Relationships between hormonal and metabolic changes around parturition and colostrum yield and composition were investigated in 16 Landrace x Large White primiparous sows. Blood samples were taken daily from d 105 of pregnancy to d 2 postpartum (with d 0 being the day of parturition). Colostrum samples were taken at the onset of parturition (T0), and then 3, 6, and 24 h later (T3, T6, and T24, respectively). Colostrum yield was calculated from the beginning of parturition until 24 h later by adding colostrum intake of individual piglets, which was estimated from their BW gain. Colostrum yield averaged 3.22 +/- 0.34 kg. Four sows had very low colostrum production (1.10 +/- 0.12 kg; n = 4), whereas the others produced between 2.83 and 4.64 kg of colostrum (3.93 +/- 0.16 kg; n = 12). Compared with the high-colostrum-producing sows, the low-colostrum-producing sows tended (P < 0.1) to have greater plasma concentrations of progesterone during the 20-h prepartum and tended (P < 0.1) to have smaller plasma concentrations of prolactin 40 and 30 h before parturition. Sows with a low colostrum yield had greater plasma concentrations of glucose than sows with a high colostrum yield from d -9 to -2 (P < 0.05). At the onset of parturition, colostrum from low-producing sows had greater percentages (P < 0.01) of DM, lipids, and GE, but less (P < 0.05) lactose, than that from high-producing sows. The Na:K ratio in colostrum during the 6 h postpartum was greater (P < 0.01) in low-producing sows than in high-producing sows, indicating that cellular junctions between epithelial mammary cells were less tightly closed. Concentrations of IgG in colostrum varied greatly between sows and decreased by approximately 80% between T0 and T24. Within high-producing sows, concentrations of IgG in colostrum at T0, T3, and T6 were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with lactose concentrations in colostrum at the same times and were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with plasma concentrations of IGF-I measured from d -9 to 0. In contrast, no correlation (P > 0.1) was found between IgG concentrations in colostrum at any time and prolactin, estradiol-17beta, progesterone, or cortisol. In conclusion, sows that produced a low yield of colostrum were characterized by a leaky mammary epithelium and reduced synthesis of lactose, related to delayed hormonal changes before parturition. PMID:20118422
Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H
Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function.
The first milk, colostrum, is an important source of nutrients and an exclusive source of immunoglobulins (Ig), essential for the growth and protection from infection of newborn pigs. Colostrum intake has also been shown to affect the vitality and behaviour of neonatal pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding colostrum and plasma immunoglobulin on brain development in neonatal pigs. Positive correlations were found between growth, levels of total protein and IgG in blood plasma and hippocampus development in sow-reared piglets during the first 3 postnatal days. In piglets fed an elemental diet (ED) for 24h, a reduced body weight, a lower plasma protein level and a decreased level of astrocyte specific protein in the hippocampus was observed, as compared to those that were sow-reared. The latter was coincident with a reduced microgliogenesis and an essentially diminished number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus after 72h. Supplementation of the ED with purified plasma Ig, improved the gliogenesis and supported the trophic and immune status of the hippocampus. The data obtained indicate that the development of the hippocampus structure is improved by colostrum or an Ig-supplemented elemental diet in order to stimulate brain protein synthesis and its development during the early postnatal period. PMID:24642047
Pierzynowski, Stefan; Ushakova, Galyna; Kovalenko, Tatiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Goncharova, Kateryna; Gustavsson, Per; Prykhodko, Olena; Wolinski, Jarek; Slupecka, Monika; Ochniewicz, Piotr; Weström, Björn; Skibo, Galina
Objective To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations in neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Animals 18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves. Procedures 141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided ? 2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n = 146) were fed 2 L of a CR product ? 2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed. Results Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean ± SD sTP concentration was 5.58 ± 0.67 g/dL and 5.26 ± 0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868 ± 854 mg/dL and 1,320 ± 620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations < 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Foley, Andrea L.; Collins, Michael T.; McGuirk, Sheila M.
Fourteen newborn calves had low gamma-glutamyl transferase catalytic ac- tivity concentration in blood plasma (10 to 31 U\\/liter). Colostrum intake induced a dramatic increase of plasma gamma- glutamyl transferase activity, which was maximal on the 1st or 2nd day (370 to 5000 U\\/liter) after birth; then plasma enzyme activity slowly decreased and was stable about 100 U\\/liter on the 20th
J. P. Braun; D. Tainturier; C. Laugier; P. Bénard; J. P. Thouvenot; A. G. Rico
In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from colostrum in neonatal calves, unlike in rodents where systemic effects of colostral leptin are demonstrated. Therefore, glucose availability in neonatal calves is promoted by perinatal maturation of eGP and colostrum intake. There may be long-lasting effects of an improved colostrum supply and glucose status on postnatal growth and development, and colostrum supply may contribute to neonatal programming of performance (milk and growth) in later life, but data proving this concept are missing. PMID:23100594
Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schönhusen, U; Metges, C C
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking into account the birth weight, and parity order of sows. Colostrum intake from birth to 24h after birth was estimated in 300 piglets each from primiparous and multiparous sows. The piglets were cross-fostered in 25 primiparous and 25 multiparous sows at 25.9±0.09 h after farrowing. The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined in the sows after the end of farrowing and in the piglets before cross-fostering (24h after farrowing), at 10 and 20 days of age. For high birth weight piglets (HBW - >1.3-1.7 kg) the probability of death was low regardless of their colostrum intake. Intermediate birth weight (IBW - >1.2-1.3 kg) and low birth weight (LBW - 1.1-1.2 kg) piglets had the same probability of death compared to HBW piglets, when colostrum intake reached 200 and 250 g, respectively. The probability of low performance (<9.5 kg) was lower in HBW than in LBW and IBW piglets, regardless of colostrum intake. HBW piglets had higher weight at 14, 20, 28 and 42 days of age (P<0.05) than LBW piglets, and higher weight than IBW piglets at 28 and 42 days. Colostrum intake >250 g increased (P<0.05) the weight of piglets at 28 and 42 days of age, regardless of their birth weight. Piglets from primiparous biological dams consumed less colostrum (P<0.003) than piglets from multiparous dams, but their serum IgG concentrations at 24h after birth and their performance were similar (P>0.05). Piglets suckled by primiparous foster sows showed lower weight (P<0.05) at 20, 28 and 42 days than piglets suckled by multiparous sows. Piglets that died before 42 days of age had lower (P<0.05) birth weight, colostrum intake and serum IgG at 24 h after birth compared to surviving piglets, and lower values were also observed in piglets with low performance compared to high (>9.5 kg) performance piglets. There were no differences in serum IgG concentrations at 10 and 20 days of age (P>0.05) between high and low performance piglets. In conclusion, both colostrum intake and birth weight are important for survival and growth of suckling piglets. LBW and IBW piglets are more dependent on colostrum intake than HBW piglets to assure higher survival and better development up to 42 days of age. Piglets suckled by multiparous sows have better development than those suckled by primiparous sows. PMID:24674020
Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P
Acidic protein levels in the milk decrease markedly as lactation progresses, suggesting that it is an important part of the colostrum. However, little attention has been paid to their biological function. In this study, we isolated the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum (AFC, isoelectric point <5) by anion-exchange chromatography, and investigated the effect of its dietary intake on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. 100% of mice infected with 1 LD50 of the virus survived when administered AFC for 14 days prior to infection, compared with 33% survival when administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, consumption of AFC reduced the weight loss associated with infection. We propose that dietary intake of AFC has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection. PMID:23620352
Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Chang, Don Yong; Kim, Hong-Jin
The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017
Korhonen, H J
Pre-weaning development of microbial activity has an effect on post-weaning establishment of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. An in vivo study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of age on fermentation end-product profiles during the post-colostrum suckling period, as the variation in composition of mature milk is minimum. Sixteen piglets from two litters (eight per litter) were selected. During the
A. Awati; S. D'Urso; B. A. Williams; M. Bosch; M. W. A. Verstegen
Calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic and rely on immunoglobulin (Ig) from colostrum to obtain passive immunity. Previous research has indicated that colostrum supplements derived from milk are less effective than is maternal colostrum in providing adequate IgG to neonatal calves. Our objective was to determine the absorption of IgG by newborn calves fed a USDA food-grade colostrum supplement derived from bovine
J. D. QUIGLEY; D. L. FIKE; M. N. EGERTON
Colostrum, the initial postpartum secretion of the breast, ordinarily has a distinct yellow color due to carotenoids of its\\u000a fat globules. This pigmentation progressively diminishes as milk production increases during the first week of lactation.\\u000a Identity of these cartenoids was investigated by means of thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography\\u000a and spectral analysis. ?- and ?-carotene, lycopene and ?-cryptoxanthin were
Stuart Patton; Louise M. Canfieldb; Gail E. Huston; Ann M. Ferris; Robert G. Jensen
Objective. HIV-associated diarrhoea occurs in nearly all patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developing countries. Diarrhoea is caused by the HIV-related immune dysfunction and is pivotal in the decrease of the helper T-cell (CD4? \\/) population. Enteric pathogens in HIV-associated diarrhoea are, for example, Cryptosporidium, Amoeba and Campylobacter species. Bovine colostrum is the first milk the suckling calf
Claes-Henrik Florén; Sonny Chinenye; Lidia Elfstrand; Conny Hagman; Ingemar Ihse
Bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) are well-known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may threat the next generations' health. We performed biomonitoring of these phenols in colostrums to assess risk of the phenols in breast-fed neonates. Study subjects were the lactating mothers who delivered babies within 2 weeks (N = 325; 30.67 ± 3.45 years) and their neonates (N = 326; embryonic period, 39.1 ± 1.5 weeks). BPA, nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) in colostrums were quantified with LC/MS/MS. Information for environmental exposure sources of the phenols was obtained by questionnaires. As results, median level of BPA in colostrums was 7.8?ng/mL, while most NP or OP was not detected. Regarding health risks of phenols, levels of total NP in colostrums were elevated among sick mothers with toxemia, thyroid disorders, gastritis, and so forth than health mothers (3.51 ± 4.98 versus 2.04 ± 3.71?ng/mL, P = 0.02). Dairy products intake and detergents use were positively correlated with total BPA levels (Ps < 0.05). In conclusion, we estimate most neonates who are exposed to BPA rather than NP or OP via colostrums and recommend continuous biomonitoring of the phenols to clarify their suspected health risk on neonates and pregnant or gestation mothers.
Yi, B.; Kim, C.; Park, M.; Han, Y.; Park, J. Y.; Yang, M.
Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (m/z 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams. PMID:24024650
Lee, Hyeyoung; German, J Bruce; Kjelden, Randy; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela
At birth, 96 Jersey calves were allowed to nurse the dam for 3 days or were separated from the dam and fed 1 litre of colostrum in nipple-bottles twice daily until 3 days of age. Calves were housed in individual fibreglass hutches or individual pens in an unheated calf barn. Intake of colostrum by calves allowed to nurse the dam
Quigley J D III; K. R. Martin; David A Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; Craig R Reinemeyer; Rohrbach Barton W; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar
The immediate post-weaning period characterized by reduced feed intake induces gut structural alterations. A rapid mucosa restoration is essential for an optimal growth recovery in piglets. Bovine colostrum has been shown to prevent villous atrophy in mice and to stimulate mucosal healing in patients suffering from inflammatory gut disease. Therefore we evaluated the influence of bovine colostrum on mucosa restoration
A. Huguet; L. Le Normand; J. Fauquant; B. Kaeffer; I. Le Huërou-Luron
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance,
C. Boudry; A. Buldgen; D. Portetelle; A. Collard; A. Théwis; J.-P. Dehoux
It was hypothesized that colostrum production could be influenced by sow peripartum endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic status. The plant extract silymarin was shown to influence endocrine and hepatic status in several species. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of silymarin intake during late pregnancy on sow hormonal and hepatic status and to determine whether relations exist between sow hepatic and metabolic status during the peripartum period and colostrum yield and piglet performances during lactation. From d 107 of pregnancy until farrowing, nulliparous sows were either fed 12 g/d of silymarin (SIL; n = 15) or no treatment (Control; n = 12). Piglet BW was recorded directly after birth, 24 h after birth of the first piglet, and at 7, 14, and 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 107 and 109 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of pregnancy until d 2 of lactation, and on d 7 and 21 of lactation. They were assayed for endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic variables. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of farrowing. Silymarin did not influence colostrum yield (3.7 ± 0.3 kg) or gross composition (P > 0.10), nor did it affect serum prolactin concentrations or plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17?, or cortisol (P > 0.10). Mean litter BW gain was lower (P < 0.05) during the first week and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower during the second week of lactation in litters from SIL sows. Silymarin had no effect on plasma concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase, or total cholesterol (P > 0.10). Colostrum yield was positively correlated with urea (r = 0.50; P = 0.01) and creatinine (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) concentrations in sows on the day before farrowing. Mean litter BW gain over 2 wk was negatively correlated with concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (r = -0.50; P = 0.01) and ?-GT (r = -0.42; P = 0.03) on the day before farrowing and was positively correlated with urea concentrations on the day before farrowing (r = 0.54; P = 0.01). In conclusion, at the dose of 12 g/d, silymarin did not influence prolactin concentrations or the hepatic status of sows, had no impact on colostrum production, and decreased litter BW gain in early lactation. Colostrum yield and litter performance during lactation were correlated with some markers of sow metabolic and hepatic status measured during the prepartum period. PMID:24802036
Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H
Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2–4 days. Colostrum is very important part\\u000a of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones\\u000a in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to
B. R. Thapa
Under hot and warm environments productivity and reproduction efficiency of farm and wild animals are negatively affected. The negative effects of hot environments on animal health are responsible for the alteration of colostrum and milk production in term of quantity and quality. Colostrum and milk are nutrient-rich fluids secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals after giving birth and during growth and development of the young. Multiple factors influence the production and the composition of colostrum and milk, including species, breed, health status, feeding practices and environmental conditions. Colostrum and milk are not only a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients, but contains many biologically-active constituents. Colostrum and milk of various species differ widely in amounts and proportions of their principal constituents, especially comparing monogastric with ruminant animals because of the difference between their physiology and digestion. The interspecies variations in part reflect different adaptive strategies to environmental conditions and selective pressures of various species during the evolution. A limited number of studies documented the effects of hot condition on modification of colostrum and milk quality, in particular referred to nutrients and immunoglobulin composition, but no information are available on the effects of hot environment on nutraceutical properties and bioactive molecules content of colostrum and milk. PMID:24200022
Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P
The relationship between intake of dairy products and risk of breast cancer was studied in 4697 initially cancer-free women, aged 15 years or over. During a 25 year follow-up period after the collection of food consumption data, 88 breast cancers were diagnosed. Intakes of foods were calculated from dietary history interviews covering the habitual diet of examinees over the preceding
P Knekt; R Järvinen; R Seppänen; E Pukkala; A Aromaa
Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk.
Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.
Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.
Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942
Whereas whole first-milked colostrum IgG1 variation is documented, the IgG1 difference between the quarter mammary glands of dairy animals is unknown. First colostrum was quarter-collected from healthy udders of 8 multiparous dairy cows, all within 3h of parturition. Weight of colostrum produced by individual quarters was determined and a sample of each was frozen for subsequent analysis. Immunoglobulin G1 concentration (mg/mL) was measured by ELISA and total mass (g) was calculated. Standard addition method was used to overcome colostrum matrix effects and validate the standard ELISA measures. Analysis of the data showed that cow and quarter (cow) were significantly different in both concentration and total mass per quarter. Analysis of the mean IgG1 concentration of the front and rear quarters showed that this was not different, but the large variation in individual quarters confounds the analysis. This quarter difference finding indicates that each mammary gland develops a different capacity to accumulate precolostrum IgG1, whereas the circulating hormone concentrations that induce colostrogenesis reach the 4 glands similarly. This finding also shows that the variation in quarter colostrum production is a contributor to the vast variation in first milking colostrum IgG1 content. Finally, the data suggests other factors, such as locally acting autocrine or paracrine, epigenetic, or stochasticity, in gene regulation mechanisms may impinge on colostrogenesis capacity. PMID:24704231
Baumrucker, Craig R; Stark, Andrea; Wellnitz, Olga; Dechow, Chad; Bruckmaier, Rupert M
Directing protein and energy sources towards lactation is crucial to optimise milk production in sows but how this influences colostrum yield (CY) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify associations between CY and the sow's use of nutrient resources. We included 37 sows in the study that were all housed, fed and managed similarly. Parity, back fat change (?BF), CY and performance parameters were measured. We obtained sow serum samples 3 to 4 days before farrowing and at D1 of lactation following overnight fasting. These were analysed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea, creatinine, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4) and immunoglobulins G (IgG) and A (IgA). The colostrum samples collected 3, 6 and 24 h after the birth of the first piglet were analysed for their nutrient and immunoglobulins content. The technical parameters associated with CY were parity group (a; parities 1 to 3=value 0 v. parities 4 to 7=value 1) and ?BF D85-D109 of gestation (mm) (b): CY (g)=4290-842a-113b. (R 2=0.41, P<0.001). The gestation length (P<0.001) and the ?BF between D109 and D1 of lactation (P=0.050) were identified as possible underlying factors of the parity group. The metabolic parameters associated with CY were C4 at 3 to 4 days before farrowing (a), and 10logC4 (b) and 10logNEFA (c) at D1 of lactation: CY (g)=3582-1604a+1007b-922c (R 2=0.39, P=0.001). The colostrum composition was independent of CY. The negative association between CY and ?BF D85-D109 of gestation could not be further explained based on our data. Sows that were catabolic 1 week prior to farrowing seemed unable to produce colostrum to their full potential. This was especially the case for sows with parities 4 to 7, although they had a similar feed intake, litter birth weight and colostrum composition compared with parities 1 to 3 sows. In conclusion, this study showed that parity and the use of body fat and protein reserves during late gestation were associated with CY, indicating that proper management of the sow's body condition during late gestation could optimise the intrinsic capacity of the sow's CY. PMID:24237676
Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Declerck, I; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Janssens, G P J
By using a strategy that we have developed to search for the ligands of orphan seven-transmembrane-domain receptors [S. Hinuma et al., Nature 393 (1998) 272-276], we have recently identified a natural ligand, apelin, for the orphan 7TMR, APJ [K. Tatemoto et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (1998) 471-476]. In this paper, we isolated rat and mouse apelin cDNAs, and analyzed the tissue distribution of apelin mRNA in rats. Although apelin mRNA was widely detected in a variety of tissues, the highest expression of apelin mRNA was detected in the mammary gland of pregnant rats. In the mammary gland, biologically active apelin and its mRNA considerably increased during pregnancy and lactation, and reached a maximal level around parturition. Moreover, a large amount of apelin (14-93 pmol/ml) was found to be secreted in the bovine colostrum, and it was still detectable even in commercial bovine milk. Since apelin partially suppressed cytokine production by mouse spleen cells in response to T cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking, the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and milk might modulate immune responses in neonates. PMID:10525157
Habata, Y; Fujii, R; Hosoya, M; Fukusumi, S; Kawamata, Y; Hinuma, S; Kitada, C; Nishizawa, N; Murosaki, S; Kurokawa, T; Onda, H; Tatemoto, K; Fujino, M
Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14¿32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were
J. van der Meulen; C. Kwakernaak; C. A. Kan
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866...Immunological Test Systems Â§ 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866...Immunological Test Systems Â§ 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a...
This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ?3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Adegboye, Amanda R. A.; Christensen, Lisa B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J.; Heitmann, Berit L.
We previously described the effects of intake of dairy products on plasmid dissemination in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human faecal flora (HFF) and found that yoghurt, heat-treated yoghurt (HTY) and milk reduced population levels of transconjugants compared with findings in mice fed a standard mouse diet. In the case of lactose intake, transconjugants were not detected.
Sylvie Maisonneuve; Marie-France Ouriet; Yvonne Duval-Iflah
Energy intake and milk production were measured in 12 mink dams raising litters of 3, 6 and 9 kits one to four weeks post partum by means of balance experiments and measurements of milk intake of the kits by the water isotope dilution technique. The dams were fed ad libitum on a conventional wet mink diet (DM: 323 g\\/kg; CP:
Rikke Fink; Kirsten Bislev Hansen; S. Wamberg; N. B. Kristensen
The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007 to August 2008. Four hundred and thirty-eight consecutively recruited cases with primary breast cancer were frequency-matched to 438 controls on age and residence. Dietary intake information was collected by interviewers using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression adjusted for various potential confounders. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of dietary calcium intake with breast cancer risk, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.35 (0.22-0.56) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant association was found between dairy products measured either by dry weight of dairy product or dairy product protein intake and breast cancer risk. Our study supports a protective effect of high intake of dietary calcium on breast cancer risk, and no association with dairy product intake. PMID:21128178
Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ho, Suzanne C; Fu, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Shou-Zhen; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yu
Colostrum contains factors that are protective for the neonate and may be a source of immunomodulary molecules that positively influence the immune status of the neonate. To confirm that colostrum contains a variety of cytokines with immunomodulatory properties, we established a bovine cytokine specific ELISA and five cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, INF-? or IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) in the whey
Katsuro Hagiwara; Satoshi Kataoka; Hitoki Yamanaka; Rikio Kirisawa; Hiroshi Iwai
To determine the suitability of a new colostrum substitute derived from goat serum and to determine the amount of colostral IgG needed to achieve serum IgG concentration > 800 mg/dl, twin kids from 14 does were fed colostrum or a colostrum substitute. The volume of colostrum or colostrum substitute fed was calculated so that half the kids in each group received IgG at a low dosage (1.5 g/kg of body weight) and the other half received IgG at a high dosage (3 g/kg). Kids were bottle fed the colostrum or colostrum substitute and then fed pooled goat's milk until 18 hours old, at which time they were allowed to nurse their dams. Does were milked manually every 2 hours after parturition until specific gravity of mammary secretions was < 1.02, the specific gravity of goat's milk. Serum IgG concentration of each kid was determined by means of single radial immunodiffusion at birth and 12, 18, and 24 hours and 7, 21, and 42 days after birth. Kids were weighed at each blood collection and monitored for illness daily. None of the kids had measurable serum IgG concentrations at birth. Mean serum IgG concentration was significantly higher in kids fed colostrum than in kids fed colostrum substitute at all times, except days 7 and 42 (P < 0.05). By 24 hours after birth, serum IgG concentration was > 800 mg/dl in all kids fed colostrum, in 4 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the higher dosage, and in 2 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the lower dosage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7744651
Constant, S B; LeBlanc, M M; Klapstein, E F; Beebe, D E; Leneau, H M; Nunier, C J
Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 105. While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide.
Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J.; Wheatley, Adam K.; Jacobson, Jonathan C.; Alexander, Marina R.; Rawlin, Grant
The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal piglets. The present study showed that the physiology of piglets in the colostrum period was affected by IUGR status at birth and their intermediary metabolism was altered due to different colostrum intakes. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the head shape of newborn piglets is a good selection criteria for identifying piglets that need oral supplementation during the neonatal stage. PMID:24085405
Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K
Colostrum corpuscles are not always found in so-called colostrum milk; when they are present, the percentage of proteids is higher; as they disappear, the proteid percentage drops. The color of colostrum milk is yellow; this color is especially marked in negroes' milk (observed in four cases not included in this report). The reaction of colostrum milk is alkaline. The specific gravity varies from 1024 to 1034. This variation is chiefly due to the variation in the amount of fat present.
The relationship between intake of soy products and death from stomach cancer was examined in a community-based prospective study of Japanese men and women in Takayama, Japan. Over 7 years of follow-up, 121 deaths from stomach cancer (81 men and 40 women) occurred among 30?304 (13?880 men and 16?424 women) participants who were at least 35 years of age. Diet including the intake of soy products and isoflavones was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food–frequency questionnaire at the beginning of the study. In men, the highest compared to the lowest tertile of total soy product intake was significantly inversely associated with death from stomach cancer after controlling for covariates (hazard ratios=0.50; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.26-0.93, P for trend=0.03). Decreased hazard ratios for the highest compared to the lowest tertiles of total soy product intake (hazard ratios=0.49; 95% CI 0.22–1.13) was observed in women, although this association was of marginal significance. These data suggest that soy intake may reduce the risk of death from stomach cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 31–36. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600349 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK
Nagata, C; Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Shimizu, H
Trials during warm ambient tempera- tures determined the feeding value of colostrum, either naturally fermented or with additives, for Holstein calves. During a preliminary trial, calves fed whole milk gained two-fold more weight the first 4 wk than calves fed fermented colostrum, thus promoting a subsequent trial to eval- uate additives for colostrum preservation. Calves were fed either 3.64 kg
L. D. Muller; F. C. Ludens; J. A. Rook
Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice. PMID:22537215
Chagas, Carlos E A; Rogero, Marcelo M; Martini, Lígia A
The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences. The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with commercial immunoluminometric assay. The production of colostrums was significantly higher in Burkinabe women, where the colostrums S100B levels in the first day of lactation showed to be at 24 h higher than those of Sicilian mothers (672.21 ± 256.67 ng/ml vs 309.36 ± 65.28 ng/ml) and progressively decreased reaching the values of Sicilian mothers in the second and third day (204.31 ± 63.25 ng/ml and 199.42 ± 45.28 ng/ml, respectively). Correlation was found between the level of S100B and the length of stage II (duration of expulsive phase of delivery), but the correlation with pain was found only in Burkinabe women. The S100B level in colostrums of Burkinabe mothers differs from that of Sicilians only in the first day of lactation, and in consideration that Burkinabe women produce more colostrums, their newborns receive, during the first days of life, an higher amount of S100B. The elevated quantity of S100B ingested by Burkinabe newborn in the first days of life could promote the physiological postnatal brain adaptation and maturation in the precarious delivery condition of African infants.
