM on the expression of proteins in the whey fraction of human colostrum. Colostrum was collected from women who were diagnosed with (n = 6) or without (n = 12) GDM at weeks 24–28 in pregnancy. Colostral whey was analyzed for protein abundances using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 601 proteins were identified, of which 260 were quantified using label free spectral counting. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified 27 proteins that best predict GDM. The power law global error model corrected for multiple testing was used to confirm that 10 of the 27 proteins were also statistically significantly different between women with versus without GDM. The identified changes in protein expression suggest that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has consequences on human colostral proteins involved in immunity and nutrition. PMID:25338220

  10. The human colostrum whey proteome is altered in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Grapov, Dmitry; Lemay, Danielle G; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R; Gho, Deborah S; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of human milk has been used to identify the comprehensive cargo of proteins involved in immune and cellular function. Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and breast milk components. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GDM on the expression of proteins in the whey fraction of human colostrum. Colostrum was collected from women who were diagnosed with (n = 6) or without (n = 12) GDM at weeks 24-28 in pregnancy. Colostral whey was analyzed for protein abundances using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 601 proteins were identified, of which 260 were quantified using label free spectral counting. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified 27 proteins that best predict GDM. The power law global error model corrected for multiple testing was used to confirm that 10 of the 27 proteins were also statistically significantly different between women with versus without GDM. The identified changes in protein expression suggest that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has consequences on human colostral proteins involved in immunity and nutrition. PMID:25338220

  11. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  12. Neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum in relation to maternal allergy and allergy development in children up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Sjgren, Ylva Margareta; Duchn, Karel; Lindh, Frank; Bjrkstn, Bengt; Sverremark-Ekstrm, Eva

    2007-02-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota in infancy and subsequent development of allergic disease. Human milk is the major food in infancy and may thus profoundly influence the composition of the gut flora. Oligosaccharides in breast milk survive the passage through the stomach and are utilized by the gut microbiota. As the relationship between breast feeding and childhood allergy is controversial we hypothesized that the composition of oligosaccharides in breast milk might explain the controversy. Nine of the most abundant neutral oligosaccharides in human milk were analysed in colostrum samples from allergic and non-allergic women and related to subsequent development of allergy in their children. The carbohydrate fraction of the colostrum was separated by gel permeation chromatography and neutral oligosaccharides, tri- to hexasaccharides were collected. Neutral oligosaccharides were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a large variation in the concentration of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum, which could not be explained by the allergic status of the women. Allergic children consumed higher amounts of neutral oligosaccharides in total, although not significantly (p = 0.12). When different oligosaccharides were analysed separately, there was no significant difference in consumption between the infants who developed atopic allergy later (n = 9) and infants who did not (n = 11). Thus, the amount of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum does not directly correlate with maternal allergy, nor with allergy development in children up to 18 months of age. PMID:17295795

  13. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  14. Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. II: Effects of Heating Duration on Pathogen Viability and Immunoglobulin G

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrums, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10^8 cfu/ml), Listeria monocytogenes (10^6 cfu/ml), Escherichia coli O0157:H7 (10^6 cfu/ml), Salmonella enteritidis (10^6 cfu/ml), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10^3 cfu/ml), were heat-treate...

  15. Effects of gestational plane of nutrition and selenium supplementation on mammary development and colostrum quality in pregnant ewe lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine effects of nutritional plane and selenium (Se) supplementation on colostrum quality and mammary development, individually fed, pregnant Rambouillet ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Main effects included dietary Se level which began at...

  16. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  17. Importance of diet of dam and colostrum to the biological antioxidant status and parenteral iron tolerance of the pig.

    PubMed

    Loudenslager, M J; Ku, P K; Whetter, P A; Ullrey, D E; Whitehair, C K; Stowe, H D; Miller, E R

    1986-12-01

    Fifteen second-parity sows were used to determine the importance of vitamin E (E) and selenium (Se) supplementation of the sow's diet and colostrum consumption by the neonatal pig on tolerance to parenteral iron. Selenium (.1 ppm) and E (50 IU/kg) supplementation of the diet of the sow increased plasma tocopherol and Se concentrations, but did not increase plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Colostrum had greater concentrations of E (primarily alpha-tocopherol) and Se than milk. Plasma biological antioxidant status (tocopherol level and GSH-Px activity) of pigs at birth was very low, but by 2 d of age had increased, especially in alpha-tocopherol (nearly a 20-fold increase). Liveability and body weight gain of pigs were not affected by the pre-colostrum iron injection (200 mg Fe as gleptoferron); however, plasma tocopherol concentrations of Fe-injected pigs were lower and plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activities were higher at 2 d of age than values of pigs not receiving parenteral Fe. Supplementation of the dam's diet with E and Se maintained high tocopherol and Se levels in her colostrum and milk and a high biological antioxidant status in her pigs throughout the nursing period. PMID:3818467

  18. Analysis of Fcgrt gene polymorphism in indigenous Chinese sheep and its association with colostrum IgG concentration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Z H; Shi, F; Zhong, F G; Bai, D P; Zhang, X Y

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in regulating IgG homeostasis in the body and passive protection to the offspring. Changes in FcRn expression levels caused by genetic polymorphisms of Fcgrt, which encodes FcRn, may lead to inter-individual differences in colostrum IgG levels in sheep. In this study, we sequenced the FcRn partial heavy chain from 179 sheep from Xinjiang Province, China, and detected the differences in colostrum IgG levels and Fcgrt genotypes to identify the correlation between the Fcgrt genotype and colostrum IgG levels in 4 sheep breeds. The DNA sequencing of a 680-bp fragment of the Fcgrt gene revealed various patterns depending on the single-strand conformation in the Suffolk breed. Sequencing analysis revealed a total of 3 patterns, AA, BB, AB, in this fragment, among which the absence of AB and BB genotype acted as a marker for breed identification and characterization, while the AA genotype was shared by Suffolk and 3 other breeds. The only allele found in all 4 breeds was allele A, indicating that natural selection may be favoring the AB and BB genotypes in general and B allele in particular, as the colostrum IgG concentration was relatively higher in the Suffolk breed compared to the other 3 breeds. PMID:25867392

  19. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  20. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  1. Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

  2. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of E. coli dose on the pathophysiological response of dairy calves following an intravenous challenge. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli. The challenge doses included 0, 105, 106, 107, 108,...

  3. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  4. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and

  5. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  6. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans.

    PubMed

    Karav, Sercan; Parc, Annabelle Le; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E

    2015-09-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5×10(-3) to 5.09×10(-3), 4.5×10(-3) to 7.75×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-2)to 5.2×10(-2) mg/mL×min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. PMID:26138399

  7. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans

    PubMed Central

    Karav, Sercan; Le Parc, Annabelle; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A.; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E.

    2016-01-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N′-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5 × 10−3 to 5.09 × 10−3, 4.5 × 10−3 to 7.75 × 10−3 and 1.9 × 10−2 to 5.2 × 10−2 mg/mL × min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q–TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. PMID:26138399

  8. Bovine colostrum is superior to enriched formulas in stimulating intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis resistance in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Møller, Hanne K; Thymann, Thomas; Fink, Lisbeth N; Frokiaer, Hanne; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2011-01-01

    Milk contains immunomodulatory compounds that may be important to protect the immature intestine in preterm neonates from harmful inflammatory reactions involved in disorders like necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesised that bovine colostrum and milk formulas enriched with sialic acids (SL), gangliosides (Gang) or osteopontin (OPN) would improve gastrointestinal function and NEC resistance in preterm neonates. Forty-seven caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by 1·5 d of enteral feeding. In Expt 1, a control formula was compared with an OPN-enriched formula (n 13), while Expt 2 compared a control formula with bovine colostrum or formulas enriched with Gang or SL (n 4-6). OPN enrichment decreased NEC severity relative to control formula (P < 0·01), without any significant effects on NEC incidence, digestive enzyme activities and hexose absorption. Neither SL- nor Gang-enriched formulas improved NEC resistance or digestive functions, while all the intestinal functional parameters were significantly improved in pigs fed bovine colostrum, relative to formula. The effects in vivo were supported in vitro by bacteria- and dose-dependent modulation by colostrum whey of the cytokine response from bacteria-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). In conclusion, OPN had only moderate NEC-protective effects, while formulas enriched with Gang or SL were ineffective. The observed modulation of DC cytokine response by bovine colostrum whey in vitro may be due to a synergistic action of various milk bioactives, and it may explain its beneficial effects on NEC development and intestinal function in a piglet model of preterm infants. PMID:20723273

  9. Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens. PMID:25471114

  10. A variant peptide of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin inhibits angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Rohit, A C; Sathisha, K; Aparna, H S

    2012-07-01

    ?-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk ?-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk ?-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 2 ?M, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393

  11. Composition and microstructure of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Guo, Zheng; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-10-15

    The microstructures of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at different temperatures, and the relationships between microstructure variations and the chemical compositions of the MFGM were also examined. Using a fluorophore-labeled phospholipid probe, we found that non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM were positively correlated with the amount of sphingomyelin at both room (20 C) and physiological (37 C) temperatures. However, at the storage temperature (4 C), there were more non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM. These results indicate that the heterogeneities in the MFGM are most likely to be the result of the lateral segregation of sphingomyelin at the room and physiological temperatures, and at the storage temperature, phospholipids with saturated fatty acids affect the formation of these domains. PMID:25952880

  12. Hoover Dam Intake Towers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  13. Effect of colostrum on gravity separation of milk somatic cells in skim milk.