Musumeci, Maria; Betta, Pasqua; Magro, Emanuela; Isaia, Teresa; Simpore, Jacques; Romeo, Domenico MM; Musumeci, Salvatore
Over the past decade foodgrain production in India has increased more rapidly than the demand for foodgrains at prevailing prices. India has moved from a substantial foodgrain importing position 15 years ago to a position where substantial foodgrain stock...
R. E. Evenson
The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007
Cai-Xia Zhang; Suzanne C. Ho; Jian-Hua Fu; Shou-Zhen Cheng; Yu-Ming Chen; Fang-Yu Lin
Colostrum composition and management were sur- veyed via sample and data collection from 55 dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Colostrum samples were ana- lyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, ash, Ig, lacto- ferrin, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals. Mean percentages of fat, protein, and lactose in colos- trum were 6.7, 14.9, and 2.5, respectively. Concentra- tions of IgG1, IgG2,
S. I. Kehoe; B. M. Jayarao; A. J. Heinrichs
Background Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab) may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab')2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab')2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab')2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.
Ng, Wy Ching; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Brown, Lorena E.
A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given. PMID:3992566
den Hartog, L A
Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving interval (9%) and mature weight of cows (11%) in strategy A and B, respectively. The sums of the relative economic weights over categories for RFI were 6 and 7% in strategy A and B, respectively. Under production conditions in 2011, the relative economic weights for the studied feed efficiency traits were low. However, it is possible that the relative importance of feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal will increase in the future due to increasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. PMID:24342692
Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J
Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.
Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.
Colostrum corpuscles are not always found in so-called colostrum milk; when they are present, the percentage of proteids is higher; as they disappear, the proteid percentage drops. The color of colostrum milk is yellow; this color is especially marked in negroes' milk (observed in four cases not included in this report). The reaction of colostrum milk is alkaline. The specific gravity varies from 1024 to 1034. This variation is chiefly due to the variation in the amount of fat present. PMID:19866832
Background Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents). Conclusions We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.
Almon, Ricardo; Patterson, Emma; Nilsson, Torbjorn K.; Engfeldt, Peter; Sjostrom, Michael
Previous studies with heat-treated colostrum fed to neonatal calves have consistently used average-quality colostrum. Studies have not compared colostrum across a range of immunoglobulin levels. This study was conducted to investigate IgG absorption in neonatal dairy calves using colostrum of various qualities. Colostrum from the Pennsylvania State University dairy was collected over 2 yr and sorted into high, medium, and low quality based on colostrometer measurement. Colostrum within each category was pooled to create 3 unique, uniform batches. Half of each batch was frozen to be fed without heat treatment. The second half of each batch was heat treated at 60°C for 30min. This process was conducted in September 2011, and repeated in June 2012. Colostrum treatments were analyzed for standard plate count, coliforms, noncoliform gram-negative bacteria, and total IgG concentration. Plasma samples were collected from 145 calves 48h after birth and analyzed for IgG1, IgG2, total protein, and hematocrit. Colostrum quality (high, medium, or low), treatment (unheated or heat treated), and their interactions were analyzed as fixed effects, with year included as a random effect. Heat treatment significantly reduced all types of bacteria and IgG concentration. Plasma IgG concentration at 48h increased linearly with the concentration of IgG in the colostrum that was consumed. Heat treatment of colostrum increased plasma IgG concentration by 18.4% and apparent efficiency of absorption by 21.0%. Results of this study suggest that heat treatment of colostrum containing approximately 50 to 100mg IgG/mL increases absorption of IgG from colostrum. PMID:24508433
Gelsinger, S L; Gray, S M; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J
The two forms of interleukin-1, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta respectively, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) are polypeptides sharing different biological activities which are often associated with host defence mechanisms. Because of the well-recognized benefits of breast feeding for newborns, colostrum from 9 healthy lactating women was analysed for the presence of these 3 cytokines. Specific radioimmunoassay revealed that colostrum contains a significant amount of IL-1 beta (mean +/- SEM values of 1,130 +/- 259 pg/ml). The concentrations of IL-1 alpha and TNF were negligible. Colostral leukocytes are able to produce IL-1 since high activity was found after stimulation with Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, these cells produced IL-1 spontaneously in vitro, in contrast to resting maternal blood monocytes. As IL-1 increases resistance to infection, the presence of this cytokine represent a beneficial aspect of breast feeding. PMID:2284496
Munoz, C; Endres, S; van der Meer, J; Schlesinger, L; Arevalo, M; Dinarello, C
Breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed infants, possibly because of variations in the composition of the breast milk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between cytokine levels in the colostrum of nursing mothers and neonatal jaundice (NJ). Breast milk samples were collected from breast-feeding mothers of healthy full-term neonates, 32 with NJ and 29 without jaundice. The concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunometric assays. Mothers of infants with NJ had a higher concentration of IL-1beta in colostrum, compared with those feeding neonates without NJ, and similar trends were seen for IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and for TNF-alpha. The concentrations of IL-1beta significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha concentrations, but not with serum bilirubin levels of infants with NJ. In conclusion, the concentrations of IL-1beta were increased in colostrum from breast-feeding mothers whose infants had NJ. The correlation between the concentrations of cytokines involved in the function of hepatic uptake and excretory systems and in the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin provides additional data to the delineation of the cascade of pathophysiological events that can lead to NJ. PMID:17597660
Zanardo, Vincenzo; Golin, Rosanna; Amato, Maurizio; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Favaro, Flaviano; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario
Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate colostrum quality in Norwegian dairy cows based on IgG content, and to identify associations between possible risk factors and low colostral IgG. A longitudinal cross-sectional survey on calf health in Norway was performed between June 2004 and December 2006. The participating dairy herds were randomly selected among herds registered in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System as having at least 15 cow years. The participating farmers were requested to sample 10 mL of colostrum from the first milking after calving from 12 cows that had calved during the defined project period of 365 d. Colostrum samples from 1,250 cows from 119 herds were collected. The material consisted of 451, 337, 213, and 249 samples collected from cows in their first, second, third, and fourth parity or more, respectively. Analysis was performed on IgG content by using single radial immunodiffusion. Mixed models with herd as a cluster were fit by using grams of IgG per liter of colostrum as the dependent variable for the statistical analyses. The IgG content in the colostrum sampled ranged from 4 to 235 g/L, with a median of 45.0 g of IgG/L, with the 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles being 23.1, 31.4, 63.6, and 91.6 g of IgG/L, respectively. Altogether, 57.8% of the samples contained less than the desired 50 g of IgG/L of colostrum. Cows in their fourth parity or more were found to have significantly higher levels of IgG per liter of colostrum than cows in their first or second parity. Colostrum from cows in their second parity had the lowest level of IgG. Cows calving during the winter months (December, January, and February) produced colostrum with a significantly lower IgG content compared with cows calving in any other season of the year. Somatic cell count, measured after calving, was significantly higher in cows producing colostrum of inferior quality compared with those producing high-quality colostrum. Of the total variation in colostrum quality, 13.7% could be explained by cluster effects within herd. The variation in IgG content in colostrum produced by Norwegian dairy cows indicates a need for improved colostrum quality control and subsequent adjustment of the colostrum feeding regimen to ensure a protective immunological status for newborn calves. PMID:18218758
Gulliksen, S M; Lie, K I; Sølverød, L; Østerås, O
Oral administration of bovine colostrum affects intestinal immunity, including an increased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells. However, effects on NK cell cytotoxic activity and resistance to infection as well as a potential mechanism remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bovine colostrum (La Belle, Inc, Bellingham, WA) on the NK cytotoxic response to influenza infection and on toll-like receptor (TLR) activity in a primary intestinal epithelial cell culture. We hypothesized that colostrum would increase NK cell activity and that TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking would reduce interleukin 6 production by epithelial cells in response to contact stimulation with colostrum. Four-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 1 g of colostrum per kilogram of body weight before and after infection with influenza A virus (H1N1). Animals were assessed for weight loss, splenic NK cell activity, and lung virus titers. Colostrum-supplemented mice demonstrated less reduction in body weight after influenza infection, indicating a less severe infection, increased NK cell cytotoxicity, and less virus burden in the lungs compared with controls. Colostrum supplementation enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity and improved the immune response to primary influenza virus infection in mice. To investigate a potential mechanism, a primary culture of small intestine epithelial cells was then stimulated with colostrum. Direct activation of epithelial cells resulted in increased interleukin 6 production, which was inhibited with TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking antibodies. The interaction between colostrum and immunity may be dependent, in part, on the interaction of colostrum components with innate receptors at the intestinal epithelium, including TLR-2 and TLR-4. PMID:24774068
Wong, Eric B; Mallet, Jean-François; Duarte, Jairo; Matar, Chantal; Ritz, Barry W
Colostrum is the first natural food produced by female mammals during the first 24–36h directly after giving birth. Chemically, colostrum is a very complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. In cows the antibodies provide passive immunity to the new born calf, whereas the growth factors especially stimulate the growth of the gut. The other antimicrobial components of
R. Pakkanen; J. Aalto
Colostrum and serum antibodies to Salmonella typhimurium have been found in three patients after clinical gastrointestinal infection during pregnancy. High levels of colostrum IgA agglutinins were directed specifically against both the flagellar and somatic antigens of the infective organism. The levels of colostrum agglutinating activity exceeded those found in the patients sera, while control colostrum gave negative results.
R. A. Allardyce; D. J. C. Shearman; D. B. L. McClelland; K. Marwick; A. J. Simpson; R. B. Laidlaw
Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.
van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donne; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.
Background: Consumption of wholegrain (WG) products may protect against colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations between total and individual WG product consumption and colon and rectal cancer risk were prospectively examined using data on 461 incident cases of colon cancer and 283 incident cases of rectal cancer that developed during 10.6 years (median) of follow-up among 26?630 men and 29?189 women taking part in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer related to total or individual WG product intake were calculated using Cox regression. Results: Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77–0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80–1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50?g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined to intake of WG bread in particular. No consistent associations between total or individual WG product consumption and colon or rectal cancer risk were observed in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that higher total WG product intake is associated with a lower risk of colon and perhaps rectal cancer in men, but not in women.
Egeberg, R; Olsen, A; Loft, S; Christensen, J; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Tj?nneland, A
The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)0.75 per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW0·75 per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.
Ning, D.; Guo, Y. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.
The effect of dietary therapy with a human Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103), bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum with specific antibodies against anaerobic intestinal\\u000a bacteria on gut defence mechanisms were studied in juvenile chronic arthritis. Thirty patients with juvenile chronic arthritis\\u000a were randomly allocated to receive a freeze-dried powder of Lactobacillus GG, or bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum,
M. Malin; P. Verronen; H. Korhonen; E.-L. Syväoja; S. Salminen; H. Mykkänen; H. Arvilommi; E. Eerola; E. Isolauri
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of serum-derived immunoglobin (Ig) source and the effect of colostrum supplementation with serum- derived Ig on the attainment of passive immunity in newborn colostrum-deprived calves. In experiment 1, colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves were fed pooled colostrum (PC, n = 9), spray-dried bovine serum (BS, n = 11), or spray- dried porcine serum
J. D. Arthington; M. B. Cattell; J. D. Quigley III; G. C. McCoy; W. L. Hurley
In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in, thirty men and seventeen women (22 (SD 4) years) received three high-protein diets (aimed at approximately 18% of energy (en%)) in random order for 1 week each, with approximately 14 en% originating from either meat, dairy products or grain. We used a two-step approach to identify biomarkers in urine and plasma. With principal component discriminant analysis, we identified amino acids (AA) from the plasma or urinary AA profile that were distinctive between diets. Subsequently, after pooling total study data, we applied mixed models to estimate the predictive value of those AA for intake of protein types. A very good prediction could be made for the intake of meat protein by a regression model that included urinary carnosine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine (98% of variation in intake explained). Furthermore, for dietary grain protein, a model that included seven AA (plasma lysine, valine, threonine, ?-aminobutyric acid, proline, ornithine and arginine) made a good prediction (75% of variation explained). We could not identify biomarkers for dairy protein intake. In conclusion, specific combinations of urinary and plasma AA may be potentially useful biomarkers for meat and grain protein intake, respectively. These findings need to be cross-validated in other dietary intervention studies. PMID:23452466
Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Brink, Elizabeth J; Boetje, Martine; Siebelink, Els; Bijlsma, Sabina; Engberink, Marielle F; van 't Veer, Pieter; Tomé, Daniel; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Baak, Marleen A; Geleijnse, Johanna M
RABBIT serum beta2-macroglobulin and its relation to gamma-globulin have been previously described1. This communication describes the demonstration and characterization of a third immune globulin, found in rabbit colostrum.
... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems Â§ 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...
Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 ± 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr × time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood ?-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099
Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M
Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows. PMID:20965343
DeGroot, M A; Block, E; French, P D
The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0?±?53.9?pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum. PMID:24450292
Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo
Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.
We previously described the effects of intake of dairy products on plasmid dissemination in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human faecal flora (HFF) and found that yoghurt, heat-treated yoghurt (HTY) and milk reduced population levels of transconjugants compared with findings in mice fed a standard mouse diet. In the case of lactose intake, transconjugants were not detected. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible interrelationships between these observations and other variables (bacterial ecology, pH, moisture, enzyme activities, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents, lactic acid contents). Much of the interest of the present comparison lies in the fact that the animals were homogeneous in terms of age, gender, food and intestinal microflora, owing to the gnotobiotic mouse model maintained in sterile isolators. We observed no variation in SCFA and lactic acid contents or in the population levels of strictly anaerobic strains of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium, and of the facultative anaerobic recipient Escherichia coli PG1 strain. The main modifications were the reduction of population levels of transconjugants in mice receiving yoghurt, HTY and milk, and concomitantly an increase of beta-galactosidase and a decrease of beta-glucosidase activities, compared with control mice fed a standard diet. Total inhibition of plasmid transfer was observed in HFF mice consuming lactose, and concomitantly the two enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase) were increased, compared with the findings in control mice fed a standard diet. In axenic mice consuming lactose, plasmid transfer occurred, beta-galactosidase was not detected and beta-glucosidase was decreased. It is therefore proposed that these two enzyme activities influence plasmid transfer and persistence of transconjugants in the digestive tract of HFF associated mice. When both activities were increased there was a total inhibition of plasmid transfer (case of lactose intake). When beta-galactosidase increased and beta-glucosidase decreased (case of yoghurt, HTY and milk), plasmid transfer occurred at a lower efficiency than in the control group, resulting in lower population levels of transconjugants. PMID:11895164
Maisonneuve, Sylvie; Ouriet, Marie-France; Duval-Iflah, Yvonne
Colostrum (COL) contains cytokines and growth factors that may enhance intestinal development in neonates. The hypothesis of this study was that besides providing immunoglobulins, COL is important for intestinal function and meconium release in foals. Newborn foals were either fed COL (n = 5) or an equal amount of milk replacer (MR, n = 7) during the first 24 hours of life. To ensure passive immunity, all foals received 1 L plasma. Postnatal development, meconium release, intestinal motility, white blood cell count, insulin-like growth factor 1, and intestinal absorptive function (xylose absorption test) were evaluated. Clinical findings and meconium release were not affected by feeding of COL or MR. Ultrasonography revealed a slightly larger jejunum and stomach in group COL versus MR (P < 0.05). The percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was higher in foals of group MR versus group COL (P < 0.05) and the percentage of lymphocytes was lower in MR compared with COL foals (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 concentration increased during the first 14 days after birth in both groups. A xylose absorption test on Day 5 revealed similar increases in plasma xylose concentrations after oral intake. In conclusion, feeding of COL versus MR was without effect on meconium release and intestinal absorptive function. Differences between foals fed COL and MR with regard to intestinal function are apparently without clinical relevance. In foals that have not received maternal COL, there is no major risk of intestinal problems if they are fed MR and provided with immunoglobulins by transfusion of plasma. PMID:24054551
Palm, F; Nagel, C; Bruckmaier, R M; Aurich, J E; Aurich, C
Transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) is the major TGF-? form in bovine colostrum. A colostrum pool of the five first milkings was made to validate an ELISA specific for human TGF-?2 for measure TGF-?2 concentration in bovine colostrum samples. According to this test >90% of total TGF-?2 (74.5±4.4 ng\\/ml) in colostrum pool was in a latent form that could be activated
Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. PMID:23890355
Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Healthy adult volunteers (no. = 208), men and women aged 30 to 65 years, participated in a 12-week study on dietary fat modification plus oat product ingestion (60 gm/day) to test whether moderate daily intake of oat bran and oatmeal enhanced serum lipid response. During weeks 0 to 6, all participants followed the American Heart Association fat-modified eating style. At 6 weeks, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All participants continued to follow the fat-modified eating pattern; groups 1 and 2 were asked during weeks 7 to 12 to consume two servings of either oat bran or oatmeal per day, for a total of 60 gm/day isocalorically substituted for other carbohydrates. Group 3 ingested no oat products. At baseline, the group mean cholesterol level was 208.4 mg/dl. After 6 weeks of dietary fat intervention, the level was 197.6--a fall of 10.8 mg/dl (5.2%). At 12 weeks, the mean serum cholesterol level fell further, by 5.6, 6.5, and 1.2 mg/dl for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Group mean weight loss was small--1.9 lb during the first 6 weeks and 0.6 to 0.8 for the three groups during weeks 7 to 12. Reported oat product ingestion was 39 and 35 gm per person per day, respectively, for groups 1 and 2 (2.2 and 1.4 servings per person per day, respectively). Dietary fat composition remained similar among the three groups during weeks 7 to 12. Pooled results indicated that the addition of oat products at a moderate and practical level enhanced serum lipid response (p less than .05) to a fat-modified eating pattern among free-living adults. PMID:3011876
Van Horn, L V; Liu, K; Parker, D; Emidy, L; Liao, Y L; Pan, W H; Giumetti, D; Hewitt, J; Stamler, J
After immunizing 8-month pregnant Holstein cows with human rotavirus, Wa strain, cow colostrum containing neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus, designated as Rota colostrum, was obtained. After randomly grouping 13 infants from a single orphanage, 6 infants received 20 ml of Rota colostrum every morning and 7 control infants received 20 ml of market milk. One month later, rotavirus associated diarrhea
T. Ebina; A. Sato; K. Umezu; N. Ishida; S. Ohyama; A. Oizumi; K. Aikawa; S. Katagiri; N. Katsushima; A. Imai; S. Kitaoka; H. Suzuki; T. Konno
The objectives of this study were to identify control points for bacterial contamination of bovine colostrum during the harvesting and feeding processes, and to describe the effects of refrigeration and use of pot- assium sorbate preservative on bacteria counts in stored fresh colostrum. For objective 1, first-milking colostrum samples were collected aseptically directly from the mammary glands of 39 cows,
S. Stewart; S. Godden; R. Bey; P. Rapnicki; J. Fetrow; R. Farnsworth; M. Scanlon; Y. Arnold; L. Clow; K. Mueller
Colostrum is the specialized milk produced for the first few days following parturition. It is much richer in immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides and growth factors than the subsequent mature milk. In this article, some of these constituents of human and bovine colostrum in comparison with mature milk are reviewed. Marked species differences exist in the constituents of both colostrum and mature
R. J. Playford
The importance of colostrum to the new-born animal long has been recognized. Ehrlich (2) found that colostrum, from mice immunized against the toxic pro- teins ricin and albin, transmitted specific antibodies that were absorbed by the nursing young. Sato et al. (17) found, in all normal parturitions, that bovine colostrum always contained agglutinins. Howe (6) showed that the blood serum
T. CONVERSE; H. G. WISEMAN; L. A. MOORE
Automated, rapid, sensitive, and label-free biosensor-based immunoassays for immunoglobulin G (IgG), folate binding protein, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase in bovine milk using surface plasmon resonance optical detection with direct binding assay format are described. Samples are prepared for analysis by direct dilution into buffer. Analysis conditions, including ligand immobilization, flow rate, contact time, and regeneration are defined and nonspecific binding considerations evaluated. The technique has been applied to the measurement of these proteins in consumer milks, colostrum, milk products, and infant formulas, and their temporal change during early bovine lactation followed. PMID:16792092
Indyk, Harvey E; Filonzi, Enrico L; Gapper, Leyton W
Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.
Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung
Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of quality, quantity, and timing of colostrum feeding and the administration of a dried colostrum supplement on serum Ig in Holstein bull calves. In Experiment 1, calves were fed colostrum that had low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig; 23.9 mg of IgG1\\/ml) as follows: group 1-1 (n = 6), 2 L at birth
D. E. Morin; G. C. McCoy; W. L. Hurley
Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia.
Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.
About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas. PMID:19382147
Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Burló, Francisco; Sengupta, Bhaskar
Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The four diets used prepartum were Control (DCAD +20 meq\\/100 g DM), BioChlor® (DCAD -12 meq\\/100 g DM), Fermenten® (DCAD -10 meq\\/100
M. A. DeGroot; P. D. French
In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of in- creasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, diges- tion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoreti- cal chop length
E. C. Schwab; R. D. Shaver; K. J. Shinners; J. G. Lauer; J. G. Coors
Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults.
Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung
Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feed·d(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feed·d(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (<17 mm, n = 15), moderate (17 to 23 mm, n = 21), fat (>23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheffé post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p < 0.001) but a lower concentration of protein (p = 0.040) in colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p < 0.001, C4: p = 0.016) reserves but had a greater ratio urea:NEFA (p < 0.001) and less ketone bodies (3-OH-C4: p < 0.001) compared with the L group. This indicates a more balanced entry of metabolites in the citric acid cycle and thus a better support of the maternal peripartal metabolism in the H group. Serum parameters did not differ between BC groups. Both CY and composition can be influenced by the peripartal feeding strategy and BC. The highest CY and most beneficial colostrum composition were obtained when sows entered the farrowing unit in a moderate BC and were provided a high peripartal feeding strategy. PMID:24981570
Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J
On account of the oxidative stress conditions that may appear during parturition, colostrum should provide with not only nutritional and immunological components but also antioxidative protection of newborn. There is evidence that apart from well-known antioxidative enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase or low molecular antioxidants, proteins like lactoperoxidase (LPO), lactoferrin (LF) and ceruloplasmin (CP) may exert antioxidative properties in colostrum. The aim of present study was to determine and to evaluate LPO, LF and CP activities in colostrum and milk of sows and cows. Samples were collected from 16 healthy cows five times: immediately after parturition, 12, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days postpartum as well as from 14 healthy sows five times: immediately after parturition, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h later. Examined parameters were determined spectrophotometrically at 412, 560 and 540 nm respectively. LPO activity was higher in sows as in cows and increased significantly within examined time. LF ability to inhibit superoxide radical generation was higher in sows as in cows and increased significantly within examined time. CP oxidase activity was higher in cows as in sows and decreased significantly during experimental period. In conclusion, antioxidative defence system in colostrum shows dynamic changes that allow for providing with necessary protection from oxidative stress conditions, which may appear after parturition. PMID:19642220
Albera, E; Kankofer, M
Mammalian milk or colostrum usually contains, in addition to lactose, a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides. Although the oligosaccharides of human milk have been reviewed in several recent publications, those of non-human mammals have received much less attention. This paper reviews the chemical structures and the variety of milk oligosaccharides in species other than humans, including placental mammals (e.g.
Tadasu Urashima; Tadao Saito; Tadashi Nakamura; Michael Messer
Lactobin-R is a commercial hyperimmune bovine colostrum with potent anticryptosporidial activity. It was administered to a 4 year old child with AIDS and severe diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis. There was significant clinical improvement in the diarrhoea and permanent elimination of the parasite from the gut as assessed through serial jejunal biopsy and stool specimens.