    PubMed

    Geer, S R; Barbano, D M

    2014-02-01

    Our objective was to determine if immunoglobulins play a role in the gravity separation (rising to the top) of somatic cells (SC) in skim milk. Other researchers have shown that gravity separation of milk fat globules is enhanced by IgM. Our recent research found that bacteria and SC gravity separate in both raw whole and skim milk and that heating milk to >76.9 C for 25s stopped gravity separation of milk fat, SC, and bacteria. Bovine colostrum is a good natural source of immunoglobulins. An experiment was designed where skim milk was heated at high temperatures (76 C for 7 min) to stop the gravity separation of SC and then colostrum was added back to try to restore the gravity separation of SC in increments to achieve 0, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. The milk was allowed to gravity separate for 22 h at 4 C. The heat treatment of skim milk was sufficient to stop the gravity separation of SC. The treatment of 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins was successful in restoring the gravity separation of SC as compared with raw skim milk. Preliminary spore data on the third replicate suggested that bacterial spores gravity separate the same way as the SC in heated skim milk and heated skim milk with 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. Strong evidence exists that immunoglobulins are at least one of the factors necessary for the gravity separation of SC and bacterial spores. It is uncertain at this time whether SC are a necessary component for gravity separation of fat, bacteria, and spores to occur. Further research is needed to determine separately the role of immunoglobulins and SC in gravity separation of bacteria and spores. Understanding the mechanism of gravity separation may allow the development of a continuous flow technology to remove SC, bacteria, and spores from milk. PMID:24342686

  14. Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.890.3 and 88.351.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. PMID:25175558

  15. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A

    2010-05-01

    A meta-analysis of published studies was used to investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) added to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on dry matter intake, milk production, true milk protein (TMP) production, and milk fat yield. Differences in responses between 2 commonly used RPM products, Mepron (Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany) and Smartamine (Adisseo, Antony, France), were investigated as well as dietary and animal factors that could influence responses. Diets were coded with respect to the amino acid (AA) deficiency of the control diet as predicted by the AminoCow model (version 3.5.2, http://www.makemilknotmanure.com/aminocow.php; 0=no AA deficiency, 1=Met deficiency, 2=Met and Lys deficiency, 3=Met and Lys plus at least 1 other AA deficiency) to test the effect of AA deficiencies on RPM response. Thirty-five studies were identified, 17 studies evaluating Mepron, 18 studies evaluating Smartamine, and 1 study evaluating both. This permitted 75 dietary comparisons between control and RPM-added diets. Diets were entered into the AminoCow and the 2001 National Research Council models to compare predictions of Met, Lys, and metabolizable protein (MP) flow. Mean Met and Lys in diets where RPM was fed were estimated to be 2.35 and 6.33% of MP, respectively. Predictions of flows between models were similar. Overall, RPM addition to diets increased production of TMP, both as percentage (0.07%) and yield (27 g/d). Dry matter intake and milk fat percentage were slightly decreased, whereas milk production was slightly increased. Differences between products were detected for all production variables, with Mepron-fed cows producing less TMP percentage but greater milk production, resulting in twice as much TMP yield. Milk protein response to RPM was not related to predicted AA deficiency, calculated Met deficiency, or Met as a percentage of MP. Other dietary factors, including Lys flow (g/d), Lys as percentage of MP, neutral detergent fiber percentage, crude protein percentage, or energy balance, had no detectable effects on TMP response. When cows with a predicted positive AA balance were fed RPM, milk production increased, but when AA balance was negative, milk production decreased. Amount of RPM added to the diet was not correlated to TMP response. This study does not support the necessity of a high Lys level as a prerequisite to obtaining a TMP response to feeding RPM or the MP requirement suggested by the National Research Council model (2001). However, more dose-response studies over a wide range of milk production and dietary regimens will be required to more clearly establish AA requirements and to predict responses to RPM supplementation. PMID:20412926

  16. Vitamin D Intakes of Ontario Children

    PubMed Central

    Broadfoot, B. V. R.; Trenholme, M. L.; McClinton, E. P.; Thompson, S. H.; Cowan, E. J.

    1966-01-01

    A study to determine approximate intakes of vitamin D and sources contributing this nutrient was conducted among 1000 children, aged one week to 5 years, in two Ontario Health Units in 1963 and 1964. Over 70% of the children obtained daily intakes above the recommended level, 400 I.U. Supplements provided about 60% of the total intake in children aged 7 months to 66 months who consumed 1000-1800 I.U. or more. In the intake range 1-399 I.U., fortified foods supplied 87% of the vitamin D to this age group. Influences of subsequent Food and Drug Directorate regulations, (a) withdrawing vitamin D from four foods used during the survey and (b) the effect of permissive vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products, were examined theoretically, by age and intake level. Programs directed to planning net intakes of 400 I.U. vitamin D, encouraging the use of fortified milk and discouraging the use of vitamin D supplements are described. PMID:20328491

  17. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Arajo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  18. Effect of thermal pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on immunoglobulin content and lysozyme and lactoperoxidase activity in human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Slvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2014-05-15

    Human milk, and particularly human colostrum, is the gold standard for newborn nourishment. Colostrum contains the highest concentration of immune factors, being the most potent immune booster known to science. In this work, we investigated Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing (HPP) effects on colostral IgA, IgM, IgG, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. The amount of Igs was significantly decreased after Holder pasteurisation (20%, 51% and 23% for IgA, IgM and IgG, respectively), but fully preserved after HPP at 200 and 400 MPa. HPP at 600 MPa for 2.5 min resulted in the maintenance of IgA and losses of IgM and IgG (21% for both). The pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 15 and 30 min led to similar or higher losses than pasteurisation. D-values (min) for Igs ranged from 4941 to 452 at 400 MPa and from 235 to 40 at 600 MPa. Lysozyme activity was lost after pasteurisation (decreased 44%) and maintained after HPP. Lactoperoxidase activity was not detected. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study evaluating HPP effects on human colostrum. PMID:24423505

  19. Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.

    PubMed

    Teimouri Yansari, A

    2014-02-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness. PMID:23521162

  20. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3×3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26778319

  1. Half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Polo, J; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J; Rodrguez, C; Pujol, N; Navarro, N; Pujols, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of immunoglobulins (Ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival. The objective was to evaluate the half-life of antibodies absorbed in the bloodstream of newborn piglets orally fed a colostrum supplement (CS) containing energy (fat and carbohydrates) and IgG from porcine plasma. Viable piglets (n = 23; 900 to 1,800 g BW) from 6 sows were colostrum deprived and blood sampled and within the next 2 h of life randomly allocated to either control group (n = 9) providing 30 mL of Ig-free milk replacer or a group (n = 14) receiving 30 mL of CS by oral gavage. Piglets were transported to a Biosafety Level 3 facility (Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Spain) and fed Ig-free milk replacer every 3 to 4 h for 15 d. Survival, weight, plasma IgG content by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhy), and swine influenza virus (SIV) were determined by specific ELISA before treatment administration, at 24 h, and weekly for 56 d. Clinical symptoms were not observed for either group. Mortality index was lower (17 vs. 38%; P < 0.02) and BW higher (17.7 vs. 15.3 kg; P = 0.035) for pigs supplemented with CS than piglets in the control group. At 24 h postadministration, the CS group had a plasma IgG mean of 7.6 0.06 vs. 0.14 0.03 mg/mL for the control group. The IgG levels in the CS group decayed until day 21 when de novo synthesis of IgG was detected in 25% of piglets. Half-life of antibody concentration (HLAC) by RID was 6.2 d. In the CS group, efficiency of PCV2 and PPV antibody transfer was high. For PCV2, all animals remained positive by day 56 and the calculated HLAC was 17.7 d. For PPV, 72.7% of piglets were ELISA positive by day 35 and HLAC was 12.0 d. For PRRS, all piglets remained positive by day 14 and the calculated HLAC was 11.9 d. For Mhy and SIV the calculated HLAC were 8.4 and 3.0 d. In summary, half-life of antibodies derived from blood plasma in the bloodstream of newborn piglets varied from 3.0 to 17.7 d. The study also confirm that antibodies derived from porcine plasma were well absorbed and can be an useful tool for providing protection against several or specific pathogens and can be a good alternative to formulate CS for newborn piglets. PMID:23365363

  2. The effect of colostrum period management on BW and immune system in lambs: from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Castellano, L E; Surez-Trujillo, A; Martell-Jaizme, D; Cugno, G; Argello, A; Castro, N

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the BW and immune status of lambs reared under natural conditions or under artificial conditions fed two different colostrum amounts. In this study, 60 lambs were randomly divided into groups according to treatment. Twenty lambs remained with their dams (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2, 14 and 24 h after birth. After this period, lambs were bottle-fed a commercial milk replacer. Blood plasma sample analysis and BW recordings were carried out before feeding at birth and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 days after birth. Another blood sample analysis and BW recording was carried out when animals reached 10 kg of BW. During weaning (30 days), sampling was carried out every 5 days. Blood plasma was used to determine the concentrations of IgG and IgM and the complement system activity - total and alternative pathways. The NR group showed greater BW than the C4 and C8 groups during milk feeding period, whereas the C4 and C8 groups had greater BW than the NR group at the end of weaning period. The C8 and NR groups had greater plasma IgG and IgM concentrations than the C4 group during milk feeding period. In addition, C4 and C8 groups showed similar IgG concentrations and greater IgM concentrations than the NR group at the end of the weaning period. Complement system activity was greater in the NR group than in the C4 and C8 groups during the first 3 days after birth. In conclusion, lambs fed amounts of colostrum equivalent to 8 g of IgG/kg of BW showed similar immune variables compared to lambs reared under natural conditions, obtaining a greater BW at the end of the weaning period. Nevertheless, this study shows that not only the colostrum amount but also the management during the milk feeding and weaning period, such as stress produced by dam separation, milk quality and suckling frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs. PMID:26148573

  3. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  4. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  5. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  6. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  7. Antibacterial activity in colostrum and milk associated with protection of piglets against enteric disease caused by K88-positive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, J M; Jones, G W; Brown, G T; Burrows, M R; Luther, P D

    1976-01-01

    Piglets suckled by dams that had been vaccinated with K88 antigen were significantly more resistant to deaths caused by neonatal diarrhea after challenge with a large dose of a K88-positive enteropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli than piglets suckled by control dams. The factors most likely to be involved in protection of the piglets were investigated by comparing the antibacterial activities of serum and mammary secretions from the two groups of dams. Vaccination stimulated the production of K88 antibodies, which were associated with anti-adhesive activity directed against the adhesive properties of the K88 antigen, and of O8 antibodies; the latter antibodies were attributed to traces of O8 antigen in the vaccine. Neutralizing activity against heat-labile enterotoxin was present in several dams before vaccination but was not stimulated by bacteriostatic activities were similar in serum and mammary secretions from both groups of dams and appeared to play no significant role in the protective after parturition were atrributed to exposure of the dams to the challenge strain excreted by the piglets. It was concluded that neutralization of the adhesive properties of K88 antigen by K88 antibodies in colostrum and in milk contributed significantly to the protection of piglets from vaccinated dams. However, the contribution of antibacterial activities associated with the greater levels of O8 antibodies in colstrum from the vaccinated group cannot be entirely excluded. PMID:773820

  8. Antibacterial activity in colostrum and milk associated with protection of piglets against enteric disease caused by K88-positive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rutter, J M; Jones, G W; Brown, G T; Burrows, M R; Luther, P D

    1976-03-01

    Piglets suckled by dams that had been vaccinated with K88 antigen were significantly more resistant to deaths caused by neonatal diarrhea after challenge with a large dose of a K88-positive enteropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli than piglets suckled by control dams. The factors most likely to be involved in protection of the piglets were investigated by comparing the antibacterial activities of serum and mammary secretions from the two groups of dams. Vaccination stimulated the production of K88 antibodies, which were associated with anti-adhesive activity directed against the adhesive properties of the K88 antigen, and of O8 antibodies; the latter antibodies were attributed to traces of O8 antigen in the vaccine. Neutralizing activity against heat-labile enterotoxin was present in several dams before vaccination but was not stimulated by bacteriostatic activities were similar in serum and mammary secretions from both groups of dams and appeared to play no significant role in the protective after parturition were atrributed to exposure of the dams to the challenge strain excreted by the piglets. It was concluded that neutralization of the adhesive properties of K88 antigen by K88 antibodies in colostrum and in milk contributed significantly to the protection of piglets from vaccinated dams. However, the contribution of antibacterial activities associated with the greater levels of O8 antibodies in colstrum from the vaccinated group cannot be entirely excluded. PMID:773820

  9. Intake and metabolism of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, G M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major factors that determine the body burden of inorganic fluoride. Fluoride intake 25 or more years ago was determined mainly by measurement of the concentration of the ion in the drinking water supply. This is not necessarily true today because of ingestion from fluoride-containing dental products, the "halo effect", the consumption of bottled water, and the use of water purification systems in the home. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water may not be a reliable indicator of previous intake. Under most conditions, fluoride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of gastric absorption is inversely related to the pH of the gastric contents. Overall absorption is reduced by calcium and certain other cations and by elevated plasma fluoride levels. Fluoride removal from plasma occurs by calcified tissue uptake and urinary excretion. About 99% of the body burden of fluoride is associated with calcified tissues, and most of it is not exchangeable. In general, the clearance of fluoride from plasma by the skeleton is inversely related to the stage of skeletal development. Skeletal uptake, however, can be positive or negative, depending on the level of fluoride intake, hormonal status, and other factors. Dentin fluoride concentrations tend to increase throughout life and appear to be similar to those in bone. Research to determine whether dentin is a reliable biomarker for the body burden of fluoride is recommended. The renal clearance of fluoride is high compared with other halogens. It is directly related to urinary pH. Factors that acidify the urine increase the retention of fluoride and vice versa. The renal clearance of fluoride decreases and tissue levels increase when the glomerular filtration rate is depressed on a chronic basis. PMID:7993560

  10. Calcium Intake and Bone health

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Calcium_Intake_100115.html Calcium Intake and Bone health HealthDay News Video - October 2, 2015 To use ... reading health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bone Diseases Calcium Fractures Seniors' Health About ...

  11. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Jayda; Ostergaard, Mette V; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mlbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette; Mller, Hanne K; Purup, Stig; Fink, Lisbeth N; Frkir, Hanne; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B

    2013-05-15

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterm neonates. Preterm pigs (92% gestation) were delivered by caesarean section and fed parental nutrition (2 days) followed by enteral (2 days) porcine colostrum (COLOS, n = 7), infant formula (FORM, n = 13), or AF supplied before and after introduction of formula (AF, n = 10) in experiment 1, and supplied only during the enteral feeding period in experiment 2 (FORM, n = 16; AF, n = 14). The NEC score was reduced in both AF and COLOS pigs, relative to FORM, when AF was provided prior to full enteral feeding (9.9 and 7.7 compared with 17.3, P < 0.05). There was no effect of AF when provided only during enteral feeding. AF pigs showed decreased bacterial abundance in colon and intestinal inflammation-related genes (e.g., TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, NOS) were downregulated, relative to FORM pigs with NEC. Anti-inflammatory properties of AF were supported by delayed maturation and decreased TNF-? production in murine dendritic cells, as well as increased proliferation and migration, and downregulation of IL-6 expression in intestinal cells (IEC-6, IPEC-J2). Like colostrum, AF may reduce NEC development in preterm neonates by suppressing the proinflammatory responses to enteral formula feeding and gut colonization when provided before the onset of NEC. PMID:23518680

  12. Porcine proliferative enteritis: experimentally induced disease in cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived pigs.

    PubMed

    Lomax, L G; Glock, R D; Harris, D L; Hogan, J E

    1982-09-01

    The hypotheses that porcine proliferative enteritis is an infectious disease and that Campylobacter sputorum subsp mucosalis (CSM) is involved in the development of this disease were experimentally tested. Three experiments were conducted with 10-week-old, cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived pigs. Of 22 pigs given homogenized mucosal scrapings (crude inocula) intragastrically, 15 had gross and/or microscopic lesions of proliferative enteritis. Of 10 pigs inoculated with cultures of both CSM and Salmonella cholerae-suis, 2 had evidence of proliferative enteritis. The 4 pigs treated with S cholerae suis only had diffuse fibrinous gastroenteritis without evidence of mucosal proliferation. Proliferative enteritis was produced in 1 of 5 pigs inoculated with pure cultures of CSM. Proliferative lesions in the intestine were characterized by the proliferation of immature crypt epithelial cells. Affected cells contained variable numbers of curved, intracytoplasmic Campylobacter sp organisms. The CSM organism was isolated from the intestinal mucosa of 8 pigs treated with either crude inocula or cultures of CSM. PMID:7149408

  13. Shelf life and storage stability of spray-dried bovine colostrum powders under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huaning; Zheng, Yuanrong; Li, Yunfei

    2015-02-01

    Spray dried bovine colostrum (SDBC) powders were packaged in aluminium-laminated polyethylene (ALPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pouches and then stored under different conditions (25 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH), 4 °C and 40-70 % RH, 50 °C and 20-50 % RH). The shelf life of SDBC powder was evaluated as 425.5 and 86.5 days in ALPE and PET pouches under 25 °C and 50 % RH, respectively. The storage stability of SDBC powder in terms of quality parameters including thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), colour change, moisture content and IgG concentration was studied in both packaging materials under different storage conditions. Results showed that ALPE pouches were more suitable for packaging SDBC powder than PET pouches and storage condition of 4 °C and 40-70 % RH was relative suitable for keeping quality of SDBC powder. The glass transition concept was helpful for evaluating the chemical stability of SDBC powder during storage. PMID:25694704

  14. The effect of vaccination on titres of antibody to rotavirus in colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Wells, P W; Snodgrass, D R

    1978-01-01

    The continued presence of antibody to rotavirus in the gut of the neonatal ruminant has been shown to be important in protecting against clinical disease associated with rotavirus infections. This effect is dependant upon the amount of antibody included in the diet. Titres of antibody to rotavirus may be relatively high in ruminant mammary secretions immediately after parturition but decline rapidly over the course of the first day. The influence of vaccination on the titres of antibody, the concentrations of immunoglobulin and their respective of decline in the mammary secretion following parturition has been studied. Ewes vaccinated two to three weeks prior to mating with an inactivated preparation of lamb rotavirus produced colostrum and milk after the subsequent pregnancy which contained significantly higher titres of antibody to the virus than did the mammary secretions from non-vaccinates. The antibody activity appears to be associated with IgG and it is suggested that vaccination may be of value in the alleviation of neonatal diarrhoea associated with rotavirus infection in cattle and sheep. PMID:218490

  15. Effect of Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 dosing on rumen development, volatile fatty acid production and blood ?-hydroxybutyrate in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Muya, M C; Nherera, F V; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Moshidi, P M; Erasmus, L J

    2015-10-01

    Thirty calves were randomly assigned to two treatments and fed until weaning [42 days (d) of age]. Treatments were a control group (n = 15), which did not receive Megasphaera elsdenii (Me0) and a M. elsdenii group, which received a 50-ml oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (10(8) CFU/ml) at day 14 day of age (Me14). Calves were given colostrum for the first 3 day followed by limited whole milk feeding. A commercial calf starter was offered ad libitum starting at day 4 until the end of the study. Fresh water was available throughout the study. Feed intake and growth were measured. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture to determine ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Fourteen male calves (seven per group) were euthanised on day 42 and digestive tracts harvested. Reticulo-rumen weight was determined and rumen tissue samples collected from the cranial and caudal sacs of the ventral and dorsal portions of the rumen for measurements of papillae length, papillae width and rumen wall thickness. Dosing with M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter dry matter intake (DMI), weaning body weight (BW) and tended to improve average daily gain. Calves in Me14 group had greater plasma BHBA concentration than Me0-calves during the last 3 weeks of the trial and had at day 42 greater reticulo-rumen weight, papillae width and papillae density compared to Me0. No differences in rumen wall thickness or papillae length were observed between the two groups. Total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate production did not differ between treatments, but butyrate production was greater in Me14 than Me0. Dosing M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 showed benefit for calves with improved feed intake and rumen development suggesting increased epithelium metabolism and improved absorption of digestive end products. PMID:25817063

  16. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  17. Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

    2014-08-01

    Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

  18. Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21526980

  19. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  20. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic browning generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that result from the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins. AGEs have been implicated in an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse aging-relate...

  1. Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 2.5?kcal/100?mL), transitional milk (57.7 4.2?kcal/100?mL), and mature milk (65.2 1.1?kcal/100?mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67?kcal/100?mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 0.2?g/100?mL) and transitional milk (1.7 0.1?g/100?mL) was higher than formula (1.4?g/100?mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 0.1?g/100?mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity. PMID:23056929

  2. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males.

    PubMed

    Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training loadSD, 50.528.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515

  3. Protection against canine parvovirus type 2 infection in puppies by colostrum-derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Grellet, Aurélien; Desario, Costantina; Feugier, Alexandre; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    During the first weeks of life puppies remain protected against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) infection thanks to maternally derived antibodies (MDA) absorbed with colostrum after birth. The objective of the present study was to present the variability in CPV2-specific passive immune transfer and its consequences in puppies naturally exposed to the parvovirus. Seventy-nine puppies from one breeding kennel were included in the study at birth and followed until 56 d of age. Once per week the MDA titre for CPV2 specific antibodies was determined in blood. Viral excretion was also evaluated on a rectal swab by CPV2 PCR assay and puppies were weighed to determine growth rate. At 2 d of age, thirty-four out of seventy-nine puppies (43 %) had MDA ≤1:160 (designed group A) and forty-five puppies (57 %) had greater MDA titres (designed group B). The level of absorbed maternal antibodies was shown to be associated with breed size and growth rate during the first 48 h of life. The MDA level declined with age in all cases; however, the proportion of puppies with the antibody level considered as protective against CPV2 infection was significantly higher in group B compared with A from day 2 until 42. Among all puppies surviving until 56 d of age, sixty-seven out of seventy (95·7 %) underwent CPV2 infection. However, puppies from group A excreted CPV2 significantly earlier than puppies from group B. The present study demonstrates the link between passive immune transfer, in terms of level of specific MDA absorbed, and length of the protection period against parvovirus infection in weaning puppies. PMID:26101622

  4. Ganglioside composition of differentiated Caco-2 cells resembles human colostrum and neonatal rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Kareena L; Field, Catherine; Clandinin, M T