J Shield; C Melville; V Novelli; G Anderson; I Scheimberg; D Gibb; P Milla
This study investigated the effect of supplementation with chicken extract on plasma and colostrum protein compositions in lactating women. Thirty healthy pregnant women were evenly divided into the control (n = 15) or chicken extract (CE) group (n = 15). The CE group was given one bottle (70 mL\\/bottle) of chicken extract three times a day to provide 18 g
Jane C.-J. Chao; Hsu-Ping Tseng; Ching Wen Chang; Yi-Yi Chien; Heng Kien Au; Jiun-Rong Chen; Chin-Fa Chen
The elucidation of the role of colostrum in the nutrition of the dairy calf suggested a study of the tocopherol concentration in this secretion. Such an investigation has received little attention. Mason (4) and Mason and Bryan (5) investigated this problem in rats by means of bioassays. The)\\
D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes
Considerable information on specific gravity and on concentrations of total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash of colostrum has been accumulated. From the early studies, many of which are referred to by Houdini~re (7), Overman and Sanmann (8) and Weber (18), there emerged a general picture of the gross composition of colostrum and a recognition of its variability. Within the
D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes; F. W. Atkeson
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532
Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910
Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin
Colostrum was collected from the first postpartum milking of German Black Pied cows. Four independent pools of colostrum were made and the following preservation methods replicated in each pool, viz. formaldehyde treatment, 0.1% (F1) and 0.05% (F2); formic acid treatment, 0.5% (FA1) and 0.1% (FA2) and an untreated control (NF). All the colostrum batches were stored at an average incubation
E. W. Mbuthia; F. Klobasa; C. K. Gachuiri; A. Abate
Fractions of bovine colostrum were prepared and their ability to support the growth of mouse-mouse hybridomas in culture was tested. Whey was prepared from defatted colostrum by removal of casein using acid precipitation. An ultrafiltrate was obtained from cleared whey by filtration through membranes with a nominal molecular mass cut-off of 100 000 Da. Colostrum ultrafiltrate contained 1.16 g\\/l protein,
Raimo Pakkanen; Ari Kanttinen; Lea Satama; Jouni Aalto
Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and
Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin
Because triacylglycerol (TAG) structure influences the metabolic fate of its component fatty acids, we have examined human\\u000a colostrum and mature milk TAG with particular attention to the location of the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid\\u000a on the glycerol backbone. The analysis was based on the formation of various diacylglycerol species from human milk TAG upon\\u000a chemical (Grignard degradation) or
Jean-Charles Martin; Philippe Bougnoux; Jean-Michel Antoine; Monique Lanson; Charles Couet
The efficiency of colostral protein digestion was studied in nine newborn lambs fed one meal of bovine colostrum 3 h after birth. The results were compared with those obtained in two unfed lambs and four lambs fed bovine milk. The protein and peptide composition (immunoglobulins Gl (IgGl), \\/S-lac- toglobulin, a-lactalbumin, caseins and peptides resulting from casein hydrolysis) of digesta, gastrointestinal
The sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tracer method was used to measure methane (CH(4)) production of crossbred (3/4 Holstein x Zebu) dairy heifers fed two types of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.; cultivar IAC-862480 (CC1) or cultivar IAC-873184 (CC2)) and supplemented with urea or concentrate. The study was performed at Embrapa Southeast Cattle, São Carlos, SP, Brazil, using a completely randomised design. Differences between treatments were significant for digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. When animals were supplemented with urea differences between sugarcane cultivars did occur for NDF consumption, but not for daily methane production. This suggest that variation in chemical composition of sugarcane did not affect bovine ruminal CH(4) emissions. Concentrate inclusion in animal diet increased digestible organic matter intake, improving the nutrient intake by animals, but did not reduce CH(4) production expressed as a percentage of gross energy intake. PMID:22476735
Pedreira, Márcio dos Santos; Berchelli, Telma Teresinha; Primavesi, Odo; de Oliveira, Simone Gisele; Frighetto, Rosa; de Lima, Magda Aparecida
The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences. The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with commercial immunoluminometric assay.
Maria Musumeci; Pasqua Betta; Emanuela Magro; Teresa Isaia; Jacques Simpore; Domenico MM Romeo; Salvatore Musumeci
The provision of quality colostrum with a high concentration of immunoglobulins is critical for newborn calf health. Because first colostrum may be low in overall concentration to effectively reduce the risk of newborn infections, we tested equivalent milking fractions of colostrum for possible IgG differences. The objective of this study was to determine if the fractional composition of colostrum changes during the course of milking with a focus on immunoglobulins. Twenty-four Holstein and Simmental cows were milked (first colostrum) within 4h after calving. The colostrum of 1 gland per animal was assembled into 4 percentage fractions over the course of milking: 0 to 25%, 25 to 50%, 50 to 75%, and 75 to 100%. The IgG concentration among the various fractions did not change in any significant pattern. Concentration of protein, casein, lactose and somatic cell count remained the same or exhibited only minor changes during the course of fractional milking colostrum. We determined that no benefit exists in feeding any particular fraction of colostrum to the newborn. PMID:23810595
Vetter, A; Argüello, A; Baumrucker, C; Bruckmaier, R M
The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper was to determine the relationship of the prepartnm diet to the carotene and vitamin A content of bovine colostrum. The literature revealed scanty information concerning the effect of the feed of the dry cow upon the carotene a~ld vitamin A content of colostrum. Kramer et al. (5) reported values of 25
A. A. Spielman; J. W. Thomas; J. K. Loosli; F. Whiting; C. L. Norton; K. L. Turk
Fresh bovine colostrum from second and third milkings postpartum was inoculated with either a yogurt culture or Streptococcus lactis or preserved with • 1% formalin in two separate experiments. There was a rapid decrease in pH of the fermented samples which corresponded to decreased lactose concentrations and increased lactate and titratable acidity. Titratable acidity in the fermented colostrums increased further
R. S. Bush; R. E. McQueen; J. W. G. Nicholson
Bovine colostrum contains a variety of essential nutrients, antibodies, cytokines, hormones, and growth factors that are important for nutrient supply, host defense, growth and for general neonatal adaptation. We have investigated the effect of bovine colostrum on the phagocytic activity for latex particles by normal peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes using flow cytometric analysis. The phagocytosis promoting effect was observed in
H. Sugisawa; T. Itou; T. Sakai
Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates in colostrumandmilkareregardedtobeimportantbiolog- ical components with respect to be source of brain gan- gliosides in infant and to be antiinfectional components for the attack by the pathogenic bacteria and virus. Severalacidicoligosaccharideshavebeencharacterised inbothbovineandhumanmilkorcolostrum.Thesialyl- oligosaccharide content of human colostrum and milk has been extensivelystudied, whereas that ofcows milk andcolostrumhasreceivedless attention.Inthisstudy, the concentrations of three sialyloligosaccharides of bo- vine colostrum and
T. Nakamura; H. Kawase; K. Kimura; Y. Watanabe; M. Ohtani; I. Arai; T. Urashima
Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were vaccinated at 2 and 4 wk of age with a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 culture supernatant vaccine to determine whether active immune responses and protection could be induced in this age group in the absence of maternal antibodies. All calves responded to vaccination with high titers of IgM antibodies to capsular polysaccharide within 1 wk of primary vaccination. Mean titers of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to this antigen increased significantly by 2 wk after secondary vaccination, but peak antibody titers were low. All of the vaccinated calves seroconverted with production of leukotoxin-neutralizing antibodies, but peak antibody titers were low. Vaccinated calves experienced considerable lung damage after experimental challenge, but survival rate, clinical scores, and percent lung involvement were significantly better than those of control (placebo-injected) calves.
Hodgins, D C; Shewen, P E
Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450
Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji
Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063
Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H
The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt. PMID:12628036
Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel
Selection applied to populations of dairy cattle has produced a genetic increase in milk production. This will be increased further in the Netherlands by the introduction of Holstein Friesians. In general the high yielding cow is not capable of taking in enough nutrients to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. However the knowledge of the variation in feed
Bovine lactoferrin was separated into lactoferrin-a and lactoferrin-b from bovine colostrum. Lactoferrin-a was eluted at 0.38 M NaCl and lactoferrin-b was eluted at 0.43 M NaCl by carboxymethyl cation-exchange chro- matography at pH 7.7, 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The molecular weights were estimated at 84,000 for lacto- ferrin-a and 80,000 for lactoferrin-b. Lactoferrin-a con- tents were 258.0 mg\\/L and lactoferrin-b
S. Yoshida; Z. Wei; Y. Shinmura; N. Fukunaga
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three weeks of daily colostrum cream on vaginal cytology and local symptoms related to menopause. Genito-urinary symptoms and cell morphology were analyzed at time 0 (T0) and after three weeks (16 +/- days since the end of treatment) at time 1 (T1). Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and maturation index (MI) reached a statistically significant difference between T0 and T1. The results proved to be an alternative treatment for vaginal distress caused by lack of hormones in patients in which hormonal treatment is contraindicated. PMID:23971242
Tucci, S; Mancini, R; De Vitis, C; Noto, A; Marra, E; Lukic, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Moscarini, M
This paper specifies the animal biology module of a model for simulating grazing systems for ruminants on pasture. The program predicts the intake of energy and protein, allowing for selective grazing and substitution by supplementary feeds, and estimates the use of the diet for maintenance and production, according to current feeding standards. Conception and death rates are predicted from the
M. Freer; A. D. Moore; J. R. Donnelly
Summary In rabbits kept under 12: 12 h light conditions, caecal contractions were recorded by implanted strain gauges or induction coils. In animals fed ad libitum caecal contraction frequency varied cyclically in phase with the circadian rhythm of feed intake. Both had their minimum during the time of soft faeces production. Thus all 3 functions seem to depend on the
H. Hörnicke; G. Ruoff; Barbara Vogt; W. Clauss; H.-J. Ehrlein
Background/Objectives Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, diabetes, and kidney disease. The objective was to describe dietary intake, the dominant source of exposure to AGEs, with carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major AGE, in serum and urine, respectively. Subjects/Methods Serum and urinary CML were measured in 261 adults, aged 21–69 years, and compared with diet as assessed by six separate 24-hour dietary recalls. Results Median (25th, 75th percentile) serum and urinary CML concentrations were 686 (598, 803 ?g/L) and 1023 (812, 1238) ?g/gm creatinine. There was no correlation between serum and urinary CML (r = ?0.02, P = 0.78). Serum CML was positively correlated with intake of soy, fruit juice, cold breakfast cereal, non-fat milk, whole grains, fruit, non-starchy vegetables, and legumes, and negatively correlated with intake of red meat. Intake of fast food was not significantly correlated with serum CML. Urinary CML was positively correlated with intake of starchy vegetables, whole grains, sweets, nuts/seeds, and chicken, and negatively correlated with intake of fast foods. Intake of AGE-rich foods such as fried chicken, French fries, bacon/sausage, and crispy snacks were not significantly correlated with serum or urinary CML, except for a significant negative correlation between fried chicken and serum CML. Conclusions These findings suggest that the high consumption of foods considered high in CML is not a major determinant of either serum or urinary CML. Further work is needed to understand the relationship of AGEs in blood and urine with the metabolism of dietary AGEs.
Semba, Richard D; Ang, Alfonso; Talegawkar, Sameera; Crasto, Candace; Dalal, Mansi; Jardack, Patricia; Traber, Maret G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Arab, Lenore
This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g of milk fatty acids) and conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (0.36, 1.09, 1.79, and 1.87 g/100g of milk fatty acids). Addition of DHA did not affect total emissions of CH4 (543, 563, 553, and 520 g/cow per d), nor emissions in terms of milk production (24.9, 22.1, 24.3, and 23.4 g of CH4/kg of milk), but emissions were increased with respect to total intake (22.6, 23.5, 24.5, and 24.4 g of CH4/kg of DM). These findings indicate that CH4 emissions were not reduced when dairy cows were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DHA from algal meal. PMID:23498011
Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J
The aim of the study was to compare antioxidative/oxidative profile in blood, colostrum and milk of early post-partum cows during their first and second lactation. A total of 19 healthy, primiparous cows were included in experiment and samples were collected during 2 years from the same animals immediately after parturition, 24, 48?h as well as 6 and 12?days later. All parameters including the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the content of vitamin A, C as well as the contents of products of lipid and protein peroxidation were determined by the use of spectrophotometric methods. Comparing the profile within lactation, TAC and GSH-Px activity in blood showed decreasing trends, while parameters of lipid and protein peroxidation fluctuated. All examined parameters in colostrum and milk except from intermediates of lipid peroxidation exhibited increasing trends. These results which showed dynamic changes of antioxidative/oxidative profile not only in blood but also in colostrum/milk within examined period of time suggested appropriate answer of organism to current challenge. Moreover, not uniform but detectable changes between first and second lactation suggested that two consecutive lactations are not the same. Comparing first and second lactation, TAC and parameters of lipid and protein peroxidation in blood showed increasing tendency in second as first lactation while GSH-Px activity was opposite. The content of antioxidative vitamins and SH groups in colostrum/milk showed increasing tendency in second as first lactation, while TAC and content of end products of lipid peroxidation showed opposite trend, and GSH-Px together with intermediates of lipid peroxidation remained stable. Molecular and biochemical background for it require further elucidation. PMID:20210886
Albera, E; Kankofer, M
In colostrum collected 0–80h postpartum the contents of immunoglobulins (Igs), transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-?2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) were analysed. Colostrum initially contained 90mgmL?1 IgG1, 2.8mgmL?1 IgG2, 1.6mgmL?1 IgA, 4.5mgmL?1 IgM, and these concentrations declined by 92%, 87%, 93% and 84%, respectively, in the samples collected later. Of the growth factors, colostrum initially contained 289–310ngmL?1
Lidia Elfstrand; Helena Lindmark-Månsson; Marie Paulsson; Lena Nyberg; Björn Åkesson
The effect of different levels of diet protein on adult Bufo arenarum liver arginase activity and protein content, plasma urea and urinary profile of nitrogen waste products was estimated. Animals kept under environmental constant conditions were submitted to a nutritional standardization period being fed beef meat daily during four days. Then animals were distributed in three groups: Group 0 (control), that was sampled at the end of the standardization period; Group 1, that was starved for 18 days and Group 2, that was fed daily for 18 days and then sampled. With respect to controls, liver arginase specific activity was significantly lower in starving toads (Group 1); liver protein content was elevated in fasted animals (Group 1) and plasma urea concentration increased in the intensive feeding group (Group 2). Urinary nitrogen end products in animals from both control and experimental groups showed no changes either in their absolute values or in their partition percentage rates. PMID:2113971
Castañé, P M; Rovedatti, M G; Salibián, A
Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89?ng?g whole weight
Biljana Škrbi?; Nataša ?uriši?-Mladenovi?
The objective was to determine the effects on milk production and DM1 of 2.3 kg\\/d of corn silage DM fed to lactat- ing cows grazing grass pasture and fed supplemental grain. Thirty Holstein cows, averaging 32 kg of milk at the start of the trial, intensively grazed grass pasture for 8 wk. One-half of the cows received 2.3 kg\\/d of
L. A. Holden; L. D. Muller; T. Lykos; T. W. Cassidy
Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products,\\u000a and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by\\u000a capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng\\/g whole weight (ww) was\\u000a found for ?-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs
B. Škrbi?; Z. Predojevi?
Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032
Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M
High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures.
Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tj?nneland, Anne; F?ns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Par; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J
OBJECTIVES:We investigated whether supplementation with 60 g\\/d of bovine colostrum affects blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to doping testing. Nine endurance-trained men ingested 60 g\\/d of bovine colostrum for 4 wk.METHODS:Blood and urine were sampled before starting supplementation. After 4 wk urine and blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and
Harm Kuipers; E van Breda; G Verlaan; R Smeets
Th1 stimulus for Th2-skewed immune response during infancy is important for reduction of incidence of allergic diseases. We examined effects of oral administration of bovine colostrum on local immunity in intestine in adult mice. C57BL\\/6 mice were orally given bovine colostrum or control milk for 1, 3 or 6 months and intestinal microflora, fecal IgA, and lymphocyte population of gut-associated
Yasuko Yoshioka; Satsuki Kudo; Hitoshi Nishimura; Toshiki Yajima; Kenji Kishihara; Kimika Saito; Tatsuo Suzuki; Yumiko Suzuki; Shinsuke Kuroiwa; Yasunobu Yoshikai
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies against ovine lentivirus (OLV) in serum, colostrum, and milk from naturally infected sheep. The assay used OLV recombinant transmembrane envelope protein (rTM) as a test antigen. Matched serum\\/colostrum and serum\\/milk samples were collected at 24h, 4weeks (mid-lactation), and 8 weeks (weaning) post-lambing. Among 129 paired samples collected at 24 h
Jim Keen; Jimmy Kwang; E. Travis Littledike; Laura L. Hungerford
Background In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12 h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. Results No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route.
Colostrum provides essential nutrients and immunologically active factors that are beneficial to newborns. Our previous work demonstrated that milk contains large amounts of miRNA that is largely stored in milk-derived microvesicles (MVs). In the present study, we found that the MVs from colostrum contain significantly higher levels of several immune-related miRNAs. We hypothesized that the colostrum MVs may transfer the immune-related miRNAs into cells, which contribute to its immune modulatory feature. We isolated colostrum MVs by ultracentrifugation and demonstrated several immune modulation features associated with miRNAs. We also provide evidence that the physical structure of milk-derived MVs is essential for transfer miRNAs and following immune modulation effect. Moreover, we found that colostrum powder-derived MVs also contains higher levels of immune-related miRNAs that display similar immune modulation effects. Taken together, these results show that MV-containing immunerelated miRNAs may be a novel mechanism by which colostrum modulates body immune response. PMID:23483481
Sun, Qi; Chen, Xi; Yu, Jianxiong; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Li, Liang
Bovine colostrum is a rich source of tissue repair and growth factors, and inhibits gastrointestinal injury induced by the side effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as indomethacin. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic effects, but in higher doses they have inflammatory effects. The pathogenesis of small intestinal damage caused by NSAID is unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the antiinflammatory effects of skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum on intestinal injury induced by side effects of NSAID, and then to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum for intestinal tissue. In Japan, the sale of bovine colostrum within 5 d after parturition is prohibited by law. Therefore, we focused on bovine late colostrum obtained from healthy lactating cows 6 to 7 d after parturition. Proliferation of small intestine epithelial cells was stimulated in mice fed the colostrum for 1 wk. With regard to indomethacin-induced enteropathy, both prefeeding and postfeeding with colostrum facilitated growth of the intestinal villi, indicating preventive and healing effects. Furthermore, to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum responsible for this effect, the casein and whey fractions were prepared from the colostrum and fed to normal mice. Only the colostrum casein fraction stimulated intestinal villus elongation, whereas the whey fraction and mature milk casein showed no such effect. Taken together, these observations indicate that the skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum, especially the casein fraction, could be used to treat the injurious effects of NSAID in the intestine and could be effective for treatment of other ulcerative conditions in the bowel, suggesting that the colostrum has therapeutic potential for intestinal inflammation. PMID:23295115
Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, M; Muranishi, H; Inagaki, M; Uchida, K; Yamashita, K; Saito, S; Yabe, T; Kanamaru, Y
In two repeated 3×3 Latin Square design trials, dairy cows have been fed bi-crop pea-oat silage to investigate the effect of maturity stage and harvest strategy on feed intake and milk production. In experiment 1 the crop was harvested when the peas were at the flat pod (cut 1) or full pod (cut 2) stage. At the first cut half
T. Rondahl; J. Bertilsson; E. Lindgren; K. Martinsson
The effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea (Desvaux) O. Kuntze to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition was studied in the dry tropics in Nicaragua. The treatments were sorghum silage ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Cratylia on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos indicus cows of the Creole Reyna breed, with a mean body weight of 386 (SD 19) kg were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Supplementation with Cratylia increased (p < 0.05) DM intake from 6.6 to 7.8 and 8.7 kg DM/day and milk production from 3.9 to 5.1 and 5.7 kg/day for sorghum silage alone and supplementation with 2 kg and 3 kg DM of Cratylia, respectively. Milk fat, total solids and crude protein and organoleptic characteristics (smell, taste and colour) were not significantly different among diets. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were not affected significantly by supplementation with Cratylia. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility increased (p < 0.05) in the diets supplemented with Cratylia compared to sorghum silage alone. In conclusion Cratylia given as a protein supplement to a low-quality diet improved DM intake and CP digestibility of the diet and increased milk production, but did not affect milk composition. PMID:17137136
Sánchez, N R; Ledin, I
Transfer of sufficient immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the neonatal calf via colostrum is vital to provide the calf with immunological protection and resistance against disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the factors associated with both colostral IgG concentration and colostral weight in Irish dairy cows. Fresh colostrum samples were collected from 704 dairy cows of varying breed and parity from four Irish research farms between January and December 2011; colostral weight was recorded and the IgG concentration was determined using an ELISA method. The mean IgG concentration in the colostrum was 112 g/l (s.d. = 51 g/l) and ranged from 13 to 256 g/l. In total, 96% of the samples in this study contained >50 g/l IgG, which is considered to be indicative of high-quality colostrum. Mean colostral weight was 6.7 kg (s.d. = 3.6 kg) with a range of 0.1 to 24 kg. Factors associated with both colostral IgG concentration and colostral weight were determined using a fixed effects multiple regression model. Parity, time interval from calving to next milking, month of calving, colostral weight and herd were all independently associated with IgG concentration. IgG concentration decreased (P < 0.01) by 1.7 (s.e. = 0.6) g/l per kg increase in the colostral weight. Older parity cows, cows that had a shorter time interval from calving to milking, and cows that calved earlier in spring or in the autumn produced colostrum with higher IgG concentration. Parity (P < 0.001), time interval from calving to milking (P < 0.01), weight of the calf at birth (P < 0.05), colostral IgG concentration (P < 0.01) and herd were all independently associated with colostral weight at the first milking. Younger parity cows, cows milked earlier post-calving, and cows with lighter calves produced less colostrum. In general, colostrum quality of cows in this study was higher than in many previous studies; possible reasons include use of a relatively low-yielding cow type that produces low weight of colostrum, short calving to colostrum collection interval and grass-based nutritional management. The results of this study indicate that colostral IgG concentration can be maximised by reducing the time interval between calving and collection of colostrum. PMID:23916317
Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E
In bovine colostrum which was defatted and totally hydrolyzed by protcolytic enzymes, isopeptides were identified by ionexchange chromatography and preparative separation. Isopeptides were identified in two of seven samples of colostrum. It is still to be...
H. Klostermeyer K. Rabbel E. H. Reimerdes
Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), produced by vaccination of a cow during gestation, is rich in targeted immunoglobulins, and can be used to treat a variety of diseases. The published history of HBC use for treating gastrointestinal infections in humans has developed over the past several decades and demonstrates the promise of this type of therapeutic for GI infectious disease. HBC, or purified derivative products, have been used successfully for treatment or prevention of cryptosporidiosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Given the positive results of previous studies using HBC for treatment of CDI, we have produced HBC with antibodies against the two most important virulence factors of C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, using a novel recombinant vaccine. Our preliminary results demonstrate efficacy of the HBC product for treatment of CDI in the gnotobiotic piglet model, and warrant more thorough investigation. HBC may provide an effective treatment alternative to antibiotics, which can spare the normal gut microflora, and reduce rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. PMID:23435084
Steele, Jennifer; Sponseller, Jerlyn; Schmidt, Diane; Cohen, Ocean; Tzipori, Saul
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. PMID:23642466
Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C
Ghrelin is a peptide mainly produced by the stomach that increases food intake and body weight. Ghrelin expression increases with fasting and is diminished by re-feeding, but although the expression of this hormone is regulated by the feeding state, the relation with diet composition is not yet well established. We have studied the inhibitory effect of the in- take of
JUANA SANCHEZ; PAULA OLIVER; ANDREU PALOU
We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions.
Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.
Background: Neonatal conjunctivitis leads to several ocular consequences in the affected neonates such as blindness. Currently available therapeutic options include NaNO3, Gentamicin, Neomycin and so on, in which each of them has their own limitations. Regarding the immunologic content of colostrum and its safety and easy accessibility, we aimed to evaluate its preventive effects against neonatal conjunctivitis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, conducted from November 2011 to July 2012, 300 preterm neonates, with culture negative eye swab, were enrolled and randomly assigned into three groups. The intervention group received two drops of colostrum. Control group received no treatment and other neonates were treated with topical Erythromycin ointment (0.5%). All neonates were followed for occurrence of clinical conjunctivitis for 28 days. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square test. Results: Our data demonstrate the beneficial preventive effects of Colostrum against neonatal conjunctivitis (P = 0.036). Conclusion: Colostrum is suggested as an alternative prophylactic option for antibiotics against neonatal conjunctivitis. As colostrum is easily accessible without cost, potential hazards and side effects, public education about its topical favorable effects is worthwhile.
Ghaemi, Sadigheh; Navaei, Parsa; Rahimirad, Shima; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Kelishadi, Roya
An automated biosensor surface-plasmon resonance-based assay was developed for the determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in bovine milk and colostrum with either goat or rabbit antibovine IgG or protein G used as detecting molecule. The method is configured as a direct and nonlabeled immunoassay, with quantitation against an authentic IgG calibrant. Whole colostrum or milk is prepared for analysis by dilution into buffer. Analysis conditions, including ligand immobilization, flowrate, contact time, and regeneration, were optimized, and nonspecific binding was evaluated. Performance parameters included working range of 15-10 000 ng/mL, method detection limit of 0.08 mg/mL, overall instrument response reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of 0.47%, mean between-run RSD(R) of 10.5% for colostrum, and surface stability over 200 analyses. The proposed method was compared with independent alternative methods. The technique was applied to the measurement of IgG content during early lactation transition from colostrum to milk, as well as in consumer milk, colostrum, and hyperimmune milk powders. PMID:12723922
Indyk, Harvey E; Filonzi, Enrico L
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum. PMID:23433372
Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Esaki, Hidetake; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Masahiko; Hirai, Katsuya
Anti-ferritin autoantibody is a ferritin-binding protein commonly found in mammals; it is thought to form an immune complex with ferritin and thereby mediate the rapid clearance of circulating ferritin. The aim of this study is to determine concentrations of ferritin and anti-ferritin autoantibodies (immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG and IgA) in serum and colostrum of Holstein (H) and Japanese Black (JB) cows within 24?h of normal calving. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from cows of various ages (2-11 years) and calving number (1-8 live births). Mean ferritin concentrations were higher in colostrum than in serum for both breeds, and higher colostrum ferritin concentrations were found in H than JB cows. IgA antibodies in serum and colostrum from both breeds had negligible ferritin-binding activity. For both breeds, IgM and IgG antibodies had higher ferritin-binding activity in colostrum than in serum. There was a significant correlation between IgM and IgG ferritin-binding activities in serum and colostrum of H and JB cows. These results suggest that ferritin and IgM and IgG autoantibodies are actively transferred from the blood stream to the colostrum at prepartum or early lactation. PMID:23607439
Kanno, Yoshiya; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi
Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (?7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults.