    2009-03-01

    Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids found in cell membranes and human milk with important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, adhesion, migration, signalling and apoptosis. Similar changes in ganglioside composition occur during embryonic development, lactation and cancer cell differentiation. It is not known, however, whether ganglioside compositional changes that occur in differentiating colon cancer cells reflect changes that occur during intestinal development. The Caco-2 cell line is commonly used to study physiological and pathophysiological processes in the small intestine and colon. Therefore, to examine this question, undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were grown and total lipid was extracted from cell supernatant fractions using the Folch method. The upper aqueous phase containing gangliosides was collected and purified. Total gangliosides were measured as ganglioside-bound N-acetyl neuraminic acid, while individual ganglioside content was quantified via a colorimetric assay for sialic acid and scanning densitometry. The total ganglioside content of differentiated Caco-2 cells was 2.5 times higher compared with undifferentiated cells. Differentiated Caco-2 cells had significantly more (N-acetylneuraminyl) 2-galactosylglucosyl ceramide (GD3) and polar gangliosides, and a lower N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3):GD3 ratio than undifferentiated cells. The present study demonstrates that the total ganglioside content and individual ganglioside composition of differentiated Caco-2 cells are similar to those of human colostrum and neonatal rat intestine. Differentiated Caco-2 cells may therefore be an alternative model for studying physiological and pathological processes in the small intestine and colon, and may help to elucidate possible functions for specific gangliosides in development and differentiation. Further research using more sensitive techniques of ganglioside analysis is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:18713482

  5. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120-specificity of HIV-1 Envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared to those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, C.R.; Vandergrift, N.; Jeffries, T.L.; McGuire, E.; Fouda, G.G.; Liebl, B.; Marshall, D.J.; Gurley, T.C.; Stiegel, L.; Whitesides, J.F.; Friedman, J.; Badiabo, A.; Foulger, A.; Yates, N.L.; Tomaras, G.D.; Kepler, T.B.; Liao, H.X.; Haynes, B.F.; Moody, M.A.; Permar, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were IgG1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1~69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% versus 20%, p = 0.006, Fishers exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120-specific than those isolated from blood (44% versus 16%, p = 0.005, Fishers exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  6. Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Weinborn, Valerie; de Moura Bell, Juliana M.L.N.; Wang, Meng; Parker, Evan A.; Guerrero, Andres; Hettinga, Kasper A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J. Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane yielding whey permeate. Research shows that bovine milk from healthy cows contains hundreds of naturally occurring peptides – many of which are homologous with known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides – and nearly 50 oligosaccharide compositions (not including structural isomers). As these endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides have low-molecular weight and whey permeate is currently an under-utilized product stream of the dairy industry, we hypothesized that whey permeate may serve as an inexpensive source of naturally occurring functional peptides and oligosaccharides. Laboratory fractionation of endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum sweet whey was expanded to pilot-scale. The membrane fractionation methodology used was similar to the methods commonly used industrially to produce whey protein concentrate and whey permeate. Pilot-scale fractionation was compared to laboratory-scale fractionation with regard to the identified peptides and oligosaccharide compositions. Results were interpreted on the basis of whether industrial whey permeate could eventually serve as a source of functional peptides and oligosaccharides. The majority (96%) of peptide sequences and the majority (96%) of oligosaccharide compositions found in the laboratory-scale process were mirrored in the pilot-scale process. Moreover, the pilot-scale process recovered an additional 33 peptides and 1 oligosaccharide not identified from the laboratory-scale extraction. Both laboratory- and pilot-scale processes yielded peptides deriving primarily from the protein β-casein. The similarity of the laboratory-and pilot-scale's resulting peptide and oligosaccharide profiles demonstrates that whey permeate can serve as an industrial-scale source of bovine milk peptides and oligosaccharides. PMID:25284962

  7. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype.

    PubMed

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis. PMID:26891335

  8. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis. PMID:26891335

  9. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema/nucleus tractus solitarius, and is not merely a consequence of gastric fullness, for example. Circulating amylin appears to physiologically inhibit secretion of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide from the stomach. In contrast to the actions of many other anorexigens, amylin appears to stimulate drinking. This disposgenic effect is likely mediated via amylin-sensitive neurones in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular structure, that like the area postrema does not present a blood-brain barrier. Amylin's dipsogenic effect may explain prandial drinking, which has heretofore been regarded as a learned behavior. PMID:16492542

  10. Carbohydrate intake and obesity.

    PubMed

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related to carbohydrates affect the likelihood of passive over-consumption and long-term weight change? In addition, methodological limitations of both observational and experimental studies of dietary composition and body weight are discussed. Carbohydrates are among the macronutrients that provide energy and can thus contribute to excess energy intake and subsequent weight gain. There is no clear evidence that altering the proportion of total carbohydrate in the diet is an important determinant of energy intake. However, there is evidence that sugar-sweetened beverages do not induce satiety to the same extent as solid forms of carbohydrate, and that increases in sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption are associated with weight gain. Findings from studies on the effect of the dietary glycemic index on body weight have not been consistent. Dietary fiber is associated with a lesser degree of weight gain in observational studies. Although it is difficult to establish with certainty that fiber rather than other dietary attributes are responsible, whole-grain cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruits seem to be the most appropriate sources of dietary carbohydrate. PMID:17992188

  11. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from −23% for sodium and −62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (−15 to −28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

  12. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

  13. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

  14. Effects of newborn characteristics and length of colostrum feeding period on passive immune transfer in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Capote, J; Morales-Delanuez, A; Rodrguez, C; Argello, A

    2009-04-01

    Majorera goat kids (n = 200) were used to evaluate the effects of litter size, birth body weight, sex, and suckling duration on serum IgG concentrations. Kids were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: litter size and sex were equally distributed in each group. In the first group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 24 h; in the second group, kids (n = 66) stayed with their dams for 48 h; and in the third group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 120 h. Blood samples were obtained every 24 h for 5 d, and serum IgG concentration was measured using radial immunodiffusion. In litter sizes of 1 to 2 kids, IgG blood serum concentration was significantly higher (18.30 +/- 5.40 mg/mL) than in litters of 3 kids (9.85 +/- 4.23 mg/mL). Kid sex did not affect IgG blood serum concentrations. Suckling duration did not affect kid serum IgG concentrations. In conclusion, kids with low birth body weight (<2.8 kg) or from litters of 3 may need special attention. If newborn goat kids are allowed to suckle colostrum for at least 24 h from their dams, this seems to be sufficient time to ingest enough IgG from colostrum to achieve an adequate serum IgG concentration and passive immune protection to avoid failure of passive immune transfer. PMID:19307643

  15. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth. PMID:26679810

  16. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 999 % of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 2900 (sd 2021) g. Dairy products provided 87 % of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 198 % SFA, 39 % Ca, 345 % vitamin B12 and 105 % Mg. Cheese alone provided 39 % Na intake, 91 % Ca, 126 % retinol, 83 % SFA, 37 % protein, 34 % vitamin B12 and 32 % riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  17. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  18. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism. PMID:26476944

  19. Experimental Validation of a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Targeting the Genetic Element ISMAP02 for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Bovine Colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colostrum samples experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (strain K-10) at increasing concentrations between 110**1 and 1 10**9 cells/mL were tested for recovery of MAP DNA using a modified nested ISMAP02 target PCR initially developed for detecting MAP DNA...

  20. Evaluation of the risk of paratuberculosis in adult cows fed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA-positive or -negative colostrum as calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Estimate the risk of MAP infection in Holstein calves associated with ingestion of MAP DNA positive (vs negative) colostrum at birth. Animals - 205 Holstein heifer calves born in 12 commercial dairy herds. Procedure - Every calf born was separated from its dam within 30 to 60 minutes ...

  1. Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

  2. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johnes disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

  3. Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1071 newborn calves from six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning p...

  4. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 2 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling mechanisms, especially during the transition into egg production. PMID:22399735

  5. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud

    2006-01-01

    Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 4080 y (average 57 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg ?-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p < 0.05). Adjusted covariance analysis showed a positive association between DTH and age. Separate analysis of younger and older age groups indicated that it was the older population that benefited from micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a generally good immune and nutritional status is limited and that improvement of immune function in this population may be difficult. PMID:17118191

  6. IgA antibodies, TGF-beta1 and -beta2, and soluble CD14 in the colostrum and development of atopy by age 4.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Erkki; Siltanen, Mirjami; Kajosaari, Merja; Vaarala, Outi; Saarinen, Kristiina M

    2005-12-01

    Specific defense factors in breast milk together with length of breast-feeding and genetic predisposition may modulate the development of allergy. We studied whether IgA, soluble CD14 (sCD14), or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in colostrum could affect the development of atopy in children up to age 4. From a cohort of 4676, we selected four groups of children with either long or short exclusive breast-feeding (>3.5 or <0.5 mo); these groups further differed in the presence or absence of atopic heredity. In colostrum from mothers, we measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM) and casein, sCD14, and TGF-beta1 and -beta2. The children were divided into three groups: those with no atopic symptoms or IgE, those with allergic symptoms, and those with both outcomes. Mothers of infants later showing atopic symptoms or, in addition, having IgE sensitization (verified atopy) had a lower concentration of IgA casein antibodies in their colostrum than did mothers of infants with no indication of atopy at age 4. Low concentration of IgA casein antibodies was a significant risk for verified atopy. sCD14 levels were lower in colostrum of mothers with infants developing atopic symptoms and IgE sensitization than of those of infants with no atopy. Specific IgA antibodies to CM antigens and sCD14 in colostrum significantly associated with the appearance of both symptomatic and verified atopy by age 4. PMID:16306212

  7. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  8. [Dietary fiber--adequate intake and effects on metabolism health].

    PubMed

    Bernaud, Fernanda Sarmento Rolla; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2013-08-01

    The positive effects of dietary fiber are related, in part, to the fact that a portion of the fermentation of components takes place in the large intestine, which has an impact on the speed of digestion, pH of the colon, and production of by-products with important physiological functions. Individuals with high fiber intake seem to have lower risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. The increase in fiber intake reduces serum cholesterol, improves blood glucose in patients with diabetes, reduces body weight, and is associated with lower serum ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Increased fiber intake and intake of more fiber than the currently recommended level (14 g/1,000 kcal) may provide greater health benefits, including reducing low-grade inflammation. PMID:24030179

  9. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J; Sun, Kai; Turner, Randi; Silber, Harry A; Talegawkar, Sameera; Ferrucci, Luigi; Novotny, Janet A

    2014-07-01

    When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic "browning" generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed and are harmful to human health remains highly controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, inflammatory mediators, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for 6 wk with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 y, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared at either high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-? receptors I and II), soluble receptor for AGEs, and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs were measured at baseline and after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In the low-AGE diet group, the following changed from baseline to 6 wk (mean SE): serum CML from 763 24 to 679 29 ng/mL (P = 0.03) and urine CML from 1.37 1.47 to 0.77 2.01 ?g/mL creatinine (P = 0.02). There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high-AGE diet group. A high- or low-AGE diet had no significant impact on peripheral arterial tonometry or any inflammatory mediators after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged to older adults, consumption of a diet high or low in AGEs for 6 wk had no impact on endothelial function and inflammatory mediators, 2 precursors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24744309

  10. Mixing zone and drinking water intake dilution factor and wastewater generation distributions to enable probabilistic assessment of down-the-drain consumer product chemicals in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kapo, Katherine E; McDonough, Kathleen; Federle, Thomas; Dyer, Scott; Vamshi, Raghu

    2015-06-15

    Environmental exposure and associated ecological risk related to down-the-drain chemicals discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are strongly influenced by in-stream dilution of receiving waters which varies by geography, flow conditions and upstream wastewater inputs. The iSTREEM model (American Cleaning Institute, Washington D.C.) was utilized to determine probabilistic distributions for no decay and decay-based dilution factors in mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions. The dilution factors derived in this study are "combined" dilution factors which account for both hydrologic dilution and cumulative upstream effluent contributions that will differ depending on the rate of in-stream decay due to biodegradation, volatilization, sorption, etc. for the chemical being evaluated. The median dilution factors estimated in this study (based on various in-stream decay rates from zero decay to a 1h half-life) for WWTP mixing zones dominated by domestic wastewater flow ranged from 132 to 609 at mean flow and 5 to 25 at low flow, while median dilution factors at drinking water intakes (mean flow) ranged from 146 to 210(7) depending on the in-stream decay rate. WWTPs within the iSTREEM model were used to generate a distribution of per capita wastewater generated in the U.S. The dilution factor and per capita wastewater generation distributions developed by this work can be used to conduct probabilistic exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals in influent wastewater, wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and at drinking water intakes in the conterminous U.S. In addition, evaluation of types and abundance of U.S. wastewater treatment processes provided insight into treatment trends and the flow volume treated by each type of process. Moreover, removal efficiencies of chemicals can differ by treatment type. Hence, the availability of distributions for per capita wastewater production, treatment type, and dilution factors at a national level provides a series of practical and powerful tools for building probabilistic exposure models. PMID:25770452

  11. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  12. Dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ochola, Sophie; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2014-01-01

    School age and adolescence is a dynamic period of growth and development forming a strong foundation for good health and productive adult life. Appropriate dietary intake is critical for forming good eating habits and provides the much needed nutrients for growth, long-term health, cognition and educational achievements. A large proportion of the population globally is in the school age or adolescence, with more than three quarters of these groups living in developing countries. An up-to-date review and discussion of the dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is suitable to provide recent data on patterns of dietary intake, adequacy of nutrient intake and their implications for public health and nutrition issues of concern. This review is based on literature published from 2000 to 2014 on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents aged 6-19 years. A total of 50 studies from 42 countries reporting on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents were included. The dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is limited in diversity, mainly comprising plant-based food sources, but with limited intake of fruits and vegetables. There is a low energy intake and insufficient micronutrient intake. At the same time, the available data indicate an emerging trend of consumption of high-energy snacks and beverages, particularly in urban areas. The existence of a negative and positive energy balance in the same population points to the dual burden of malnutrition and highlights the emerging nutrition transition in developing countries. This observation is important for planning public health nutrition approaches that address the concerns of the two ends of the nutrition divide. PMID:25341871

  13. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  14. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  15. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  16. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

  17. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaigns strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  18. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  19. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007-2010 analysis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO () Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO () Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake. PMID:26788299

  20. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  1. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 392 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.80.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.31.5 and 48.91.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.318.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.73.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.42.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum was higher for controlled-energy cows (31.71.4ng/mL) than intermediate cows (23.51.4ng/mL), whereas no treatment effect was noted for vitamin B12 concentration in milk. At 11 and 39 DIM, milk concentrations of vitamin B12 averaged 3.8 and 3.21.4ng/mL, respectively. In summary, results suggest that dietary change during the dry period could modify vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum, but had no effect on milk concentration of folates and vitamin B12 during early lactation. PMID:26094219

  2. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6mgday(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7mgday(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8mgkg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9mgkg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400mgday(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population. PMID:26248183

  3. Dietary salt intake and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  4. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  5. Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P < .01) villus circumferences, areas, and heights in total small intestine and especially in the duodenum than calves fed only milk replacer. Furthermore, villus circumferences and areas in total small intestine were greater (P < .05) in calves fed colostrum once than in calves fed no colostrum. Villus size in total small intestine was smaller (P < .05) in rbGH-treated than in control calves; jejunum villus circumferences and heights were especially reduced (P < .05). Crypt depths in ileum were greater (P < .05) in rbGH-treated calves. In conclusion, prolonged colostrum supply significantly enhanced small intestinal villus size in neonatal calves. In contrast, Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

  6. Analysis of Alphalactalbumin and Betalactoglobulin from the Rehydration of Bovine Colostrum Powder Using Cloud Point Extraction and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Qi, Xiaohua; Zou, Mingqiang; Li, Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Alphalactalbumin (α-La) and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg) in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (α-La) and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg) can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v) Triton X-114, 200 μL of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v) sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). PMID:22567568

  7. 11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  9. Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type-2 invade and cause diarrhoea during experimental infection in colostrum-restricted newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Van Bost, S; Roels, S; Mainil, J

    2001-08-20

    There exists experimental evidence that necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli (NTEC) strains producing the cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 cause intestinal and extra-intestinal disease in piglets. On the other hand, no experimental model has been developed with NTEC strains producing the cytotoxic necrotising factor 2. In all, 14 colostrum-restricted calves were orally challenged with two strains isolated from the faeces of a diarrheic calf (B20a) or from the heart blood of a septicaemic calf (1404). All calves had diarrhoea which lasted until euthanasia in eight of them. In those calves, diarrhoea was correlated with the faecal excretion of the challenge strains. At necropsy, vascular congestion of the intestinal mucosa, hypertrophy of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and some congestion of the lungs were observed. Bacteriology confirmed the colonisation of the intestine by the challenge strains which were also recovered from the heart blood, the lungs and/or the liver. Histological sections confirmed enterocolitis, lymphadenitis and limited bronchopneumonia. In the intestinal tissue sections, bacteria testing positive in an in situ DNA hybridisation assay with a CNF2 probe were observed. Those results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal anti-O78 and a monoclonal anti-F17b antisera. Three of the five control calves receiving either saline or a CNF(-), F17a strain (25KH09) had no clinical signs or lesions. The other two presented a profuse liquid diarrhoea but those calves were positive for the presence of K99(+) E. coli. In this model, both NTEC2 strains were thus, able to colonise the intestine, to cause long-lasting diarrhoea and to invade the blood stream with localisation in various internal organs in colostrum-restricted conventional newborn calves. PMID:11390113

  10. Evaluation of a commercial bovine colostrum replacer for achieving passive transfer of immunity in springbok calves (Antidorcas marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2013-09-01

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080

  11. Evaluation of an animal model system for cryptosporidiosis: therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J

    1994-01-01

    Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective drugs against C. parvum can be detected within 5 days after the onset of treatment in either model. Images PMID:8556484

  12. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  13. [Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Ortega, Myriam

    2008-09-01

    The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

  14. GENETIC REGULATION OF FEED INTAKE AND ENERGY BALANCE IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate and meat production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for rapid growth and...

  15. GENETIC REGULATION OF FEED INTAKE AND ENERGY BALANCE IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate, feed conversion, and egg production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for...

  16. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  17. Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information

    Cancer.gov

    Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

  18. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  19. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  20. Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  1. Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H.; Corrada, María M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44–101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981–2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  2. A preparation of cow's late colostrum fraction containing ?s1-casein promoted the proliferation of cultured rat intestinal IEC-6 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Xijier; Inagaki, Mizuho; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Saito, Shouichiro; Yabe, Tomio; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Colostrum is a complex mixture of bioactives that promotes neonate growth. Recently, we have found by in vivo study that skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC), obtained from a Holstein herd on days 6-7 after parturition, had an ability to maintain intestinal integrity. In the present study we investigated effects of SCBLC on rat intestinal IEC-6 cell proliferation in vitro. A fraction containing ?s1-casein was found to have a robust stimulation effect as compared to other protein fractions from SCBLC and even the ?s1-casein fraction from milk from other Holstein herds. Furthermore, the SCBLC ?s1-casein molecule demonstrated not only slightly slower mobility on both SDS- and native-PAGE than other bovine milk ?s1-caseins, but also a peculiar conformation reminiscent of moltenglobule in the circular dichroism spectrum. These findings may be of relevant to the competence of SCBLC to preserve intestinal integrity. PMID:23649260

  3. Kinetics and role of antibodies against intimin β in colostrum and in serum from goat kids and longitudinal study of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli in goat kids

    PubMed Central

    Orden, José A.; De la Fuente, Ricardo; Yuste, María; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A.; Horcajo, Pilar; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C.; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The presence of antibodies to the intimin β-binding region (Int280-β) of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) in serum from 20 goat kids from 2 herds, as well as in goat colostrum, was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the onset and subsequent pattern of shedding of AEEC from the same goat kids over a 6-mo period was investigated. All the colostrum and serum samples tested contained antibodies against Int280-β. The association between the antibody titer and the isolation of AEEC suggests that antibodies to intimin β do not prevent colonization of the intestine by AEEC in goat kids. The AEEC were generally shed only transiently. Most AEEC isolated from the kids belonged to serogroup O26. Three isolates belonged to serogroup O157. These data show that goat kids may be a reservoir of AEEC that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:20357960

  4. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) ?U/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) ?U/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively. Colostrum of cows fed to exceed predicted energy requirements during the last 4wk of the dry period (groups I-med and HI) exhibited a higher concentration and yield of de novo fatty acid and lower concentrations but similar yield of preformed fatty acid compared with cows in group CON. Feeding a controlled energy diet during the dry period increased colostral IgG concentration in this study, whereas overall colostrum yield was not affected. Exceeding energy requirements during the period of colostrogenesis led to higher concentrations of insulin and de novo fatty acid in colostrum. PMID:26709187

  5. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  6. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ortiz, A.; Salcedo, J.; Barile, D.; Bunyatratchata, A.; Moreno, F.J.; Martin-García, I.; Clemente, A.; Sanz, M.L.; Ruiz-Matute, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2–0.6 min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8–1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40 °C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315 mg L−1 for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251 mg L−1 for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  7. An in depth proteomic analysis based on ProteoMiner, affinity chromatography and nano-HPLC-MS/MS to explain the potential health benefits of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Paredes Parra, Ximena Maria; Ferrari, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Rumio, Cristiano; Cannizzaro, Luca; Carini, Marina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-03-20

    Bovine colostrum (BC), the initial milk secreted by the mammary gland immediately after parturition, is widely used for several health applications. We here propose an off-target method based on proteomic analysis to explain at molecular level the potential health benefits of BC. The method is based on the set-up of an exhaustive protein data bank of bovine colostrum, including the minor protein components, followed by a bioinformatic functional analysis. The proteomic approach based on ProteoMiner technology combined to a highly selective affinity chromatography approach for the immunoglobulins depletion, identified 1786 proteins (medium confidence; 634 when setting high confidence), which were then clustered on the basis of their biological function. Protein networks were then created on the basis of the biological functions or health claims as input. A set of 93 proteins involved in the wound healing process was identified. Such an approach also permits the exploration of novel biological functions of BC by searching in the database the presence of proteins characterized by innovative functions. In conclusion an advanced approach based on an in depth proteomic analysis is reported which permits an explanation of the wound healing effect of bovine colostrum at molecular level and allows the search of novel potential beneficial effects. PMID:26809613

  8. Effects of replacement of native fat in colostrum and milk with coconut oil on fat-soluble vitamins in serum and immune function in calves.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, V; Nonnecke, B J; Horst, R L

    1997-10-01

    Fat-soluble vitamins and their metabolites modulate immune function in a variety of animal species. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of fat-soluble vitamins in colostrum and milk in the development of specific aspects of immune function in the calf during the 1st wk postpartum. During this period, control calves (n = 6) were fed normal colostrum and milk, and calves in the treatment group (n = 6) were fed skimmed colostrum and skimmed milk supplemented with coconut oil. Treated calves did not experience the progressive increase in concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or retinoic acids in serum that was observed in control calves. Acquisition of passive immunity, which is indicated by concentrations of immunoglobulin G1 in serum, was unaffected by treatment. Composition and functional capacities of populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes that were collected from birth to 7 d postpartum were also unaffected by treatment. Major changes in the function and composition of mononuclear leukocyte populations from all calves occurred during the experimental period and were unrelated to the concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in serum. Populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes from calves were functionally hyporesponsive and compositionally different from populations of blood mononuclear leukocytes from adult nongravid cows. These differences likely reflected the immaturity of the immune system of the neonatal calf and may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the calf to infectious disease. PMID:9361210

  9. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  10. Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, A; Mller, T; Barbieri, H E; Jansson, A; Salomonsson, A C; Olsen, M

    2001-08-01

    To estimate the intake of some mycotoxins from food in Sweden, approximately 600 samples were collected and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes. Intakes were calculated for average and high consumers among adults and children and compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the respective toxin. Mycotoxin levels in the food samples were generally below the European/national maximum limits. However, high levels of aflatoxins were found in some samples of Brazil nuts and pistachios. The intake of ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes was found to be below the temporary, TDI values (tTDI) proposed for these toxins by international expert groups, although the intake of trichothecenes (expressed as T-2 toxin equivalents) in children with a high consumption of cereals was close to the tTDI for T-2 toxin. Since there is to date no established numerical tTDI for aflatoxins, such a value was estimated for use within the project. The calculated intake of aflatoxins in high consumers exceeded this tTDI by a factor of two. In conclusion, the exposure to mycotoxins in Sweden did not generally, give rise to any major health concerns in the present study. However, the high levels of aflatoxins in certain commodities emphasize the need for preventive measures and improved control of toxin levels in these food items. Furthermore, the need for regulatory levels for trichothecenes in cereal products should be evaluated. PMID:11469326

  11. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  12. Anthropometry, dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of Malaysian estate workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K

    1996-09-01

    Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134

  13. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  14. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  15. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  16. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation. PMID:26903293

  17. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements...

  18. Measurement error and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R J; Freedman, L S; Kipnis, V

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews work of Carroll, Freedman, Kipnis, and Li (1998) on the statistical analysis of the relationship between dietary intake and health outcomes. In the area of nutritional epidemiology, there is some evidence from biomarker studies that the usual statistical model for dietary measurements may break down due to two causes: (a) systematic biases depending on a person's body mass index; and (b) an additional random component of bias, so that the error structure is the same as a one-way random effects model. We investigate this problem, in the context of (1) the estimation of the distribution of usual nutrient intake; (2) estimating the correlation between a nutrient instrument and usual nutrient intake; and (3) estimating the true relative risk from an estimated relative risk using the error-prone covariate. While systematic bias due to body mass index appears to have little effect, the additional random effect in the variance structure is shown to have a potentially important impact on overall results, both on corrections for relative risk estimates and in estimating the distribution usual of nutrient intake. Our results point to a need for new experiments aimed at estimation of a crucial parameter. PMID:9781387

  19. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  20. Investigating syphon hydro intake installations

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Hydroelectric power facilities can be installed at existing lowhead dams to produce economical, environmentally sound electricity. The key to success is finding low-cost development and equipment approaches. A syphon intake configuration is one option that reduces the need for dam modification.

  1. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  2. Influence of 4 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation on neutrophil and mucosal immune responses to prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Thatcher, R; March, D S; Davison, G

    2015-12-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28??8 years; body mass 79??7?kg; height 182??6?cm; maximal oxygen uptake ( V ? O 2 m a x ) 55??9?mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20?g per day of COL (n?=?10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n?=?10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5?h of cycling at 15% ? (?55-60% V ? O 2 m a x ). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P??0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:25727914

  3. Interaction of Haemophilus parasuis with nasal and tracheal mucosa following intranasal inoculation of cesarean derived colostrum deprived (CDCD) swine.

    PubMed Central

    Vahle, J L; Haynes, J S; Andrews, J J

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three cesarean derived, colostrum deprived pigs were obtained at 5 wk of age and inoculated intranasally with either 1.4 x 10(8) colony forming units of Haemophilus parasuis or sterile phosphate buffered saline. Pigs were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, 26, or 36 h post-inoculation and tissues from the oropharynx and respiratory tract were obtained for qualitative bacterial culture, immunohistochemistry for H. parasuis antigens, and light and transmission electron microscopy. Haemophilus parasuis was consistently isolated from the nasal cavity (17/17, 100%) and trachea (13/17, 76%) and rarely isolated from the lung (3/17, 18%) and blood stream (1/17, 6%) of infected pigs. Antigens of H. parasuis were sporadically detected on the nasal mucosa (6/17, 35%) and trachea (8/17, 47%). Light microscopic lesions included submucosal and intraepithelial infiltrates of neutrophils and infrequent, patchy loss of cilia. Ultrastructural changes in nasal mucosal epithelial cells included cell protrusion, loss of cilia, and dilation of the cytocavitary network. Bacteria were infrequently identified and were either within an amorphous material at the apical surface of the cilia or were between individual cilia. These results suggest H. parasuis associates with the nasal mucosa and can induce a suppurative rhinitis with nasal mucosal epithelial cell degeneration. This process may represent an initial event in the pathogenesis of H. parasuis infection of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9243000

  4. Infection of Cesarean-Derived Colostrum-Deprived Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Swine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huiling; Lenz, Stephen D; Alstine, William G Van; Stevenson, Gregory W; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2010-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important pathogens for porcine respiratory disease complex, which is economically significant worldwide. The pathogenesis of PCV2SIV coinfection is unknown. In this study, we focused on establishing a challenge model for PCV2 to determine whether SIV influences PCV2 replication and increases the severity of PCV2-associated disease. Cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intratracheally with cell culture medium only (negative control group), PCV2 only, or PCV2 followed 1 wk later with SIV H1N1. Two pigs from each group were necropsied at 12, 21, 28, and 35 d after inoculation. Coinfection with SIV did not increase the number of PCV2 genomic copies in serum or target tissues or the severity of microscopic lesions associated with PCV2 in lung or lymph node. The antibody titer to PCV2 did not differ significantly between PCV2SIV- and PCV2-infected groups. In conclusion, SIV H1N1 did not influence PCV2 replication in dually infected pigs in this study. PMID:20158948

  5. Influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bucafusco, Danilo; Di Giacomo, Sebastin; Pega, Juan; Juncos, Mara Sol; Schammas, Juan Manuel; Prez-Filgueira, Mariano; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2014-11-12

    Immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (Mat-Abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. Here, we report the anti-FMDV humoral responses elicited in calves with or without Mat-Abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in Argentina. Anti-FMDV (O1/Campos strain) antibodies (Abs) were evaluated by Liquid Phase Blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT), isotype ELISA (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM) and avidity ELISA, to allow for the first time a more detailed description of the humoral responses elicited. Our results show that primary IgM responses to FMDV vaccination only became evident as Mat-Abs titers decreased. Likewise, prime and boost vaccination schedules, applied 35 days apart to groups of calves with high or low levels of Mat-Abs, showed that the levels of preexisting neutralizing Mat-Abs prevented the loss of total Abs measured by LPB-ELISA but negatively interfered with the induction of virus neutralizing responses. Altogether, these findings indicate that comprehensive serological characterization of immune responses generated after vaccination in calves may reveal important information on the actual effectiveness of vaccination strategies for young animals, particularly in endemic settings. PMID:24968156

  6. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

  7. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (SD) 11618 d in milk and 68652kg of body weight were used in a 44 Latin square design with a 22 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800h, and individually fed daily at 0900h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2+SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2+LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.51.19kg/d and 32.83.34kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.62.6kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.620.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2+LONGP, CO0+SHORTP, and CO0+LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.810.09kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 16915min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 40035min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 5704min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.890.42%/h; concomitantly mean retention time increased from 31.7 to 38.45.36h for diets containing long particle size. The results of this experiment show that effects of oil on milk fat depression were less severe when cows consumed long particle size, suggesting that dietary manipulations that modify rumen kinetics also affect milk fat production in dairy cows consuming reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles supplemented with corn oil. PMID:26547654

  8. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  9. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  10. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  11. Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goliński, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczyński, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Złotnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level - 294 g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets - 262 g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P ≤ 0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed analysis of correlations that occurred between fat, fatty acids and traits associated with piglet rearing confirmed that linolic acid (C18:2; n-6) was highly significantly correlated with piglets' body weights (r = 0.456**) and was negatively correlated with piglets' deaths (r = -0.312). On the other hand, fat revealed correlation with body weight gains of piglets (r = 0.333*_ and a negative correlation with deaths of piglets (r = -0344*). Recapitulating, the results of the performed experiments revealed that differences in the levels of fat and fatty acids found in sows' colostrum and milk influenced results of piglet rearing. Together with the increase in the content of fat and UFA in sows' colostrum and milk, piglets were characterized by the best body weight, growth rate, as well as by small mortality. PMID:25041642

  12. Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypczak, Ewa; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goli?ski, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczy?ski, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Z?otnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level 294?g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets 262?g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P???0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed analysis of correlations that occurred between fat, fatty acids and traits associated with piglet rearing confirmed that linolic acid (C18:2; n-6) was highly significantly correlated with piglets' body weights (r?=?0.456**) and was negatively correlated with piglets' deaths (r?=??0.312). On the other hand, fat revealed correlation with body weight gains of piglets (r?=?0.333*_ and a negative correlation with deaths of piglets (r?=??0344*). Recapitulating, the results of the performed experiments revealed that differences in the levels of fat and fatty acids found in sows' colostrum and milk influenced results of piglet rearing. Together with the increase in the content of fat and UFA in sows' colostrum and milk, piglets were characterized by the best body weight, growth rate, as well as by small mortality. PMID:25041642

  13. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  14. Detection of Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Human Colostrum as Mucosal Immune Response against Proteins of the Type Three Secretion System of Salmonella, Shigella and Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Durand, David; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Bellomo, Sicilia M. E.; Contreras, Carmen A.; Bustamante, Vctor H.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Some enteropathogens use the type three secretion system (T3SS) to secrete proteins that allows them to interact with enterocytes and promote bacterial attachment or intracellular survival. These proteins are Salmonella invasion proteins (Sip), invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) of Shigella and E. coli secreted proteins (Esp) of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). There are no previous studies defining the presence of colostral sIgA against all these three major enteric pathogens. Objective To evaluate the presence of sIgA in colostrum against proteins of the T3SS of Salmonella, Shigella and EPEC. Methods We collected 76 colostrum samples from puerperal women in Lima, Peru. These samples were reacted with T3SS proteins extracted from bacterial culture supernatants and evaluated by Western Blot. Results Antibodies were detected against Salmonella antigens SipA in 75 samples (99%), SipC in 62 (82%) and SipB in 31 (41%); against Shigella antigens IpaC in 70 (92%), IpaB in 68 (89%), IpaA in 66 (87%) and IpaD in 41 (54%); and against EPEC EspC in 70 (92%), EspB-D in 65 (86%) and EspA in 41 (54%). 10% of samples had antibodies against all proteins evaluated; and 42% against all except one protein. There was no sample negative to all these proteins. Conclusions The extraordinarily high frequency of antibodies in colostrum of puerperal women detected in this study against these multiple enteric pathogens, shows evidence of immunological memory and prior exposure to these pathogens, in addition to its possible protective role against infection. PMID:23538526

  15. A Pilot Study to Determine the Safety and Feasibility of Oropharyngeal Administration of Own Mothers Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Meier, Paula P.; Groer, Maureen W.; Zeller, Janice M.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Fogg, Lou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety of oropharyngeal administration of own mothers colostrum to ELBW infants in first days of life. A secondary purpose was to investigate the feasibility of (1) delivering this intervention to ELBW infants in the first days of life, and (2) measuring concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lactoferrin in tracheal aspirate secretions and urine of these infants. Subjects Five ELBW infants (mean BW and gestational age = 657 grams and 25.5 weeks, respectively). Design Quasi experimental, one group, pretest-posttest design. Methods Subjects received 0.2 mL of OMC administered oropharyngeally every two hours for 48 consecutive hours, beginning at 48 hours of life. Concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin were measured in tracheal aspirates and urine of each subject at baseline, at the completion of the intervention and again 2 weeks later. Results All infants completed the entire treatment protocol, each receiving 24 treatments. A total of 15 urine specimens were collected and 14 were sufficient in volume for analysis. A total of 15 tracheal aspirates were collected, but only 7 specimens (47%) were sufficient in volume for analysis. There was wide variation in concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin in urine and tracheal aspirates among the five infants; however several results were outside the limits of assay detection. All infants began to suck on the endotracheal tube during the administration of colostrum drops. Oxygen saturation measures remained stable or increased slightly during each of the treatment sessions. There were no episodes of apnea, bradycardia, hypotension or other adverse effects associated with the administration of colostrum. Conclusions Oropharyngeal administration of OMC is easy, inexpensive, and well-tolerated by even the smallest and sickest ELBW infants. Future research should continue to examine the optimal procedure for measuring the direct immune effects of this therapy, as well as the clinical outcomes such as infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). PMID:20697221

  16. Advances in prevention and therapy of neonatal dairy calf diarrhoea: a systematical review with emphasis on colostrum management and fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Meganck, Vanessa; Hoflack, Geert; Opsomer, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhoea remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in preweaned dairy calves worldwide. This complex disease can be triggered by both infectious and non-infectious causes. The four most important enteropathogens leading to neonatal dairy calf diarrhoea are Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides treating diarrhoeic neonatal dairy calves, the veterinarian is the most obvious person to advise the dairy farmer on prevention and treatment of this disease. This review deals with prevention and treatment of neonatal dairy calf diarrhoea focusing on the importance of a good colostrum management and a correct fluid therapy. PMID:25431305

  17. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  18. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  19. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  20. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    PubMed

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123

  1. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Suzana; Chee, Kan Yin; Wan Chik, Wan Chak Pa'

    2002-01-01

    Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p < 0.05 for all values). Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness. PMID:12165100

  2. Increased Protein Intake in Military Special Operations123

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Arny A.

    2013-01-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20–25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ∼ 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

  3. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  4. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  5. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  6. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  7. Reducing portion size reduces food intake and plate waste.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Brochado, Carolina

    2010-09-01

    As portion size (PS) increases, so does food intake. The effect of decreasing PS on food intake in a nonlaboratory setting is unknown. This 5-week study sought to determine whether decreasing PS resulted in decreased intake of the same food, and if so, at what point further PS reductions might lack benefit. It also assessed effects of PS reduction on food production and waste in a university all-you-can-eat dining facility (DF). Subjects were primarily freshmen who regularly ate lunch at the DF, and self-selected French fries (FF) presented in individual paper bags, portioned originally at 88 g, and decreased approximately 15 g/week for 3 weeks. Diners were covertly observed choosing one or more bags. Total FF production and plate waste (PW) were determined daily. Decreasing PS resulted in significant decreases in consumption per diner (P < 0.05) and PW (P < 0.05), and nonsignificant decreases in total FF consumption and production. PS was positively correlated with consumption per diner (r = 0.897, P = 0.001) and PW (r = 0.852, P = 0.001), but inversely correlated with number of diners choosing >or=2 bags (r = -0.809, P = 0.003). Total FF production was positively correlated with PW (r = 0.728, P = 0.011). This study shows that reducing PS of a particular item in an all-you-can-eat environment results in reduced intake of that food for most individuals, and that reducing PS reduces PW and food production. PMID:20035274

  8. Characteristics of energy intake under-reporting in French adults.

    PubMed

    Berta Vanrullen, Isabelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Bertaut, Aurlie; Dufour, Ariane; Dallongeville, Jean

    2014-04-14

    Energy intake under-reporting (UR) is a concern in nutritional epidemiological studies, as it may distort the relationships between dietary habits and health. Although UR is known to be associated with certain characteristics, few studies have investigated them in France. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of UR in French adults. UR was defined according to Goldberg's classification. A sample of 1567 adults was drawn from the nationally representative French dietary survey (Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2 2006-7). Food intake (7 d record), dietary habits, socio-economic status, region of residence, sedentary behaviour and weight perception variables were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between UR and a number of covariates. The overall prevalence of UR was 22.5%, similar in men and women. In both sexes, UR was positively associated with overweight and protein intake and inversely associated with age. In women, UR was associated with eating lunch in the office, poor perception of diet quality and sedentary behaviour and was inversely associated with educational level, residence in the Paris region, cereal product intake and eating lunch in a friend's or family member's home. In men, UR was positively associated with a history of slimming and inversely associated with dairy product intake and eating lunch at a staff canteen. In conclusion, UR is prevalent in French adults and is associated with several different characteristics. It is important to take account of UR when investigating diet-disease associations in adults. PMID:24330816

  9. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  10. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy. PMID:2706219

  11. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  12. Reconstruction of bisphenol A intake using a simple pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista L Y; Lorber, Matthew; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M

    2015-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of a range of consumer products, and human biomonitoring studies suggest that exposure to BPA is nearly ubiquitous. We constructed and calibrated a simple pharmacokinetic model to predict urinary concentrations of BPA based on a known initial dose. This descriptive (rather than physiologically based) model has three compartments: "stomach/liver," "blood," and "bladder." We calibrated and validated the model parameters using blood and urine measurements from nine volunteers who consumed 5?mg of d??-BPA. We then applied the model to a second group of eight persons, who supplied full volumes of urine over 7 consecutive days and a diary identifying times and types of food and beverage consumed, to "reconstruct" the time and mass of BPA intakes. These reconstructed daily intakes ranged on average from 60 to 100?ng/kg-day, within the range of, but slightly higher than, those surmised from other studies. About two-thirds of intakes occurred within an hour of reported food or drink consumption, supporting the hypothesis that diet is the main pathway of exposure to BPA. However, one-third of all reconstructed intakes took place outside this time window, suggesting that other sources of BPA exposure may also be relevant. PMID:24252884

  13. Peripheral ghrelin reduces food intake and respiratory quotient in chicken.

    PubMed

    Geelissen, S M E; Swennen, Q; Geyten, S Van der; Kühn, E R; Kaiya, H; Kangawa, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Darras, V M

    2006-02-01

    Ghrelin injection, either centrally or peripherally strongly stimulates feeding in human and rodents. In contrast, centrally injected ghrelin inhibits food intake in neonatal chickens. No information is available about the mechanism and its relationship with energy homeostasis in chicken. Since ghrelin is predominantly produced in the stomach, we investigated the effect of peripherally injected ghrelin (1 nmol/100g body weight) on food intake and energy expenditure as measured in respiratory cells by indirect calorimetry for 24h in one-week-old chickens. Plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acids, total protein and T(3) were measured in a separate experiment until 60 min after injection. Food intake decreased until at least 1h after intravenous ghrelin administration. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in ghrelin-injected chickens was reduced until 14 h after administration whereas plasma glucose and triglycerides concentrations were not altered. Free fatty acids and total protein levels also remained unchanged. Ghrelin did not influence heat production and this was supported by the absence of changes in plasma T(3) levels when compared to the control values. In conclusion, peripheral ghrelin reduces food intake as well as RQ and might influence the type of substrate (macronutrient) that is used as metabolic fuel. PMID:16054797

  14. The diagnostic performance of an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serum and colostrum to determine the disease status of a Jersey dairy herd infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Colostrum may have the ability to improve the diagnostic accuracy of some tests when compared to serum for important livestock diseases because of the high concentrations of immunoglobulins present within this sample type. The ELISA for Johne's disease is one such test, as it suffers from low sensitivity when testing serum samples collected during the subclinical stage of infection. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 34 Jersey dairy cows and tested for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) by ELISA. Fecal samples were also collected and tested by a high-throughput Johne's polymerase chain reaction (HT-J PCR) assay and fecal culture (FC), with the latter being used as the reference test. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The HT-J PCR and FC results were also compared. Of the 34 cows in this study, 4 had FC results consistent with MAP infection. The HT-J PCR did not identify any FC-positive cows. Using a 1:20 dilution and sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio cutoff threshold of 0.15, the relative sensitivity values of both serum (AUC 0. 56) and colostrum (AUC 0.63) were 0%. With lower sample dilutions, the relative sensitivity values of serum were 0% (1:2, AUC 0.62; 1:5, AUC 0.55); however, the relative sensitivity value of colostrum was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19-99%) at a dilution of 1:5, S/P ratio cutoff threshold of 0.15, and AUC of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.87). The testing of colostrum samples for MAP-specific antibodies by ELISA may provide improved identification of animals in the early stages of infection with MAP when compared with serum samples. PMID:26699518

  15. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children. PMID:26060540

  16. Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations. PMID:23017313

  17. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-12-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 343 g/day to 464 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  18. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; OSullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 343 g/day to 464 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  19. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV

  20. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  1. Dietary intake and food sources of total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Belgian population over 15 years old.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-07-01

    Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed. PMID:23588778

  2. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate... intake air, engine intake air after compression and cooling in the charge air cooler(s) (engine...

  3. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of isoflavonoids after soy intake.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M

    2014-10-01

    Soy is the major source of dietary exposure to isoflavonoids (IFLs). Accumulating evidence supports a role for soy and IFLs in the protection against many chronic diseases including cancer. After soy intake we found a biphasic IFL appearance pattern in plasma as well as in urine that we suggest to be due to IFL absorption in the small intestine (ca. 10%) during the first 2h after intake and IFL absorption in the large intestine (ca. 90%) 4-6 h after intake. While each IFL disappears from the circulation at different times excellent correlations between urinary and circulating IFL values were discovered and algorithms to convert urinary excretion values into circulating levels were established. We suggest the term 'apparent bioavailability' when using urinary data to describe IFL exposure. The IFL bioavailability was found to be influenced by gut bacteria, oral antibiotic treatment (OABX), and an individual's age and health status. While daidzein (DE) and genistein start to be absorbed minutes after intake, equol (EQ) appears in plasma only after a minimum of 8h following soy intake owing to the required transit time of DE to the colon where the conversion of DE to EQ takes place by intestinal microbiota. We have also shown that the apparent IFL bioavailability is higher in children than adults, higher in healthy versus non-healthy individuals, and decreased in children but increased in adults during OABX. Finally, we propose to use a urinary EQ/DE ratio of 0.018 with a DE threshold to identify EQ producers. With this cutoff definition we observed that EQ production is inconsistent over time in 5-30% of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:24946051

  4. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10 %EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (sd 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1) %), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (sd 24·5) %) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4) %). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90 % of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  5. MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

  6. Intake system for V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hatamura, K.; Asanomi, K.

    1987-03-17

    An intake system is described for a V-type engine having a pair of cylinder banks set at an angle to each other on opposite sides of an output shaft having a predetermined direction, intake ports opening in inner wall portions of the respective cylinder banks and communicating one with each cylinder in the cylinder bank, the intake system comprising a surge tank defining an internal space disposed substantially midway between the cylinder banks, a common intake passage communicating the internal space of the surge tank atmosphere, and discrete intake passages, each communicating the internal space of the surge tank with one of the cylinders by way of the intake port communicating therewith, characterized in that the surge tank has upper and lower walls extending in a direction parallel to the output shaft of the engine, and side walls connecting with the upper and lower walls and extending in a direction parallel to the output shaft of the engine, and each of the discrete intake passages for the cylinders in each cylinder bank comprises a U-shaped bight portion which laterally projects from each of the side walls of the surge tank above a top portion of a cylinder head of the cylinder bank adjacent thereto. It extends to the cylinder bank remote from the respective side wall having a corresponding one of the intake ports so as to extend away from the adjacent cylinder bank and is downwardly bent toward the remote cylinder bank.

  7. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  8. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  9. Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

  10. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

  11. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  12. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  13. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  14. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  15. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  16. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID: 201415403124 Shipping

  17. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  18. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  19. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:14 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:12/23/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID:

  20. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  1. Quantifying Energy Intake Changes during Obesity Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gbel, Britta; Sanghvi, Arjun; Hall, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that most obesity drugs primarily work by reducing metabolizable energy intake, elucidation of the time course of energy intake changes during long-term obesity pharmacotherapy has been prevented by the limitations of self-report methods of measuring energy intake. Methods We used a validated mathematical model of human metabolism to provide the first quantification of metabolizable energy intake changes during long-term obesity pharmacotherapy using body weight data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated 14 different drugs or drug combinations. Results Changes in metabolizable energy intake during obesity pharmacotherapy were reasonably well-described by an exponential pattern comprising three simple parameters, with early large changes in metabolizable energy intake followed by a slow transition to a smaller persistent drug effect. Conclusions Repeated body weight measurements along with a mathematical model of human metabolism can be used to quantify changes in metabolizable energy intake during obesity pharmacotherapy. The calculated metabolizable energy intake changes followed an exponential time course, and therefore different drugs can be evaluated and compared using a common mathematical framework. PMID:24961931

  2. Association between family structure and food group intake in children

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

  3. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C; Gutirrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities. PMID:18629690

  4. Increased food intake with oxyntomodulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Price, Samantha L.; Minnion, James S.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin analogues offer a novel treatment for obesity. However during analogue screening in a rat model increased food intake was consistently observed. To further investigate this finding, a series of representative analogues (OXM14 and OXM15) and their Glu-3 equivalents (OXM14E3 and OXM15E3) were administered to rats for 7 days and food intake and bodyweight measurements taken. To investigate the role of glucagon receptor activation glutamate (Glu/E) was substituted at amino acid position 3. GLP-1 and glucagon receptor efficacy of the oxyntomodulin analogues and their Glu-3 counterparts were measured at the rat receptors in vitro. Doses of 25 n mol/kg of OXM14 and OXM15 increased food intake by up to 20%. Bodyweight was not significantly increased. Food intake was not increased with the Glu-3 peptides, indicating that a glucagon receptor mechanism may be responsible for the increase in food intake. PMID:26431789

  5. Dietary lead intake of preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children. PMID:6602559

  6. Heritability of dietary food intake patterns.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Linda; Henneman, Peter; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W

    2013-10-01

    The quality and quantity of food intake affect body weight, but little is known about the genetics of such human dietary intake patterns in relation to the genetics of BMI. We aimed to estimate the heritability of dietary intake patterns and genetic correlation with BMI in participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. The study included 1,690 individuals (42% men; age range, 19-92), of whom 41.4% were overweight and 15.9% were obese. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the number of days (0-7) on which participants consumed vegetables, fruit, fruit juice, fish, unhealthy snacks, fastfood, and soft drinks. Principal component analysis was applied to examine the correlations between the questionnaire items and to generate dietary intake pattern scores. Heritability and the shared genetic and shared non-genetic (environmental) correlations were estimated using the family structure of the cohort. Principal component analysis suggested that the questionnaire items could be grouped in a healthy and unhealthy dietary intake pattern, explaining 22 and 18% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The dietary intake patterns had a heritability of 0.32 for the healthy and 0.27 for the unhealthy pattern. Genetic correlations between the dietary intake patterns and BMI were not significant, but we found a significant environmental correlation between the unhealthy dietary intake pattern and BMI. Specific dietary intake patterns are associated with the risk of obesity and are heritable traits. The genetic factors that determine specific dietary intake patterns do not significantly overlap with the genetic factors that determine BMI. PMID:22415036

  7. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    PubMed

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values. PMID:23869904

  8. Shedding pattern and serological profile of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived and farm-raised pigs.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ming-Tang; Yang, Cheng-Yao; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Chen, Chimin; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Ye, Li-Jun

    2011-04-01

    Six 5-week-old porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-free, cesarean-derived, colostrums-deprived (CDCD) pigs were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) TCID(50) of PCV2. Four CDCD pigs were untreated cohabitants. Forty farm-raised pigs from two PCV2-contaminated herds were randomly selected for PCV2 trace investigations. Blood, nasal, oropharyngeal and fecal samples were collected from all tested pigs weekly. The PCV2 DNA shed at 6-11 and 7-12 weeks of age for PCV2-inoculated pigs and cohabitants, respectively. All the CDCD pigs exhibited seroconversion after PCV2 exposure. In the farm-raised animals, PCV2 shed at 9-15 weeks of age and seroconversion started at 11 weeks of age. Collectively, the pigs had a prolonged PCV2 shedding period following viral exposure, and growing pigs were the source of horizontal PCV2 transmission in PCV2-infected herds. PMID:21139354

  9. [Udder immunization for the protection of calves against salmonella infections. 1. Detection of specific Ig classes in the mother, colostrum and calf and the course of infection].

    PubMed

    Staak, C; Bulling, E; Kmpe, U; Luge, E; Pietzsch, O

    1989-12-01

    Pregnant cows were vaccinated at ablactation by infusion of heat inactivated S. dublin or S. typhimurium into the mammary gland in order to protect their offsprings via colostrum against salmonellosis. This method of vaccination is based upon statements according to which specific IgA and IgM play a prominent role in respect of protection. Both Ig classes are produced locally and are not channelled from the mother's system into the mammary gland. In comparison to calves from non-vaccinated control animals, calves from vaccinated cows did not exhibit clinical symptoms after challenge infection, and had a reduced salmonella excretion rate in respect of quantity but not in respect of the duration of shedding salmonella. Serological quantitation of specific Ig-classes (DIG-ELISA) did not allow to identify a specific Ig-class responsible for protection. PMID:2618208

  10. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment. PMID:20887237

  11. Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Inge; Matthys, Christophe; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Temme, Elisabeth HM; Van Oyen, Herman; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.56.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only grains and potatoes and meat products were in line with the recommendations and bread and cereals showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschoolers current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders. PMID:19190355

  12. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Daraei, F

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased, mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxins intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of the effects of clinoptilolite supplementation on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1 and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For test 1 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48h and for test 2 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth and sixth weeks of life (end of the experiment: 42 days of life) and analyzed for hematology, plasma fibrinogen and for total protein, albumin, beta and gamma globulin measurement. Performance and health of calves were also recorded during the experiment. For statistical analysis of data a repeated measures approach using ANOVA with Mixed linear models, and chi-test was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the values of hematocrit (HCT), red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), monocyte (Mono), and albumin (Alb). The values of most above parameters were significantly higher in test group 2, except MCV that was significantly lower in test group 1 than other trial groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was seen for other measured parameters, performance, and health between trial groups. PMID:18343011

  13. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  14. Quantification of food intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wong, Richard; Piper, Matthew D W; Wertheim, Bregje; Partridge, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of food dye intake. We used the method to demonstrate that (a) female flies feed more frequently than males, (b) flies feed more often when housed in larger groups and (c) fly feeding varies at different times of the day. We also show that alterations in food intake are not induced by dietary restriction or by a null mutation of the fly insulin receptor substrate chico. In contrast, mutation of takeout increases food intake by increasing feeding frequency while mutation of ovo(D) increases food intake by increasing the volume of food consumed per proboscis-extension. This approach provides a practical and reliable method for quantification of food intake in Drosophila under normal, undisturbed culture conditions. PMID:19557170

  15. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vit