Buckley, Jonathan D.; Butler, Ross N.; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D.
Over the years, the knowledge regarding the relevance of the cannabinoid system to the regulation of metabolism has grown steadily. A central interaction between the cannabinoid system and ghrelin has been suggested to regulate food intake. Although the stomach is the main source of ghrelin and CB1 receptor expression in the stomach has been described, little information is available regarding the possible interaction between the gastric cannabinoid and ghrelin systems in the integrated control of energy homeostasis. The main objective of the present work was to assess the functional interaction between these two systems in terms of food intake using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. The present work demonstrates that the peripheral blockade of the CB1 receptor by rimonabant treatment decreased food intake but only in food-deprived animals. This anorexigenic effect is likely a consequence of decreases in gastric ghrelin secretion induced by the activation of the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway in the stomach following treatment with rimonabant. In support of this supposition, animals in which the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway was blocked by chronic rapamycin treatment, rimonabant had no effect on ghrelin secretion. Vagal communication may also be involved because rimonabant treatment was no longer effective when administered to animals that had undergone surgical vagotomy. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first to describe a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism that influences gastric ghrelin secretion and food intake through the mTOR pathway.
Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Pardo, Maria; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Amil, Maria; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Gabellieri, Enrico; Leis, Rosaura; Dieguez, Carlos; Pagotto, Uberto; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.
The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in dill, spinach, lettuce and beet root. The mean concentrations were 2,936, 2,508, 2,167 and 1,446 mg kg(-1), respectively. The content of nitrites in samples was lower than 5 mg kg(-1). In total, the mean intake of nitrates by the Estonian population was 58 mg day(-1). The mean content of nitrates in vegetable-based infant foods of Estonian origin was 88 mg kg(-1). The average daily intake of nitrates by children in the age group of 4-6 years was 30 mg. The infants' average daily intake of nitrates from consumption of vegetable-based foods was 7.8 mg. PMID:16546882
Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A
Bovine colostrum is the first milk secreted by cows after parturition and has high levels of protein, immunoglobulins, and various growth factors. We determined the effects of 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation versus whey protein during resistance training in older adults. Males (N = 15, 59.1 ± 5.4 y) and females (N = 25, 59.0 ± 6.7 y) randomly received (double-blind) 60g/d of colostrum or whey protein complex (containing 38g protein) while participating in a resistance training program (12 exercises, 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 days/ week). Strength (bench press and leg press 1-RM), body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), muscle thickness of the biceps and quadriceps (by ultrasound), cognitive function (by questionnaire), plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, as a marker of inflammation), and urinary N-telopeptides (Ntx, a marker of bone resorption) were determined before and after the intervention. Participants on colostrum increased leg press strength (24 ± 29 kg; p < .01) to a greater extent than participants on whey protein (8 ± 16 kg) and had a greater reduction in Ntx compared with participants on whey protein (-15 ± 40% vs. 10 ± 42%; p < .05). Bench press strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and cognitive scores increased over time (p < .05) with no difference between groups. There were no changes in IGF-1 or CRP. Colostrum supplementation during resistance training was beneficial for increasing leg press strength and reducing bone resorption in older adults. Both colostrum and whey protein groups improved upper body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, and cognitive function. PMID:24281841
Duff W, R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Rooke, Julianne J; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Krentz, Joel R; Haines, Deborah M
Bovine colostrum is the first milk secreted by cows after parturition and has high levels of protein, immunoglobulins, and various growth factors. We determined the effects of 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation versus whey protein during resistance training in older adults. Males (N = 15, 59.1 ± 5.4 y) and females (N = 25, 59.0 ± 6.7 y) randomly received (double-blind) 60g/d of colostrum or whey protein complex (containing 38g protein) while participating in a resistance training program (12 exercises, 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 days/week). Strength (bench press and leg press 1-RM), body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), muscle thickness of the biceps and quadriceps (by ultrasound), cognitive function (by questionnaire), plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, as a marker of inflammation), and urinary N-telopeptides (Ntx, a marker of bone resorption) were determined before and after the intervention. Participants on colostrum increased leg press strength (24 ± 29 kg; p < .01) to a greater extent than participants on whey protein (8 ± 16 kg) and had a greater reduction in Ntx compared with participants on whey protein (-15 ± 40% vs. 10 ± 42%; p < .05). Bench press strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and cognitive scores increased over time (p < .05) with no difference between groups. There were no changes in IGF-1 or CRP. Colostrum supplementation during resistance training was beneficial for increasing leg press strength and reducing bone resorption in older adults. Both colostrum and whey protein groups improved upper body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, and cognitive function. PMID:24958679
Duff W, R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Rooke, Julianne J; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Krentz, Joel R; Haines, Deborah M
Objective Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Research Design and Methods Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula into the lateral (LV) or third (3V) ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v.) injection of Tran35S (100 µCi) followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW), enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF), synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF) or vehicle (aCSF), or an i.v. injection of PYY3–36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS) or vehicle (PBS). Results Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively). NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3–36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. Conclusion In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.
Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.
Breast milk constitutes the best form of newborn alimentation because of its nutritional and immunological properties. Banked human milk is stored at low temperature, which may produce losses of some bioactive milk components. During lactation, colostrum provides the requirements of the newborn during the first days of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling storage at 4°C and freezing storage at -20°C and -80°C on bioactive factors in human colostrum. For this purpose, the content of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and TGF-?2, and some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and its type I receptor TNF-RI, were quantified. Some colostrum samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at 4°C and others were frozen at -20°C or -80°C for 6 and 12 mo. We quantified IgA, epidermal growth factor, TGF-?1, and TGF-?2 by indirect ELISA. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-? cytokines, IL-8 chemokine, and TNF-RI were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Bioactive immunological factors measured in this study were retained in colostrum after cooling storage at 4°C for at least 48h, with the exception of IL-10. None of the initial bioactive factor concentrations was modified after 6 mo of freezing storage at either -20°C or -80°C. However, freezing storage of colostrum at -20°C and -80°C for 12 mo produced a decrease in the concentrations of IgA, IL-8, and TGF-?1. In summary, colostrum can be stored at 4°C for up to 48 h or at -20°C or -80°C for at least 6 mo without losing its immunological properties. Future studies are necessary to develop quality assurance guidelines for the storage of colostrum in human milk banks, and to focus not only on the microbiological safety but also on the maintenance of the immunological properties of colostrum. PMID:22541460
Ramírez-Santana, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Audí, C; Castell, M; Moretones, M G; López-Sabater, M C; Castellote, C; Franch, A
The objective of this study was the characterization of the nutritive value, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) hay (FPH) by-product through in situ, in vitro and in vivo tests. A FPH diet was administered ad libitum to four sheep (live weight (LW) 38.0?±?2.0?kg) at four inclusion levels (0, 25, 50 and 75%) over a conventional sorghum grain/oat straw ration in a 4?×?4 Latin square design. The in situ degradability of FPH was 67% dry matter (DM), 71% crude protein and 66% neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The inclusion of FPH did not affect (P???0.05) the DM (61?±?0.4?g/LW(0.75) /day) and organic matter (OM) intake (56?±?0.7?g/LW(0.75) /day). Total DM digestibility (68?±?2.5%), OM (70?±?3%), and NDF (60?±?3%), were not different (P???0.05) between control and FPH inclusion diets. The diet had no effect on ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia concentration, total and individual volatile fatty acids. The chemical composition and sheep intake behavior indicate that FPH by-product is medium quality forage when incorporated in maintenance rations. PMID:21951901
Bastida Garcia, Jorge L; González-Ronquillo, Manuel; Domínguez Vara, Ignacio A; Romero-Bernal, José; Castelán Ortega, Octavio
Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ?OCPs content was 3.87 ng g?¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ?PCBs value was 3.93 ng g?¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g?¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041
Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D
In heifers, intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus affect milk production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations, and can lead to premature culling. Not much is known about Staph. aureus isolated from heifers and it is also unclear whether or not these strains are readily transmitted between heifers and lactating herd mates. In this study, we compared phenotypic characteristics, spa types, and DNA microarray virulence and resistance gene profiles of Staph. aureus isolates obtained from colostrum samples of dairy heifers with isolates obtained from lactating cows. Our objective was to (1) characterize Staph. aureus strains associated with mastitis in heifers and (2) determine relatedness of Staph. aureus strains from heifers and lactating cows to provide data on transmission. We analyzed colostrum samples of 501 heifers and milk samples of 68 lactating cows within the same herd, isolating 48 and 9 Staph. aureus isolates, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus strains from heifers, lactating herd mates, and an unrelated collection of 78 strains from bovine mastitis milk of mature cows were compared. With 1 exception each, characterization of all strains from heifers and lactating cows in the same herd yielded highly similar phenotypic and genotypic results. The strains were Staphaurex latex agglutination test negative (Oxoid AG, Basel, Switzerland) and belonged to agr type II, CC705, and spa types tbl 2645 and t12926. They were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. In contrast, the strains from mature cows in other herds were spread across different clonal complexes, spa types, and SplitsTree clusters (http://www.splitstree.org/), thus displaying a far higher degree of heterogeneity. We conclude that strains isolated from colostrum of heifers and mastitis milk of lactating cows in the same herd feature highly similar phenotypic and genomic characteristics, suggesting persistence of the organism during the first and potentially subsequent lactations or transmission between heifers and mature herd mates. PMID:24881795
Stalder, Ueli; Stephan, Roger; Corti, Sabrina; Bludau, Maren; Maeschli, Ariane; Klocke, Peter; Johler, Sophia
Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585
Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C
Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.
Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance cow performance during lactation. Forage UIP and microbial protein supply were adequate to meet the metabolizable protein requirements of lactating beef cows under the conditions of this study. PMID:15583059
Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S
Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value?=?0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR?=?1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value?=?0.974 ), omphalitis (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value?=?0.956), or mortality (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value?=?0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd.
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei.
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research. PMID:24082397
Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M; Harding, John C S
Feed intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with different protein and starch concentrations were measured in a 3-period experiment in a changeover design using 12 Holstein cows. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The diet fed as a total mixed ration consisted of 45% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 50% concentrate, on a dry matter (DM) basis. The 4 treatments, formulated to be isoenergetic and to differ in concentrations of dietary crude protein (CP) and starch (DM basis), were as follows: low CP and low starch (LPLS; 14% CP and 15% starch), low CP and high starch (LPHS; 14% CP and 25% starch), high CP and low starch (HPLS; 16% CP and 15% starch), and high CP and high starch (HPHS; 16% CP and 25% starch). The LPLS treatment led to lower DM intake, milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk lactose yield, probably due to a shortage of both rumen-degradable protein supply to rumen microbes and glucogenic nutrients to the animal. There were no differences between protein-rich diets and LPHS, suggesting that this diet satisfied the rumen-degradable protein requirements of rumen microbes and did not limit feed intake, and the increased supply of glucogenic nutrients spared AA so that the nutrient requirements of mid lactation dairy cows were met. Further increases in CP concentration increased plasma urea concentration and resulted in decreased efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk N. Milk fatty acid profiles were affected by starch and protein supply, with starch having the largest effect. Additionally, increasing dietary starch concentration decreased the apparent transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk, suggesting an increased channeling of fatty acids to adipose tissue. The results further suggest that C(15:0) and C(17:0) are synthesized de novo in animal tissues. PMID:17297116
Cabrita, A R J; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P; Dewhurst, R J; Fonseca, A J M
The purpose of the study was to determine if immunization with a recombinant protein (rC7) of Cryptosporidium parvum would induce immune bovine colostrum that protected calves against cryptosporidiosis following oral challenge with C. parvum oocysts. Late gestation Holstein cows with low titers of antibody to the p23 antigen of C. parvum were immunized three times with 300 ?g affinity purified
Lance E Perryman; Sushila J Kapil; Michael L Jones; Elaine L Hunt
This study investigated the effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB):Coliform (L:C) ratio in the faeces of farrowing sows and the quality of sow colostrum. Eighteen multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments for approximately 2 weeks prior to farrowing and for 3 weeks after parturition. The three dietary treatments were
V Demecková; D Kelly; A. G. P Coutts; P. H Brooks; A Campbell
Two trials with Holstein calves com- pared various dilutions of sour colostrum with whole milk fed to weaning at 5 wk. Colostral milk was collected for the first six milkings postpartum, allowed to fer- ment naturally, and stored for an average of 10.5 days before feeding. In Trial 1, 59 calves were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 3.63
R. B. Rindsig
Newborn calves are characterised by marked cardio-respiratory, metabolic and endocrine changes which continue during ensuing weeks and months. Thus, although the somatotrophic axis is basically functioning in neonatal calves, it is not yet mature. The speed of the adaptations of the various traits differs widely. The ability to digest colostrum and milk requires specific structures and functions of the gastrointestinal
J. W Blum; H Hammon
Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized into two treatment groups and consumed liquid prepackaged bovine colostrum whey and placebo for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. The circulating antibody secreting cells and the expression of phagocytosis receptors of the subjects before and
Fang He; Elina Tuomola; Heikki Arvilommi; Seppo Salminen
In a prospective, open, uncontrolled study 25 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with chronic refractory diarrhea and either confirmed cryptosporidiosis (n=7) or absence of demonstrable pathogenic organisms (n =18) were treated with a daily oral dose of 10 g of an immunoglobulin preparation from bovine colostrum over a period of 10 days. Among the 7 patients with cryptosporidiosis,
A. Plettenberg; A. Stoehr; H.-J. Stellbrink; H. Albrecht; W. Meigel
Camel (Camelus dromedarius) whey proteins were detected and compared to bovine whey proteins using size exclusion chromatography columns on HPLC. Camel whey proteins such as serum albumin and ?-lactalbumin appear to possess molecular weights similar to the respective bovine whey proteins. Camel whey lacks ?-lactoglobulin and consists of large amount of serum albumin, compared to bovine whey. Camel colostrum is
U Merin; S Bernstein; A Bloch-Damti; R Yagil; C van Creveld; P Lindner; N Gollop
This study presents and analyzes the results of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo tests investigating the potential preventive properties of a group of biologically active milk and colostrum proteins and peptides; that is, casein, ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, glycomacropeptide, proline-rich peptides, and lactoperoxidase. Casein or its peptides lowers blood pressure, reduces tumor growth, and shows anticoagulant, antimicrobial, and
Ma?gorzata Darewicz; Bart?omiej Dziuba; Piotr Minkiewicz; Jerzy Dziuba
Bovine colostrum (BC) contains bioactive components that have been shown to enhance gastrointestinal development and increase nutrient absorptive capacity in neonatal animals. Recent studies in adult humans have shown that BC increases lean body mass and improves exercise performance and a number of authors have suggested that BC may elicit these effects by enhancing intestinal nutrient absorption. The purpose of
Grant D Brinkworth; Jonathan D Buckley
This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children’s treatment timeliness.
Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.
This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
Obesity is increasing in the United States in epidemic proportions. Epidemiologic data suggest that people with high calcium intake have a lower prevalence of overweight, obesity, and insulin resistance syndrome. Studies in transgenic mice have demonstrated that calcium influences adipocyte metabolism. High calcium intake depresses levels of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-hydroxy vitamin D. These decreased hormone levels cause decreases in intracellular calcium, thereby inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis. High dietary calcium intakes also increases excretion of fecal fat and may increase core body temperature. Calcium from dairy products seems to have more of an impact than calcium from dietary supplements. Primary care providers should include recommendations about adequate calcium intake in standard dietary counseling about weight management. PMID:15879568
Holstein calves were allotted randomly at 4 days of age to one of three colostrum diets in two trials. Calves weighing 31.8 to 45.4 kg and over 45.4 kg at birth were offered 2.27 and 2.73 kg of colostrum daily, respectively, diluted with .91 kg of warm water. Calf starter and water were available ad libitum. Calves were weaned at
John A. Foley; D. E. Otterby
Changes in the protein content, protein fractions and amino acid composition of mare's colostrum and milk, and the biological value of milk protein during the first 45 days of lactation were studied. Milk samples (averaging 300–800 cm3) from 29 lactating mares were collected daily at the beginning of lactation and weekly from the 5th to 45th days post-partum. Colostrum samples
Zs. Csapó-Kiss; J. Stefler; T. G. Martin; S. Makray; J. Csapó
The study material consisted of the colostrum and milk of five noble half-blood mares housed under the same environmental conditions. Colostrum samples were collected 24 h after foaling, whereas milk samples were taken five times, every 30 days, with the first sampling on lactation day 30 (1st month). In the samples were determined the concentrations of total protein, pre-albumins, albumins,
ROBERT PALACZ; JOLANTA JANISZEWSKA; DOROTA SKÓRKA
ABSTRACT Neonatal Jersey calves (n = 96) were used to evaluate effects of housing,(in- dividual hutches,or wooden,pens in a barn) and colostrum feeding (calves were separated from the dam,and fed 2 L of colostrum in nipple-bottles or allowed to nurse the dam for 3 d) on the prevalence of selected organisms,in feces. Preva- lence of Cryptosporidium and,Eimeria were reduced, and
J. D. Quigley III; K. R. Martin; D. A. Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; C. R. Reinemeyer; B. W. Rohrbach; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar
Background\\/Aims: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is characterised by increased levels of serum bile acids. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy corrects the serum bile acid profile. The aims of this study were: (i) to investigate bile acid excretion into colostrum of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy; (ii) to compare concentrations of bile acids in serum and colostrum of non-treated and ursodeoxycholic acid-treated
Dora Brites; Cecília M. P. Rodriguez
Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation have been determined. Wet acid digestion, using nitric and perchloric acids, and atomic absorption spectrometric analysis have been used. Daily intakes have been calculated and proven to decrease from 0.39 +/- 0.05 (colostrum) to 0.16 +/- 0.02 (mature milk), 2.3 +/- 0.3 (colostrum), to 1.2 +/- 0.2 mg (mature milk) and 10.9 +/- 1.5 (colostrum) to 5.3 +/- 0.8 micrograms (mature milk) for Cu, Zn, and Se, respectively. Since values for this African country are nonexistent, intake levels are compared with literature data and found to be somewhat higher than those observed in other poorly nourished countries. The recommended safe and adequate daily intake for infants of 0-6 mo of age, as proposed by the National Research Council of the USA, is only met for Burundian infants < 1 mo of age. The function of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) as essential trace elements has been known for quite a number of years (1). Also, selenium (Se) is a trace element essential for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (2) and type I iodothyronine 5-deiodinase (3). For all three elements, an adequate intake is necessary for satisfactory infant growth and development (4). In view of the almost total lack of relevant data on Burundi (Africa), we have determined Cu, Zn, and Se in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation (5). The aim of this study is to assess infants' elemental intake for this country and compare this with literature data on trace elemental intake of exclusively breast-fed infants. PMID:8562283
Robberecht, H; Benemariya, H; Deelstra, H
During the postpartum period there is a high incidence of mastitis in dairy cows. The reason for this increased risk of mastitis still remains unclear. Since leukocytes in colostrum have an important role in preventing the onset of mastitis, we investigated the leukocyte populations, which express CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21 or WC1, in colostrum as well as in blood obtained from 14 Holstein cows. Eight cows developed mastitis within a week after calving and the other 6 remained healthy. The percentage of CD14+ cells in colostrum was significantly lower in mastitic cows than in healthy cows. There were no significant differences in other marker positive cells either in the colostrum or in the blood. The CD14+ cells in colostrum play an important role of defense against invading microorganisms in the mammary glands. Our results suggested that the lower percentage of CD14+ cells in colostrum might predict the incidence of mastitis in the following period. PMID:20077004
Kiku, Yoshio; Ozawa, Tomomi; Kushibiki, Shiro; Sudo, Madoka; Kitazaki, Kouhei; Abe, Noriaki; Hideyuki, Takahashi; Hayashi, Tomohito
Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F?=?6.9, P?0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F?=?0, P?=?0.7) or fat (F?=?0, P?=?0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. PMID:24588967
Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J
The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different selenium (Se) sources on productive performance, serum and milk Se concentrations, and antioxidant status of sows. A total of 12 sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) with same pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups; each group was replicated six times. These two groups received the same basal gestation and lactation diets containing 0.042 mg Se/kg, supplemented with 0.3 mg Se/kg sodium selenite or selenomethionine (i.e., seneno-DL: -methylseleno), respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 60 days, with 32 and 28 days for gestation and lactation period, respectively. Compared with sodium selenite, maternal selenomethionine intake significantly increased (P?0.05) the weaning litter weight and average weight of piglet. The Se concentration in the serum, colostrum, and milk of sows were significantly higher (p?0.05) in the selenomethionine-treated group. The antioxidant status was greatly improved in sows of selenomethionine-treated group and was illuminated by the increased total antioxidant capability (T-AOC; P?0.05) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA; P?0.01) level in the serum of sows, increased T-AOC (P?0.05), glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (P?0.05), superoxide dismutase (P?0.05) and GSH (P?0.05), and MDA (P?0.05) level in the colostrum and milk of sows. These results suggested that maternal selenomethionine intake improved Se concentration and antioxidant status of sows, thus maintain maternal health and increase productive performance after Se was transferred to its offspring. PMID:20717850
Hu, Huijuan; Wang, Min; Zhan, XiuAn; Li, Xing; Zhao, RuQian
We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination and decreased the proportion of nonpregnant cows after 150d in milk. In light of these findings, we suggest that a short DP be applied for its economic and physiological benefits. This is highly relevant to dairy herds located in regions such as Israel, Spain, and Florida that suffer from reduced milk production during the hot season. PMID:24630671
Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J
Growth-promoting activity in bovine colostrum has been detected as the capacity to stimulate protein synthesis in L6 myoblasts. By using this assay as a measure of bioactivity, a growth factor has been purified to near homogeneity from centrifuged colostrum by a series of steps including acid extraction, chromatography on sulphopropyl-Sephadex, followed by adsorption to, and elution from, C18 columns using acetonitrile and propan-1-ol gradients. The purified growth factor has a low solubility at neutral and alkaline pH and has an Mr of 7800 by gel-permeation chromatography. Sequence analysis of the first 30 amino acids from the N-terminus indicated complete identity in this region with human insulin-like growth factor-1. Accordingly we conclude that the purified growth factor is bovine insulin-like growth factor-1.
Francis, G L; Read, L C; Ballard, F J; Bagley, C J; Upton, F M; Gravestock, P M; Wallace, J C
Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples of colostrum taken between 0 and 4 days-in-milk (DIM), and to assess the probability of an animal testing positive for MAP specific IgG over this time-period. Non-specific reactions were found in 3/365 (0.8%) of samples. The odds of an animal testing positive on day of calving were 130 times higher than at 4 DIM. The findings suggest colostral samples may have enhanced diagnostic potential over milk samples in determining if cattle have been exposed to or infected with MAP. PMID:23611487
Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers
An affinity liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG), using protein G coupled to an agarose support, was modified to permit the quantification of IgG in colostrum-based powders. Sample preparation included pH adjustment to 4.6 to precipitate casein and denatured whey protein. The method was applied to a range of colostrum powders and was compared with the alternative independent methods of surface plasmon resonance immunoassay, radial immunodiffusion, and reversed-phase LC. The method was rapid, and performance parameters included a working range of 10-150 microg IgG and precision relative standard deviation values of <10%. PMID:17042172
Copestake, David E J; Indyk, Harvey E; Otter, Don E
Polymorphism at the ?S1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high ?S1-casein (?S1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low ?S1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for ?S2-CN, ?-CN, and ?-CN but a different genotype for ?S1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for ?S1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets. PMID:23403186
Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M
WE have shown that in bovine colostrum and saliva there is a secretory IgA with a sedimentation, coefficient of 11S and a secretory piece, previously unknown and comparable with the 11S IgA described in human and rabbit external secretions. These secretory IgA contain molecules of 7S IgA with an additional protein segment called the transport or secretory piece1-5. Furthermore, the
J.-P. Mach; J.-J. Pahud; H. Isliker
Colostrum Zn concentrations were measured in eight randomly selected Holstein dairy cows. Overall mean Zn concentrations were\\u000a highest within 12 h postpartum (257±14 ?M, mean ±SEM), fell to 141±8 ?M by 24 h, and then declined at a linear rate of 30 ?M\\/d during the following 48 h. Zn concentrations at 3 d (82±5 ?M) were not different from 150-d
Sharon J. Vaillancourt; Jonathan C. Allen
The present study reports a method for isolating bovine colostrum mononuclear cells (CMC) for phenotyping and functional studies. As well as being an important source of immunoglobulins, colostrum also contains leukocytes that may be of greater importance for passive immunity than has previously been thought. Different protocols have been reported for isolating leukocytes from bovine colostrum, although none of these have been validated, and phenotypic analysis of cell populations has not always been performed. In this study, bovine CMC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using antibodies against selected bovine cell surface markers and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. The mean cell count of isolated CMC was 3?×?10(4) and 1?×?10(5) per mL colostrum for the samples used in the flow cytometric assay and the proliferation assay, respectively. A mean of 25.4?±?17.1% CMC were identified as T lymphocytes, 2.9?±?3.0% as B lymphocytes and 32.7?±?13.7% as macrophages. In terms of proliferation, the mean counts per minute were 4.3?×?10(3) and 1.8?×?10(4) for cells cultured in medium only or in the presence of concanavalin A, respectively, showing that CMC are viable and capable of responding to mitogen stimulation. Isolation of CMC and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the different subpopulations were repeatable, with agreement indices varying between 0.5 and 1.0. Agreement indices for the proliferation assay were estimated at 0.8. PMID:24679458
Meganck, Vanessa; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Stuyven, Edith; Piepers, Sofie; Cox, Eric; Opsomer, Geert
In previous studies we showed that colostrinin (CLN), a complex of proline-rich polypeptides derived from ovine colostrum,\\u000a induces mitogenic stimulation, as well as a variety of cytokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes, and possesses antioxidant\\u000a activity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In this study we investigated the effects of CLN on 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)-mediated\\u000a adduct formation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS),
Istvan Boldogh; Daniel Liebenthal; T. Kley Hughes; Terry L. Juelich; Jerzy A. Georgiades; Marian L. Kruzel; G. John Stanton
The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513
Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R
Antibodies against Esch. coli WF 96 and WF 61 present in human colostrum and serum were fractionated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Using the haemagglutination test it was found that the antibodies present in colostrum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of ?A-globulin, whereas the antibodies present in serum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of ?M-globulin. In the presence of human or guinea-pig complement the antibodies present in colostrum did not lyse red cells coated with bacterial polysaccharides whereas the antibodies present in serum were lytic. When the properties of ?A and ?M antibodies were studied using a bacteriolytic system, it was observed that ?A-globulin lysed bacteria only in the presence of both complement and lysozyme; in this respect ?Abacterial antibodies behaved differently from ?M antibodies which were bacteriolytic in the presence of complement alone, without lysozyme. The effect of treating ?A and ?M antibodies with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral pH and of heating at 56° was investigated.
Adinolfi, M.; Glynn, A. A.; Lindsay, Margaret; Milne, Celia M.
Influences of insoluble and soluble N on milk production and N use were studied in 24 Holstein cows. The basal diet (grain: corn silage plus urea, 1:1 dry matter) contained 12% crude protein (60% insoluble N). Urea or soybean meal was added to the basal diet, increasing the crude protein to 15% with 43 and 67% insoluble N, respectively. Balance
E. M. Crish; J. E. Wohlt; J. L. Evans
In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2-4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbial sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4)
Gordon T. Taylor; Dongqiang Zheng
Background Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele. Results Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 4–5 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection. Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapie-affected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests. Conclusions Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test.
In Slovenia, table salt iodization has been applied to combat iodine deficiency. Recently, we found that Slovenian adolescents attained iodine sufficiency (median urinary iodine concentration was 140 microg/L; prevalence of goiter was <1%). National data indicate that salt intake of Slovenian population is too high (150% above the recommended limit); therefore, we hypothesized that sufficient iodine intake in adolescents can be primarily attributed to excessive salt intake. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated iodine and salt intake in Slovenian adolescents as well as the contributions of different foods to their intake. We determined the iodine and salt intake of a national representative sample of 2581 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ covered habitual diets over the past year, and 2485 (96%) adolescents completed a valid FFQ (1370 girls, 1115 boys). The iodine intake was 189.7 +/- 2.6 microg/d (mean +/- standard error of mean), well above the recommended 150 microg/d (P < .001). Table salt was by far the biggest dietary source of iodine and sodium for both sexes. Total salt intake (mean +/- standard error of mean, 10.4 +/- 0.2 g/d) significantly exceeded the upper World Health Organization limit (<5 g/d, P < .001), especially in boys (11.5 +/- 0.3 vs 9.4 +/- 0.2 g/d in girls, P < .001). The main food sources of salt were table salt (33%), bread (24%), salty snack products (10%), meat products (8%), fish products (6%), and milk (4%). Salt intake from foods, excluding table salt, was 6.9 g/d (67% of total salt intake). We conclude that although Slovenian adolescents are iodine sufficient, their salt intake, especially among boys, is too high. Several nutritional interventions are proposed to reduce total salt intake while ensuring adequate iodine intake. PMID:19963163
Stimec, Matevz; Kobe, Helena; Smole, Katarina; Kotnik, Primoz; Sirca-Campa, Andreja; Zupancic, Mirjana; Battelino, Tadej; Krzisnik, Ciril; Fidler Mis, Natasa
As a nontargeted metabolomics approach, we investigated changes in the plasma metabolite levels in a mouse model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet and fermented soybean product diet. We analyzed the plasma samples by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the present study, the animals were divided into four groups according to the diet type; normal fat diet control group (ND), high-fat diet control group (HD), high-fat diet plus 30% cooked soybean power (HD + S), and high-fat diet plus 30% 72-h fermented Cheonggukjang powder (HD + CGJ). To examine the changes in plasma metabolite levels because of high-fat diet feeding, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the HD + S and HD + CGJ groups than in the ND group. According to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), major metabolites contributing to the discrimination between each group were assigned as lipid metabolites in plasma, e.g., lyso-phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Therefore, diets containing soy-based food products, which are rich sources of isoflavonoids, might be helpful for controlling the lipid metabolism under high-fat diet conditions. PMID:23609950
Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Choi, Joo Hee; Cha, Youn Soo; Muthaiya, Maria John; Lee, Choong Hwan
Colostrum formation and lactogenesis in the mammary gland and the timing of parturition are regulated by endocrine signals. Changes in progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) are considered key events that inhibit colostrum formation, trigger parturition, and signal the onset of lactation. The goal of our study was to determine if colostrum yield and composition and immunoglobulin transfer are affected by prepartum milking relative to the decrease in P4, peak of PRL, or occurrence of parturition. Twenty-three multiparous cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) control with first milking at 4h postcalving (CON, n=11), and (2) treatment group with first milking approximately 1d before calving and second milking at 4h after parturition (APM, n=12). Colostrum yields were recorded and proportional samples were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Blood plasma samples for the analyses of P4 and PRL were collected 3 times daily at 8-h intervals for 4d prepartum and again taken at 4h after parturition. Total colostrum mass of APM cows was higher than that of CON cows. Immunoglobulin G concentration and protein content did not differ between antepartum milking in APM cows and postpartum milking in CON cows. Colostrum IgG concentration and protein content in APM cows at the postpartum milking were lower compared with the IgG concentration established at the prepartum (APM) and postpartum milkings of CON cows. Immunoglobulin G mass did not differ in first and second colostrum collection in APM cows but was lower compared with that of CON cows. The sum of IgG mass in APM cows (prepartum + postpartum collections) did not differ from that of CON cows. Lactose and fat in milk (concentration and mass) increased from first to second milking in APM cows. Total mass of lactose and fat in APM cows (prepartum + postpartum collections) was greater compared with that of CON cows. The finding that the time of milking relative to parturition, P4 decrease, and PRL peak slightly affected yield and quality of colostrum emphasizes the complex interactions of numerous endocrine and morphological changes occurring during colostrogenesis and lactogenesis in dairy cows. The considerably rapid transfer of immunoglobulins into colostrum of prepartum-milked cows within a few hours leads to the hypothesis that the transfer of IgG can be very fast and-contrary to earlier findings-persist at least until parturition. PMID:24630658
Gross, J J; Kessler, E C; Bjerre-Harpoth, V; Dechow, C; Baumrucker, C R; Bruckmaier, R M
Regulation of drug intake refers to the maintenance of relatively constant levels of drug over a specified time period. An understanding of regulation of drug intake may be critical in determining how drugs function as reinforcers and how their reinforcing effects may be modified. However, little is known about regulation of drug intake, and the mechanisms underlying it are poorly
Wendy J. Lynch; Marilyn E. Carroll
Colostrum is an indispensable source of antibodies (IgG) protecting the newborn pig against infection. We studied the effect of feeding colostrum and purified IgG on early structure and development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Newborn littermate pigs were fed either colostrum, an elemental diet (ED), or an ED supplemented with purified serum IgG (ED + IgG) for 24 h or then only ED up to 72 h. Afterwards, pigs were slaughtered. Colostrum-fed pigs or ED supplemented with IgG (ED + IgG) increased thickness (P < 0.001) of stomach mucosa and muscularis (P < 0.05) compared to the ED group not receiving IgG. Feeding an ED supplemented with IgG improved morphology of the GIT towards that of colostrum-fed piglets and indicates a beneficial effect of IgG on GIT development in neonatal pigs. Immunohistochemical studies indicate that ED feeding may influence the expression of nitric oxide synthase in jejunal myenteric (but not submucous) neurons of newborn pigs. PMID:23365369
Woli?ski, J; S?upecka, M; Weström, B; Prykhodko, O; Ochniewicz, P; Arciszewski, M; Ekblad, E; Szwiec, K; Ushakova; Skibo, G; Kovalenko, T; Osadchenko, I; Goncharova, K; Botermans, J; Pierzynowski, S
Samples of colostrum from both Ethiopian and Norwegian women contained antirotavirus activities of immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin nature. No significant differences in rotavirus immunoglobulin A or in rotavirus-inhibiting activity were found between samples from the two countries. The non-immunoglobulin inhibitory activity was trypsin sensitive and heat stable (100 degrees C for 10 min). Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin antibodies were measured in the colostrum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No E. coli enterotoxin-specific immunoglobulin A was detected, possibly due to the high background caused by the nonspecific adsorption of immunoglobulin A to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates in the absence of toxin. A total of 5 of 15 Ethiopian colostrum samples and 0 of 11 Norwegian colostrum samples neutralized the effect of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin on YI adrenal cells. Both the Ethiopian and the Norwegian colostrum samples contained a non-immunoglobulin enterotoxin-inhibitory activity when the toxin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This inhibitory activity was not trypsin sensitive, and extraction by chloroform-methanol indicated that the inhibitor was of a lipid nature.
Otnaess, A B; Orstavik, I
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS.
Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza
A colostrum sample was collected within 24 h after foaling from 27 mares and from 10 other mares a milk sample was collected several weeks post partum. Immunoglobulin G concentrations were determined quantitatively by radial immunodiffusion and semi-quantitatively using a commercial latex agglutination test. Total protein, specific gravity, viscosity and refractive index were determined and their relationships to the immunoglobulin G concentration analysed. All parameters correlated with the immunoglobulin G concentration. The latex agglutination test divided the colostrum samples into three groups with different means for immunoglobulin G and total protein concentrations. Specific gravity and the latex agglutination test were found to be the methods best suited for on-farm evaluation of colostrum quality. PMID:2105210
Waelchli, R O; Hässig, M; Eggenberger, E; Nussbaumer, M
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary treatments did not influence ruminal pH profiles, except that duration (h/d) of pH <5.8 decreased when NFFS was fed in a CCS-based diet but not in a BMRCS-based diet, causing a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS. Overall measurements in our study reveal that high forage NDF concentration (20% DM on average) may eliminate potentially positive effects of BMRCS. In the high forage diets, NFFS exerted limited effects on productive performance when they replaced AH and CS. Although the high quality AH provided adequate NDF (38.3% DM) for optimal rumen fermentative function, the low NDF concentration of the AH and the overall forage particle size reduced physically effective fiber and milk fat concentration. PMID:20965355
Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J
Antibodies against food antigens are usually produced in healthy people. This humoral response can be detected both in serum and secretions. The characterization of this response can be useful for a better understanding of food-related immunological alterations. In this study, IgA and IgG antibodies specific to ovalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin or gliadin were measured in serum, saliva, colostrum and milk from 40 healthy breast-feeding women. Specific IgA and IgG to the three antigens were measured by indirect ELISA. Specific IgG levels were highest in serum and very low in the other biological fluids. No correlation between the IgG specific to the different antigens was found. Specific IgA reactivity was found in all the samples analysed. Levels observed were higher in colostrum and milk than in serum and saliva. In spite of being three different unrelated food antigens, a correlation between the levels of specific IgA was found in saliva, colostrum and milk samples of all subjects studied. The specificity of IgA anti-gliadin antibodies from serum, saliva and colostrum was analysed by immunoblotting of SDS–PAGE-separated wheat proteins. Each sample presented a unique pattern of recognition. No common pattern of recognition was found either among the same biological fluids of the different subjects tested, or among the different samples—either serum, colostrum or saliva—of the same individual. Different degrees of specificity to wheat proteins among IgA from colostrum, saliva or serum were observed, suggesting that the local IgA-producing populations are functionally different in the different tissues of the organism.
Rumbo, M; Chirdo, F G; AnoN, M C; Fossati, C A
Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 ?g/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered.
Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook
1. Two glycoproteins were isolated from the M-1 acid glycoprotein fraction of bovine colostrum. 2. The lighter glycoprotein had a molecular weight of 7200, contained about 28·4% of carbohydrate, and had an absorption maximum at 275nm. The heavier glycoprotein had a molecular weight of 12000, contained 39·0% of carbohydrate, and had no absorption maxima in the 240–300nm. range of the spectrum. 3. The carbohydrate moiety of both glycoproteins was removable from the polypeptide moiety under the conditions of the ?-elimination reaction. 4. Periodate oxidation experiments showed that sialic acid was linked to galactose in both proteins. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.
Bezkorovainy, Anatoly; Grohlich, Dietmar
Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 ?g/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition. PMID:22440417
Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F
Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038
Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M
While the need for colostrum in neonates is well established, the systemic effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to adult humans is gaining increasing attention. However, no systematic studies evaluating the immunomodulatory effect of BC in dogs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dietary supplementation of BC in dogs. The study was conducted in two phases: pre-test (8 weeks) and test (40 weeks), with twenty-four dogs (mean age 2.5 years) randomised into two groups. In the 'pre-test' phase, both groups were fed a nutritionally complete diet. At the end of the 'pre-test' phase, all dogs received a canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine, and dogs in the 'test group' were switched to a diet supplemented with 0.1% spray-dried BC. Response to the CDV vaccine was evaluated by measuring vaccine-specific plasma IgG levels. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue response was assessed by measuring faecal IgA levels. Gut microbiota were evaluated by the temporal temperature gel electrophoresis methodology. Dogs fed the BC-supplemented diet demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine response and higher levels of faecal IgA when compared with the control group. Supplementing diets with BC also resulted in significantly increased gut microbiota diversity and stability in the test group. In conclusion, diets supplemented with BC significantly influence immune response in dogs. PMID:23773360
Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Reynolds, Arleigh; Pelker, Robyn; Labuda, Jeff; Zhang, Peifang; Sun, Peichuan
Determination of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese and copper levels in colostrum samples (n = 30), collected from middle-class mothers, was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman effect background correction using a tungsten-palladium-citric acid chemical modifier mixture. A wet-ashing procedure was applied to dissolve the samples and to remove the fat. The graphite furnace temperature programme for analytes determined by ETAAS was studied, and the optimum pyrolysis temperatures of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Mn and Cu were determined in the presence of the modifier mixture. Detection limits of Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Cr were determined using a modifier mixture solution. Zinc and iron levels were determined by Zeeman flame atomic absorption spectrometer (F-AAS). Heavy metal levels (mean values) found in colostrum samples were 14.6 microg/l of Pb, 2.8 microg/l of Cd, 27.8 microg/l of Ni, 8.6 microg/l of Cr, 43.2 microg/l of Mn, 278 microg/l of Cu, 12.9 mg/l of Zn, and 3.5 mg/l of Fe. These metal levels were compared with results from other studies in different countries. PMID:11336140
Turan, S; Saygi, S; Kiliç, Z; Acar, O
Dairy claves (983 head) were left with their dams to suckle for 1 day following birth. They then were fed 1 liter of pooled colostrum and placed in individual pens. Blood samples from each calf were taken prior to and 24 h following colostral feeding. Analysis of blood for immunoglobulins G and M indicated that 42% of the calves had failed either to suckle or to absorb colostral immunoglobulins from suckling. Concentrations of IgG and IgM in serum of calves prior to bottle feeding ranged from 0 to 63 mg/ml and 0 to 15 mg/ml with means of 11.3 and 2.9 mg/ml. From bottle feeding 1 liter of colostrum, 70% of the calves absorbed colostral immunoglobulins, an average increase of 5.0 +/- 4.5 mg/ml for IgG and 1.3 +/- 1.3 mg/ml for IgM. Some calves did not absorb IgG from either suckling or bottle feeding (11.9%) and 20.8% failed to absorb IgM. Mortality rate for all experimental calves was 3.9%; for 83 agammaglobulinemic calves, 13.3%. The high rate of survival (86.7%) of the 83 agammaglobulinemic calves could be due to the local prophylactic effect of colostral immunoglobulins in the intestine even though closure had occurred. PMID:7189534
Brignole, T J; Stott, G H
Despite recommendations for higher choline intakes during pregnancy and lactation, there is limited research regarding maternal intake during these important periods. In the present study, we estimated dietary choline intake during pregnancy and lactation in a population of Albertan women and the contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake. Dietary intake data were collected from the first 600 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study carried out in Alberta, Canada. During the first and/or second trimester, the third trimester and 3 months postpartum, 24 h dietary intake recall data were collected. A database was constructed including foods consumed by the cohort and used to estimate dietary choline intake. The mean total choline intake value during pregnancy was 347 (sd 149) mg/d, with 23 % of the participants meeting the adequate intake (AI) recommendation. During lactation, the mean total choline intake value was 346 (sd 151) mg/d, with 10 % of the participants meeting the AI recommendation. Phosphatidylcholine was the form of choline consumed in the highest proportion and the main dietary sources of choline were dairy products, eggs and meat. Women who consumed at least one egg in a 24 h period had higher (P< 0·001) total choline intake and were eight times more likely (95 % CI 5·2, 12·6) to meet choline intake recommendations compared with those who did not consume eggs during pregnancy. Women who reported consuming ? 500 ml of milk in a 24 h period were 2·8 times more likely (95 % CI 1·7, 4·8) to meet daily choline intake recommendations compared with those consuming < 250 ml of milk/d during pregnancy. Choline intake is below the recommendation levels in this population and the promotion of both egg and milk consumption may assist in meeting the daily choline intake recommendations. PMID:24708921
Lewis, Erin D; Subhan, Fatheema B; Bell, Rhonda C; McCargar, Linda J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J
Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…
Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.
Fifteen second-parity sows were used to determine the importance of vitamin E (E) and seleni- um (Se) supplementation of the sow's diet and colostrum consumption by the neonatal pig on tolerance to parenteral iron. Selenium (.1 ppm) and E (50 IU\\/kg) supplementation of the diet of the sow increased plasma tocopherol and Se concentrations, but did not increase plasma glutathi-
M. J. Loudenslager; P. K. Ku; P. A. Whetter; D. E. Ullrey; C. K. Whitehair; H. D. Stowe; E. R. Miller
Bovine colostrum that had been collected up to 6 h postpartum was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and various fractions were examined for basic fibroblast growth factor activity. Activity that stimulated cell growth was detected in the cream fraction, which was purified by isoelectric focusing and heparin affinity chromatography. Three peaks were eluted from the heparin affinity column at ap-
T. Hironaka; H. Ohishi; T. Masaki
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum (HBC) (raised against Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy cows immunized during gestation) was tested for heterologous efficacy in subclinical and clinical infections of 12 captive snakes with C. serpentis. Six gastric HBC treatments of 1% snake weight at 1-week intervals each, have histologically cleared C. serpentis in three subclinically infected
T. K Graczyk; M. R Cranfield; P Helmer; R Fayer; E. F Bostwick
This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the
A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi
Several recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota in infancy and subsequent development of allergic disease. Human milk is the major food in infancy and may thus profoundly influence the composition of the gut flora. Oligosaccharides in breast milk survive the passage through the stomach and are utilized by the gut microbiota. As the relationship between breast feeding and childhood allergy is controversial we hypothesized that the composition of oligosaccharides in breast milk might explain the controversy. Nine of the most abundant neutral oligosaccharides in human milk were analysed in colostrum samples from allergic and non-allergic women and related to subsequent development of allergy in their children. The carbohydrate fraction of the colostrum was separated by gel permeation chromatography and neutral oligosaccharides, tri- to hexasaccharides were collected. Neutral oligosaccharides were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a large variation in the concentration of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum, which could not be explained by the allergic status of the women. Allergic children consumed higher amounts of neutral oligosaccharides in total, although not significantly (p = 0.12). When different oligosaccharides were analysed separately, there was no significant difference in consumption between the infants who developed atopic allergy later (n = 9) and infants who did not (n = 11). Thus, the amount of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum does not directly correlate with maternal allergy, nor with allergy development in children up to 18 months of age. PMID:17295795
Sjögren, Ylva Margareta; Duchén, Karel; Lindh, Frank; Björkstén, Bengt; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
This paper discusses, in combination with an internal combustion engine, a system for regulating engine speed by regulating the air flow across a throttle valve in an air intake passage. It comprises an engine air intake valve and means of sensing an operating variable representative of engine speed and sending an electrical signal representative of the engine speed to the
Four ruminally and duodenally cannu- lated steers (703.4 ± 41 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of field pea inclusion level on intake and site of digestion in beef steers fed medium-concentrate diets. Steers were of- fered feed ad libitum at 0700 and 1900 daily and were allowed free access
S. A. Soto-Navarro; G. J. Williams; M. L. Bauer; G. P. Lardy; D. G. Landblom; J. S. Caton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function. The authors evaluated the time course of a number of immune variables after short-term intense exercise in 9 male athletes after 10 d of supplementation with either colostrum or skim-milk powder. To increase the stress on the immune system subjects performed a glycogen-depletion trial the evening before the endurance trial (90 min at 50% Wmax). Blood samples were taken before the glycogen-depletion trial, before and after the endurance trial, and the next morning, ~22 hr after cessation of the exercise. Plasma cortisol levels increased over time, reaching the highest level directly after exercise, and were still elevated ~22 hr after exercise compared with baseline values (p < .001). Neutrophil cell count was increased after exercise and dropped below starting values 22 hr after exercise (time effect p < .001). Circulating immunoglobulins did not change over time. A significant time effect was seen for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1-receptor agonist, and C-reactive protein, with levels being higher directly after exercise (p < .05). Other cytokines (interferon-?, IL-1a, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-a) did not show a time effect. No differences were seen between colostrum and skim-milk powder in any of the investigated variables. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that intense exercise affects several variables of the immune system. Colostrum did not alter any of the postexercise immune variables compared with skim-milk powder, suggesting no role for bovine colostrum supplementation in preventing postexercise immune suppression after short-term intense exercise. PMID:21558575
Carol, Arnoud; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; Mensink, Marco
An experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of Neosporacaninum for dogs. For this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived N.caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledonary tissue from N.caninum seropositive cows. One dog served as a negative control during the
Th Dijkstra; M Eysker; G Schares; F. J Conraths; W Wouda; H. W Barkema
Human colostrum and a high molecular weight colostrum fraction (HMWF; > 14,000D) prevented the adhesion of localized adherent (LA+) O111:H––enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to HeLa cells. This effect was abolished after absorption with an O111:H––LA+ EPEC strain, but absorption with a LA- strain of same serotype had no effect on the process. A low molecular weight fraction (< 14,000 D),
Lilia M. Camara; Solange B. Carbonare; Lourdes M. Silva; Magda M. S. Carneiro-Sampaio
The major growth factors in bovine colostrum are transforming growth factor-?s (TGF-?1 and TGF-?2) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2). Recently, TGF-?2 content of bovine colostrum was measured using a TGF-?2 specific ELISA (1) and now we have validated ELISAs for for bovine TGF-?1 and IGF-1. The concentrations of IGF-1 and TGF-?1 in the first milking after calving were
Vasudeva Ginjala; Raimo Pakkanen
Summary The growth stimulating properties of bovine serum and colostrum were compared in rat hepatoma (HTC) and glioma (C6) cell cultures.\\u000a A colostrum concentration of 2% was optimal for HTc cells, which then reached a terminal density 40% of that in serum-supplemented\\u000a medium. The corresponding figures for C6 cells were 10 and 81%, respectively. After 4 d in culture, levels of
Lena Odland; Stefan Wallin; Erik Walum
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine and porcine plasma and spray-dried bovine colostrum on growth performance and intestinal histology in weaner pigs. Thirty-two 21-day-old piglets (6.65±0.14 kg) were allocated to receive one of four dietary treatments: control, bovine plasma, porcine plasma, and bovine colostrum at weaning and another 8 piglets were killed at weaning to
M. R. King; P. C. H. Morel; J. R. Pluske; W. H. Hendriks
Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases belong to the non-protein-nitrogen (NPN) fraction of milk. The largest amounts of ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides--ribose forms only were considered in this review--were measured directly after parturition in bovine milk and other ruminants as well as in the milk of humans. Generally, concentrations of most of the nucleos(t)ides tend to decrease gradually with advancing lactation period or nursing time. The species-specific pattern of these minor constituents in milk from different mammals is a remarkable property and confirms, at least, the specific physiological impact of these minor compounds in early life. The physiological capacity of these compounds in milk is given by the total potentially available nucleosides. The main dietary sources of nucleos(t)ides are nucleoproteins and nucleic acids which are converted in the course of intestinal digestion into nucleosides and nucleobases the preferred forms for absorption in the intestine. Thus, nucleosides and nucleobases are suggested to be the acting components of dietary and/or supplemented nucleic acid-related compounds in the gut. They are used by the body as exogenous trophochemical sources and can be important for optimal metabolic functions. Up to 15 % of the total daily need for a breast-fed infant was calculated to come from this dietary source. Concerning their biological role they not only act as metabolites but are also involved as bioactive substances in the regulation of body functions. Dietary nucleotides affect immune modulation, e.g. they enhance antibody responses of infants as shown by a study with more than 300 full-term healthy infants. Dietary nucleos(t)ides are found to contribute to iron absorption in the gut and to influence desaturation and elongation rates in fatty acid synthesis, in particular long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early stages of life. The in vitro modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis has been described by ribonucleosides, in particular by modified components using human cell culture models. Due to the bio- and trophochemical properties of dietary nucleos(t)ides, the European Commission has allowed the use of supplementation with specific ribonucleotides in the manufacture of infant and follow-on formula. From the technochemical point of view, the ribonucleoside pattern is influenced by thermal treatment of milk. In addition ribonucleosides are useful indicators for quantifying adulterations of milk and milk products. PMID:11242448
Schlimme, E; Martin, D; Meisel, H
Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too. PMID:24679011
Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene
An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-?, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-? remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-? expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23717570
Bodammer, Peggy; Kerkhoff, Claus; Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes. PMID:10478419
Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F
Our objective was to determine if immunoglobulins play a role in the gravity separation (rising to the top) of somatic cells (SC) in skim milk. Other researchers have shown that gravity separation of milk fat globules is enhanced by IgM. Our recent research found that bacteria and SC gravity separate in both raw whole and skim milk and that heating milk to >76.9°C for 25s stopped gravity separation of milk fat, SC, and bacteria. Bovine colostrum is a good natural source of immunoglobulins. An experiment was designed where skim milk was heated at high temperatures (76°C for 7min) to stop the gravity separation of SC and then colostrum was added back to try to restore the gravity separation of SC in increments to achieve 0, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0g/L of added immunoglobulins. The milk was allowed to gravity separate for 22h at 4°C. The heat treatment of skim milk was sufficient to stop the gravity separation of SC. The treatment of 4.0g/L of added immunoglobulins was successful in restoring the gravity separation of SC as compared with raw skim milk. Preliminary spore data on the third replicate suggested that bacterial spores gravity separate the same way as the SC in heated skim milk and heated skim milk with 4.0g/L of added immunoglobulins. Strong evidence exists that immunoglobulins are at least one of the factors necessary for the gravity separation of SC and bacterial spores. It is uncertain at this time whether SC are a necessary component for gravity separation of fat, bacteria, and spores to occur. Further research is needed to determine separately the role of immunoglobulins and SC in gravity separation of bacteria and spores. Understanding the mechanism of gravity separation may allow the development of a continuous flow technology to remove SC, bacteria, and spores from milk. PMID:24342686
Geer, S R; Barbano, D M
A direct high-performance gel permeation chromatographic (HPGPC) method for the determination of immunoglobulin G in mare colostrum was established. HPGPC separation was performed on a TOSOH TSK-G4000PW(XL) column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 5 microm) with 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 20 microL. At the detection wavelength of 280 nm, the linear range was from 0.2 to 3.0 g/L (r2 = 0.999 5) with a detection limit of 0.08 mg/L (S/N = 10). The recovery was 97.47% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.22%. The RSDs of the peak area of stability, accuracy and reproducibility for the established method were 2.86%, 1.62% and 1.82%, respectively. Mare milk was collected from Zhaosu (China), a complete collection was stored in an ice box, then sent to a laboratory and stored in a low temperature refrigerator. The whey milk was prepared by centrifugation two times at 12 000 r/min and 4 degrees C for 30 min. The whey protein was obtained from the middle layer. A 2 mL volume of the whey milk was mixed with 23 mL of mobile phase. The average contents of IgG were from 35.0 g/L to 50.0 g/L at the first lactation (2 h), and the average contents of IgG were from 2.0 g/L to 4.0 g/L after 72 h. The relatively simple analytical method was proved to be accurate and precise in its application to mare colostrum. PMID:21657059
Lü, Yuewen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yang, Jie
Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392?±?12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P?0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P?0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P?0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P?>?0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P?0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet.
Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage
Twenty-four lactating Holstein dairy cows (12 first lactation and 12 multiparous; day in milk = 11 ± 5 days) were allotted to a randomised complete block design in a 2 × 3 factorial with four replicates per treatment to evaluate the effects of two methods of alfalfa feeding (dry and reconstituted to achieve a theoretical dry matter (DM) content of 350 g/kg) and three geometric mean (GM) particle sizes of alfalfa (9.13, 4.51 and 1.20 mm) on performance of dairy cows for a period of 28 days. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake as total mixed rations (TMR). The GM particle size, its standard deviation, and the values of physical effectiveness factor of alfalfa and TMR decreased as alfalfa particle size decreased. Reduction of particle size and reconstitution of alfalfa increased the bulk density and the functional specific gravity of alfalfa and rations. Reduction of particle size decreased insoluble dry matter, water-holding capacity, and hydration rate of alfalfa. As particle size decreased, the amount of physically effective NDF in the ration (g/kg) decreased but the daily intake of physically effective NDF (kg/day) increased. Reduction of particle size and reconstitution increased dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal passage rate, but reduced NDF and ash digestibilities, ruminal pH, N-NH3, milk fat, total chewing activity, rumination and eating time, total and ruminal mean retention time, and time delay of marker. Increased functional specific gravity, from reduced forage particle size and the reconstitution of alfalfa, was the most important factor influencing DMI, milk composition, and chewing activity. PMID:22444224
Teimouri Yansari, A; Primohammadi, R
In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572
Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete
The aim of the study was to evaluate the profile of antioxidant parameters in ewes' colostrum and milk in relation to breed during 5 d post partum. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was analysed and the activity of the enzymic antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GSH-Tr), as well as the concentration of the non-enzymic antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin A and beta-carotene, were measured. Samples were collected from healthy animals belonging to two ewe breeds: Berrichon du Cher (n=15) and Uhrusk (n=15) kept in the Podlasie Province (Poland). Colostrum was sampled directly after parturition, as well as after 12, 24 and 48 h later and milk was sampled 5 d after parturition. Colostrum and milk for the evaluation of all parameters except for vitamin A and beta-carotene were centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for further analysis. Spectrophotometric methods were used for biochemical measurements. The results showed dynamic changes of antioxidative parameters within the time period examined. TAC values and GSH-Px activity increased significantly during the experiment. GSH-Tr activity showed a similar tendency in Uhrusk ewes but an opposite relationship in Berrichon du Cher. Concentrations of examined vitamins followed the increasing trends noticed in the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Moreover, differences between breeds in the evaluated parameters were detected; these differences were not unequivocal however. The results are also a source of not previously published physiological antioxidant profile in colostrum and milk of ewes over the post-partum period. PMID:20053314
Lipko-Przybylska, Justyna; Albera, Edyta; Kankofer, Marta
In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15\\/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb
Mark Jenkins; David Kerr; Ronald Fayer; Robert Wall
Mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) was secreted at highly elevated levels in bovine, equine and ovine colostrum and found at lower levels in milk 4 days postparturition. N-terminal sequencing of the mature M-SAA3 protein from all the three species revealed a conserved four amino acid motif (TFLK) within the first eight residues. This motif has not been reported to
Thomas L. McDonald; Marilynn A. Larson; David R. Mack; Annika Weber
Preparturient cows were immunized three times over a six-week period with recombinant plasmid DNA encoding the Cryptosporidium parvum CP15\\/60 antigen by injecting the DNA in the mammary gland. Serum was collected at each immunization and first colostrum was collected after parturition; all were assayed for Cryptosporidium-specific antibodies (Ab). A serological response to C. parvum sporozoite and oocyst antigen was detected
M. C Jenkins; C O'Brien; J Trout; A Guidry; R Fayer
Among domestic animals, teat order is only observed in the pig. In order to achieve the healthy growth and weaning of piglets, it is important to elucidate if volume of colostrum secretion and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentrations differ among the teats of a sow. Nine sows were used to evaluate the difference in colostrum secretion volume (CSV) and four of these sows were assessed for IgA and IgG concentrations from each teat. Samples were collected five times during 21?h following parturition. Teats were assigned anatomical locations of teat (1 to 7) from anterior to posterior. The CSV of anterior (locations 1 and 2) and middle teats (locations 3-5) was significantly higher than those of posterior teats (locations 6 and 7) throughout the experiment except for 18?h post-parturition (P?0.05). The CSV of the teats at location 1 was significantly higher at most collection times than those at locations 6 and 7. A positive correlation of CSV was observed with IgA and IgG concentrations from 12?h and 6?h post-parturition, respectively (P?0.05). The results suggest that anterior teats secrete greater volumes of colostrum and that these tend to contain higher IgA and IgG than posteriors teats. PMID:24798788
Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Okutani, Mie; Nakatani, Masako; Higashide, Kaya; Iida, Shiori; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
A study was conducted to evaluate the short-term effects of feeding two dietary Se sources at various Se levels on the transfer of Se to the dam's milk and nursing pig. Six dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two additional treatments in a randomized complete block designed experiment. Inorganic (sodium selenite) or organic (Se-enriched yeast) Se sources were added to the diet at .15 or .30 ppm Se. A non-Se-fortified corn-soybean meal basal diet served as a negative control, and a sixth group was fed .15 ppm Se from both inorganic and organic Se sources. A total of 43 sows were fed their treatment diets at 2.2 kg/d from 6 d prepartum to parturition and at full feed through a 14-d lactation period. Ten sows were initially bled at 6 d prepartum, and three sows and three pigs from their litters were bled at 7 and 14 d postpartum. Serum was analyzed for its Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Colostrum was collected within 12 h postpartum and milk at 7 and 14 d of lactation. When the basal diet was fed, sow serum GSH-Px activity declined from 6 d prepartum and remained low throughout lactation. When dietary Se levels increased, sow serum Se concentration and serum GSH-Px activity increased (P < .05) at both 7 and 14 d postpartum. The short-term feeding of either Se source at .15 or .30 ppm Se did not affect colostrum Se content when inorganic Se was fed, but it was increased when organic Se was provided. This resulted in a significant Se source x Se level interaction (P < .01). Milk Se at 7 and 14 d postpartum was 2.5 to 3 times higher when the organic Se source was provided and resulted in a significant Se source x Se level interaction (P < .05). When the combination of inorganic and organic Se was fed at .15 ppm Se, colostrum and milk Se contents were similar to those of sows fed .15 ppm Se from the organic Se source. Pig serum GSH-Px activity was not affected at 7 and 14 d of age by dietary Se level or Se source fed to the sow, but serum Se increased (P < .05) as dietary Se level increased, particularly when sows had been fed organic Se. The results demonstrated that organic Se increased milk Se content more than did inorganic Se and increased the nursing pig's serum Se. These results indicate that inorganic Se was more biologically available for sow serum GSH-Px activity, but organic Se was more effectively incorporated into milk. PMID:10682808
Mahan, D C
The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major factors that determine the body burden of inorganic fluoride. Fluoride intake 25 or more years ago was determined mainly by measurement of the concentration of the ion in the drinking water supply. This is not necessarily true today because of ingestion from fluoride-containing dental products, the "halo effect", the consumption of bottled water, and the use of water purification systems in the home. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water may not be a reliable indicator of previous intake. Under most conditions, fluoride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of gastric absorption is inversely related to the pH of the gastric contents. Overall absorption is reduced by calcium and certain other cations and by elevated plasma fluoride levels. Fluoride removal from plasma occurs by calcified tissue uptake and urinary excretion. About 99% of the body burden of fluoride is associated with calcified tissues, and most of it is not exchangeable. In general, the clearance of fluoride from plasma by the skeleton is inversely related to the stage of skeletal development. Skeletal uptake, however, can be positive or negative, depending on the level of fluoride intake, hormonal status, and other factors. Dentin fluoride concentrations tend to increase throughout life and appear to be similar to those in bone. Research to determine whether dentin is a reliable biomarker for the body burden of fluoride is recommended. The renal clearance of fluoride is high compared with other halogens. It is directly related to urinary pH. Factors that acidify the urine increase the retention of fluoride and vice versa. The renal clearance of fluoride decreases and tissue levels increase when the glomerular filtration rate is depressed on a chronic basis. PMID:7993560
Whitford, G M
A survey of the published data on the occurrence of hormones in milk and milk products is presented. Bovine milk and colostrum contain a large number of hormones from either steroidic or peptidic origin. The main categories to which these molecules belong are gonadal (estrogens, progesterone, androgens), adrenal (glucocorticoids), pituitary (prolactin, growth hormone) and hypothalamic hormones (GRH, LH-RH, TRH). Other
Pierre-Nicolas Jouan; Yves Pouliot; Sylvie F. Gauthier; Jean-Paul Laforest
Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730
Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J
Many cells in the organism besides pinealocytes, synthesize melatonin. Here, we evaluate both the mechanism of zymosan-induced melatonin synthesis and its autocrine effect in human colostral mononuclear cells. The synthesis of melatonin was induced by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), as either the blockade of the proteasome or the binding of NF-?B to DNA inhibits zymosan-induced melatonin synthesis. As observed in RAW 264.7 lineage cells, the dimer involved is RelA/c-Rel. Melatonin plays a direct role in mononuclear cell activity, increasing zymosan-induced phagocytosis by stimulating MT2 melatonin receptors and increasing the expression of dectin-1. This role was confirmed by the blockade of melatonin receptors using the competitive antagonist luzindole and the MT2 -selective partial agonist 4P-PDOT. In summary, we show that melatonin produced by immune-competent cells acts in an autocrine manner, enhancing the clearance of pathogens by increasing phagocyte efficiency. Given that these cells are present in human colostrum for 4 or 5 days after birth, this mechanism may be relevant for the protection of infant health. PMID:23745599
Pires-Lapa, Marco A; Tamura, Eduardo K; Salustiano, Eugenia M A; Markus, Regina P
A total of 318 local and imported meat, milk, eggs, fish, and animal feed samples collected in Kuwait were analyzed by cell-based reporter gene assay (Dioxin-Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression DR-CALUX) for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) obtained by DR-CALUX bioassay were compared with the official maximum limits according to the European Commission (EC) regulations. Suspected and randomly chosen negative samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The results showed that among suspected samples, one sample was confirmed to be non-compliant. The positive sample was of imported origin. The correlation coefficient of 0.98 between DR-CALUX and GC-HRMS was found. Moreover, the average daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for the Kuwaiti population were estimated. Results obtained in this study were discussed and compared with other published data. PMID:24433787
Husain, Adnan; Gevao, Bondi; Dashti, Basma; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter Aleaxnder; Al-Wadi, Majed; Al-Foudari, Mohamad
Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user". In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that "herbal" waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330
Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Eissenberg, Thomas
Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products.
Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas
The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164
Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru
The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production. PMID:24663203
Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E
Forty heifers at the late stage of gestation were randomly assigned into five groups. Heifers were balanced for age, weight, and time of calving in each group. Four and 2 weeks before expected time of calving, the heifers were injected with 0 ml (C), 10 ml (T1), 20 ml (T2), 30 ml (T3), and 40 ml (T4) Se and VE supplements, respectively. Each milliliter of the supplement contained of 0.5 mg Se as sodium selenite and 50 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Blood samples were collected from the heifers 4 weeks before expected calving and at calving day and from the calves at birth and 7 days of age. The serum Se and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations, white blood cell and differential leukocyte counts were measured. The Se concentrations in the sera of the heifers before the injections of Se and VE supplements were the same among the groups (P?>?0.05), but after calving were significantly increased in the treated heifers (P?0.05). Similarly, the serum Se levels of calves of the treated heifers were higher (P?0.05). The Se concentrations in the colostrums of the heifers were affected by treatments (P?0.05). Colostrum and daily milk productions at 8-week lactation were increased in treated heifers compared with the controls (P?0.05). Likewise, the milk somatic cell counts decreased in the treated heifers compared with the controls. The changes of the mean serum IgG levels did not differ among calves (P?>?0.05). The white blood cell counts were higher in calves of heifers in groups T3 and T4 compared with the control group at 7 days of age (P?0.05). PMID:21833648
Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Kiani, Amir; Mikaeili, Elham; Shabankareh, Hamed Karami
Summary.Background: Anecdotal\\u000areports suggest that bovine\\u000acolostrum may prevent upper respiratory\\u000atract infection (URTI).\\u000aThere is scant evidence to support\\u000asuch claims, although salivary IgA\\u000aprotects against URTI, and it was\\u000arecently shown that bovine\\u000acolostrum increases salivary IgA.Aim of the study: The present invesigation examined whether concentrated\\u000abovine colostrum protein\\u000a(CBC) affected the incidence or duration\\u000aof self-reported symptoms
Grant D. Brinkworth; Jonathan D. Buckley
Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training load±SD, 50.5±28.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515
Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen
Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow.
Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC
Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.
The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and had no effect on animal performance and milk composition. No transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein were detected in milk. PMID:17881694
Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R
Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones.
Booth, Sarah L.
Objective: The objective of this study was to provide national estimates of whole-grain intake in the United States, identify major dietary sources of whole grains and compare food and nutrient intakes of whole-grain consumers and nonconsumers. Methods: Data were collected from 9,323 individuals age 20 years and older in USDA's 1994 -96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals through
Linda E. Cleveland; Alanna J. Moshfegh; Ann M. Albertson; Joseph D. Goldman
The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397
Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum (HBC) (raised against Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy cows immunized during gestation) was tested for heterologous efficacy in subclinical and clinical infections of 12 captive snakes with C. serpentis. Six gastric HBC treatments of 1% snake weight at 1-week intervals each, have histologically cleared C. serpentis in three subclinically infected snakes, and regressed gastric histopathological changes in one of these snakes. In all snakes, each subsequent HBC treatment significantly decreased the number of oocysts recovered in gastric lavage eluants (P < 0.03). The treatments induced oocyst-negative gastric eluants and stools in all snakes, and improved clinical signs of infection. Clinically infected snakes displayed severe histopathological changes in the gastric region; however, the numbers of developmental stages of C. serpentis were moderate. Considering the severity of pathology, much lower than expected pathogen numbers were observed, and it is believed that clinically infected snakes did not have enough time to repair tissue damage that had occurred over the years of infection. As the HBC treatment was safe and highly efficacious, it is recommended to gastrically administer the HBC therapeutically to snakes that are clinically or subclinically infected with C. serpentis. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum can also be used in snake supportive therapy or prophylaxis. PMID:9561700
Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Helmer, P; Fayer, R; Bostwick, E F
Background Recent studies suggest that some of the clinical effectiveness of soy or daidzein, which is a type of isoflavone, may be attributed to a person’s ability to produce equol from daidzein. Equol, which is a metabolite of one of the major soybean isoflavones called daidzein, is produced in the gastrointestinal tract by certain intestinal microbiota where present. Habitual dietary patterns may alter the intestinal bacterial profile, and influence the metabolism of isoflavones and the production of equol. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have a prebiotic activity as well as being a dietary fibre. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether FOS supplementation increases equol production in equol producers and stimulates equol production in equol non-producers in Japanese postmenopausal women. Methods A soy challenge was used to assess equol-producer status prior to the start of the study in healthy postmenopausal Japanese women. The study involved 4 separate groups in randomised crossover design. First, subjects were classified as equol producers (n = 25) or non-producers (n = 18), and then they were randomly assigned to the FOS or control group. All subjects received a daily dose of 37 mg isoflavone conjugates in the capsule (21 mg aglycone form) and either FOS (5g/day) or sucrose as control, in a randomised crossover study design. Equol -production was assessed by testing the serum and urine before and after the 2-week supplementation period. Results The analyses were conducted on 34 subjects completed the study, 21 (61.8%) were classified as equol producers, and 13 (38.2%) as non-producers. Significant differences were observed in the interaction effect of time × equol state after 1 week of intervention (p = 0.006). However there were no effects after 2 weeks of intervention (p = 0.516). Finally, in both equol producers and non-producers, FOS supplementation did not affect the serum equol concentration or the urinary equol to daidzein concentration ratios. Conclusions We have reported that FOS intervention (5 g/day for 2 weeks) does not significantly modulate the capacity of intestinal microbiota to produce equol in postmenopausal Japanese women, in either equol producers or non-producers in this pilot study. Further larger investigations that explore the roles of specific intestinal microbiota in equol production will enable the establishment of dietary conditions that are required to enhance equol production.
Due to potential side-effects of active immunization by cariogenic mutans streptococci, oral administration of passively-derived antibodies could be a more acceptable way to reduce colonization and virulence of these microorganisms in human dentition. The aim of this study was to produce antistreptococcal immunoglobulins into bovine colostrum and explore the possible antibacterial mechanisms of these immunoglobulins against mutans streptococci. Specific serum
V. Loimaranta; J. Tenovuo; S. Virtanen; P. Marnila; E.-L. Syväoja; T. Tupasela; H. Korhonen
Fat accretion, body fatty acid (FA) composition and adipose tissue lipogenic enzyme activities were determined in 1-day-old piglets fed during the first day of life sow colostrum that was either normal (control) or low in fat and high in lactose, galactose or glucose as the sole source of carbohydrate. Malic enzyme activity did not change during the first postnatal day while increases (P < 0.01) were found for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase. However, fat accretion was closely dependent on the amount of ingested fat and FA composition of piglets indicates a shift toward that of colostrum, the extent of which was dependent on the amount of ingested fat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were the highest (P < 0.01) in piglets fed the colostrum high in glucose and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels were the lowest (P < 0.01) in piglets fed the low-fat, high-carbohydrate colostra. Liver weight and glycogen concentration were higher (P < 0.01) in piglets fed the colostra low in fat and high in carbohydrate than in those on the control colostrum. It is suggested that synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrate is negligible in the newborn pig even in the presence of high plasma insulin and low plasma FFA levels. The metabolic fate of carbohydrate is discussed. PMID:7915665
Le Dividich, J; Herpin, P; Mourot, J; Colin, A P
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.
Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers
The objectives of this experiment were to study the effect of dietary supplement of a commercial source of CLA, supplied either in the gestation\\/lactation period or during the post-weaning period, on sow and piglet performance and on the transfer of CLA into colostrum and milk. The experiment was designed to assess both the effect of dietary CLA supplementation to the
G. Cordero; B. Isabel; J. Morales; D. Menoyo; C. Piñeiro; A. Daza; C. J. Lopez-Bote
Intakeofcolostrumbyneonatalcalvesandearlytran- sition to calf starter are two important factors in suc- cessful calf programs. Thirty-one Holstein calves were used to determine health and performance of calves that were 1) allowed to remain with their dams for 3 d and suckle (suckled calves) or were removed from their dams and fed colostrum only by bottle (bottle calves); and were 2) fed
S. T. Franklin; D. M. Amaral-Phillips; J. A. Jackson; A. A. Campbell
Yearling Angora wethers (n = 24; 24+/-1.0 kg BW) were used in an experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment and dietary level of ruminally undegraded protein on DMI, ADG, and mohair production. Untreated casein (UC) or casein treated with formaldehyde (TC) was included at 7% DM of a diet containing 11% CP and 46% concentrate. A slow-release bST form was administered weekly to deliver 0 (Control) or 100 microg/ (kg BW.d) of bST. Plasma concentrations of bST and IGF-I were increased (P < .05) during the 7-d period following bST injection. Ruminal fluid ammonia N concentration was lower (P < .01) for TC than for UC before feeding (6.6 vs 7.5 mg/dL) and 4 h later (8.2 vs 12.2 mg/dL), and total VFA concentration was lower (P < .01) for TC than for UC. Treatment with bST decreased (P = .08) DMI with UC (1.15 vs .91 kg/d) and increased (P = .08) DMI with TC (.95 vs 1.06 kg/d). Formaldehyde treatment of casein increased ADG (65, 74, 55, and 91 g/d; P = .03) and clean fleece production (P < .01; 14.1, 17.3, 15.0, and 18.4 g/d for UC-Control, TC-Control, UC-bST, and TC-bST, respectively), with no effect of bST during the 8-wk period of treatment or for the 8 wk thereafter (P > .10). In conclusion, with yearling Angora wethers, bST does not seem useful to enhance mohair production and may not alter effects of dietary level of ruminally undegradable protein on mohair production. PMID:10340566
Davis, J J; Sahlu, T; Puchala, R; Herselman, M J; Hart, S P; Escobar, E N; Coleman, S W; McCann, J P; Goetsch, A L
The objectives of this experiment were to determine a NE value for pressed beet pulp and the value of concentrated separator by-product (de-sugared molasses) as a ruminal N source in growing and finishing diets for beef cattle. One hundred forty-four cross-bred beef steers (282 +/- 23 kg of initial BW) were used in 2 experiments (growing and finishing). A randomized complete block design was used, with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (level of pressed beet pulp and inclusion of concentrated separator by-product) for both studies. Steers were blocked by BW and allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments. In the growing study, the control diet contained 49.5% corn, 31.5% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, and 9.0% supplement (DM basis). Pressed beet pulp replaced corn at 0, 20, or 40% of dietary DM, and concentrated separator by-product replaced corn and urea at 10% of dietary DM. The growing study lasted for 84 d. Initial BW was an average of 2-d BW after a 3-d, restricted (1.75% of BW) feeding of 50% alfalfa hay and 50% corn silage (DM basis), and final BW was an average of 2-d BW after a 3-d, restricted (1.75% of BW) feeding of 31.5% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 25.0% dry-rolled corn, 20.0% pressed beet pulp, 5.0% concentrated separator by-product, and 8.5% supplement (DM basis). After the growing study, the steers were weighed (415 +/- 32 kg), rerandomized, and allotted to 1 of 6 finishing diets. The control diet for the finishing study included 45% dry-rolled corn, 40% high-moisture corn, 5% brome hay, 5% pressed beet pulp, and 5% supplement. Pressed beet pulp replaced high-moisture corn at 5.0, 12.5, and 20.0% of the dietary DM, and concentrated separator by-product replaced high-moisture corn and supplement at 10.0% of diet DM. Steers were slaughtered on d 83 or 98 of the study. In the growing study, the addition of pressed beet pulp to growing diets linearly decreased (P = 0.001) DMI and ADG and inclusion of 10% concentrated separator by-product decreased (P = 0.001) G:F. Increased levels of pressed beet pulp in the finishing diets caused a linear decrease (P = 0.001) in ADG and tended (P = 0.06 and 0.07 for kg/d and % of BW, respectively) to quadratically decrease DMI, whereas addition of concentrated separator by-product increased (P = 0.02 and 0.001 for kg/d and % of BW, respectively) DMI. Apparent NEg of pressed beet pulp was 94.2% of that of corn in the growing study and 81.5% of that of corn in the finishing study. PMID:17504950
Bauer, M L; Schimek, D E; Reed, J J; Caton, J S; Berg, P T; Lardy, G P
Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg ?-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p < 0.05). Adjusted covariance analysis showed a positive association between DTH and age. Separate analysis of younger and older age groups indicated that it was the older population that benefited from micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a generally good immune and nutritional status is limited and that improvement of immune function in this population may be difficult.
Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud
The effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on the concentration of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves. The hypotheses were that the variable method and time of first colostrum feeding might affect the level of serum Ig and in turn the growth performance and health status of the claves during the early age. The newborn calves were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental groups - G-1: allowed to suckle the dam at own choice, G-2: separated immediately after birth and allowed to suckle the dam first at 6 h and then at own choice, G-3: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam first at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h, G-4: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam within 1 h, at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were lowest (p < 0.01) at birth and increased following colostrum feeding irrespective of the experimental group. Highest concentrations of all the Ig classes were observed at 12-24 h after birth. The concentrations then transiently decreased from day 7 to 14, and then steadily increased after day 28. The concentrations of IgG (p < 0.01) and IgA (p < 0.05) were higher in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the first week after birth. Similarly, higher concentration of IgA (p < 0.05) was found in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the rest of the experimental period. The apparent absorption efficiency of colostral IgG was higher (p < 0.05) in G-4 in relation to G-3. Growth rate and health status were not influenced by the method and time of first colostrum feeding. In conclusion, a 6-h delay in the first colostrum feeding reduced the level of serum Ig noticeably. PMID:21198956
Mech, A; Dhali, A; Baruah, K K; Singh, R K; Mondal, S K; Rajkhowa, C
Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean
K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker
Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often
C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy
Act of delivery is supposed to be connected with antioxidative/oxidative imbalance not only in female but also in her newborn. The aim of the study was to compare antioxidative/oxidative profile of cows and their newborns in blood, colostrum and milk during early post-partum period. Twenty-five healthy pregnant cows and their newborns were included into study. Blood and colostrum/milk samples were obtained immediately after parturition, 24, 48 h as well as 6 and 12 days post-partum. Parameters of antioxidative defence including total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as parameters of lipid (LPI) and protein (SH) peroxidation intensity were determined spectrophotometrically. Obtained results indicated dynamic changes in values of examined parameters during time of experiment, which were significantly marked between 24 and 48 h post-partum, and the relationship between mother and her newborn. All parameters except for GSH-Px were markedly higher in blood of newborns as in their mothers. Moreover, TAC and GSH-Px in colostrum were lower as in blood of mothers and their newborns during first 24 h and showed opposite relationship later on. LPI was higher in colostrum as in plasma of mothers and their newborns during first 48 h, while SH was lower in colostrum as in plasma of examined animals. Values of antioxidative parameters increased significantly within examined period of time, while the content of SH groups tended to decrease and lipid peroxidation intensity fluctuated. Dynamics in changes of examined parameters may suggest temporary imbalance in antioxidative/oxidative status and adequate answer of organism to current challenge resulting from overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Present study may bring new knowledge into studies of post-parturient and post-natal period in cows and calves and may help preventing from diseases of this period. PMID:21198972
Albera, E; Kankofer, M
A study of iron, zinc, copper and selenium concentration levels was carried out in three compartments namely, maternal serum (MS), colostrums and cord blood serum (CS) of healthy Indian mothers (n = 42) who delivered healthy normal neonates without any congenital anomalies at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre hospital, Mumbai. Fe, Zn, Cu in maternal serum, cord blood and colostrums were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry while Se was determined by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry. It was seen that there was a significant difference in the level of trace elements in the three compartments. The average levels of Fe in the three compartments were 1,132 ± 519, 2,312 ± 789 and 1,183 ± 602 ?g/L while Zn was 514 ± 149, 819 ± 224 and 7,148 ± 2,316 ?g/L respectively. Mean Cu values were 1,614 ± 295, 301 ± 77 and 392 ± 174 ?g/L respectively while Se values were 70 ± 15, 36 ± 10 and 23 ± 8 ?g/L respectively. The results indicated a positive correlation of Fe and Zn concentrations in MS versus CS which were (r = 0.386), (r = 0.572) respectively and Fe levels in MS and colostrums (r = 0.235). A few inter element correlations were found within compartments. Zn and Se showed a negative correlation in both MS (r = -0.489) and colostrums (r = -0.258) while a positive inter correlation of Fe and Zn was seen in MS (r = 0.44) and in CS (r = 0.54). This study gave us an overview of the serum and colostrum values of mother and neonates in Indian population, data of which are scarce. PMID:24757300
Jariwala, Mehul; Suvarna, S; Kiran Kumar, G; Amin, Alpa; Udas, A C
Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.
Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.
A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of metabolism in the calf at birth and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils after colostrum feeding. It might be feasible to design nutrient supplements to fortify colostrum in a way that metabolic and immunologic capabilities of the calf are improved. PMID:23587395
Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J
When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic "browning" generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed and are harmful to human health remains highly controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, inflammatory mediators, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for 6 wk with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 y, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared at either high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-? receptors I and II), soluble receptor for AGEs, and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs were measured at baseline and after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In the low-AGE diet group, the following changed from baseline to 6 wk (mean ± SE): serum CML from 763 ± 24 to 679 ± 29 ng/mL (P = 0.03) and urine CML from 1.37 ± 1.47 to 0.77 ± 2.01 ?g/mL creatinine (P = 0.02). There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high-AGE diet group. A high- or low-AGE diet had no significant impact on peripheral arterial tonometry or any inflammatory mediators after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged to older adults, consumption of a diet high or low in AGEs for 6 wk had no impact on endothelial function and inflammatory mediators, 2 precursors of cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01402973. PMID:24744309
Semba, Richard D; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J; Sun, Kai; Turner, Randi; Silber, Harry A; Talegawkar, Sameera; Ferrucci, Luigi; Novotny, Janet A
Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda.
Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468
Ha, Sung Kyu
Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women1-5
Background: The Western diet may be a risk factor for osteoporo- sis. Excess acid generated from high protein intakes increases cal- ciumexcretionandboneresorption.Fruitandvegetableintakecould balance this excess acidity by providing alkaline salts of potassium. Algorithms based on dietary intakes of key nutrients can be used to approximatenetendogenousacidproduction(NEAP)andtoexplore the association between dietary acidity and bone health. Objective: We investigated the relation between dietary
Helen M Macdonald; William D Fraser; Marion K Campbell; David M Reid
11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI
We explored the relationships among girls’ weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended ?3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management.
FIORITO, LAURA M.; VENTURA, ALISON K.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT, HELEN; BIRCH, LEANN L.
We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.
The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P < .01) villus circumferences, areas, and heights in total small intestine and especially in the duodenum than calves fed only milk replacer. Furthermore, villus circumferences and areas in total small intestine were greater (P < .05) in calves fed colostrum once than in calves fed no colostrum. Villus size in total small intestine was smaller (P < .05) in rbGH-treated than in control calves; jejunum villus circumferences and heights were especially reduced (P < .05). Crypt depths in ileum were greater (P < .05) in rbGH-treated calves. In conclusion, prolonged colostrum supply significantly enhanced small intestinal villus size in neonatal calves. In contrast, Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335
Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W
The influence of various organic cosolvents on the stability and activity of the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase from bovine colostrum (GalT) and of its ancillary enzyme UDP-galactose-4'-epimerase has been investigated using the glucosylated alkaloid colchicoside (1) as a model substrate. It has been found that some cosolvents, such as Me2SO and MeOH, can be used up to 20% v/v without any influence on the performance of these enzymes, while others, such as tetrahydrofuran, rapidly inactivated GalT at concentrations as low as 5% v/v. These results have been exploited for the galactosylation of the poorly water soluble coumarinic glucoside fraxin (2). PMID:9648270
Riva, S; Sennino, B; Zambianchi, F; Danieli, B; Panza, L
ABSTRACT After intramammary,immunization,with horserad- ish peroxidase, bovine colostrum containing anti- peroxidase,immunoglobulins,(Ig) was,obtained. Thermoresistance,of the,antigen-binding,region,of these,Ig was,studied,using,a,direct,competitive ELISA. This technique,is based,on,the competition between,the anti-peroxidase,IgG coated,to the plate and,the anti-peroxidase,IgG contained,in the colos- trum to bind peroxidase, the antigen, and the enzyme responsible,for development,of the color of the assay. Thus, the degree of denaturation of the antigen- binding,region in the IgG molecule,can
E. Dominguez; M. D. Perez; M. Calvo
Alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v) Triton X-114, 200 ?L of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v) sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). PMID:22567568
Zhang, Fan; Qi, Xiaohua; Zou, Mingqiang; Li, Jinfeng
Alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (?-La) and betalactoglobulin (?-Lg) can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v) Triton X-114, 200 ?L of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v) sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
Zhang, Fan; Qi, Xiaohua; Zou, Mingqiang; Li, Jinfeng
Lipocalins form a widespread class of proteins involved in the transport of weakly soluble vitamins, hormones or hydrophobic molecules. ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col), a major lipocalin present in whey was purified and characterized from buffalo colostrum. The molecular weight of BLG-col as determined by Liquid chromatography -electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was 18.257 kDa and the peptide mass fingerprint of the purified protein revealed 67% sequence homology to buffalo milk ?-lg. The N-terminal-IIVTQ and LC-ESI-collision-induced dissociation-Electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analyses of doubly (m/z 1156(+2)) and triply (m/z 546(+3)) charged ion pairs corresponding to VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK (41-60) and TPEVDDEALEKFDK (125-138) sequences confirmed the identity of BLG-col. Using these peptide sequences, the location of a gene encoding for BLG-col was identified on chromosome 11 at 11q28 loci of bovine genome. The unique property of the BLG-col isolated from buffalo colostrum was its strong and specific haemagglutinating activity with 'O' blood of human erythrocytes with 10,309 HAU/mg protein. The cell surface localization of BLG-col on human erythrocytes was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and the specificity of interaction was established by immunoblot analysis of human erythrocyte membrane proteins. Based on these observations, we suggest the presence of lipocalin receptor (70 kDa) on human erythrocyte membrane and the multiple sequence alignment supported structural diversity among lipocalin receptors. PMID:21546361
Chougule, Rohit A; Aparna, Huligerepura S
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080
Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe
In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)
Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others
Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729
Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes
The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake
E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis
Objective Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. Methods We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were ?18 years of age, had a child <4 years old, and who then had a vaginal birth with a healthy, normal weight infant. Of the 133 women, 68 breastfed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP), and 65 had not breastfed during pregnancy (NBFP). On day 2 and at 1-month postpartum, 24-hour intake of breast milk and other liquids was measured. Twice weekly home surveillance documented infant morbidity and dietary intakes. Anthropometry was taken at birth and at 1 month. Maternal anthropometric, health, and socioeconomic status data were collected pre- and postpartum. Results Pregnant BFP mothers breastfed 5.3 ± 4.3 times/day. BFP and NBFP infants did not differ in breastfeeding behavior or in colostrum intake on day 2. BFP infants breastfed longer per feed and per 24 hours (35.2 minutes/24 hours) than did NBFP infants; however, 1-month intakes per feed tended to be lower among the BFP infants. After controlling for confounders, BFP infants gained 125 g less than did NBFP infants (about 15% of mean weight gain). A sustained decline would result in a ?0.7 z score change in weight-for-age by 6 months. Conclusions A lactation-pregnancy overlap had a negative effect on early infant outcomes. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the effect continues past 1 month of age.
Marquis, Grace S.; Penny, Mary E.; Diaz, Judith M.; Marin, R. Margot
The presence of antibodies to the intimin beta-binding region (Int280-beta) of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) in serum from 20 goat kids from 2 herds, as well as in goat colostrum, was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the onset and subsequent pattern of shedding of AEEC from the same goat kids over a 6-mo period was investigated. All the colostrum and serum samples tested contained antibodies against Int280-beta. The association between the antibody titer and the isolation of AEEC suggests that antibodies to intimin beta do not prevent colonization of the intestine by AEEC in goat kids. The AEEC were generally shed only transiently. Most AEEC isolated from the kids belonged to serogroup O26. Three isolates belonged to serogroup O157. These data show that goat kids may be a reservoir of AEEC that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:20357960
Orden, José A; De la Fuente, Ricardo; Yuste, María; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Horcajo, Pilar; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo
Colostrum is a complex mixture of bioactives that promotes neonate growth. Recently, we have found by in vivo study that skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC), obtained from a Holstein herd on days 6-7 after parturition, had an ability to maintain intestinal integrity. In the present study we investigated effects of SCBLC on rat intestinal IEC-6 cell proliferation in vitro. A fraction containing ?s1-casein was found to have a robust stimulation effect as compared to other protein fractions from SCBLC and even the ?s1-casein fraction from milk from other Holstein herds. Furthermore, the SCBLC ?s1-casein molecule demonstrated not only slightly slower mobility on both SDS- and native-PAGE than other bovine milk ?s1-caseins, but also a peculiar conformation reminiscent of moltenglobule in the circular dichroism spectrum. These findings may be of relevant to the competence of SCBLC to preserve intestinal integrity. PMID:23649260
Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Xijier; Inagaki, Mizuho; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Saito, Shouichiro; Yabe, Tomio; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Colostrum and mature milk samples of poor class South Indian women were analysed for total protein, casein, lactose, fat and\\u000a different lipid components such as free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The significance of the whey: casein ratio is discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The data for different lipid components not available in the Indian literature for human colostrum and
K. G. Prasannan; R. Rajan; M. K. Ramanathan
Vitamin K is essential for the activity of ?-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including matrix Gla28 protein and osteocalcin; an inhibitor of vascular calcification and a bone matrix protein, respectively. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to the production of non-carboxylated, inactive proteins and this could contribute to the high risk of vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. To help resolve this, we measured vitamin K(1) and K(2) intake (4-day food record), and the vitamin K status in 40 hemodialysis patients. The intake was low in these patients (median 140 ?g/day), especially on days of dialysis and the weekend as compared to intakes reported in a reference population of healthy adults (mean K(1) and K(2) intake 200 ?g/day and 31 ?g/day, respectively). Non-carboxylated bone and coagulation proteins were found to be elevated in 33 hemodialysis patients, indicating subclinical hepatic vitamin K deficiency. Additionally, very high non-carboxylated matrix Gla28 protein levels, endemic to all patients, suggest vascular vitamin K deficiency. Thus, compared to healthy individuals, hemodialysis patients have a poor overall vitamin K status due to low intake. A randomized controlled trial is needed to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduces the risk of arterial calcification and mortality in hemodialysis patients. PMID:22648294
Cranenburg, Ellen C M; Schurgers, Leon J; Uiterwijk, Herma H; Beulens, Joline W J; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W; Westerhuis, Ralf; Magdeleyns, Elke J; Herfs, Marjolein; Vermeer, Cees; Laverman, Gozewijn D
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs.
Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee
Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134
Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K
Summary 1. Changes in milk composition and in mammary permeability to labelled sucrose and monovalent ions have been studied in late\\u000a pregnancy and at the time of parturition. These data have been compared with those obtained previously in lactating goats.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Colostrum contained more sodium, chloride, protein, immunoglobulins and less potassium and lactose than milk. The composition\\u000a of the aqueous phase
J. L. Linzell; M. Peaker
Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1–3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of
Fabiano P. Ferreira; Wilma A. Starke-Buzetti
Human milk is usually the only source of food for infants during the first 4 to 5 months of their life. Maternal environmental mercury exposure is directly related to fish consumption or amalgam filling. In this research, 38 human milk samples were collected from mothers of Lenjan area who were not occupationally exposed with mercury. Mercury concentration in human milk was determined by AMA254 Mercury Analyzer. A level of mercury was examined in relation to somatometric, demographic and dental amalgam parameters. Obtained results showed that only dental amalgam significantly increased the mercury level in human milk (p?< 0.001). The mean mercury concentrations in milk of mothers without teeth fillings (n?= 13), with one to three teeth fillings (n?= 10), and four to eight teeth fillings (n?= 15) were 2.87, 5.47, and 13.33 ?g/l, respectively. The result of this study also showed a positive correlation of mercury milk levels with the number of teeth fillings of the mother (p?< 0.05, r?= 0.755). The estimated weekly intake of mercury of a breastfed infant in this study was, in some cases, higher than provisional tolerance weekly intake recommended by FAO/WHO, which pose a threat to their health. PMID:21494835
Norouzi, Elaheh; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud
In a previous work, VP6 recombinant protein was produced using baculovirus system and it was evaluated in a colostrum-deprived calf model. This vaccine was able to protect calves against viral challenge without inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAb), suggesting that another immunological effectors were involved in the protection observed. In this work, groups of cows (n=4) were immunized in the last third of gestation with a bovine rotavirus (BRV) experimental vaccine and with a VP6 subunit vaccine. At birth, colostrums from vaccinated and non-vaccinated cows were processed and viable colostral mononuclear cells were obtained. With the purpose of determining the cytokine patterns generated by cells from immune secretions (colostrums and milk), a relative quantification by real time PCR was standardized. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine transcript levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-? and IFN-? from these cells. Colostral and milk mononuclear cells expressed a different cytokine transcript expression pattern regarding the vaccine used. These results demonstrated that the colostral cellular population was active and could exert its action influencing the final immune response. PMID:23602433
Gonzalez, D D; Rimondi, A; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Mozgovoj, M; Bellido, D; Wigdorovitz, A; Dus Santos, M J
More than 25% of adult population worldwide and according to the EHUH study 37% of the adult population of Croatia have hypertension. In the last decades, a dramatic increase has been recorded in the prevalence of hypertension, and it is predicted that this trend will lead to an even higher prevalence in the near future. This could primarily be explained by strong influence of environmental factors. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have proved that high salt intake is one of the most important risk factors. High salt intake increases total peripheral vascular resistance, induces oxidative stress and inflammation, thus accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Independently of the effects on blood pressure, salt intake promotes left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria and increases the risk of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that salt intake reduction is associated with lower blood pressure and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake in daily meals should be the main measure in primary prevention of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and it should be repeatedly emphasized not only to hypertensive patients, but also to the population at large. PMID:20649075
Jelakovi?, Bojan; Vukovi?, Ivana; Reiner, Zeljko
The Japanese population routinely consumes iodine-rich seaweed, thereby probably making Japan the nation with the highest iodine intake worldwide. The present study aimed to estimate the duration of dietary records (DRs) needed to calculate the usual iodine intake and to ascertain the frequency of iodine intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese. Four 3-d DRs for the 4 seasons within a year were collected for 55 men and 58 women. On the basis of analysis of variance, the total variance in iodine intake was classified into inter-individual and intra-individual components. The frequency of appearance for high iodine intakes was estimated. The most commonly consumed types of iodine-containing food items were seaweed, milk and milk products, fish and shellfish, and tofu. The percentage contribution of intra-individual variance was markedly greater than that of inter-individual variance, and the excessive iodine intake was intermittent rather than continuous. The duration for which dietary records were required to assess the usual intake of iodine within 10% of their true mean was 6,276 d for men and 4,953 d for women. The period that transpired until a value was exceeded once was 6.3 d/occurrence for values above UL (2,200 ?g), 8.5 d/occurrence for values above 3,000 ?g, 9.8 d/occurrence for values above 4,000 ?g, 11.2 d/occurrence for values above 5,000 ?g, and 16.7 d/occurrence for values above 10,000 ?g. To avoid errors in interpretation, it is inappropriate to assess the habitual nutrient intake of a nutrient that is intermittently consumed at maximal levels. It is important to assess the iodine intake in consideration of the range of the nutrient intake and of the time period in which the upper limit is exceeded. PMID:24064731
Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Nakade, Makiko; Matsumoto, Teruki; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Tsubono, Yoshitaka
In Sweden, milk and milk products are important sources of daily energy intake but the role of milk with preschool lunch meals has been debated frequently and water is often alternatively given today. We studied the effects of milk or water on lunch energy intake. Water or milk alternatively was served in a controlled, within-subject design on 12 occasions to
ANNA HÄGG; TOMMY JACOBSON; GERHARD NORDLUND; STEPHAN RÖSSNER
The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.
The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934
Changes in the quality and quantity of carbohydrate foods may compromise nutrient intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesized that glycemic index, glycemic load (GL), carbohydrate intake, grains, and cereal product consumption would be associated with nutrient adequacy. Eighty-two women with GDM (61% of Asian background, 34% whites) completed a 3-day food record following their routine group nutrition education session. Nutrient intakes were compared to Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. Nutrient intake across energy-adjusted tertiles of glycemic index, GL, carbohydrate intake, and intake of grains and cereal products were assessed. The majority of women (66%-99%) did not meet the NRV for fiber, folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron, and exceeded NRV for saturated fat and sodium. Higher dietary GL was associated with lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat; vitamin E; and potassium (all P < .001). Higher grain intake was not significantly associated with intake of any micronutrients. In Australian women with GDM, high dietary GL predicts greater risk of poor nutrition. PMID:23602242
Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C
Background Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed. Results Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns. Conclusions Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy farms. Future work should focus on the effect of waste milk feeding on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota.
Background Selenium (Se) is important for the postnatal development of the calf. In the first weeks of life, milk is the only source of Se for the calf and insufficient level of Se in the milk may lead to Se deficiency. Maternal Se supplementation is used to prevent this. We investigated the effect of dietary Se-enriched yeast (SY) or sodium selenite (SS) supplements on selected blood parameters and on Se concentrations in the blood, colostrum, and milk of Se-deficient Charolais cows. Methods Cows in late pregnancy received a mineral premix with Se (SS or SY, 50 mg Se per kg premix) or without Se (control – C). Supplementation was initiated 6 weeks before expected calving. Blood and colostrum samples were taken from the cows that had just calved (Colostral period). Additional samples were taken around 2 weeks (milk) and 5 weeks (milk and blood) after calving corresponding to Se supplementation for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively (Lactation period) for Se, biochemical and haematological analyses. Results Colostral period. Se concentrations in whole blood and colostrum on day 1 post partum and in colostrum on day 3 post partum were 93.0, 72.9, and 47.5 ?g/L in the SY group; 68.0, 56.0 and 18.8 ?g/L in the SS group; and 35.1, 27.3 and 10.5 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. Differences among all the groups were significant (P < 0.01) at each sampling, just as the colostrum Se content decreases were from day 1 to day 3 in each group. The relatively smallest decrease in colostrum Se concentration was found in the SY group (P < 0.01). Lactation period. The mean Se concentrations in milk in weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation were 20.4 and 19.6 ?g/L in the SY group, 8.3 and 11.9 ?g/L in the SS group, and 6.9 and 6.6 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. The values only differed significantly in the SS group (P < 0.05). The Se concentrations in the blood were similar to those of cows examined on the day of calving. The levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were 364.70, 283.82 and 187.46 ?kat/L in the SY, SS, and C groups, respectively. This was the only significantly variable biochemical and haematological parameter. Conclusion Se-enriched yeast was much more effective than sodium selenite in increasing the concentration of Se in the blood, colostrum and milk, as well as the GSH-Px activity.
Slavik, Petr; Illek, Josef; Brix, Michal; Hlavicova, Jaroslava; Rajmon, Radko; Jilek, Frantisek
The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women 1 1 This study was funded by Symbiotics, Sedona, CA (www.symbiotics.com). This experiment is in compliance with the current laws of the United States, the state of Nebraska, and the University of Nebraska system
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 wk of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo (whey protein) and colostrum group (20 g\\/d in powder form). Each subject participated in aerobic and heavy-resistance training at least three times per wk. Body
Jose Antonio; Michael S Sanders; Darin Van Gammeren
The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of acute-phase proteins and minerals as indicators for the reactivity in 1-year-old sheep. A total of 26 Chios breed sheep were fed colostrum-breast milk (control, n = 15)or were deprived afterseparation from their mother immediately after birth(experimental, n = 11). Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 was inoculated intratracheally and blood samples were taken in vacuumed sera on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22. Antibiotic treatment was initiated after blood sampling on day 22, and blood samples were taken on days 1, 4 and 7 after the treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, zinc, iron and calcium, which are the indicators of immune function and infectious diseases were analysed. No significant difference between the control and trial groups before and after the infection was determined. However, serum CRP, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen levels were increased in the course of the infection. These levels were restored to normal following treatment. PMID:16755360
Ulutas, P A; Ozpinar, A
Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in
M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend
This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)
Amschler, Denise H.
Objective To evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. Study Design 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR] (95% CI; P, trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 – 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P, trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 – 1.12; 0.07). Further, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P = 0.007). Conclusions Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.
Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.
This tribute to Bart Hoebel briefly reviews the following topics. Metabolic processes are intimately intertwined with food intake as well as drug taking. Changes in any of these processes can be adequately adjusted to the environment to preclude major perturbations in homeostatically-regulated systems, but only if the environment is predictable. Learning plays a critical role in adapting these processes to
Stephen C. Woods; Douglas S. Ramsay
Food intake patterns of 545 adult Melbourne Chinese were studied in 1988 and 1989 using a 220-item food-frequency questionnaire appropriate for Chinese eating practices. Men and women were compared, adjusting for age, time in Australia and education. Men consumed more rice and alcoholic beverages as energy. In women, the energy intake was derived from foods of traditional Chinese types. There were two types of consumption patterns: in the first group were those who acculturated towards an Australian way of eating by replacing some traditional Chinese foods, such as rice, pork, leafy green and cruciferous vegetables, soups and tea, with 'new foods', such as wheat products, red meats and coffee; in the second were those who limited their intake to a handful of traditional Chinese foods as the major source of energy. The educated, the professional and those with an administrative profession, the Australian-born and those with a longer length of stay fitted into the first group, and were more acculturated towards Australia than those born in the People's Republic of China or Vietnam and who migrated at an older age. The first group may benefit from the best of both worlds, but may risk the diseases of an industrialised society. The second group may be trapped at a cultural crossroads and may be unable to make appropriate food choices. Public health efforts in Australia, where one in every five is overseas-born, should provide for nutrition and health education for new and aged migrants of non-European cultural backgrounds. PMID:8616204
Hsu-Hage, B H; Ibiebele, T; Wahlqvist, M L
Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake.
Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W
The clinical response to Teschen disease and the excretion and rate of virus distribution in tissues of colostrum-deprived, specific pathogenfree pigs was determined. Severe, mild, and clinically inapparent responses to the disease were noticed following simultaneous intracranial and intranasal infections. Fourteen-day-old pigs reacted more severely to infection than 21-day-old pigs. The virus was detected in feces 2-3 days following infection but not in stools of surviving pigs 30 days after infection. The highest concentration of virus occurred during the incubation period and before onset of paralysis; the lowest concentrations were found during terminal disease stages. In tissues collected before or immediately after death of pigs, Teschen disease virus was found in several visceral organs but not in blood, urine or urinary bladder tissue. Virus yield was highest in brain and spinal cord tissues. Highest virus concentration was found in the cervical thoracic portions of the spinal cord, thalamus and cerebellum. Other aspects of the clinical disease are discussed. ImagesFig. 5.Fig. 6.
Dardiri, A. H.; Seibold, H. R.; DeLay, P. D.
Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.
Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136
Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M
Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-
Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL
Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…
Pappas, James P.; And Others
Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091
Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J
Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal? PMID:15321792
German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J
Human breast milk represents the best choice for the nutrition of infants. However, in addition to containing beneficial nutrients and antibodies, it can also be considered the best indicator of infant exposure to contaminants. We developed a multi-residue method using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 57 persistent organic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides, 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human milk and colostrum samples. We have used primary secondary amine in the clean-up step as it gave a more efficient separation of the analytes from fat and superior removal of the co-extracted substances compared with gel permeation chromatography. No significant matrix effect was observed for the tested pollutants, and therefore matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 74.8-113.0 %. The precision was satisfactory, with relative standard deviations below 16 %, while values of 0.1-0.4 ?g L(-1) were established as the limit of quantification for all the target analytes (0.05 and 100 ?g L(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 18 human colostrum and 23 mature milk samples. All the samples tested were positive for at least nine different residues, with some samples containing up to 24 contaminants. Remarkably, the contaminants hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, PCB 180, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were present in 100 % of the colostrum and mature milk samples analyzed. PMID:24162817
Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D
Summary A mixture containing an ultrafiltrate fraction (UF) of bovine colostrum (6.7%), adult bovine serum (BS) (1%), and human holo-transferrin\\u000a (hTF) (5 mg\\/liter) was developed for cultivation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and African green monkey kidney cells\\u000a (Vero). The growth-supporting activity of the mixture (UF\\/BS\\/hTF) was comparable to that of 1 to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)\\u000a and considerably
Background:Consumptionofplantfoodsanddairyandmeatprod- ucts may moderate increases in blood pressure. Objective: The objective was to evaluate associations of dietary intake with the 15-y incidence of elevated blood pressure (EBP; ie, incidentsystolicBP130mmHg,diastolicBP85mmHg,oruse of antihypertensive medication). Design: Proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate relationsofdietaryintakeatyears0and7withthe15-yincidenceof EBP in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study of 4304 participants aged 18-30 y at
Lyn M Steffen; Candyce H Kroenke; Xinhua Yu; Mark A Pereira; Martha L Slattery; Linda Van Horn; Myron D Gross; David R Jacobs Jr
Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) to the gestation and lactation diets on the performance of sows and their progeny. At 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing 1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g of fermentation product/d through gestation and 15.0 g of fermentation product/d through lactation (SCFP treatment, n=22), and 2) sows fed a diet with equal amounts of a mixture of corn and soybean meal instead of the SCFP (CON treatment, n=20). Sow BW and backfat thickness were recorded. Blood was collected from sows, as well as piglets, for the measurement of cell numbers, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and IgG. Fecal samples from d 7 to 9 of lactation were collected to determine apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. The composition of colostrum and milk was also measured. No difference (P > 0.10) in reproductive performance was observed between treatments. However, sows in the SCFP treatment tended to have increased total litter weaning weight (P=0.068) and litter BW gain (P=0.084) compared with sows in the CON treatment. Neutrophil count was decreased (P < 0.05) by adding the fermentation product on d 110 of gestation and d 17 of lactation, whereas a decreased (P < 0.05) white blood cell count was observed only on d 110 of gestation. Concentration of PUN tended to be greater (P=0.069) for sows in the CON treatment compared with sows in the SCFP treatment on d 110 of gestation. Apparent total tract nutrient digestibility values of ash, CP, DM, and ether extract were not affected (P > 0.10) by adding the fermentation product. Protein and fat contents in colostrum and milk did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments. Colostrum from sows in the SCFP treatment contained a greater (P < 0.05) amount of ash than colostrum from sows in the CON treatment. Immunoglobulin G measured in the colostrum, milk, and plasma of piglets did not differ (P > 0.10) between sows in the CON and SCFP treatments. This study indicates that adding the SCFP in the gestation and lactation diets has the potential to 1) improve litter BW gain during lactation, possibly by improving maternal protein utilization, as shown in a tendency to reduce PUN; 2) improve the maternal health status, as shown by the reduced neutrophil cell count; and 3) increase milk production, as shown in a tendency to improve litter BW gain without affecting nutrient composition of the colostrum and milk. PMID:21383042
Shen, Y B; Carroll, J A; Yoon, I; Mateo, R D; Kim, S W
Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639
Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas
NDL-PCBs dietary intake was recently estimated in France by combining results of food products contamination by NDL-PCBs (1665 samples collected through 2002–2006 national monitoring programs) with food consumption data of the French “INCA” survey (individual and national survey of dietary intake, performed in 1998–1999). The mean dietary intake of NDL-PCBs estimated from the sum of 6 congeners (PCB 28, 52,
Nathalie Arnich; Alexandra Tard; Jean-Charles Leblanc; Bruno Le Bizec; Jean-François Narbonne; Remi Maximilien
Objective Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relations between dairy intake and CT lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women, aged 45–84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3,965 MESA participants. Results Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with FVC (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and the lowest quintile of total dairy intake was ?0.92 (p for trend=0.04) for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL (p=0.01) for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 (p=0.02) and ?0.98 (p=0.01) for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. Conclusions Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density.
Jiang, Rui; Jacobs, David R.; He, Ka; Hoffman, Eric; Hankinson, John; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Barr, R. Graham
The immunoprotective properties of bovine milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) have led to a recent proliferation of nutritional products incorporating this protein. It has therefore become critical that reliable analytical techniques for the measurement of the IgG content in such products are available. This literature review surveys current methods of analysis for IgG, including separation-based or immuno-based concentration analysis. The review also discusses nutraceutical applications, regulatory issues, stability of IgG and the significance of primary reference material in IgG analysis. PMID:17579844
Gapper, Leyton W; Copestake, David E J; Otter, Don E; Indyk, Harvey E
We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods, and 2% from supplements. By age 9 and 11 y, the majority of girls did not meet calcium recommendations. Higher calcium intake at ages 7 and 9 y was associated with higher TBBMC at age 11 y. Calcium intake at age 9 y was also positively associated with TBBMC gained from age 9 to 11 y. Calcium intake at age 11 y was not correlated with TBBMC at the same age. Relations between calcium intake and TBBMC did not differ for total calcium and for calcium from dairy sources, likely reflecting the fact that dairy products were the major source of calcium in this sample. Results from the present study provide new longitudinal evidence that calcium intake, especially calcium from dairy foods, can have a favorable effect on girls' TBBMC during middle childhood.
Fiorito, Laura M.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.
A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.
Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.
Specific antisera prepared in rabbits against porcine immunoglobulins have been used in the measurement of IgG, IgA and IgM in porcine colostrum and milk throughout the first weeks of lactation. The immunoglobulins account for more than 60 per cent of the colostral whey protein and approximately 80 per cent of the immunoglobulin is IgG. During the first 2–3 days of lactation IgG and IgM fall to approximately one-tenth of the original level but IgA shows only a two- to three-fold decrease and becomes the predominant immunoglobulin in sow milk. Antibodies to Escherichia coli 0141 and 08 antigens were predominantly associated with IgA although IgM is an important antibody in colostrum. Immunofluorescent studies of IgA in mammary tissue provide some evidence for local synthesis. The passage of sow milk IgA through the alimentary tract was studied in young pigs with re-entrant fistulae prepared in the small intestine. The observations are discussed in relation to the function of IgA as an antibody providing protection in the alimentary tract. ImagesFIG. 3
Porter, P.; Noakes, D. E.; Allen, W. D.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (?(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the ?(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance ?(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334
Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin
Objective Develop/refine and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole grain intake. Design Cross sectional survey Setting Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school Participants Children in 4th-6th grades (n=98) and parents (n=76) Variables of Interest Child whole grain intake, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, preferences, knowledge regarding whole grain foods, whole grain availability at home. Analysis Correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA. Findings Internal consistency and test-retest correlation coefficients for child psychosocial scales were modest or acceptable (? = .55-.70). Parents reported a mean of 15 ± 7 whole grain products available at home. Child mean daily intake of total grain was about 8 servings and intake of products containing whole grain was slightly over 2 servings. Reported home availability and refined grain intake were significantly related to whole grain intake while psychosocial variables were not. Conclusions and Implications Home availability may be a more important variable associated with whole grain intake than psychosocial variables.
Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.
Current epidemiologic data lack consistent evidence for an association between consumption of dairy products and breast cancer risk. In this study we assessed the relationship between consumption of dairy products and the odds of breast cancer. This case-control study was conducted on 275 women (100 cases and 175 controls). Data regarding sociodemographic factors, medical history, medications, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary data were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The odds [95% confidence interval (CI)] of breast cancer were estimated across quartile categories of energy-adjusted dairy intake using multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. We observed that higher consumption of total dairy intake was accompanied with reduced breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04-0.38]. A similar inverse association was also observed for higher intakes of low-fat and fermented dairy products (P for trend <0.05). Lower intake of high-fat dairy was associated with reduced odds of breast cancer, and no significant association was found between nonfermented dairy and breast cancer risk. Our study demonstrates the protective effects of high intakes of total dairy, low-fat and fermented dairy, as well as low intakes of high-fat dairy products against breast cancer risk and shows no association with nonfermented dairy. PMID:24066929
Bahadoran, Zahra; Karimi, Zeinab; Houshiar-rad, Anahita; Mirzayi, Hamid-Reza; Rashidkhani, Bahram
Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…
Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.
Asian populations including Koreans are assumed to have a higher isoflavone intake due to the higher consumption of soybean. However, it is difficult to estimate isoflavone intake because there is no isoflavone database in Korea. In this study, an isoflavone database was established with sys- tematic review. Literature with analytical values of Korean soybeans and its products were collected and
Min Kyung; Yoon Ju Song; Hyojee Joung; Shan-ji Li; Hee Young Paik
1. Indirect calorimetry was used to study the effects on the energy metabolism of cockerels and hens after peak lay of a hybrid layer strain of regulating food or energy intake to 80% of ad libitum for an extended period of time.2. Regulation of food intake decreased fasting and fed heat productions per bird and per unit metabolic body weight
M. G. MacLeod; S. G. Tullett; T. R. Jewitt
The evaluation of nutrient intake is essential for the definition of health policies and as guidance for the establishment of factors, which could be involved in the occurrence of disease. The study aims to describe energy, nutrients and ethanol intake and the prevalence of inadequate macronutrient intake of Portuguese adults, by gender, age and education. We collected information on 2389 adults (61.6% of women), living in Porto, Portugal, selected by random digit dialling. Dietary intake was estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, covering the previous year. Nutrient intake data was obtained using the software Food Processor Plus, adapted to Portuguese foods. The prevalence of nutrient inadequate intake was established by comparison with the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes: 10-35% (proteins), 45-65% (carbohydrates) and 20-35% (total fat). The average contribution of protein, carbohydrates, total fat and ethanol to the total daily energetic intake was 18.4%, 48.9%, 29.3% and 5.0%, respectively. The consumption of energy and macronutrients was inversely related with age and directly with education. The higher ethanol consumption was found among men with 50-64 years and less educated (= 4 years). More than 80% of the adult population of Porto reported an intake of protein, carbohydrates and total fat, according to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes. Total fat was the macronutrient with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (17.1% in women and 21.0% in men). PMID:18489834
Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla; Santos, Ana C; Ramos, Elisabete; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique
PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination data in food products consumed in France collected from national monitoring programmes (2001–04) and representing analytical results for almost 800 individual food samples were combined with food consumption data from the French national dietary survey to estimate PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs dietary intakes, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs). The mean PCDD\\/Fs and DL-PCBs intakes were estimated as
A. Tard; S. Gallotti; J.-C. Leblanc; J.-L. Volatier
Milk samples averaging 500 ml were collected weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum from five lactating mares. Samples were obtained by hand milking after oxytocin administration and while the foal nursed. Dry matter, protein and gross energy were higher in samples obtained at 10 and 17 days postpartum than those obtained during the midlactation period of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples averaged 10.5% dry matter, 1.29% fat, 1.93% protein, 6.91% sugar and 50.6 kcal/100 g. Protein comprised 22% of milk energy. Milk intake was estimated in five foals from deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover to be 16, 15 and 18 kg/day at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum. Milk intake differed significantly among foals and at the various postpartum ages, whether intake was expressed as a daily amount, as a percent of foal body weight, per kilogram0.75 or per gram of foal body weight gain. Milk production was equivalent to 3.1% of the mare's body weight at 11 days postpartum, 2.9% at 25 days and 3.4% at 39 days. On the basis of metabolic body size milk output by the mare was 149 g/kg0.75, 139 g/kg0.75 and 163 g/kg0.75 at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively. Nutrient intakes by foals were calculated from milk composition and intake data. At 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively, dry matter intake equaled 3.1, 2.1 and 2.0% of foal body weight, and daily gross energy intake was 9380, 7590 and 8910 kcal. For each gram of body weight gain, foals ingested 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age. PMID:6619986
Oftedal, O T; Hintz, H F; Schryver, H F
Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...
Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...
Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2
Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: email@example.com Center Number:
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Center Number:
Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: email@example.com Center Number: N/A Shipping
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Center Number: N/A Shipping
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: email@example.com Center Number:
Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0
Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes) Table A16. Beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1
Observations and studies were conducted on the origin and destination of sediment in irrigation water, and the effects of sediment adsorbed on the wetted perimeter of furrows on water intake and erosion. Fine sediment adsorbed on the perimeter reduced intake and increased soil water tension which was the primary mechanism holding the sediment on the perimeter. This self enhancing effect
M. J. Brown; W. D. Kemper; T. J. Trout; A. S. Humpherys
An understanding of the determinants of nutritional intake may be helpful in the early detection and prevention of malnutrition. A vast amount of literature exists on factors influencing daily energy or food intake. Although far less is known about population and subject characteristics influencing the macronutrient composition of the diet, associations appear to exist with cultural factors, snacking and disease.
CPGM de Groot; WA van Staveren; C de Graaf; C PGM de Groot
Background And Objectives: Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Methods: Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Results: Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping <10?h consumed around 50?kcal per day more than those sleeping 11–<12?h a night (the optimal sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain.
Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Center Number:
Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: email@example.com Center Number:
The effect of rate of substitution of processed, urea-treated whole-crop wheat (pWCW) for grass silage on intake, performance and whole-tract digestibility was evaluated using 44 dairy cows. Cows received 10.5 kg of concentrates per day and one of the following forage mixtures (dry matter (DM) basis): grass silage alone (W-0); 0.75 grass silage, 0.25 pWCW (W-25); 0.5 grass silage, 0.5 pWCW (W-50) or 0.25 grass silage, 0.75 pWCW (W-75). Forage DM intake increased linearly with inclusion rate of pWCW from 9.7 kg DM per day in cows fed W-0 to 14.6 kg DM per day in W-75. By contrast, milk and protein yield (kg/day) were higher (P < 0.05) in cows receiving W-25 compared with W-0, but there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on fat yield (kg/day). From week 11 of the experiment onwards, body condition score increased with rate of inclusion of pWCW (P < 0.05). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and fibre (kg/kg), decreased linearly with rate of inclusion of pWCW. Assuming a constant digestibility of starch in the other diet components, the apparent digestibility of starch in pWCW was 0.95 kg/kg and was not affected by rate of inclusion (P>0.05). Four continuous culture vessels were used to determine the effect of rate of inclusion of pWCW on ruminal metabolism in four periods, each of 14 d duration with sampling conducted on days 9 to 14. Vessel ammonia concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05) with rate of inclusion of pWCW whilst mean pH tended (P = 0.06) to decrease. The ratio of acetate to propionate increased from 2.5 in vessels receiving W-0 to 3.2 in those receiving W-75 (P < 0.001). There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on digestibility (g/g) of OM, fibre or starch or microbial protein flow (g/day). It is concluded that forage DM intake increased linearly with rate of inclusion of pWCW, but there was no further improvement in milk yield from inclusion rates above 0.25 of the forage DM, with body condition score increasing instead. Increasing the inclusion rate of pWCW resulted in a more ketogenic volatile fatty acid profile but did not affect the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis when determined in vitro. PMID:22444417
Sinclair, L A; Bond, A J; Huntington, J A; Readman, R J
A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.
Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E
Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217
Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A
The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment. PMID:20887237
Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne
The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991
Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen
Background Patients with thalassemia have low circulating levels of many nutrients, but the contribution of dietary intake has not been assessed. Objective Assess dietary intake in a large contemporary sample of patients with thalassemia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study using a validated food frequency questionnaire Participants 221 patients (19.7±11.3 yrs, 106 female) categorized into three age groups: young children (3–7.9 y), older children/adolescents (8–18.9 yr), and adult (? 19 yr). 78.8% ?-thalassemia; 90% chronically transfused. Setting 10 hematology outpatient clinics in the United States and Canada. Main outcome measures Comparison of intake with U.S. Dietary Reference Intakes, and correlation with serum 25-OH vitamin D and total body iron stores. Statistical Analyses Performed Intake was defined as inadequate if less than the estimated average requirement (EAR). Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and Student’s t-test were utilized to compare intake between age categories and logistic regression analysis to test the relationship between intake and outcomes, controlling for age, gender and race. Results Over 30% of patients consumed inadequate levels of vitamin A, D, E, K, folate, calcium, and magnesium. The only nutrients for which >90% of patients consumed adequate amounts were riboflavin, vitamin B12 and selenium. Dietary inadequacy increased with increasing age group (p<0.01) for vitamins A, C, E, B6, folate, thiamin, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Over half the sample took additional supplements of calcium and vitamin D, although circulating levels of 25-OH vitamin D remained insufficient in 61% of patients. Dietary iron intake was not related to total body iron stores. Conclusion Patients with thalassemia have reduced intake of many key nutrients. These preliminary findings of dietary inadequacy is concerning and supports the need for nutritional monitoring to determine which patients are at greatest risk for nutritional deficiency. Future research should focus on the effect of dietary quality and nutritional status on health outcomes in thalassemia.
Fung, Ellen B.; Xu, Yan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Odame, Isaac; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Quinn, Charles T.; Vichinsky, Elliott P.
Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.
Nucci, Anita M.; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F.; Rajakumar, Kumaravel
Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children. PMID:24494056
Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel
Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent.
The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.
There is experimental evidence that calcium protects against breast cancer development. Prospective epidemiologic studies supporting a protective effect of calcium on breast cancer risk have mainly been limited to Western populations. We examined the association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large population-based prospective cohort. Calcium intake and supplement use was assessed by in-person interviewer using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 14.2±3.5 years, 823 cohort participants developed invasive breast cancer. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were fitted to examine the associations between calcium intake and breast cancer risk. Vegetables were the primary food source of calcium in this study population, followed by dairy products, grains and soy foods. Calcium intake was not associated with breast cancer risk, comparing highest quartile (>345.6 mg/1,000 kcal/day) to lowest quartile (<204.5 mg/1,000 kcal/day) of intake. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, body mass index, dietary vitamin D or stage of disease at diagnosis. Our findings do not support a hypothesis for calcium in breast cancer chemoprevention, contrary to findings from previous studies among Western populations with higher calcium intake primarily from dairy products and supplements. PMID:23319293
Li, Jingmei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Ai-Zhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C; Butler, Lesley M
PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination data in food products consumed in France collected from national monitoring programmes (2001-04) and representing analytical results for almost 800 individual food samples were combined with food consumption data from the French national dietary survey to estimate PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs dietary intakes, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs). The mean PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intakes were estimated as 1.8 and 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. day(-1), respectively, for adults (aged 15 years and over) and children (aged 3-14 years). The main contributors to total intake were fish and milk products for both children and adults (48 and 31% for adults and 34 and 43% for children, respectively). DL-PCBs constituted the largest contributor to contamination in most foodstuffs. A life-long intake estimate showed that a non-negligible part of the French population (between 20 and 28%) had an intake above the tolerable monthly intake for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of 70 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. month(-1). PMID:17691015
Tard, A; Gallotti, S; Leblanc, J-C; Volatier, J-L
The influence of intake port design on the flow field in a dual-intake valve engine was investigated using computational fluid dynamics, in order to study the effect of inlet port design on the in-cylinder flow. A detailed 3D computational grid incorporating all the features of the Ford Zetec production engine inlet ports, valves and cylinder head was initially created and the flow structure modelled at 5 and 10 mm valve lifts under steady flow conditions. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data obtained by laser Doppler anemometry indicate that the flow characteristics have been predicted well in most regions. Flow generated by different intake port designs was also simulated by introducing air into the cylinder at different directions to the inlet valve axes and the effects of port deactivation, throttling and exhaust gas recirculation were examined. The implications of the results for intake port design are discussed.
Mahmood, Z.; Chen, A.; Yianneskis, M.; Ganti, G.
Resource Purpose: Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA. Legislation/Enabling Authority: Section 308 Supported Program: Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...
Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake