These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

2009. Journes Recherche Porcine, 41, 1-x. Predicting sow colostrum production by weighing piglets twice within 48 hours.  

E-print Network

2009. Journées Recherche Porcine, 41, 1-x. Predicting sow colostrum production by weighing piglets colostrum intake by new-born piglets and hence colostrum production of the sows. Results were obtained hours of age is closely related to colostrum production, this method might be of interest to estimate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED AXENIC *  

E-print Network

THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED AXENIC * AND GNOTOXENIC CALVES REPRODUCTION EXPERIMENTALE DE LA DIARRHEE CHEZ DES VEAUX AXENIQUES OU GNOTOXENIQUES PRIVES DE COLOSTRUM, PAR UN veaux gnotoxéniques privés de colostrum avec deux sérotypes d'E. coli Ent' K991, un rotavirus et un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

1. -HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production  

E-print Network

1. - HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production in newborn sur 1'Elevage des Porcs, Centre de Rennes-Saint-Gilles, F 35590 L'Hermitage Colostrum consumption.8 p. 100 more colostrum than at 18-20 °C (290 and 212 g/day, respectively). Similarly, rectal

Boyer, Edmond

4

The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

2014-01-01

5

Production of hyperimmune bovine colostrum against Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Serial immunization of dairy cows with Campylobacter jejuni resulted in an enhanced serum antibody response and production of hyperimmune colostrum in all vaccinated animals. An approximate 10-fold decrease in the Camp. jejuni-specific antibody titres in colostrum was observed within 2 d post-partum. The lyophilized colostral concentrate fed to newborn calves resulted in a rapid increase in serum antibody response. Specific Camp. jejuni immunoglobulins could be detected in these animals for a further 10 weeks. The lyophilized hyperimmunized colostrum was very stable in vitro at different storage temperatures. It could be used for passive immunization to campylobacteriosis. PMID:8486562

Husu, J; Syväoja, E L; Ahola-Luttila, H; Kalsta, H; Sivelä, S; Kosunen, T U

1993-05-01

6

Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P<0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P<0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected neither CI nor CY, but the prefarrowing diet with coconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the new mechanistic predictive model for CI suggests that the previous empirical predictive model underestimates CI of sow-reared piglets by 30%. It was also concluded that nutrition of sows during gestation affected CY and colostrum composition. PMID:25367518

Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

2014-12-01

7

Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.  

PubMed

In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition, particularly with energy-rich concentrates, can improve colostrum production, help meet the energy and immunological requirements for new-born lambs, and improve lamb survival. PMID:25556391

Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

2015-05-01

8

PHYSIOLOGY OF COLOSTRUM PRODUCTION 1.N.R.A., Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Lactation,  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGY OF COLOSTRUM PRODUCTION C. DELOUIS 1.N.R.A., Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Lactation, C.N.R.Z., 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Résumé. PHYSIOLOGIE DE LA PRODUCTION DU COLOSTRUM. &horbar sécrétion du colostrum et la montée laiteuse surviennent alors que des équilibres endocriniens particuliers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Addition of Casein or Whey Protein to Colostrum or a Colostrum Supplement Product on Absorption of IgG in Neonatal Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the addition of nonimmunoglobulin pro- tein on absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from co- lostrum or colostrum supplement products were deter- mined in two experiments. In experiment 1, 48 Holstein calves were fed 4 L of pooled maternal colostrum or 4 L of reconstituted colostrum supplement with 0, 200, or 400 g of added whey protein concentrate

D. F. Davenport; J. D. Quigley III; J. E. Martin; J. A. Holt; J. D. Arthington

2000-01-01

10

Comparison of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal dairy calves fed colostrum or bovine serum-based colostrum replacement and colostrum supplement products  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations in neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Animals 18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves. Procedures 141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided ? 2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n = 146) were fed 2 L of a CR product ? 2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed. Results Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean ± SD sTP concentration was 5.58 ± 0.67 g/dL and 5.26 ± 0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868 ± 854 mg/dL and 1,320 ± 620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations < 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity. PMID:20946083

Poulsen, Keith P.; Foley, Andrea L.; Collins, Michael T.; McGuirk, Sheila M.

2011-01-01

11

Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves.  

PubMed

In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources. Calves are often born hypoglycemic and have to establish endogenous glucose production (eGP) and gluconeogenesis, because lactose intake by colostrum and milk does not meet glucose demands. Besides establishing a passive immunity, colostrum intake stimulates maturation and function of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nutrients and nonnutritive factors, such as hormones and growth factors, which are present in high amounts in colostrum of first milking after parturition, affect intestinal growth and function and enhance the absorptive capacity of the GIT. Likely as a consequence of that, colostrum feeding improves the glucose status in neonatal calves by increasing glucose absorption, which results in elevated postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Hepatic glycogen concentrations rise much greater when colostrum instead of a milk-based colostrum replacer (formula with same nutrient composition as colostrum but almost no biologically active substances, such as hormones and growth factors) is fed. In contrast, first-pass glucose uptake in the splanchnic tissue tended to be greater in calves fed formula. The greater plasma glucose rise and improved energy status in neonatal calves after colostrum intake lead to greater insulin secretion and accelerated stimulation of anabolic processes indicated by enhanced maturation of the postnatal somatotropic axis in neonatal calves. Hormones involved in stimulation of eGP, such as glucagon and cortisol, depend on neonatal diet, but their effects on eGP stimulation seem to be impaired. Although colostrum feeding affects systemic insulin, IGF-I, and leptin concentrations, evidence for systemic action of colostral insulin, IGF-I, and leptin in neonatal calves is weak. Studies so far indicate no absorption of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin from colostrum in neonatal calves, unlike in rodents where systemic effects of colostral leptin are demonstrated. Therefore, glucose availability in neonatal calves is promoted by perinatal maturation of eGP and colostrum intake. There may be long-lasting effects of an improved colostrum supply and glucose status on postnatal growth and development, and colostrum supply may contribute to neonatal programming of performance (milk and growth) in later life, but data proving this concept are missing. PMID:23100594

Hammon, H M; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Flor, J; Schönhusen, U; Metges, C C

2013-02-01

12

INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PREMATURITY ON COLOSTRUM COMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT IMMUNITY OF PIGLETS A. MILON performed on 3 samples of colostrum after 0, 12 and 24 h following the birth of the first piglet in the birth weight in favour of mature piglets as well as an increased colostrum intake: 315 vs an average

Boyer, Edmond

13

Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

Korhonen, H J

2013-01-01

14

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

15

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

16

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...immunochemical techniques the specific proteins in colostrum. Colostrum is a substance...pregnancy and until production of breast milk begins 1 to 5 days after...

2010-04-01

17

Carotenoids of human colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum, the initial postpartum secretion of the breast, ordinarily has a distinct yellow color due to carotenoids of its\\u000a fat globules. This pigmentation progressively diminishes as milk production increases during the first week of lactation.\\u000a Identity of these cartenoids was investigated by means of thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography\\u000a and spectral analysis. ?- and ?-carotene, lycopene and ?-cryptoxanthin were

Stuart Patton; Louise M. Canfieldb; Gail E. Huston; Ann M. Ferris; Robert G. Jensen

1990-01-01

18

COW-CALF AND SOW-PIGLET BEHAVIOUR IN RELATION TO COLOSTRUM INGESTION  

E-print Network

COW-CALF AND SOW-PIGLET BEHAVIOUR IN RELATION TO COLOSTRUM INGESTION D.M. BROOM Department an adequate amount of colostrum by 6-12 h and piglets to do so by 4-8 h. In cattle, suckling attempts may is occasionally a serious problem. Amongst dairy cattle, the major factor leading to inadequate colostrum intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Feeding Colostrum Replacers UNH EXTENSION  

E-print Network

can be passed from mother to calf through colostrum, including Escherichia coli, leukosis, and Johne Colostrum is essential to calf health and nutrition. Through colostrum, the calf receives IgG, fat, lactose for certain diseases transmitted via colostrum.* Requirements of quality colostrum replacers · Provide >100 g

New Hampshire, University of

20

Effects of housing and colostrum feeding on serum immunoglobulins, growth, and fecal scores of Jersey calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

At birth, 96 Jersey calves were allowed to nurse the dam for 3 days or were separated from the dam and fed 1 litre of colostrum in nipple-bottles twice daily until 3 days of age. Calves were housed in individual fibreglass hutches or individual pens in an unheated calf barn. Intake of colostrum by calves allowed to nurse the dam

Quigley J D III; K. R. Martin; David A Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; Craig R Reinemeyer; Rohrbach Barton W; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar

1995-01-01

21

Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions in the blood plasma of lambs. Further proteomic studies will be necessary, particularly using the selected reaction monitoring approach, to describe in detail the role of specific colostrum proteins for immune transfer to the neonate. PMID:25465637

Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí; Bendixen, Emøke

2015-01-01

22

Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

2011-01-01

23

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

24

Bovine colostrum in oral treatment of enterogenic endotoxaemia in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Under conditions of shock, bacteria and endotoxins in the intestines can traverse the mucosal barrier by translocation and enter the blood and lymphatic system. Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have been reported to neutralize endotoxins and bacteria. We studied the essential therapeutic factors of colostrum products in an animal experiment. Method We simulated endotoxaemia by per-oral administration of a suspension of Escherichia coli and antibiotics into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats after giving intraperitoneal carrageenan. At the same time, pure bovine colostrum or lactoferrin-enriched bovine colostrum was given. Therapeutic effects were studied by examining plasma endotoxin activity and bacterial contamination of mesenterial lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages. Albumin was used in a control group. Results The most effective bovine colostrum was able to reduce the maximum plasma endotoxin value by 67% as compared with the albumin group. The combination of this colostrum with lactoferrin brought about a reduction by 80%. The reduction in bacterial contamination of lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages was also evident. Conclusion Both gammaglobulin and lactoferrin may help to eliminate endotoxins when bovine colostrum is administered into the gut in conditions of septic shock. PMID:12493077

Döhler, J Rüdiger; Nebermann, Lars

2002-01-01

25

Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between intake of dairy products and risk of breast cancer was studied in 4697 initially cancer-free women, aged 15 years or over. During a 25 year follow-up period after the collection of food consumption data, 88 breast cancers were diagnosed. Intakes of foods were calculated from dietary history interviews covering the habitual diet of examinees over the preceding year. There was a significant inverse gradient between milk intake and incidence of breast cancer, the age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer being 0.42 (95% confidence interval=0.24-0.74) between the highest and lowest tertiles of milk consumption. The associations with respect to other dairy products were not significant. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, i.e. smoking, body mass index, number of childbirths, occupation and geographic area, resulted in only a minor change in the milk intake-breast cancer relation. Nor did adjustment for intake of other foodstuffs and nutrients, e.g. energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins and trace elements, alter the results. No significant interactions between milk intake and demographic or dietary variables or time of cancer diagnosis were observed. Our data suggest that there is a protective effect, dietary or habitual, associated with consumption of milk that overwhelms the associations between different other factors and risk of breast cancer. PMID:8605108

Knekt, P.; Järvinen, R.; Seppänen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Aromaa, A.

1996-01-01

26

Heat-treatment of Colostrum on Commercial Dairy Farms: Effects on Colostrum Characteristics and Calf Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Colostrum provides immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may be a source of exposure to significant pathogens including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Pilot studies have suggested that heat-treatment of colostrum...

27

Efeito da suplementação de colostro enriquecido sobre as características morfológicas da mucosa intestinal de bezerros neonatos* Effects of enriched colostrum supply in intestinal mucosa morphology of newborn calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum intake in neonatal calves is essential to obtain passive immunity and to influence metabolism, endocrine systems and the nutritional state. This study compares morphologic features of small intestine of calves fed a colostrum second meal at 12 hours of life with concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) higher than 100mg mL-1 (fresh colostrum or artificially prepared with addition of lyophilized

Liris Kindlein; Patricia Pauletti; Adriana Regina Bagaldo; Ana Paula; Oeda Rodrigues; Raul Machado-Neto

28

Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

29

Original article Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment  

E-print Network

Original article Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos. / cryptosporidiosis / oocyst / hyperimmune bovine colostrum / gecko * Correspondence and reprints Tel.: ( 1 ) 410 614

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

REVIEW OF NONSPECIFIC ANTIMICROBIAL FACTORS IN COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF NONSPECIFIC ANTIMICROBIAL FACTORS IN COLOSTRUM Bruno REITER National Institute SPECIFIQUES DU COLOSTRUM : REVUE BIBLIO- GRAPHIQUE. - Les principaux facteurs antimicrobiens non anticorps du colostrum et du lait sont passés en revue dans cet article, en particulier le lysozyme, la lactoferrine, et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

The contribution of dairy products to micronutrient intake in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the contribution of dairy products to the intake of various vitamins and minerals in several life stages in the Dutch population. Method: Data from 3 Dutch Food Consumption Surveys and the Leiden Longevity Study were used to estimate the contribution of dairy products—as percentage of total intake—to the intake of iron, copper, selenium, zinc, calcium, folic acid,

P. A. J. Vissers; M. T. Streppel; E. J. M. Feskens; Groot de C. P. G. M

2011-01-01

32

Presence of IgE suppressor factors in human colostrum.  

PubMed

In spite of intensive investigations, the ability of breast feeding to delay and to attenuate atopic diseases in children remains debatable. This study documents a mechanism whereby breast feeding might interfere with the synthesis of IgE by breast-fed infants. Indeed, we show that colostrum contains IgE-binding factors (IgE-BF) capable of suppressing the in vitro synthesis of human IgE. Colostrum obtained from 15 donors was successively depleted of lipids and casein, filtered through Amicon XM50 membrane (mol. mass cut-off 50 kDa) and lyophilized. IgE-BF was demonstrated in such preparations by two different approaches, i.e. a classical rosette inhibition assay and Western blot analysis. In the first instance, lyophilized preparations of colostrum inhibited the binding of IgE-coated bovine erythrocytes to IgE recovered on the surface of RPMI 8866 lymphoblastoid cells. The rosette-inhibiting activity could be absorbed on IgE- but not on IgG-Sepharose 4B and it could be recovered in the eluate of IgE-Sepharose 4B. The molecular mass of IgE-BF was comprised between 10 to 20 kDa as estimated by gel filtration through a calibrated Sephadex G-75 column. After fractionation on 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose membrane, colostrum displayed one band of 14 kDa and reacted with radiolabeled IgE but not with IgG nor IgM. This 14-kDa band could be removed by absorbing colostrum with IgE- but not with IgG-Sepharose 4B. Most importantly, the colostrum IgE-BF suppressed the spontaneous in vitro synthesis of IgE by B lymphocytes derived from allergic donors without altering the production of IgM. PMID:3743629

Sarfati, M; Vanderbeeken, Y; Rubio-Trujillo, M; Duncan, D; Delespesse, G

1986-08-01

33

COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY  

E-print Network

COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY AND WITH THE COLOSTRUM QUALITY OF THEIR FEMALE OFFSPRING Jacqueline DARDILLAT* G. TRILLAT* P. LARVOR* I, 63110 Beaumont, France. Résumé. CONCENTRATION EN IMMUNOGLOBULINES DU COLOSTRUM DES VACHES : RELATION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

The effect of excessive iron intake upon the health and production of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials was carried out to determine the effect of a high intake of iron as Fe(OH)3, derived from irrigation water high in iron, upon the health and production of dairy cows, and to determine, if possible, the maximum safe intake of iron from this source.High iron intake caused scouring, loss of bodyweight, and lowered production of milk

M. R. Coup; A. G. Campbell

1964-01-01

35

Newborn calf intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum  

E-print Network

Newborn calf intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum J.-F. GRONGNET, colostrum immunoglobulin absorption was compared with absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum. Introduction. It is well known that copious ingestion of colostrum prevents sanitary pro- blems in newborn

Boyer, Edmond

36

The fatty acid composition of human colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   We reviewed 15 studies reporting on the fatty acid composition of colostrum lipids from 16 geographic regions: 11 European\\u000a studies and one study each from Central America, the Caribbean, Australia and Asia. The contents of essential fatty acids,\\u000a saturates and polyunsaturates were similar in the southern European countries Spain, Slovenia and France. Colostrum of St.\\u000a Lucian women was high

Natasa Fidler; Berthold Koletzko

2000-01-01

37

Detection of cytokines in bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum contains factors that are protective for the neonate and may be a source of immunomodulary molecules that positively influence the immune status of the neonate. To confirm that colostrum contains a variety of cytokines with immunomodulatory properties, we established a bovine cytokine specific ELISA and five cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, INF-? or IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) in the whey

Katsuro Hagiwara; Satoshi Kataoka; Hitoki Yamanaka; Rikio Kirisawa; Hiroshi Iwai

2000-01-01

38

TRYPSIN INHIBITOR IN SOW COLOSTRUM AND ITS FUNCTION  

E-print Network

and the cow colostrum inhibitor were resis- #12;tant to acidic conditions and to pepsin with SCTI more resistant to pepsin than the inhi- bitor from cow colostrum. By all these cri- teria SCTI was found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Effects of Silage Based Diets on Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Body Weight of Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cattle were assigned uniformly to three forage treatments by lactation number (mean -- 2.2) to compare intake, production, and body weight changes over three lactations. Forage treatments were corn silage ad libitum, corn silage restricted plus hay-crop silage, or hay ad libitum. Concentrate treatments, two pre- partum and two peak-lactation, were eval- uated also. Intakes for the three forage

R. L. Belyea; C. E. Coppock; W. G. Merrill; S. T. Slack

1975-01-01

40

Variation of major neutral oligosaccharides levels in human colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Human colostrum is known to be important for the protection of infants against infection by pathogenic microorganisms. This protection is thought to be due, partially, to various neutral and acidic oligosaccharides that are present in colostrum and milk. However, the concentrations of each of the oligosaccharide of human colostrum have not yet been determined. The aim of this present study

S Asakuma; T Urashima; M Akahori; H Obayashi; T Nakamura; K Kimura; Y Watanabe; I Arai; Y Sanai

2008-01-01

41

Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone loss and hemobiochemistry indexes that bovine milk and its basic proteins, and bovine colostrums (BC) and their extracts have positive effects hazard on blood lipids of rats under present experimental condition. bovine colostrum / acid protein

Boyer, Edmond

42

TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN COLOSTRUM OF DIFFERENT RUMINANT SPECIES  

E-print Network

TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN COLOSTRUM OF DIFFERENT RUMINANT SPECIES AT VARIOUS POST-PARTUM INTERVALS. llaly. Résumé. TENEUR EN OLIGOELEMENTS DU COLOSTRUM DE DIVERSES ESPECES DE RUMINANTS A DIFFERENTS INTERVALLES POST PARTUM. ― Des échantillons de colostrum ont été prélevés en novembre-décembre, 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Original article Digestion of colostrum by the preruminant calf  

E-print Network

Original article Digestion of colostrum by the preruminant calf: digestibility and origin -- Digestion du colostrum chez le veau préruminant : digestibilité et origine des frac- tions indigérées à la étaient du colostrum de première traite additionné d'eau (DC) ou 443Lait 81 (2001) 443­454 © INRA, EDP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM FOR THE NEWBORN CALF  

E-print Network

ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM FOR THE NEWBORN CALF H. FRERKING Therese AEIKENS School Hannover 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Résumé. A PROPOS DE L'IMPORTANCE DU COLOSTRUM POUR LE VEAU NOUVEAU averaged 5-6 hours. Every calf got the colostrum ad libitum from its own mother, which had no antibodies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Feeding Colostrum to Calves Education Center and Info Line  

E-print Network

Feeding Colostrum to Calves Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F · 9 AM - 2 PM W · 5 - 7:30 PM Colostrum is essential from colostrum. At birth the calf's small intestine is referred to as "open." This means that nutrients

New Hampshire, University of

46

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNITÉ PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM SUR L'ÉVOLUTION DE LA PESTE PORCINE transmise par le colostrum a permis de mettre en évidence chez r8 porcelets, de 20 à 25 kg, issus de truies transmise par le colostrum. Les applications qu'entraînent ces observations font l'objet de la discussion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

THE INFLUENCE OF COLOSTRUM ON NEONATAL ROTAVIRAL INFECTIONS  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF COLOSTRUM ON NEONATAL ROTAVIRAL INFECTIONS D.R. SNODGRASS P.W. WELLS Animal are most susceptible, so ingestion of colostrum is likely to have an important influence on the outcome secreted in high titre in first-day colostrum, but is absent within 3 days of parturition in cows and ewes

Boyer, Edmond

48

THE NUTRITIONAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCT CONSUMPTION ON DIETARY INTAKES OF YOUNG ADULTS (1995-1996): THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on the dietary intakes of adults. Dietary intakes of adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey (1995-1996) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Dietary intake data was collected on 1266 adults (61% females, 39% males; 74% whites, 26% blacks...

49

Serum immunoglobulin concentrations after feeding maternal colostrum or maternal colostrum plus colostral supplement to dairy calves.  

PubMed

Maternal colostrum or maternal colostrum plus colostral supplement, composed of a blend of lyophilized colostrum and dried whey, was fed to 32 Holstein calves as soon as possible after birth (mean +/- SEM = 2.0 +/- 0.2 hours) and, again, 12 hours later. Mean immunoglobulin concentration in colostrum was 59.2 mg/ml; mean immunoglobulin fraction in supplement was 11.4%. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and at 28 and 56 days. Hour/treatment interactions were significant for total immunoglobulin, IgG1, and IgM concentrations. Immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 12 hours (total immunoglobulin, IgG1, IgM) or 24 hours (IgG2) in calves fed colostrum plus supplement, whereas all immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 24 hours in calves fed maternal colostrum only. Peak mean immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of colostrum did not increase peak mean serum immunoglobulin concentration, but did alter the serum concentration-time profile from 12 to 72 hours after birth. PMID:8368598

Abel Francisco, S F; Quigley, J D

1993-07-01

50

Performance of Calves Fed Fermented Colostrum or Colostrum with Additives During Warm Ambient Temperatures[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials during warm ambient tempera- tures determined the feeding value of colostrum, either naturally fermented or with additives, for Holstein calves. During a preliminary trial, calves fed whole milk gained two-fold more weight the first 4 wk than calves fed fermented colostrum, thus promoting a subsequent trial to eval- uate additives for colostrum preservation. Calves were fed either 3.64 kg

L. D. Muller; F. C. Ludens; J. A. Rook

1976-01-01

51

Contribution of Dairy Products to Dietary Potassium Intake in the United States Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adequate dietary potassium intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 identifies milk and milk products as a major contributor of dietary potassium and lists dairy products, along with fruits and vegetables, as food groups to encourage. This paper further examines the impact of dairy consumption on the

Carla R. McGill; Victor L. Fulgoni; Douglas DiRienzo; Peter J. Huth; Anne C. Kurilich; Gregory D. Miller

2008-01-01

52

Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven  

SciTech Connect

Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

1987-09-01

53

THE USE OF SCHOOL FOOD PRODUCTION RECORDS AS A SURROGATE MEASURE OF STUDENT INTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National School Lunch Program meals provide an important source of fruit, vegetables, and milk for students. In intervention studies, measuring individual dietary intake is expensive. This study investigated whether food production records could be used as a surrogate measure of student consumption....

54

Calf's sex, parity and the hour of harvest after calving affect colostrum quality of dairy cows grazing under high tropical conditions.  

PubMed

High-quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health, and quality assessment is essential to obtain good health results. This research evaluated the effects of the calf's sex, the parity of the cow and the hour of colostrum harvest after parity on the fat, nonfat solids, protein and Ig contents in Holstein colostrum for cows under high grazing conditions in the tropics. The effects of the calf's sex and parity on somatic cell count (SCC) at the first milking postpartum were determined. A comparison was made between a laboratory method and a farm method for the estimation of the fat and protein content of colostrum. Thirty-three cows were sampled in the study. The calf's sex was shown to have an effect on the amount of colostrum, on the concentration of fat, and on the amount of milk produced by lactating Holstein cows; all were higher in cows that gave birth to a female calf. Colostrum protein decreased after the first hour postpartum, and the Ig concentration had a tendency to decrease after 4 h. The cows that had parity 1-2 had lower Ig concentrations and total production of Igs, and higher SCC at the first milking postpartum. Ekomilk was a reliable method to measure the colostrum fat on the farm. PMID:25708565

Angulo, Joaquin; Gómez, Luis Miguel; Mahecha, Liliana; Mejía, Estefanía; Henao, Javier; Mesa, Carolina

2015-04-01

55

Colostrum de vache : composition minrale et activit de la phosphatase alcaline  

E-print Network

Colostrum de vache : composition minérale et activité de la phosphatase alcaline G. LINDEN B colostrum. Mineral composition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The correlation pattern between during the colostrum- producing period was always positive and the coefficients often high. These results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2015-04-15

57

EFFECT OF ENERGY INTAKE ON RE:PRODUCTIVE PEI~FOI~MANCE OF DAIRY BULLS. II. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND REPLENISHMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Semen production and the rate of spelzn replenishment after partial depletive collections were determined in two groups of Holstein bulls fed from 8 wk to 46 months of age on 60 or 100% of the recommended total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake. From 46 to 58 months of age the feeding regimen of the two groups was reversed. A series

N. L. VANDEMARK; G. R. FRITZ; R. E. MAUGER

58

Change of antibody levels to ferritin in the sera of foals after birth: possible passive transfer of maternal anti-ferritin autoantibody via colostrum and age-related anti-ferritin autoantibody production.  

PubMed

Antibody (immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM or IgA) levels relative to ferritin in six foal sera (three male and three female) after birth (day 0 and 2, 6, 10, 20, 28, 36, 40, 52 and 56 weeks of age) were semi-quantitatively measured with normalization with antibody activity to ferritin in one adult horse serum. After addition of horse spleen ferritin to the serum sample, the complex formed between antibodies to ferritin in the serum and ferritin was co-immunoprecipitated using antibody to horse spleen ferritin. Antibody classes of the co-immnoprecipitate were detected with antibodies specific for horse IgG, IgM or IgA heavy chain. Six adult horse serum samples were found to have ferritin-binding activities in all immunoglobulin classes examined. Although ferritin antibody activities (IgG, IgM and IgA) were scant in the foal sera before sucking colostrum (day 0), their activities increased at 2 weeks of age. IgG antibodies showed a biphasic response and IgM antibody activity increased up to 40 weeks of age. Antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) activities to ferritin in three colostrum samples were significantly higher than in adult horse serum samples. These results demonstrate that antibody to ferritin in foal serum is derived from colostrum after birth and is produced thereafter. PMID:23607654

Numata, Masami; Kondo, Takashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

2013-12-01

59

Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.  

PubMed

Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving interval (9%) and mature weight of cows (11%) in strategy A and B, respectively. The sums of the relative economic weights over categories for RFI were 6 and 7% in strategy A and B, respectively. Under production conditions in 2011, the relative economic weights for the studied feed efficiency traits were low. However, it is possible that the relative importance of feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal will increase in the future due to increasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. PMID:24342692

Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

2014-02-01

60

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

61

21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230 Colostrum immunological test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

62

Effects of Lyophilized Colostrum and Different Colostrum Feeding Regimens on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Majorera Goat Kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted including 180 Ma- jorera kids. In the first experiment, the effect of use of lyophilized colostrum vs. frozen colostrum on immuno- globulin G (IgG) blood serum concentration was evalu- ated. Kids (n = 40) received the same management and IgG mass (3368 mg\\/kg of body weight (BW)) during the colostrum feeding period. The IgG in blood

N. Castro; J. Capote; S. Álvarez; A. Argüello

2005-01-01

63

Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mothers' awareness of diet and disease relationships on children's dairy product consumption. Using data from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 1994-1996 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the study compared the difference in children's low-fat milk and

Sora Kim; Robin A. Douthitt

2003-01-01

64

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia.  

PubMed

Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606

Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

2007-06-01

65

Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

66

Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is the first natural food produced by female mammals during the first 24–36h directly after giving birth. Chemically, colostrum is a very complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. In cows the antibodies provide passive immunity to the new born calf, whereas the growth factors especially stimulate the growth of the gut. The other antimicrobial components of

R. Pakkanen; J. Aalto

1997-01-01

67

Appearance of Specific Colostrum Antibodies after Clinical Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Colostrum and serum antibodies to Salmonella typhimurium have been found in three patients after clinical gastrointestinal infection during pregnancy. High levels of colostrum IgA agglutinins were directed specifically against both the flagellar and somatic antigens of the infective organism. The levels of colostrum agglutinating activity exceeded those found in the patients sera, while control colostrum gave negative results. PMID:4606237

Allardyce, R. A.; Shearman, D. J. C.; McClelland, D. B. L.; Marwick, K.; Simpson, A. J.; Laidlaw, R. B.

1974-01-01

68

Appearance of Specific Colostrum Antibodies after Clinical Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum and serum antibodies to Salmonella typhimurium have been found in three patients after clinical gastrointestinal infection during pregnancy. High levels of colostrum IgA agglutinins were directed specifically against both the flagellar and somatic antigens of the infective organism. The levels of colostrum agglutinating activity exceeded those found in the patients sera, while control colostrum gave negative results.

R. A. Allardyce; D. J. C. Shearman; D. B. L. McClelland; K. Marwick; A. J. Simpson; R. B. Laidlaw

1974-01-01

69

Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation  

PubMed Central

Background Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Results Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Conclusions Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season. Specific feeding in the summer season (on pasture) did lead in more concentrated colostrum in dry substance, fatty acids and cholesterol. PMID:23442377

2013-01-01

70

First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

2014-01-01

71

Evaluation of immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum using laser induced fluorescence.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to exploit laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a spectrochemical analytical technique for evaluation of immunoglobulin (IgG) in bovine colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected from different American Holstein cows at different times after calving. Four samples were gathered from each cow; the first three samples were obtained from the first three milkings (colostrum) and the fourth sample (milk) was obtained a week after calving. It has been demonstrated that LIF can be used as a simple, fast, sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analytical technique for qualitative estimation of IgG in colostrum. LIF results have been confirmed via the quantitative evaluation of IgG in the same samples adopting the single radial immunodiffusion conventional technique and a very good agreement has been obtained. Through LIF it was possible to evaluate bovine colostrum after different milking times and to differentiate qualitatively between colostrum from different animals which may reflect their general health status. A fluorescence linear calibration curve for IgG concentrations from 0 up to 120 g L(-1) has been obtained. In addition, it is feasible to adopt this technique for in situ measurements, i.e. in dairy cattle farms as a simple and fast method for evaluation of IgG in bovine colostrum instead of using lengthy and complicated conventional techniques in laboratories. PMID:25127559

Abdel-Salam, Z; Abdel Ghany, Sh; Harith, M A

2014-11-01

72

Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.  

PubMed

Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

Skrbi?, B; Predojevi?, Z

2008-05-01

73

Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

2015-01-01

74

Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

2015-01-01

75

Character and Allotypy of an Immune Globulin in Rabbit Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

RABBIT serum beta2-macroglobulin and its relation to gamma-globulin have been previously described1. This communication describes the demonstration and characterization of a third immune globulin, found in rabbit colostrum.

Arnold Feinstein

1963-01-01

76

Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules  

PubMed Central

In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W.; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G.; Bastian, Max

2014-01-01

77

Colostrum from cows immunized with a vaccine associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia contains allo-antibodies that cross-react with human MHC-I molecules.  

PubMed

In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i.e. animals that gave birth to a BNP-affected calf) cross-react with human cells, which could pose a health hazard for human consumers of colostral products. The present study clearly demonstrates that BNP alloantibodies cross-react with human lymphocytes in vitro. In agreement with previous reports on BNP, the cross-reactive antibodies are specific for MHC-I molecules, and sensitize opsonised human cells for in vitro complement lysis. Cross-reactive antibodies are present in serum and colostrum of individual BNP dams. They can be traced in commercial colostrum powder manufactured from cows immunized with the vaccine associated with BNP, but are absent from commercial powder manufactured from colostrum excluding such vaccinated cows. In humans alloreactive, MHC-I specific antibodies are generally not believed to cause severe symptoms. However, to minimize any theoretical risk for human consumers, manufacturers of bovine colostrum for human consumption should consider using only colostrum from animals that have not been exposed to the vaccine associated with BNP. PMID:25299190

Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; Dekker, James W; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G; Bastian, Max

2014-01-01

78

Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk.  

PubMed

The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0?±?53.9?pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum. PMID:24450292

Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

2014-04-01

79

Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival  

PubMed Central

Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

2012-01-01

80

Effect of colostrum administration practices on serum IgG in goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty Canary Caprine kids (30 males and 30 females) were assigned to three colostrum feeding managements, natural suckling (NS), hand-fed ad libitum colostrum (HALC) and restricted hand-fed colostrum (RHC). IgG concentrations were recorded in colostrum and kids serum at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 70, and 84 h of life. No significant differences in serum IgG concentrations were observed between

A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote; J. W. Tyler; N. M. Holloway

2004-01-01

81

Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

82

Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

83

ASSOCIATION OF CALCIUM INTAKE AND DAIRY PRODUCT CONSUMPTION WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN YOUNG ADULTS (1995-96)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evidence is accumulating on the inverse association between high intakes of calcium and dairy products on weight status. However, more studies are needed to confirm these associations in other ethnically diverse populations. The goal of this research was to further investigate the associations betwe...

84

Pasteurization of Colostrum Reduces the Incidence of Paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feeding colostrum from infected dams to neonatal calves is one mode of transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease). Recent studies have demonstrated improved morbidity and mortality rates in calves fed colostrum replacers or pasteurized colostrum. In the present study, the potential benefit...

85

THE IMPORTANCE OF MEMBRANE RECEPTORS IN THE TRANSFER OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS FROM PLASMA TO THE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

TO THE COLOSTRUM D.K. HAMMER H. MOSSMANN Max-Planck-Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, West Germany Résumé IMPORTANCE DES RECEPTEURS MEMBRANAIRES DANS LE TRANSFERT DES IMMUNO- GLOBULINES DU PLASMA AU COLOSTRUM'épithélium acinaire (AE) de la glande mammaire de la vache au cours de la formation du colostrum. Les IgG,-FcR ont été

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

INTERFERON RESPONSE IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES INFECTED WITH BOVINE ROTAVIRUS  

E-print Network

INTERFERON RESPONSE IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES INFECTED WITH BOVINE ROTAVIRUS : ITS nouveau-nés privés de colostrum sont inoculés dès la naissance ou à l'âge de trois jours au moyen de from the available data. Colostrum-deprived newborn calves infected with high doses of cell culture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

THE EFFECT OF VACCINATION ON TITRES OF ANTIBODY TO ROTAVIRUS IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF VACCINATION ON TITRES OF ANTIBODY TO ROTAVIRUS IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK P.W. WELLS D. Résumé. EFFET DE LA VACCINATION SUR LE TITRE EN ANTICORPS ANTIROTAVIRUS DANS LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT l'accouolement avec une préparation inactivée de rotavirus d'agneau produisaient du colostrum et du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

THE EFFECT OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVELS ON CALF PERFORMANCE AND METHODS OF ARTIFICIALLY FEEDING COLOSTRUM TO THE  

E-print Network

COLOSTRUM TO THE NEW BORN CALF R.J. FALLON The Agricultural Institute, Grange, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland DISTRIBUTION DE COLOSTRUM AUX VEAUX NOU- VEAU―NES. ― Une enquête portant sur 1.250 veaux achetés au veau nouveau-né d'un colostrum de première traite, en deux repas, le premier 4 à 6 heures après la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

USE OF POLYVALENT COW COLOSTRUM IN THE PREVENTION OF ENTERIC INFECTIONS IN CALVES AND PIGLETS  

E-print Network

USE OF POLYVALENT COW COLOSTRUM IN THE PREVENTION OF ENTERIC INFECTIONS IN CALVES AND PIGLETS J Research Institute, 621 32 Brno-Medlanky, Hudcova 70, Czechoslovaquia Résumé UTILISATION D'UN COLOSTRUM; Le colostrum de vaches immunisées contre des souches entéropathogènes d'Escherichia coli protège bien

Boyer, Edmond

90

THE ROLE OF COLOSTRUM ANTIBODIES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTIGENIC COMPETITION IN YOUNG LAMBS  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF COLOSTRUM ANTIBODIES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTIGENIC COMPETITION IN YOUNG LAMBS M AGNEAUX. ― De jeunes agneaux ont reçu une petite quantité d'un pool de colostrum puis une injection inattendus contre l'Ea dans le pool de colostrum reçu par les agneaux. L'expérience a été répétée avec un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Bovine colostrum as substrate for the preparation of growth factor-enriched  

E-print Network

Note Bovine colostrum as substrate for the preparation of growth factor-enriched protein extracts of growth factor-enriched bioactive protein extracts derived from colostrum are proposed for the treatment for colostrum used to prepare growth factor-enriched protein extracts and to characterize the relationship

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

TRANSFER OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE CPD VIRUS THROUGH COLOSTRUM AND MILK  

E-print Network

TRANSFER OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE CPD VIRUS THROUGH COLOSTRUM AND MILK C. LE JAN R. L'HARIDON M Monnaie, France Résumé TRANSFERT DES ANTICORPS CONTRE L'ECTHYMA PAR LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT. - Les immunoglobulines de l'agneau sont d'origine maternelle et ne sont transmises que par le colostrum et par le lait

Boyer, Edmond

93

THE ABSORPTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN FROM COLOSTRUM BY BOTTLE-FED LAMBS  

E-print Network

THE ABSORPTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN FROM COLOSTRUM BY BOTTLE-FED LAMBS R. HALLIDAY M.R. WILLIAMS A. R'ABSORPTION DES IMMUNOGLOBULINES DU COLOSTRUM PAR DES AGNEAUX NOUR- RIS AU BIBERON. ― On a étudié les facteurs qui influencent l'absorption des immunoglobulines du colostrum par l'agneau nouveau-né. Des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

SPECIFIC PROTECTION BY COLOSTRUM FROM COWS VACCINATED WITH THE K 99 ANTIGEN IN NEWBORN CALVES  

E-print Network

SPECIFIC PROTECTION BY COLOSTRUM FROM COWS VACCINATED WITH THE K 99 ANTIGEN IN NEWBORN CALVES, 63110 Beaumont, France. Résumé PROTECTION SPECIFIQUE CONFEREE PAR LE COLOSTRUM DE VACHES VACCINEES AVEC mesuré comparativement la protection conférée par un colostrum de vaches vaccinées par une préparation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

INVESTIGATION ON FARMER'S COLOSTRUM FEEDING METHODS: HABITS AFFECTING COLOSTRAL STATUS IN NEONATAL CALVES'  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION ON FARMER'S COLOSTRUM FEEDING METHODS: HABITS AFFECTING COLOSTRAL STATUS IN NEONATAL CALVES' P. PIVONT R. GREGOIRE H. ANTOINE Colostrum Study Center, B-5406, Marloie, Belgium Résumé ÉTUDE DES MÉTHODES DE DISTRIBUTION DU COLOSTRUM À LA FERME: DES HABITUDES INFLUENCANT LE STATUT COLOSTRAL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM IN THE PIGLET A. AUMAITRE B. SEVE  

E-print Network

NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM IN THE PIGLET A. AUMAITRE B. SEVE Pig Husbandry Department - INRA 78350 Jouy en Josas - France Résumé IMPORTANCE NUTRITIONNELLE DU COLOSTRUM CHEZ LE PORCELET du colostrum nous permet d'affirmer qu'il est riche en matière sèche (30-40 °/o de plus que le lait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Prevention of rotavirus infection by oral administration of cow colostrum containing antihumanrotavirus antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

After immunizing 8-month pregnant Holstein cows with human rotavirus, Wa strain, cow colostrum containing neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus, designated as Rota colostrum, was obtained. After randomly grouping 13 infants from a single orphanage, 6 infants received 20 ml of Rota colostrum every morning and 7 control infants received 20 ml of market milk. One month later, rotavirus associated diarrhea

T. Ebina; A. Sato; K. Umezu; N. Ishida; S. Ohyama; A. Oizumi; K. Aikawa; S. Katagiri; N. Katsushima; A. Imai; S. Kitaoka; H. Suzuki; T. Konno

1985-01-01

98

THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM AND THE PERSISTENCE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNOGLOBULINS  

E-print Network

THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM AND THE PERSISTENCE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNOGLOBULINS DU COLOSTRUM ET LA PERSISTANCE DES IMMU- NOGLOBULINES ACQUISES ET DES ANTICORPS SPECIFIQUES CHEZ LE VEAU. ― On a mesuré les Quantités absolues d'immunoglobulines dans 24 échantillons de colostrum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.  

PubMed

Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1 % fat milk, 1·5 % fat yogurt and 34 % fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22 % and 0·42 v. 0·39 % of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

2015-02-01

100

Comparison of Freezing and Lyophilizing for Preservation of Colostrum as a Source of Immunoglobulins for Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyophilizing was compared to freez- ing as a method of colostrum storage. Eight lots of colostrum from the first milking were divided into two equal parts; one was frozen, and the other was lyophilized. Twenty-two newborn calves were divided into two groups and fed either 2 L of frozen and thawed colostrum or 2 L of reconstituted lyophilized colostrum. The

F. Klobasa; M. C. Goel; E. Werhahn

2010-01-01

101

226 A. HOUDINIRE. -LE COLOSTRUM Enfin, dans tous les cas, l'limination de la crote entrane une  

E-print Network

(8uite) 226 A. HOUDINIÈRE. - LE COLOSTRUM Enfin, dans tous les cas, l'élimination de la croûte COLOSTRUM DE VACHE Composition - Propriétés RÉPERCUSSIONS EN INDUSTRIE LAITIÈRE par A: HOUDINIÈRE Ingénieur COLOSTRUM . L'étude colostrum appelle celle de ses constantes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training  

PubMed Central

Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2?g/dL, IgG 15.9?g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4?g/dL, IgG 18.3?g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9?g/dL, IgG 24.6?g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. PMID:24864224

Williams, Deniece R.; Pithua, Patrick; Garcia, Angel; Champagne, John; Haines, Deborah M.; Aly, Sharif S.

2014-01-01

103

Effects of Quality, Quantity, and Timing of Colostrum Feeding and Addition of a Dried Colostrum Supplement on Immunoglobulin G1 Absorption in Holstein Bull Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of quality, quantity, and timing of colostrum feeding and the administration of a dried colostrum supplement on serum Ig in Holstein bull calves. In Experiment 1, calves were fed colostrum that had low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig; 23.9 mg of IgG1\\/ml) as follows: group 1-1 (n = 6), 2 L at birth

D. E. Morin; G. C. McCoy; W. L. Hurley

1997-01-01

104

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

2014-01-01

105

Preventively enteral application of immunoglobulin enriched colostrums milk can modulate postoperative inflammatory response  

PubMed Central

Several studies demonstrated acute inflammatory response following traumatic injury. Inflammatory response during surgical interventions was verified by a significant increase of endotoxin plasma levels and a decrease of the endotoxin neutralizing capacity (ENC). However, the incidence of elevated endotoxin levels was significantly higher (89%) than detected bacterial translocation (35%). Thus parts or products of Gram-negative bacteria seem to translocate more easily into the blood circulation than whole bacteria. Along with the bacterial translocation, the inflammatory response correlated directly with the severity of the surgical intervention. In comparison after major and minor surgery Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly different. Similar effects in mediator release were shown during endovascular stent graft placement and open surgery in infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Open surgery demonstrated a significant stronger endotoxin translocation and a decrease of ENC. Strategies to prevent translocation seem to be sensible. Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary glands within the first days after birth. It contains a complex system of immune factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Placebo-controlled studies verified that prophylactic oral application of immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation diminishes perioperative endotoxemia, prevents reduction of ENC and reduces postoperative CRP-levels, suggesting a stabilization of the gut barrier. This effect may be caused by immunoglobulin transportation by the neonatal receptor FcRn of the mucosal epithelium. In conclusion, there is an association of perioperative endotoxemia and the subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction in surgical patients. A prophylactic oral application of colostrum milk is likely to stabilize the gut barrier i.e. reduces the influx of lipopolysaccharides arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and inhibits enterogenic endotoxemia. This appears to be a major mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock. PMID:24266958

2013-01-01

106

Crop Processing and Chop Length of Corn Silage: Effects on Intake, Digestion, and Milk Production by Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evalu- ated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut with- out processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theo- retical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll

M. A. Bal; R. D. Shaver; A. G. Jirovec; K. J. Shinners; J. G. Coors

2000-01-01

107

NUTRITION, FEEDING, AND CALVES Effect of Prepartum Anionic Supplementation on Periparturient Feed Intake, Health and Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The four diets used prepartum were Control (DCAD +20 meq\\/100 g DM), BioChlor® (DCAD -12 meq\\/100 g DM), Fermenten® (DCAD -10 meq\\/100

M. A. DeGroot; P. D. French

108

Estimated net endogenous acid production and intake of bone health-related nutrients in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: To examine the daily intake of bone health-related nutrients and to explore the association between diet composition and estimated net endogenous acid production (estimated NEAP) in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.Subject\\/Methods: In total, 171 boys and 180 girls aged 10–12 years of Chinese origin from nine primary schools from the Hong Kong Adolescent Bone Health Cohort Study. The study design

R S M Chan; J Woo; D C C Chan; C S K Cheung; D H S Lo; RSM Chan

2009-01-01

109

Oligosaccharides in colostrum of Italian and Burkinabe women.  

PubMed

Human milk contains a large number of compounds to provide nutrition and defense for the newborn. Among these, oligosaccharides are present in concentrations up to 12 g/L, and their composition varies during lactation. Colostrum from 53 Burkinabe women were collected at the maternity department of St Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, West Africa). Colostrum from 50 Italian women were collected at the maternity department of St Bambino Hospital in Catania (Catania, East Sicily, Italy). All mothers spontaneously delivered at term. Italian mothers received an injection of the ergot derivative ergotamine after delivery. Ergotamine, notoriously, delays breastfeeding initiation up to 2 to 3 days. Chromatographic separation of colostrum from both Burkinabe and Italian women showed a progressive appearance of oligosaccharides in the first 3 days. Burkinabe women showed high concentrations of 2-fucosyllactose and lower concentrations of lacto-N-fucopentaose I. By contrast, Italian women showed inverted behaviour. A comparable percentage of the secretor genotype for the Lewis blood group phenotype in both Burkinabe and Italian women was found. According to the different ethnicity, different milk oligosaccharide profiles were documented in the present study. 2-Fucosyllactose in milk should be biologically significant for Burkinabe infants because of the high levels found in their mothers' colostrum after the second day of lactation. PMID:16954962

Musumeci, Maria; Simpore, Jacques; D'Agata, Alfonsina; Sotgiu, Stefano; Musumeci, Salvatore

2006-09-01

110

Oligosaccharides of milk and colostrum in non-human mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian milk or colostrum usually contains, in addition to lactose, a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides. Although the oligosaccharides of human milk have been reviewed in several recent publications, those of non-human mammals have received much less attention. This paper reviews the chemical structures and the variety of milk oligosaccharides in species other than humans, including placental mammals (e.g.

Tadasu Urashima; Tadao Saito; Tadashi Nakamura; Michael Messer

2001-01-01

111

Properties of the Colostrum of the Dairy Cow. I. Tocopherol Levels in the Colostrum and in the Early Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the role of colostrum in the nutrition of the dairy calf suggested a study of the tocopherol concentration in this secretion. Such an investigation has received little attention. Mason (4) and Mason and Bryan (5) investigated this problem in rats by means of bioassays. The)\\

D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes

1947-01-01

112

Effects of lyophilized colostrum and different colostrum feeding regimens on passive transfer of immunoglobulin g in Majorera goat kids.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted including 180 Majorera kids. In the first experiment, the effect of use of lyophilized colostrum vs. frozen colostrum on immunoglobulin G (IgG) blood serum concentration was evaluated. Kids (n = 40) received the same management and IgG mass [3368 mg/kg of body weight (BW)] during the colostrum feeding period. The IgG in blood serum of kids from the lyophilized colostrum group was greater than that for kids that received frozen colostrum. The second experiment evaluated the effect of total IgG ingested by kids (n = 60) on IgG in blood serum during the colostrum feeding period. Three groups of animals received 3368, 1684, and 842 mg of IgG/kg of BW in 4 feedings for 2 d [high IgG concentration (H-IgG), medium IgG concentration (M-IgG), and low-IgG concentration (L-IgG), respectively]. The IgG blood serum in the kids that received H-IgG was greater than in the other 2 treatment groups, and no statistical differences were found for IgG in blood serum of kids that received either M-IgG or L-IgG. The third experiment evaluated the effect of timing of lyophilized colostrum meals on IgG blood serum concentration. Four groups of kids (n = 80) were used. Two groups received 1684 mg of IgG/kg of BW (higher level-1 d and higher level-2 d) and the other 2 groups received 842 mg of IgG/kg of BW (lower level-1 d and lower level-2 d). Two groups received 2 feedings in 1 d, and the other 2 groups received 4 feedings over a 2-d period, as denoted. Higher level-1 d kids had greater IgG blood serum concentration than the higher level-2 d kids, and no statistical differences were found between lower level-1 d and lower level-2 d kids. PMID:16162539

Castro, N; Capote, J; Alvarez, S; Argüello, A

2005-10-01

113

Properties of the Colostrum of the Dairy Cow. V. Yield, Specific Gravity and Concentrations of Total Solids and its Various Components of Colostrum and Early Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable information on specific gravity and on concentrations of total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash of colostrum has been accumulated. From the early studies, many of which are referred to by Houdini~re (7), Overman and Sanmann (8) and Weber (18), there emerged a general picture of the gross composition of colostrum and a recognition of its variability. Within the

D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes; F. W. Atkeson

1950-01-01

114

Complement activity and selected hematologic variables in newborn foals fed bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

Serum complement activity and selected hematologic variables were evaluated in 5 newborn foals fed bovine colostrum (principal group) and 6 foals allowed to nurse their dam (control group). Also, bovine colostrum was evaluated for anti-equine antibodies. Precolostral serum hemolytic and conglutinating complement activities were low and increased similarly in foals of both groups to reach adult values between 1 and 3 weeks after birth. Bovine colostrum strongly agglutinated, but did not hemolyse principal foals' RBC and blood containing all known equine blood group alloantigens. Hemolysis was not detected after administration of bovine colostrum. Physiologic anemia developed in foals of principal and control groups during the first week of life. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility in foals of the principal group prior to and after the ingestion of colostrum remained unchanged. However, at 36 hours after birth, there was a significant decrease in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in foals fed homologous colostrum. PMID:2802328

Lavoie, J P; Spensley, M S; Smith, B P; Bowling, A T; Morse, S

1989-09-01

115

Mothers' Health Awareness and Its Impact on Children's Dairy Product Intakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a survey of food intake and diet/health knowlege was used to compare children's milk consumption in terms of their mothers' (n=619) health awareness and other characteristics. Awareness increased adolescents' dairy consumption but not that of preschool and primary school children. Socioeconomic factors played a negligible role. (Contains…

Kim, Sora; Douthitt, Robin A.

2003-01-01

116

Antioxidative properties of lactoferrin from bovine colostrum before and after its lyophilization.  

PubMed

The effect of lactoferrin (LF) derived from native, frozen and lyophilized bovine colostrum on the intensity of free-radical processes in model systems has been investigated. It was shown that LF, not depending on the source of its obtaining, is an efficient iron chelator and decreases intensity of peroxidative processes. It was established, that antioxidative properties of LF from lyophilized colostrum have remained unchanged within 12 months of dry colostrum storage under proper conditions. PMID:14566387

Sandomirsky, B P; Galchenko, S E; Galchenko, K S

2003-01-01

117

Intake port  

DOEpatents

The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

Mendler, Edward Charles

2005-02-01

118

Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period. PMID:22959942

Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-11-01

119

Colostrum as oral immune therapy to promote neonatal health.  

PubMed

It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx and gut. Colostrum as oral immune therapy is delivered by swabbing the cheeks in the first days of life. Little formal study has evaluated its effectiveness. However, small studies demonstrate that it is a practice that is safe, feasible, and well tolerated even by the smallest premature infants. Encouraging preliminary evidence supports the effect of C-OIT to reduce the time to full enteral feedings. Effects on other outcomes is unclear, in part because existing studies are underpowered to detect significant differences on outcomes like necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and death. Another limitation in the evidence base is that adherence to the intervention and the number of doses of colostrum infants received in the studies is not consistently made clear. More well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate the impact on neonatal complications and how C-OIT supports the infant's immune development. Quality improvement and time series reports of differences pre- and postimplementation of OMC given orally should minimally include statistics for adherence to the intervention and/or the number of doses an infant received as a covariate. Even so, OMC is an immune therapy that poses little risk yet offers likely cost-effective benefit for vulnerable infants. PMID:24472888

Gephart, Sheila M; Weller, Michelle

2014-02-01

120

Bisphenol a and its chlorinated derivatives in human colostrum.  

PubMed

The health effects related to bisphenol A (BPA) and its exposure sources have undergone extensive investigation, but no consensus has been reached. Hitherto, the major source of human BPA exposure considered in the literature remains food-contact material. However, the chlorine present in drinking water may react with BPA to form chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), which have indeed been shown to have a heightened level of estrogenic activity. In this study, we have evaluated colostrum concentrations of BPA and ClxBPA in order to confirm our hypothesis according to which BPA water contamination leads to ClxBPA human exposure. BPA and its ClxBPA were assessed through online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) using the isotope dilution method in the colostrums of 21 women who had completed a water exposure questionnaire. BPA was detected in 19 colostrums and its ClxBPA in 21 colostrums. Mean concentrations were 1.87 ± 1.38 ng mL(-1) (n = 19) for BPA, 1.87 ± 1.23 ng mL(-1) (n = 7) and 1.56 ± 0.74 (n = 18) ng mL(-1) for 2,2'-Cl2BPA and 2,6-Cl2BPA, respectively, and 0.68 ng mL(-1) (n = 1) for trichloro-BPA. These findings confirm our hypothesis that ClxBPA should be taken into account in human health risk assessment. PMID:24229370

Migeot, Virginie; Dupuis, Antoine; Cariot, Axelle; Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie

2013-12-01

121

Evaluation of on-farm tools for colostrum quality measurement.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the immunoglobulin G (IgG) content of colostrum on Alberta dairy farms and to determine which on-farm tool, the colostrometer or the Brix refractometer, was more highly correlated with IgG content as determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID). Colostrum samples (n=569) were collected between February and July 2012 from 13 commercial dairy farms in central Alberta, with herds ranging in size from 60 to 300 lactating cows. Immunoglobulin G content was determined directly by RID and indirectly by a colostrometer (specific gravity) and Brix refractometer (total solids). The Spearman correlation was used for the colostrometer and Brix refractometer data. According to RID analysis, 29.1% of the colostrum samples contained <50mg/mL IgG. Concentrations ranged from 8.3 to 128.6mg/mL IgG, with a median of 65.1mg/mL. Third or greater parity cows had higher colostral IgG content (69.5±1.98mg/mL) than second parity (59.80±2.06mg/mL) or first parity (62.2±1.73mg/mL) cows. The colostrometer data were more highly correlated with RID results (r=0.77) than were the Brix refractometer data (r=0.64). Specificity and sensitivity were determined for the colostrometer and Brix refractometer compared with a cut-point of 50mg/mL IgG as determined by RID. The highest combined value for sensitivity and specificity occurred at 80mg/mL for the colostrometer (84.1 and 77.0%, respectively) and 23% Brix (65.7 and 82.8%, respectively). This study indicates that although the colostrometer data are better correlated with true IgG values, the user-friendly Brix refractometer is a more specific tool to detect colostrum of adequate quality. PMID:25582586

Bartier, A L; Windeyer, M C; Doepel, L

2015-03-01

122

Triacylglycerol structure of human colostrum and mature milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because triacylglycerol (TAG) structure influences the metabolic fate of its component fatty acids, we have examined human\\u000a colostrum and mature milk TAG with particular attention to the location of the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid\\u000a on the glycerol backbone. The analysis was based on the formation of various diacylglycerol species from human milk TAG upon\\u000a chemical (Grignard degradation) or

Jean-Charles Martin; Philippe Bougnoux; Jean-Michel Antoine; Monique Lanson; Charles Couet

1993-01-01

123

Effects of pretrial milk yield on responses of feed intake, digestion, and production to dietary forage concentration.  

PubMed

The relationships between pretrial milk yield and effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on dry matter intake (DMI), digestion, and milk yield were evaluated using 32 Holstein cows in a crossover design with two 16-d periods. Cows were 197 +/- 55 (mean +/- SD) days in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Milk yield averaged 33.9 kg/d and ranged from 16.5 to 55.0 kg/d for the 4 d before initiation of treatments. Treatments were diets with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 67:33 and 44:56. Forages were alfalfa silage and corn silage, each at 50% of forage dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of high-forage and low-forage diets were 30.7 and 24.3% of DM, respectively. Dry matter intake was 1.7 kg/d higher for cows fed the low-forage diet. Milk yield was 2.3 kg/d greater on low forage than on high forage, but 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were not different between treatments. Individual DMI response to the low-forage diet relative to the high-forage diet (low-high) was positively and linearly related to pretrial fat-corrected milk yield, but fat-corrected milk yield response demonstrated a quadratic relationship with pretrial fat-corrected milk yield. Milk yield responded more positively to low forage among low- and high-producing cows than among moderate-producing cows. Energy partitioned to body reserves and to milk, and passage rate of indigestible NDF, also responded to dietary forage level in quadratic relationships with pretrial milk energy output. Individual responses of intake, production, and fiber digestion to a change in forage-to-concentrate ratio were dependent on production level. PMID:12416819

Voelker, J A; Burato, G M; Allen, M S

2002-10-01

124

Effect of Feeding Raw Versus Heat-treated Colostrum on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Dairy Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction The importance of timing, volume and quality of colostrum fed has long been understood, but the improvement of colostrum quality via on farm heat-treatment is a concept developed only within the last few years. Bacterial contamination of colostrum is not only a potential source of patho...

125

Mtabolisme protique de l'agneau nouveau-n. I. Consquences de l'ingestion de colostrum  

E-print Network

Métabolisme protéique de l'agneau nouveau-né. — I. Conséquences de l'ingestion de colostrum., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Protein metabolism in the newborn lamb. /. Effect of colostrum into two groups at birth. Five of them were fed hourly with cow colostrum ; the others (unfed lambs) were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Comparison of freezing and lyophilizing for preservation of colostrum as a source of immunoglobulins for calves.  

PubMed

Lyophilizing was compared to freezing as a method of colostrum storage. Eight lots of colostrum from the first milking were divided into two equal parts; one was frozen, and the other was lyophilized. Twenty-two newborn calves were divided into two groups and fed either 2 L of frozen and thawed colostrum or 2 L of reconstituted lyophilized colostrum. The calves were bled at 12, 18, 24, and 72 h after feeding, and levels of the immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA were determined with a radial immunodiffusion assay, in colostrum and sera. The mean concentration of individual immunoglobulin isotypes in the sera of calves fed either frozen or lyophilized colostrum did not differ significantly. Calves fed from the same lots of colostrum had similar immunoglobulin concentrations in their sera, irrespective of the method of storage. All immunoglobulin isotypes were absorbed with equal efficiency from frozen and lyophilized colostrum as determined by calculation of the absorption coefficient. PMID:9581912

Klobasa, F; Goel, M C; Werhahn, E

1998-04-01

127

Effect of colostrum treated by heat on immunological parameters in newborn lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen newborn lambs were fed with untreated colostrum (group A) and 18 lambs were fed with colostrum treated by heat (56 °C, 30 min) (group B). Blood samples were obtained at seven time points from day 0 to 38 of life. Clinical status and body weight were recorded and serum protein fractions and IgG levels were determined in blood. Phagocytosis of neutrophils

A. Loste; J. J. Ramos; A. Fernández; L. M. Ferrer; D. Lacasta; M. T. Verde; M. C. Marca; A. Ortín

2008-01-01

128

Colostrum from different mammalian species—A rich source of colostrinin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrinin™ (CLN), a proline-rich polypeptide complex, originally isolated from ovine colostrum, has been proven to be a promising and non-toxic natural preparation capable of preventing the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing a new purification protocol, colostrum from cows, goats or humans can also be used as alternative sources of this complex. Comparison of properties of preparation derived from these

Agata Soko?owska; Renata Bednarz; Magdalena Pacewicz; Jerzy A. Georgiades; Tadeusz Wilusz; Antoni Polanowski

2008-01-01

129

Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-wk old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 o...

130

Chemical Changes in Bovine Colostrum Preserved with Formalin or by Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh bovine colostrum from second and third milkings postpartum was inoculated with either a yogurt culture or Streptococcus lactis or preserved with • 1% formalin in two separate experiments. There was a rapid decrease in pH of the fermented samples which corresponded to decreased lactose concentrations and increased lactate and titratable acidity. Titratable acidity in the fermented colostrums increased further

R. S. Bush; R. E. McQueen; J. W. G. Nicholson

1980-01-01

131

Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

2014-03-01

132

Influence of different supplements and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars on intake, digestible variables and methane production of dairy heifers under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

The sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tracer method was used to measure methane (CH(4)) production of crossbred (3/4 Holstein x Zebu) dairy heifers fed two types of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.; cultivar IAC-862480 (CC1) or cultivar IAC-873184 (CC2)) and supplemented with urea or concentrate. The study was performed at Embrapa Southeast Cattle, São Carlos, SP, Brazil, using a completely randomised design. Differences between treatments were significant for digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. When animals were supplemented with urea differences between sugarcane cultivars did occur for NDF consumption, but not for daily methane production. This suggest that variation in chemical composition of sugarcane did not affect bovine ruminal CH(4) emissions. Concentrate inclusion in animal diet increased digestible organic matter intake, improving the nutrient intake by animals, but did not reduce CH(4) production expressed as a percentage of gross energy intake. PMID:22476735

Pedreira, Márcio dos Santos; Berchelli, Telma Teresinha; Primavesi, Odo; de Oliveira, Simone Gisele; Frighetto, Rosa; de Lima, Magda Aparecida

2012-10-01

133

Genetic variation in residual feed intake and its association with other production traits in British Hereford cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in residual feed intake, that is, variation in feed intake in relation to liveweight (LW) and growth rate, was investigated using data from 540 progeny of 154 British Hereford sires, collected over ten 200-day postweaning performance tests conducted between 1979 and 1988. Residual feed intake (RFIReg) was calculated for each test as the difference between actual feed and expected

R. M. Herd; S. C. Bishop

2000-01-01

134

Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor.  

PubMed

The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

2015-04-01

135

Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=0.45, DTB=1.08) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=3.82, FR=4.80). Mean 24-h serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher for calves in the PU (41.0 mg/mL) and DTB (40.6 mg/mL) groups compared with FF (35.1 mg/mL) and FR (35.5 mg/mL) groups. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was significantly higher for the PU (37%) and DTB (37%) groups compared with the FF (32%) and FR (32%) groups. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum (PU or DTB) experienced significantly improved AEA and serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25597970

Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

2015-03-01

136

EXPERIMENTAL ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED LAMBS  

E-print Network

) élevés conventionnellement sans colostrum ont été inoculés par voie orale avec 1,7 à 3,1 x 108 E. coli B Cher et 6 Préalpes) ont reçu dans les mêmes conditions une souche de E. coli non entérotoxinogène (C heures suivant l'inoculation. La maladie a été plus sévère chez les agneaux inoculés avec E. coli B41

Boyer, Edmond

137

Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein?×?Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

2015-01-01

138

Impact of the Maturity of Corn for Use as Silage in the Diets of Dairy Cows on Intake, Digestion, and Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-plant corn was harvested at early dent, quarter milkline, two-thirds milkline, and black layer stages to evaluate the effects of maturity on intake, digestion, and milk production when corn was fed as silage in the diet. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets contain- ing

M. A. Bal; J. G. Coors; R. D. Shaver

1997-01-01

139

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Cratylia argentea (Desvaux) O. Kuntze to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition was studied in the dry tropics\\u000a in Nicaragua. The treatments were sorghum silage ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Cratylia on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos

N. R. Sánchez; I. Ledin

2006-01-01

140

NKCC2A and NFAT5 regulate renal TNF production induced by hypertonic NaCl intake  

PubMed Central

Pathways that contribute to TNF production by the kidney are not well defined. Mice given 1% NaCl in the drinking water for 3 days exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in urinary, but not plasma, TNF levels compared with mice given tap water. Since furosemide attenuated the increase in TNF levels, we hypothesized that hypertonic NaCl intake increases renal TNF production by a pathway involving the Na+-K+-2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC2). A 2.5-fold increase in NKCC2A mRNA accumulation was observed in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) tubules from mice given 1% NaCl; a concomitant 2-fold increase in nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) mRNA and protein expression was observed in the outer medulla. Urinary TNF levels were reduced in mice given 1% NaCl after an intrarenal injection of a lentivirus construct designed to specifically knockdown NKCC2A (EGFP-N2A-ex4); plasma levels of TNF did not change after injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4. Intrarenal injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4 also inhibited the increase of NFAT5 mRNA abundance in the outer medulla of mice given 1% NaCl. TNF production by primary cultures of mTAL cells increased approximately sixfold in response to an increase in osmolality to 400 mosmol/kgH2O produced with NaCl and was inhibited in cells transiently transfected with a dnNFAT5 construct. Transduction of cells with EGFP-N2A-ex4 also prevented increases in TNF mRNA and protein production in response to high NaCl concentration and reduced transcriptional activity of a NFAT5 promoter construct. Since NKCC2A expression is restricted to the TAL, NKCC2A-dependent activation of NFAT5 is part of a pathway by which the TAL produces TNF in response to hypertonic NaCl intake. PMID:23269645

Hao, Shoujin; Bellner, Lars

2013-01-01

141

NKCC2A and NFAT5 regulate renal TNF production induced by hypertonic NaCl intake.  

PubMed

Pathways that contribute to TNF production by the kidney are not well defined. Mice given 1% NaCl in the drinking water for 3 days exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in urinary, but not plasma, TNF levels compared with mice given tap water. Since furosemide attenuated the increase in TNF levels, we hypothesized that hypertonic NaCl intake increases renal TNF production by a pathway involving the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2). A 2.5-fold increase in NKCC2A mRNA accumulation was observed in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) tubules from mice given 1% NaCl; a concomitant 2-fold increase in nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) mRNA and protein expression was observed in the outer medulla. Urinary TNF levels were reduced in mice given 1% NaCl after an intrarenal injection of a lentivirus construct designed to specifically knockdown NKCC2A (EGFP-N2A-ex4); plasma levels of TNF did not change after injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4. Intrarenal injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4 also inhibited the increase of NFAT5 mRNA abundance in the outer medulla of mice given 1% NaCl. TNF production by primary cultures of mTAL cells increased approximately sixfold in response to an increase in osmolality to 400 mosmol/kgH2O produced with NaCl and was inhibited in cells transiently transfected with a dnNFAT5 construct. Transduction of cells with EGFP-N2A-ex4 also prevented increases in TNF mRNA and protein production in response to high NaCl concentration and reduced transcriptional activity of a NFAT5 promoter construct. Since NKCC2A expression is restricted to the TAL, NKCC2A-dependent activation of NFAT5 is part of a pathway by which the TAL produces TNF in response to hypertonic NaCl intake. PMID:23269645

Hao, Shoujin; Bellner, Lars; Ferreri, Nicholas R

2013-03-01

142

Sources of sodium in Australian children's diets and the effect of the application of sodium targets to food products to reduce sodium intake.  

PubMed

The average reported dietary Na intake of children in Australia is high: 2694 mg/d (9-13 years). No data exist describing food sources of Na in Australian children's diets and potential impact of Na reduction targets for processed foods. The aim of the present study was to determine sources of dietary Na in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2-16 years and to assess the impact of application of the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) Na reduction targets on Na intake. Na intake and use of discretionary salt (note: conversion of salt to Na, 1 g of NaCl (salt) = 390 mg Na) were assessed from 24-h dietary recall in 4487 children participating in the Australian 2007 Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Greatest contributors to Na intake across all ages were cereals and cereal-based products/dishes (43%), including bread (13%) and breakfast cereals (4%). Other moderate sources were meat, poultry products (16%), including processed meats (8%) and sausages (3%); milk products/dishes (11%) and savoury sauces and condiments (7%). Between 37 and 42% reported that the person who prepares their meal adds salt when cooking and between 11 and 39% added salt at the table. Those over the age of 9 years were more likely to report adding salt at the table (?2 199·5, df 6, P < 0·001). Attainment of the UK FSA Na reduction targets, within the present food supply, would result in a 20% reduction in daily Na intake in children aged 2-16 years. Incremental reductions of this magnitude over a period of years could significantly reduce the Na intake of this group and further reductions could be achieved by reducing discretionary salt use. PMID:20875190

Grimes, Carley A; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A

2011-02-01

143

Use of fat-modified food products to change dietary fat intake of young people.  

PubMed Central

Food purchasing and preparation practices were modified in two boarding high schools to increase the polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio (P/S) of the diet of students by changing food products rather than attempting to change eating behaviors. During years when fat-modified products were served, the P/S of males increased by 75 percent, versus a decrease of 6 percent during control years. For females, P/S increased by 53 percent during intervention years, versus an increase of 6 percent during control years. PMID:2240309

Ellison, R C; Goldberg, R J; Witschi, J C; Capper, A L; Puleo, E M; Stare, F J

1990-01-01

144

Intake of Soy Products Is Associated with Better Plasma Lipid Profiles in the Hong Kong Chinese Population1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the pattern of soy intake and its association with blood lipid concentrations in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Subjects were contacted by random tele- phone survey and invited to a hospital for a physical exami- nation and blood tests. A total of 500 men and 510 women with an age range of 24-74 y completed the dietary intake

Suzanne C. Ho; Jean L. F. Woo; Sophie S. F. Leung; Aprille L. K. Sham; T. H. Lam; E. D. Janus

145

Corn bran versus corn grain at 2 levels of forage: Intake, apparent digestibility, and production responses by lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of substituting corn bran (CB) for dried ground corn grain (CG) in the nonforage portion of high-forage (HF) and low-forage (LF) diets. Twelve multiparous and 12 primiparous Holsteins were assigned to 4 diets using six 4× Latin squares with 3-wk periods. Forage was 64 or 38% of the total mixed ration (% of dry matter). On a dry matter basis, the HFCG diet had 20% CG, the LFCG diet had 39% CG, the HFCB diet had 19% CB, and the LFCB diet had 38% CB. Digestible organic matter intake (OMI) and milk energy yield were lower for CB compared with CG within forage level. Digestible OMI was greater (1.9kg/d) for the LFCG compared with the HFCG treatment. When CB replaced forage (LFCB vs. HFCB), digestible OMI was not different but milk energy yield was greater with the LFCB diet. The LFCG diet supported the greatest milk, milk protein, and milk energy yield. Decreased concentration of milk protein and increased concentration of milk urea nitrogen when feeding CB compared with CG suggests that lack of fermentable energy in the CB diets may have limited rumen microbial protein synthesis. Total substitution of CG with CB in the nonforage portion did not support maximum milk production, even when forage was reduced at the same time (HFCG vs. LFCB). Predicted neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility at 1 times maintenance, based on chemical analysis of the individual feeds, was 22 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 46.9%). In vitro NDF digestibility (30h) was 19.4 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 49.5%). However, in vivo NDF digestibility of the diet when CB replaced forage (HFCB vs. LFCB) was similar (44.1 vs. 44.5%). Similarly, predicted total digestible nutrients at the production level of intake, based on chemical analysis, were greater for the CB treatments and lower for the CG treatments than those observed in vivo. PMID:24997669

Arndt, C; Armentano, L E; Hall, M B

2014-09-01

146

Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus in Childhood and Age at Menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) with menarcheal age were also examined. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ? 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. Results The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03–5.05)], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39–7.42)], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12–5.27)] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44–7.87) after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1). Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ? 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. Conclusions Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche. PMID:23451261

Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Moslehi, Nazanin; Asghari, Golaleh; Gholami, Roya; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

2013-01-01

147

Efficacy of dried colostrum powders in the prevention of diarrhea in neonatal Holstein calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and twenty healthy Holstein calves were assigned randomly at birth to one of four groups; each group contained\\u000a 30 calves and the calves were received as follows: group A, 85?±?5 g of lyophilized colostrum powder dissolved in 3 kg of\\u000a whole milk; group B, 85?±?5 g of spray-dried colostrum powder dissolved in 3 kg of whole milk; group C, 750 ml frozen and

M. R. Mokhber Dezfouli; F. Rezazadeh; M. Rabbani; S. T. Zahraai; H. A. Seifi

2007-01-01

148

Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for arthritis but cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a rich source of growth factors and is marketed as a health food supplement.AIMSTo examine whether spray dried, defatted colostrum or milk preparations could reduce gastrointestinal injury caused by indomethacin.METHODSEffects of test solutions, administered orally, were examined using an indomethacin restraint rat model of gastric

R J Playford; D N Floyd; C E Macdonald; D P Calnan; R O Adenekan; W Johnson; R A Goodlad; T Marchbank

1999-01-01

149

Solid-phase assembly of cow colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene.  

PubMed Central

A gene for cow colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) was constructed from synthetic oligonucleotides using a novel method of solid-phase gene assembly. In the first step an anchor oligonucleotide was covalently bound to the CNBr-activated Sephacryl S-500 support. Next, triads or tetrads of separately annealed oligonucleotides were stepwise hybridized to the immobilized complementary sequence, with washing after each step. In the last step a linearized vector molecule was ligated to the assembled gene. The whole construct was released from the solid support with a restriction enzyme, circularized, and used for transformation, with a high yield of recombinant clones being obtained. The method represents a generally applicable approach to rapid and efficient assembly of extended DNA duplexes. PMID:3299259

Hostomský, Z; Smrt, J; Arnold, L; Tocík, Z; Paces, V

1987-01-01

150

The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.  

PubMed

Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. PMID:25468691

Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

2015-01-01

151

Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

1992-04-01

152

Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G  

PubMed Central

Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous micro-organisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum. PMID:24582452

Pereira, R. V.; Bicalho, M. L.; Machado, V. S.; Lima, S.; Teixeira, A. G.; Warnick, L. D.; Bicalho, R. C.

2015-01-01

153

Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.  

PubMed

Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum. PMID:24582452

Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

2014-05-01

154

Hyperimmune bovine colostrum for treatment of GI infections: a review and update on Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), produced by vaccination of a cow during gestation, is rich in targeted immunoglobulins, and can be used to treat a variety of diseases. The published history of HBC use for treating gastrointestinal infections in humans has developed over the past several decades and demonstrates the promise of this type of therapeutic for GI infectious disease. HBC, or purified derivative products, have been used successfully for treatment or prevention of cryptosporidiosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Given the positive results of previous studies using HBC for treatment of CDI, we have produced HBC with antibodies against the two most important virulence factors of C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, using a novel recombinant vaccine. Our preliminary results demonstrate efficacy of the HBC product for treatment of CDI in the gnotobiotic piglet model, and warrant more thorough investigation. HBC may provide an effective treatment alternative to antibiotics, which can spare the normal gut microflora, and reduce rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. PMID:23435084

Steele, Jennifer; Sponseller, Jerlyn; Schmidt, Diane; Cohen, Ocean; Tzipori, Saul

2013-07-01

155

Oral bovine colostrum supplementation enhances buffer capacity but not rowing performance in elite female rowers.  

PubMed

A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design was used in which 13 elite female rowers, all of whom had competed at World Championships, were supplemented with 60 g day-1 of either bovine colostrum (BC; n = 6) or concentrated whey protein powder (WP; n = 7) during 9 weeks of pre-competition training. All subjects undertook the study as a group and completed the same training program. Prior to, and after 9 weeks of supplementation and training, subjects completed an incremental rowing test (ROW1) on a rowing ergometer consisting of 3 3 4-min submaximal workloads and a 4-min maximal effort (4 max), each separated by a 1-min recovery period. The rowing test was repeated after a 15-min period of passive recovery (ROW2). The 4 max for ROW1 provided a measure of performance, and the difference between the 4 max efforts of ROW1 and ROW2 provided an index of recovery. Blood lactate concentrations and pH measured prior to exercise and at the end of each workload were used to estimate blood buffer capacity (beta). Food intake was recorded daily for dietary analysis. There were no differences in macronutrient intakes (p >.56) or training volumes (p >.99) between BC and WP during the study period. Rowing performance (distance rowed and work done) during 4 max of ROW2 was less than ROW1 at baseline (p <.05) but not different between groups (p >.05). Performance increased in both rows by Week 9 (p <.001), with no difference between groups (p >.75). However, the increase was greatest in ROW2 (p <.05), such that by Week 9 there was no longer a difference in performance between the two rows in either group (p >.05). b was not different between groups for ROW1 at baseline (BC 38.3 5.0, WP 38.2 7.2 slykes; p >.05) but was higher in BC by Week 9 (BC 40.8 5.9, WP 33.4 5.3 slykes; p <.05). b for ROW2 followed the same pattern of change as for ROW1. We conclude that supplementation with BC improves b, but not performance, in elite female rowers. It was not possible to determine whether b had any effect on recovery. PMID:12432178

Brinkworth, Grant David; Buckley, Jonathan David; Bourdon, Pitre Collier; Gulbin, Jason Paul; David, Adrian

2002-09-01

156

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae : The sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.  

PubMed

Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. PMID:25613041

Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

2015-03-01

157

Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

158

Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis KYLE ZOHN MILAM Approved as to style and content by: Carl E. Coppock (Chairman of Committ ) Ron G. Elmore (Member) L. Wayne Greene (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Effects of Drinking...

Milam, Kyle Zohn

1985-01-01

159

Effects of Prepartum Administration of a Monensin Controlled Release Capsule on Rumen pH, Feed Intake, and Milk Production of Transition Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlledreleasecapsule(CRC)onrumenpH,drymat- ter intake, and milk production during the transition period and early lactation were determined in 16 mul- tiparous Holstein cows. Cows were divided into blocks of 2 depending on calving date. Cows were fed either a close-updry cowor alactating cowtotal mixedration ad libitum. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling probes. Monensin

A. M. Fairfield; J. C. Plaizier; T. F. Duffield; M. I. Lindinger; R. Bagg; P. Dick; B. W. McBride

2007-01-01

160

Cross-sectional survey on the relationship between dairy product intake and bone density among adult women and high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of milk and milk product intake on bone health in Japanese adult women (n=1252; 19-80 years of age), high school girls (n=2651; 15-18 years of age), and high school boys (n = 2110; 15-18 years of age). The data for subjects who performed and did not perform exercise (described herein as with-exercise and no-exercise) were analyzed

Setsuko Yoshii; Shoko Kamimotono; Shiho Sawai; Masako Backman Matsushita; Fumio Tanaka; Darunee Rujkorakarn

2007-01-01

161

Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of ?-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and ?-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, ?-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of ?-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in ?-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

2014-01-01

162

Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.  

PubMed

Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (?4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. Therefore, results suggest 1) RFI measured during the postweaning growth phase is indicative of FE status in the finishing phase, 2) neither RFI nor sire ME(M) EPD negatively affected carcass or end-product quality, and 3) RFI and sire ME(M) EPD are not phenotypically associated. PMID:22871930

Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

2012-12-01

163

Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. PMID:23642466

Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

2013-08-01

164

Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

165

Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves. PMID:21333009

2011-01-01

166

Effect of Freezing Treatment on Colostrum to Prevent the Transmission of Bovine Leukemia Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

KANNO, Toru; ISHIHARA, Ryoko; HATAMA, Shinichi; OUE, Yasuhiro; EDAMATSU, Hiroki; KONNO, Yasuhiro; TACHIBANA, Satoshi; MURAKAMI, Kenji

2013-01-01

167

Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum: Identification of a colostrum-derived inhibitory lipid  

PubMed Central

We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980–90]. Intestinal mucosa from some calves, however, failed to yield this bioactive lipid. Accordingly, we examined other potential sources, especially dietary sources, of the inhibitory lipid and discovered it was principally derived from bovine colostrum. Interestingly, fresh colostrum yielded little or no inhibitory lipid, however, the lipid was found in relatively large quantities following incubation of colostrum with the aqueous fraction of calf intestinal contents. Using FAB-MS and NMR analysis, the sporozoite inhibitory lipid (SIL) was identified as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid likely released from colostrum triglycerides and phospholipids by digestion in the lumen of the calf small intestine. Oleic acid dose-dependently inhibited in vitro sporozoite–host cell adhesion with an inhibitory constant (IC50) of approximately 5 ?M. Comparison of oleic acid with other C-18 fatty acids revealed linolenic, but not stearic acid, also displayed potent inhibitory activity. Neither linolenic nor oleic acid, however, affect either sporozoite or host cell viability at concentrations that inhibit sporozoite adhesion. These results suggest certain colostrum-derived long-chain fatty acids may serve as natural inhibitors of the early steps in C. parvum sporozoite–host cell interactions. PMID:18675305

Schmidt, Joann; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

2008-01-01

168

Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 ºC for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

169

The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. The studies were done in the fall-winter season on 20 pregnant sows (Polish Landrace) divided into four groups, five animals each. The sows were clinically healthy and unvaccinated. Group I received isoprinosine, group II (TFX), group III (HMB), and group IV served a control. The immunostimulants were applicated 4-6 weeks before the expected date of delivery. The following parameters were determined in colostrum taken from sows after completed delivery: specific gravidity; total proteins, lysozyme activity, IgG level. It was found that the nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows increased in colostrum the level of IgG, total protein content and lysozyme activity. PMID:12052346

Krakowski, Leszek; Krzyzanowski, Jan; Wrona, Zygmunt; Kostro, Krzysztof; Siwicki, Andrzej K

2002-08-01

170

Preventing bacterial contamination and proliferation during the harvest, storage, and feeding of fresh bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify control points for bacterial contamination of bovine colostrum during the harvesting and feeding processes, and to describe the effects of refrigeration and use of potassium sorbate preservative on bacteria counts in stored fresh colostrum. For objective 1, first-milking colostrum samples were collected aseptically directly from the mammary glands of 39 cows, from the milking bucket, and from the esophageal feeder tube. For objective 2, 15-mL aliquots of colostrum were collected from the milking bucket and allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1) refrigeration, 2) ambient temperature, 3) refrigeration with potassium sorbate preservative, and 4) ambient temperature with potassium sorbate preservative. Subsamples from each treatment group were collected after 24, 48, and 96 h of storage. All samples underwent bacteriological culture for total plate count and coliform count. Bacteria counts were generally low or zero in colostrum collected directly from the gland [mean (SD) log10 cfu/mL(udder) = 1.44 (1.45)]. However, significant bacterial contamination occurred during the harvest process [mean (SD) log10 cfu/mL(bucket) = 4.99 (1.95)]. No additional bacterial contamination occurred between the bucket and the esophageal feeder tube. Storing colostrum at warm ambient temperatures resulted in the most rapid increase in bacteria counts, followed by intermediate rates of growth in nonpreserved refrigerated samples or preserved samples stored at ambient temperature. The most effective treatment studied was the use of potassium sorbate preservative in refrigerated samples, for which total plate count and total coliform counts dropped significantly and then remained constant during the 96-h storage period. PMID:15956318

Stewart, S; Godden, S; Bey, R; Rapnicki, P; Fetrow, J; Farnsworth, R; Scanlon, M; Arnold, Y; Clow, L; Mueller, K; Ferrouillet, C

2005-07-01

171

Antibodies to seven rotavirus serotypes in cord sera, maternal sera, and colostrum of German women.  

PubMed Central

Forty percent of colostrum samples from German women showed neutralizing antibody titers of greater than or equal to 50 to rotavirus (RV) serotypes 1, 3, 4, and 6. Antibody to serotypes 2, 8, and 9 was less prevalent. Titers are, however, too low to indicate an important effect of colostrum on the RV vaccine take rate. On the other hand, about 50% of the cord serum samples showed high neutralizing-antibody titers to serotypes 1, 3, and 4, which could interfere with the take rate of RV vaccines based on these serotypes in very young infants. PMID:1661746

Brüssow, H; Sidoti, J; Lerner, L; Rahim, H; Eckstein, W; Werchau, H; Mietens, C

1991-01-01

172

A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (P P = 0.0341).

Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki

2007-01-01

173

Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

2013-01-01

174

The Gastric CB1 Receptor Modulates Ghrelin Production through the mTOR Pathway to Regulate Food Intake  

PubMed Central

Over the years, the knowledge regarding the relevance of the cannabinoid system to the regulation of metabolism has grown steadily. A central interaction between the cannabinoid system and ghrelin has been suggested to regulate food intake. Although the stomach is the main source of ghrelin and CB1 receptor expression in the stomach has been described, little information is available regarding the possible interaction between the gastric cannabinoid and ghrelin systems in the integrated control of energy homeostasis. The main objective of the present work was to assess the functional interaction between these two systems in terms of food intake using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. The present work demonstrates that the peripheral blockade of the CB1 receptor by rimonabant treatment decreased food intake but only in food-deprived animals. This anorexigenic effect is likely a consequence of decreases in gastric ghrelin secretion induced by the activation of the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway in the stomach following treatment with rimonabant. In support of this supposition, animals in which the mTOR/S6K1 intracellular pathway was blocked by chronic rapamycin treatment, rimonabant had no effect on ghrelin secretion. Vagal communication may also be involved because rimonabant treatment was no longer effective when administered to animals that had undergone surgical vagotomy. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first to describe a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism that influences gastric ghrelin secretion and food intake through the mTOR pathway. PMID:24303008

Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Pardo, Maria; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Amil, Maria; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Gabellieri, Enrico; Leis, Rosaura; Dieguez, Carlos; Pagotto, Uberto; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

2013-01-01

175

Comparative analysis of zinc status, food products' frequency intake and food habits of 11-year-old healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are particularly vulnerable to zinc (Zn) deficiency during periods of rapid growth and development such as infancy and adolescence. The aim was to find the relationship between food frequency, intake, food habits and zinc status in 11-year-old healthy children from southern Poland. The study group comprised children (n = 157) in the age range 11.0 ± 0.4 years. The

M. Schlegel-Zawadzka; Z. Zachwieja; A. Huzior-Baajewicz; J. J. Pietrzyk

2002-01-01

176

A randomized controlled trial on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifers fed a lacteal-derived colostrum replacer or pooled maternal colostrum  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Results Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value?=?0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR?=?1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value?=?0.974 ), omphalitis (OR?=?0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value?=?0.956), or mortality (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value?=?0.505) in the study calves. Conclusions The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd. PMID:23965249

2013-01-01

177

Effects of colostrum versus formula feeding on hepatic glucocorticoid and ??- and ??-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves and their effect on glucose and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Neonatal energy metabolism in calves has to adapt to extrauterine life and depends on colostrum feeding. The adrenergic and glucocorticoid systems are involved in postnatal maturation of pathways related to energy metabolism and calves show elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines during perinatal life. We tested the hypothesis that hepatic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ??- and ??-adrenergic receptors (AR) in neonatal calves are involved in adaptation of postnatal energy metabolism and that respective binding capacities depend on colostrum feeding. Calves were fed colostrum (CF; n=7) or a milk-based formula (FF; n=7) with similar nutrient content up to d 4 of life. Blood samples were taken daily before feeding and 2h after feeding on d 4 of life to measure metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism in blood plasma. Liver tissue was obtained 2 h after feeding on d 4 to measure hepatic fat content and binding capacity of AR and GR. Maximal binding capacity and binding affinity were calculated by saturation binding assays using [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-CGP-12177 for determination of ??- and ??-AR and [(3)H]-dexamethasone for determination of GR in liver. Additional liver samples were taken to measure mRNA abundance of AR and GR, and of key enzymes related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Plasma concentrations of albumin, triacylglycerides, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones changed until d 4 and all these variables except leptin and thyroid hormones responded to feed intake on d 4. Diet effects were determined for albumin, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, and thyroid hormones. Binding capacity for GR was greater and for ??-AR tended to be greater in CF than in FF calves. Binding affinities were in the same range for each receptor type. Gene expression of ??-AR (ADRA1) tended to be lower in CF than FF calves. Binding capacity of GR was related to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas ??-AR binding capacity was negatively associated with glucose metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicate a dependence of GR and ??-AR on milk feeding immediately after birth and point to an involvement of hepatic GR and AR in postnatal adaptation of glucose and lipid metabolism in calves. PMID:25108854

Schäff, C T; Rohrbeck, D; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Kanitz, E; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Hammon, H M

2014-10-01

178

Attitudes of NICU professionals regarding feeding blood-tinged colostrum or milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Mothers of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients sometimes bring expressed milk that is blood tinged to the NICU. In certain instances, the blood contamination appears minimal, whereas in others, the milk is quite dark pink. We have observed inconsistencies in practice regarding whether or not to feed blood-tinged colostrum or milk to NICU patients. We know of no evidence

M M Phelps; W S Bedard; E Henry; S S Christensen; R W Gardner; T Karp; S E Wiedmeier; R D Christensen

2009-01-01

179

Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60ºC for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

180

TGF-?1, IL10 and IL4 in colostrum of allergic and nonallergic mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To determine transforming growth factor (TGF) ?1, interleukin (IL) 4, and IL-10 con - centrations in human milk and to assess the relationship between allergic disorders in mothers and the content of the interleukins in their milk. Material and methods: Thirty allergic and 46 healthy mothers were included in the study. Colostrum was collected 2-3 days after delivery.

Andrzej Marek; Maciej Zagierski; Anna Liberek; Ewa Aleksandrowicz

181

Pathogenesis of porcine circovirus; experimental infections of colostrum deprived piglets and examination of pig foetal material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of virus and antigen distribution following experimental infection of colostrum deprived pigs with pig circovirus (PCV) by oral\\/nasal and intravenous routes are reported. PCV and antigen were detected using virus isolation and indirect immunofluorescence on cryostat sections respectively. PCV antigen was detected in tissues throughout the body but primarily in spleen thymus, and lung. No PCV antigen or

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. P. Cassidy; G. A. C. Reilly; B. Adair; W. A. Ellis; M. S. McNulty

1995-01-01

182

Developmental changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome expression during the transition from colostrum to milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

183

Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shotgun Proteomics, using amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) was used to quantify protein changes in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) that were isolated from day 1 colostrum and compared to MFGM from day 7 milk. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 4 cow sample pools for a s...

184

THE DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS SPECIFIC ANTIBODY IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK BY ELISA  

E-print Network

consuming. Therefore the usefulness of the enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the titrationTHE DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS SPECIFIC ANTIBODY IN COLOSTRUM AND MILK BY ELISA D.J. ELLENS P.W. DE TECHNIQUE ELISA. - Cet article décrit la technique ELISA pour la détection et la titration des anticorps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Feeding transition cows with oilseeds: Effects on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue, colostrum and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was aimed to test whether ?-linolenic acid (ALA) concentrations in the adipose tissue can be increased by linseed feeding of dry cows and whether ALA is preferentially mobilized during the catabolic phase after parturition. The second objective was the determination of the influence of mobilization on fatty acid composition of colostrum and mature milk. For this purpose,

F. Leiber; R. Hochstrasser; H.-R. Wettstein; M. Kreuzer

2011-01-01

186

Sour Colostrum Dilutions Compared to Whole Milk for Calves[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials with Holstein calves com- pared various dilutions of sour colostrum with whole milk fed to weaning at 5 wk. Colostral milk was collected for the first six milkings postpartum, allowed to fer- ment naturally, and stored for an average of 10.5 days before feeding. In Trial 1, 59 calves were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 3.63

R. B. Rindsig

1976-01-01

187

Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters in neonatal calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newborn calves are characterised by marked cardio-respiratory, metabolic and endocrine changes which continue during ensuing weeks and months. Thus, although the somatotrophic axis is basically functioning in neonatal calves, it is not yet mature. The speed of the adaptations of the various traits differs widely. The ability to digest colostrum and milk requires specific structures and functions of the gastrointestinal

J. W Blum; H Hammon

2000-01-01

188

The effect of fermented liquid feeding on the faecal microbiology and colostrum quality of farrowing sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB):Coliform (L:C) ratio in the faeces of farrowing sows and the quality of sow colostrum. Eighteen multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments for approximately 2 weeks prior to farrowing and for 3 weeks after parturition. The three dietary treatments were

V Demecková; D Kelly; A. G. P Coutts; P. H Brooks; A Campbell

2002-01-01

189

Protection of calves against cryptosporidiosis with immune bovine colostrum induced by a Cryptosporidium parvum recombinant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine if immunization with a recombinant protein (rC7) of Cryptosporidium parvum would induce immune bovine colostrum that protected calves against cryptosporidiosis following oral challenge with C. parvum oocysts. Late gestation Holstein cows with low titers of antibody to the p23 antigen of C. parvum were immunized three times with 300 ?g affinity purified

Lance E Perryman; Sushila J Kapil; Michael L Jones; Elaine L Hunt

1999-01-01

190

The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.0±0.38 UFL (unité fourragère lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.6±0.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.8±0.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.9±0.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

2015-01-01

191

Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

Kilic, Devrim; Çak?ro?ullar?, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

2011-01-01

192

Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

2013-04-01

193

Mycobacterium bovis DNA Detection in Colostrum as a Potential Indicator of Vaccination Effectiveness against Bovine Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST?), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

2013-01-01

194

Effect of colostrum immunoglobulin concentration on immunity in Majorera goat kids.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of immunoglobulin G (IgG) colostrum concentration on goat kid immune status when the total amount of IgG fed was constant. Majorera goat kids (n = 56) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, and kids received 4 g of IgG per kg of body weight of atomized colostrum at 4 different IgG concentrations: 20 (AC-20), 40 (AC-40), 60 (AC-60), and 80 (AC-80) mg/mL. Blood samples were obtained on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 postpartum. Immunoglobulin G, IgA, and IgM plasma concentrations, apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG, plasma chitotriosidase activity, plasma complement activity, and plasma proteinogram were measured. Plasma IgG and IgM concentrations were highest on d 1 in AC-80 animals, and IgA plasma concentration was lower in AC-20 than in AC-80. The apparent efficiency of absorption was higher in AC-80 (24.4%) than in the other treatment groups (by an average of 13.8%). Chitotriosidase plasma activity on d 5 (1,488 nmol/mL per hour) was higher than on d 0 and 1 (average of 1,183 nmol/mL per hour). There were no effects of colostrum IgG concentration on complement activity and plasma protein distribution, but gamma-globulin and alpha-globulin were lower on d 0 than on d 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Increasing the immunoglobulin concentration in colostrum using atomized colostrum improves the immunoglobulin absorption at the same amount of immunoglobulin fed. PMID:19307651

Rodríguez, C; Castro, N; Capote, J; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Sánchez-Macías, D; Argüello, A

2009-04-01

195

Effect of stocking rate and calving date on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score in spring-calving, grass-fed dairy cows.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and calving date (CD) on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and milk production efficiency over 4 consecutive years (2009 to 2012). Two groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with different mean CD were established from within the existing research herd at Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland). Animals were assigned to either an early calving (mean CD February 14) treatment or a late calving (mean CD March 2) treatment. Animals within each CD treatment were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments: low (LSR; 2.51 cows/ha), medium (MSR; 2.92 cows/ha), and high (HSR; 3.28 cows/ha), and animals remained on the same farmlet for the duration of the study. Individual animal DMI was estimated 3 times per year at grass using the n-alkane technique in March (spring), May (summer), and September (autumn), corresponding to, on average, 45, 132, and 258 d in milk, respectively. A total of 138 spring-calving dairy cows were used during each year of the study. The effects of SR, CD, season, and their interaction were studied using mixed models. Individual animal milk production, body weight, body condition score, and the efficiency of milk production were significantly decreased as SR increased due to a reduction in herbage availability. The existence of CD × SR × season interactions for production, DMI, and EB indicate that delaying the herd mean CD can be an effective strategy to minimize the reduction in animal performance, particularly in spring at higher SR. This study further confirms the benefits of a new approach to the evaluation of herbage allowance known as the individual herbage allowance, which encompasses the 3 main factors restricting DMI in rotational grazing; namely, the average daily herbage allowance of the group, the intake capacity of the individual animal within the group, and the relative intake capacity of the animal within the competing herd. PMID:24440250

McCarthy, J; McCarthy, B; Horan, B; Pierce, K M; Galvin, N; Brennan, A; Delaby, L

2014-03-01

196

Peptides and food intake.  

PubMed

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

197

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

198

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.  

PubMed

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225

Nurfeta, Ajebu

2010-06-01

199

9 CFR 113.499 - Products for treatment of failure of passive transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...113.499 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...reference shall be qualified as follows: (1) At least 20 newborn, colostrum-deprived animals of the species for which...

2012-01-01

200

9 CFR 113.499 - Products for treatment of failure of passive transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...113.499 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...reference shall be qualified as follows: (1) At least 20 newborn, colostrum-deprived animals of the species for which...

2013-01-01

201

9 CFR 113.499 - Products for treatment of failure of passive transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...113.499 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...reference shall be qualified as follows: (1) At least 20 newborn, colostrum-deprived animals of the species for which...

2014-01-01

202

9 CFR 113.499 - Products for treatment of failure of passive transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...113.499 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...reference shall be qualified as follows: (1) At least 20 newborn, colostrum-deprived animals of the species for which...

2011-01-01

203

Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection.  

PubMed Central

Short-term alterations in dietary carbohydrate (CHO) energy are known to alter whole-body fuel selection in humans, but the metabolic mechanisms remain unknown. We used stable isotope-mass spectrometric methods with indirect calorimetry in normal subjects to quantify the metabolic response to six dietary phases (5 d each), ranging from 50% surplus CHO (+50% CHO) to 50% deficient CHO (-50% CHO), and 50% surplus fat (+50% fat). Fasting hepatic glucose production (HGP) varied by > 40% from deficient to surplus CHO diets (1.78 +/- 0.08 vs 2.43 +/- 0.09 mg/kg per min, P < 0.01). Increased HGP on surplus CHO occurred despite significantly higher serum insulin concentrations. Lipolysis correlated inversely with CHO intake as did the proportion of whole-body lipolytic flux oxidized. Fractional de novo hepatic lipogenesis (DNL) increased more than 10-fold on surplus CHO and was unmeasurable on deficient CHO diets; thus, the preceding 5-d CHO intake could be inferred from DNL. Nevertheless, absolute hepatic DNL accounted for < 5g fatty acids synthesized per day even on +50% CHO. Whole-body CHO oxidation increased sixfold and fat oxidation decreased > 90% on surplus CHO diets. CHO oxidation was highly correlated with HGP (r2= 0.60). HGP could account for 85% of fasting CHO oxidation on +25% CHO and 67% on +50% CHO diets. Some oxidation of intracellular CHO stores was therefore also occurring. +50% fat diet had no effects on HGP, DNL, or fuel selection. We conclude that altered CHO intake alters HGP specifically and in a dose-dependent manner, that HGP may mediate the effects of CHO on whole-body fuel selection both by providing substrate and by altering serum insulin concentrations, that altered lipolysis and tissue oxidation efficiency contribute to changes in fat oxidation, and that surplus CHO is not substantially converted by the liver to fat as it spares fat oxidation, but that fractional DNL may nevertheless be a qualitative marker of recent CHO intake. Images PMID:8675642

Schwarz, J M; Neese, R A; Turner, S; Dare, D; Hellerstein, M K

1995-01-01

204

Oral intake of phosphorus can determine the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by determining its production rate in humans.  

PubMed Central

Changes in the oral intake of phosphorus could induce the reported changes in the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) by inducing changes in its production rate (PR) or metabolic clearance rate (MCR), or both. To investigate these possibilities, we employed the constant infusion equilibrium technique to measure the PR and MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D in six healthy men in whom the oral intake of phosphorus was initially maintained at 1,500 mg/70 kg body weight per d for 9 d, then restricted to 500 mg/d (coupled with oral administration of aluminum hydroxide) for 10 d, and then supplemented to 3,000 mg/d for 10 d. With phosphorus restriction, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D increased by 80% from a mean of 38 +/- 3 to 68 +/- 6 pg/ml, P less than 0.001; the PR increased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.8 +/- 0.6 micrograms/d, P less than 0.005; the MCR did not change significantly. The fasting serum concentration of phosphorus decreased from 3.5 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, P less than 0.01. With phosphorus supplementation, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D decreased abruptly, reaching a nadir within 2 to 4 d; after 10 d of supplementation, the mean concentration of 27 +/- 4 pg/ml was lower by 29%, P less than 0.01, than the value measured when phosphorus intake was normal. The PR decreased to 1.3 +/- 0.2 micrograms/d, P less than 0.05; the MCR did not change significantly. The fasting serum concentration of phosphorus increased significantly, but only initially. These data demonstrate that in healthy men, reductions and increases in the oral intake of phosphorus can induce rapidly occurring, large, inverse, and persisting changes in the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D. Changes in the PR of 1,25-(OH)2D account entirely for the phosphorus-induced changes in serum concentration of this hormone. PMID:3753709

Portale, A A; Halloran, B P; Murphy, M M; Morris, R C

1986-01-01

205

Performance of Calves Fed Colostrum Stored by Freezing, Fermentation, or Treatment with Lactic or Adipic Acid[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein calves were allotted randomly at 4 days of age to one of three colostrum diets in two trials. Calves weighing 31.8 to 45.4 kg and over 45.4 kg at birth were offered 2.27 and 2.73 kg of colostrum daily, respectively, diluted with .91 kg of warm water. Calf starter and water were available ad libitum. Calves were weaned at

John A. Foley; D. E. Otterby

1979-01-01

206

Effects of Housing and Colostrum Feeding on the Prevalence of Selected Infectious Organisms in Feces of Jersey Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Neonatal Jersey calves (n = 96) were used to evaluate effects of housing,(in- dividual hutches,or wooden,pens in a barn) and colostrum feeding (calves were separated from the dam,and fed 2 L of colostrum in nipple-bottles or allowed to nurse the dam for 3 d) on the prevalence of selected organisms,in feces. Preva- lence of Cryptosporidium and,Eimeria were reduced, and

J. D. Quigley III; K. R. Martin; D. A. Bemis; L. N. D. Potgieter; C. R. Reinemeyer; B. W. Rohrbach; H. H. Dowlen; K. C. Lamar

1994-01-01

207

The Impact of System Level Factors on Treatment Timeliness: Utilizing the Toyota Production System to Implement Direct Intake Scheduling in a Semi-Rural Community Mental Health Clinic  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children’s treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.

2013-01-01

208

The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

2013-07-01

209

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

210

Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84.62%) and specificity (94.74 and 94.74%, respectively). The 18% Brix cut point resulted in 94.83% of the samples being correctly classified based on IgG concentration. These data support the use of digital refractometer to accurately and rapidly determine IgG concentration in fresh Jersey colostrum. Additionally, these data suggest that IgG concentration determined by RID is affected by multiple FT cycles, whereas estimates obtained by refractometer are not affected by multiple FT cycles. PMID:25465569

Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

2015-01-01

211

Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination and decreased the proportion of nonpregnant cows after 150 d in milk. In light of these findings, we suggest that a short DP be applied for its economic and physiological benefits. This is highly relevant to dairy herds located in regions such as Israel, Spain, and Florida that suffer from reduced milk production during the hot season. PMID:24630671

Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

2014-05-01

212

Long-term elevation of ?-hydroxybutyrate in dairy cows through infusion: effects on feed intake, milk production, and metabolism.  

PubMed

Elevation of ketone bodies in dairy cows frequently occurs in early lactation, usually concomitantly with a lack of energy and glucose. The objective of this study was to induce an elevated plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration over 48 h in mid-lactating dairy cows (i.e., during a period of positive energy balance and normal glucose plasma concentrations). Effects of BHBA infusion on feed intake, metabolism, and performance were investigated. Thirteen cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 infusion groups, including an intravenous infusion with Na-dl-?-OH-butyrate (1.7 mol/L) to achieve a plasma concentration of 1.5 to 2.0 mmol/L of BHBA (HyperB; n=5), or an infusion of 0.9% saline solution (control; n=8). Blood was sampled before and hourly during the 48 h of infusion. In the liver, mRNA transcripts related to gluconeogenesis (pyruvate carboxylase, glucose 6-phosphatase, mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), phosphofructokinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) were measured by real-time PCR. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ubiquitin were used as housekeeping genes. Changes (difference between before and after 48-h infusion) during the infusion period were evaluated by ANOVA with treatment as fixed effect, and area under the curve of variables was calculated on the second day of experiment. The plasma BHBA concentration in HyperB cows was 1.74 ± 0.02 mmol/L (mean ± SE) compared with 0.59 ± 0.02 mmol/L for control cows. The change in feed intake, milk yield, and energy corrected milk did not differ between the 2 experimental groups. Infusion of BHBA reduced the plasma glucose concentration (3.47 ± 0.11 mmol/L) in HyperB compared with control cows (4.11 ± 0.08 mmol/L). Plasma glucagon concentration in HyperB was lower than the control group. All other variables measured in plasma were not affected by treatment. In the liver, changes in mRNA abundance for the selected genes were similar between 2 groups. Results demonstrate that intravenous infusion of BHBA decreased plasma glucose concentration in dairy cows, but this decrease could not be explained by alterations in insulin concentrations or key enzymes related to gluconeogenesis. Declined glucose concentration is likely functionally related to decreased plasma glucagon concentration. PMID:23498021

Zarrin, M; De Matteis, L; Vernay, M C M B; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

2013-05-01

213

Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

2014-04-01

214

Physiological change in camel milk composition ( Camelus dromedarius ) 2: physico-chemical composition of colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven samples of dromedary camel colostrum in Kazakhstan, which originated from one farm only, were collected to study the\\u000a changes in the physico-chemical composition (total fat, total protein, iodine index, lactose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin\\u000a C, urea, ammonia, density, Dornic acidity, pH, and skimmed dry matter) all along the first postpartum week. At that time,\\u000a the fat matter decreased from

G. Konuspayeva; B. Faye; G. Loiseau; M. Narmuratova; A. Ivashchenko; A. Meldebekova; S. Davletov

2010-01-01

215

Differences in oligosaccharide pattern of a sample of polar bear colostrum and mid-lactation milk.  

PubMed

Although the concentrations of carbohydrate in the colostrum and in the mid-lactation milk of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) were similar, the oligosaccharide patterns differed. The colostrum sample contained Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide), Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (2'-fucosyllactose) and Gal(beta1-4)Glc (lactose). The mid-lactation milk contained Gal(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (A-pentasaccharide), Gal(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), A-tetrasaccharide, Gal(alpha1-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc (3-fucosylisoglobotriose), Gal(alpha1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and lactose. The dominant saccharides in the colostrum were 3'-N-Acetylneuraminyllactose and lactose, whereas isoglobotriose was the dominant saccharide in the mid-lactation milk in which lactose was only a minor component. Isoglobotriose, which had previously been found to be a dominant saccharide in mature milk from the Ezo brown bear, the Japanese black bear and the polar bear, was not found in the polar bear colostrum. PMID:14662310

Urashima, Tadasu; Nagata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Imazu, Koji; Hayashi, Teruaki; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein

2003-12-01

216

Differences in oligosaccharide pattern of a sample of polar bear colostrum and mid-lactation milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concentrations of carbohydrate in the colostrum and in the mid-lactation milk of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) were similar, the oligosaccharide patterns differed. The colostrum sample contained Neu5Ac(?2-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (3?-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), GalNAc(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide), Fuc(?1-2)Gal(?1-4)Glc (2?-fucosyllactose) and Gal(?1-4)Glc (lactose). The mid-lactation milk contained Gal(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), GalNAc(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (A-pentasaccharide), Gal(?1-3)[Fuc(?1-2)]Gal(?1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), A-tetrasaccharide, Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc (3-fucosylisoglobotriose), Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and lactose. The dominant saccharides in the colostrum

Tadasu Urashima; Hiromi Nagata; Tadashi Nakamura; Ikichi Arai; Tadao Saito; Koji Imazu; Teruaki Hayashi; Andrew E. Derocher; Oystein Wiig

2003-01-01

217

Genetic parameters of feed intake, production, body weight, body condition score, and selected type traits of Holstein cows in commercial tie-stall barns.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of measuring feed intake in commercial tie-stall dairies and infer genetic parameters of feed intake, yield, somatic cell score, milk urea nitrogen, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and linear type traits of Holstein cows. Feed intake, BW, and BCS were measured on 970 cows in 11 Pennsylvania tie-stall herds. Historical test-day data from these cows and 739 herdmates who were contemporaries during earlier lactations were also included. Feed intake was measured by researchers once per month over a 24-h period within 7 d of 6 consecutive Dairy Herd Information test days. Feed samples from each farm were collected monthly on the same day that feed intake was measured and were used to calculate intakes of dry matter, crude protein, and net energy of lactation. Test-day records were analyzed with multiple-trait animal models, and 305-d fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, crude protein intake, net energy of lactation intake, average BW, and average BCS were derived from the test-day models. The 305-d traits were also analyzed with multiple-trait animal models that included a prediction of 40-wk dry matter intake derived from National Research Council equations. Heritability estimates for 305-d intake of dry matter, crude protein, and net energy of lactation ranged from 0.15 to 0.18. Genetic correlations of predicted dry matter intake with 305-d dry matter, crude protein, and net energy of lactation intake were 0.84, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. Genetic correlations among the 3 intake traits and fat-corrected milk yield, BW, and stature were moderate to high (0.52 to 0.63). Results indicate that feed intake measured in commercial tie-stalls once per month has sufficient accuracy to enable genetic research. High-producing and larger cows were genetically inclined to have higher feed intake. The genetic correlation between observed and predicted intakes was less than unity, indicating potential variation in feed efficiency. PMID:20855024

Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Daubert, J M; Dekleva, M W; Blum, J W; Barlieb, C M; Liu, W; Varga, G A; Heinrichs, A J; Baumrucker, C R

2010-10-01

218

Effect of supplementing napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) with sunflower meal or poultry litter-based concentrates on feed intake, live-weight changes and economics of milk production in Friesian cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted using a randomized complete block design to determine feed intake, live-weight changes, milk yield and cost of milk production in Friesian cows fed napier grass (NG) at 10 weeks (MNG) or 15 weeks (ONG) of maturity. The MNG or ONG was supplemented with equal amounts of sunflower (SFBC) or poultry litter (PLBC) based concentrates in experiment

J. M. K Muia; S Tamminga; P. N Mbugua

2000-01-01

219

An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.  

PubMed

Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). PMID:25659303

Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

2015-05-01

220

Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats.  

PubMed

Twenty-four yearling Boer × Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of different forages, either fresh (Exp. 1) or as hay (Exp. 2), on feed intake, digestibilities, heat production, and ruminal methane emission. Treatments were: 1) Sericea lespedeza (SER; Lespedeza cuneata), a legume high in condensed tannins (CT; 20% and 15% in fresh forage and hay, respectively), 2) SER supplemented with polyethylene glycol (SER-PEG; 25 g/d), 3) alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a legume low in CT (ALF), and 4) sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor), a grass low in CT (GRASS). Experiments were 22 d, which included 16 d for acclimatization followed by a 6-d period for fecal and urine collection, and gas exchange measurement (last 2 d). Intake of OM was 867, 823, 694, and 691 g/d (SEM = 20.1) with fresh forage, and 806, 887, 681, and 607 g/d with hay for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively (SEM = 46.6). Apparent total tract N digestion was greater for SER-PEG vs. SER (P < 0.001) with fresh forage (46.3%, 66.5%, 81.7%, and 73.2%; SEM = 1.71) and hay (49.7%, 71.4%, 65.4%, and 54.8% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.57). Intake of ME was similar among treatments with fresh forage (8.24, 8.06, 7.42, and 7.70 MJ/d; SEM = 0.434) and with hay was greater for SER-PEG than ALF (P < 0.03) and GRASS (P < 0.001) (8.63, 10.40, 8.15, and 6.74 MJ/d for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.655). The number of ciliate protozoa in ruminal fluid was least for SER with fresh forage (P < 0.01) (9.8, 20.1, 21.0, and 33.6 × 10(5)/ml; SEM = 2.76) and hay (P < 0.02) (6.3, 11.4, 13.6, and 12.5 × 10(5)/ml for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.43). Methane emission as a percentage of DE intake was lower (P < 0.01) for SER vs. ALF and GRASS with fresh forage (6.6, 8.3, 9.4, and 9.2%; SEM = 0.64) and hay (4.3, 4.9, 6.4, and 6.7% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.38). In summary, methane emission in this short-term experiment was similar between a legume and grass low in CT as fresh forage and hay. The CT in SER markedly decreased N digestibility and elicited a moderate decline in ruminal methane emission. Supplementation with PEG alleviated the effect of CT on N digestibility but not ruminal methane emission, presumably because of different modes of action. In conclusion, potential of using CT-containing forage as a means of decreasing ruminal methane emission requires further study, such as with longer feeding periods. PMID:22408087

Puchala, R; Animut, G; Patra, A K; Detweiler, G D; Wells, J E; Varel, V H; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

2012-08-01

221

The Thiamine, Riboflavin, Nicotinic Acid and Pantothenic Acid Contents of Mare's Colostrum and Milk and Ascorbic Acid Content of the Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of colostrum to the new-born animal has been empha- sized by various investigators, and it is generally believed that new-born animals having access to colostrum do better than those that are fed only milk. The work of Lundquist and Phillips (8) suggests that some of the B vitamins play an important role in the prevention of certain diseases

P. B. Pearson

1947-01-01

222

Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

223

The Yield of Colostrum and Colostral Gammaglobulins in Beef Cows and the Absorption of Colostral Gammaglobulins by Beef Calves  

PubMed Central

The details of a small study on the volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced by beef cows at the first milking immediately after calving and the serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins attained by beef calves are reported. The mean volume of colostrum and colostral gammaglobulins produced were 2990 ± 2100 (SD) mL and 314.75 ± 211.8 (SD) g respectively. The mean serum concentrations of passively acquired colostral gammaglobulins were 29.9 ± 10.1 (SD) ZST units (n = 40, Ranch A) and 19.2 ± 7.5 (SD) ZST units (n = 42, Ranch B). The main reason for this difference appeared to be nutritional; the cows on ranch B being in much poorer condition and almost certainly producing less colostrum than those on ranch A. PMID:17422425

Petrie, L.; Acres, S. D.; McCartney, D. H.

1984-01-01

224

Anti-infective bovine colostrum oligosaccharides: Campylobacter jejuni as a case study.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in humans. Unlike in humans, C. jejuni is a commensal within the avian host. Heavily colonized chickens often fail to display intestinal disease, and no cellular attachment or invasion has been demonstrated in-vivo. Recently, researchers have shown that the reason for the attenuation of C. jejuni virulence may be attributed to the presence of chicken intestinal mucus and more specifically chicken mucin. Since mucins are heavily glycosylated molecules this observation would suggest that glycan-based compounds may act as anti-infectives against C. jejuni. Considering this, we have investigated naturally sourced foods for potential anti-infective glycans. Bovine colostrum rich in neutral and acidic oligosaccharides has been identified as a potential source of anti-infective glycans. In this study, we tested oligosaccharides isolated and purified from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows for anti-infective activity against a highly invasive strain of C. jejuni. During our initial studies we structurally defined 37 bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) by HILIC-HPLC coupled with exoglycosidase digests and off-line mass spectroscopy, and demonstrated the ability of C. jejuni to bind to some of these structures, in-vitro. We also examined the effect of BCO on C. jejuni adhesion to, invasion of and translocation of HT-29 cells. BCO dramatically reduced the cellular invasion and translocation of C. jejuni, in a concentration dependent manner. Periodate treatment of the BCO prior to inhibition studies resulted in a loss of the anti-infective activity of the glycans suggesting a direct oligosaccharide-bacterial interaction. This was confirmed when the BCO completely prevented C. jejuni binding to chicken intestinal mucin, in-vitro. This study builds a strong case for the inclusion of oligosaccharides sourced from cow's milk in functional foods. However, it is only through further understanding the structure and function of milk oligosaccharides that such compounds can reach their potential as food ingredients. PMID:22647676

Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Naughton, Julie; Kavanaugh, Devon; Clyne, Marguerite; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

2012-07-01

225

Isolation and purification of immunoglobulin G from bovine colostrums by hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography, a novel chromatographic technique for bioseparation, was developed to isolate and purify bovine IgG with high purity. In this work, the raw IgG solution, a precipitate from bovine colostrum powder solution with 40% (wt/vol) ammonium sulfate, was dissolved in 50mM phosphate buffer and used as loading solution for investigating chromatographic conditions on a mercapto-ethyl-pyridine (MEP) HyperCel (Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY) sorbent. The initial IgG concentration had no effect on the dynamic binding capacity of MEP HyperCel resin, but the linear velocity of loading solution had an obvious effect on the dynamic IgG binding capacity and IgG recovery. The maximum linear velocity was optimized as 0.4cm/min of loading solution, and 90% recovery of IgG was achieved. Under these optimized binding conditions, the pH and ionic strength for the elution process were selected as pH 4.5 and 0.5 M NaCl, respectively. Subsequently, hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography was performed on a MEP HyperCel sorbent to isolate IgG using bovine colostrum whey as the loading solution. Under the optimized operation conditions, a remarkable process improvement in IgG purification was received, which includes a yield of 91.5%, a purity of 93.9% (wt/wt), and a purification factor of 6.8. The results indicated that MEP HyperCel chromatography offers an efficient means to purify IgG from bovine colostrums. PMID:25747828

Wu, Mianbin; Zhang, Feifei; Liang, Yafei; Wang, Rutao; Chen, Zhengjie; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

2015-05-01

226

Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems  

SciTech Connect

In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stoney Brook, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

227

Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.  

PubMed

Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

2014-10-28

228

Effect of parity on lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colostrum of healthy Holstein dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3+TcR1-N12+, CD3+, CD4+, and major histocompatibility complex class II+CD14? lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD26+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving. PMID:20592843

Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R.; Morris, Stephen

2010-01-01

229

The human colostrum whey proteome is altered in gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Proteomics of human milk has been used to identify the comprehensive cargo of proteins involved in immune and cellular function. Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and breast milk components. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GDM on the expression of proteins in the whey fraction of human colostrum. Colostrum was collected from women who were diagnosed with (n = 6) or without (n = 12) GDM at weeks 24-28 in pregnancy. Colostral whey was analyzed for protein abundances using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 601 proteins were identified, of which 260 were quantified using label free spectral counting. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified 27 proteins that best predict GDM. The power law global error model corrected for multiple testing was used to confirm that 10 of the 27 proteins were also statistically significantly different between women with versus without GDM. The identified changes in protein expression suggest that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has consequences on human colostral proteins involved in immunity and nutrition. PMID:25338220

Grapov, Dmitry; Lemay, Danielle G; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R; Gho, Deborah S; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

2015-01-01

230

Determination of heavy metal contents in human colostrum samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

Determination of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese and copper levels in colostrum samples (n = 30), collected from middle-class mothers, was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman effect background correction using a tungsten-palladium-citric acid chemical modifier mixture. A wet-ashing procedure was applied to dissolve the samples and to remove the fat. The graphite furnace temperature programme for analytes determined by ETAAS was studied, and the optimum pyrolysis temperatures of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Mn and Cu were determined in the presence of the modifier mixture. Detection limits of Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Cr were determined using a modifier mixture solution. Zinc and iron levels were determined by Zeeman flame atomic absorption spectrometer (F-AAS). Heavy metal levels (mean values) found in colostrum samples were 14.6 microg/l of Pb, 2.8 microg/l of Cd, 27.8 microg/l of Ni, 8.6 microg/l of Cr, 43.2 microg/l of Mn, 278 microg/l of Cu, 12.9 mg/l of Zn, and 3.5 mg/l of Fe. These metal levels were compared with results from other studies in different countries. PMID:11336140

Turan, S; Saygi, S; Kiliç, Z; Acar, O

2001-04-01

231

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

232

Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

233

Neonatal levels of plasma thyroxine in male and female calves fed a colostrum or immunoglobulin diet or fasted for  

E-print Network

, 10, 16 and 22 neonatal hours. At the same time, 24 animals received four meals of a solution resulted in lower plasma thyroxine levels than those in colostrum-fed calves. At the same time, plasma in the plasma T4 levels of newborn calves. The influence of sex has also been investigated. #12;Material

Boyer, Edmond

234

Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to determine the effects of E. coli dose on the pathophysiological response of dairy calves following an intravenous challenge. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli. The challenge doses included 0, 105, 106, 107, 108,...

235

Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

236

Analysis of Fcgrt gene polymorphism in indigenous Chinese sheep and its association with colostrum IgG concentration.  

PubMed

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in regulating IgG homeostasis in the body and passive protection to the offspring. Changes in FcRn expression levels caused by genetic polymorphisms of Fcgrt, which encodes FcRn, may lead to inter-individual differences in colostrum IgG levels in sheep. In this study, we sequenced the FcRn partial heavy chain from 179 sheep from Xinjiang Province, China, and detected the differences in colostrum IgG levels and Fcgrt genotypes to identify the correlation between the Fcgrt genotype and colostrum IgG levels in 4 sheep breeds. The DNA sequencing of a 680-bp fragment of the Fcgrt gene revealed various patterns depending on the single-strand conformation in the Suffolk breed. Sequencing analysis revealed a total of 3 patterns, AA, BB, AB, in this fragment, among which the absence of AB and BB genotype acted as a marker for breed identification and characterization, while the AA genotype was shared by Suffolk and 3 other breeds. The only allele found in all 4 breeds was allele A, indicating that natural selection may be favoring the AB and BB genotypes in general and B allele in particular, as the colostrum IgG concentration was relatively higher in the Suffolk breed compared to the other 3 breeds. PMID:25867392

Tian, Z H; Shi, F; Zhong, F G; Bai, D P; Zhang, X Y

2015-01-01

237

IMPORTANCE OF DIET OF DAM AND COLOSTRUM TO THE BIOLOGICAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PARENTERAL IRON TOLERANCE OF THE PIG 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen second-parity sows were used to determine the importance of vitamin E (E) and seleni- um (Se) supplementation of the sow's diet and colostrum consumption by the neonatal pig on tolerance to parenteral iron. Selenium (.1 ppm) and E (50 IU\\/kg) supplementation of the diet of the sow increased plasma tocopherol and Se concentrations, but did not increase plasma glutathi-

M. J. Loudenslager; P. K. Ku; P. A. Whetter; D. E. Ullrey; C. K. Whitehair; H. D. Stowe; E. R. Miller

238

Composition of Colostrum from Dairy Heifers Exposed to High Air Temperatures During Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the

A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi

1997-01-01

239

Possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the possible ameliorative effect of breastfeeding and the uptake of human colostrum against coeliac disease in autistic rats. METHODS: Female rats were fed a standard diet and received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception. In study 1, neonatal rats were randomly subjected to blood tests to investigate autism. In study 2, the 1st group was fed by the mother after an injection of interferon-? (IFN-?) and administration of gliadin. The pups in the 2nd group were prevented from accessing maternal milk, injected IFN-?, administered gliadin, and hand-fed human colostrum. The normal littermates fed by the table mothers were injected with physiological saline and served as normal controls in this study. RESULTS: The protein concentration was higher in group 2 than in group 1 in the duodenum (161.6 ± 9 and 135.4 ± 7 mg/g of tissue, respectively, P < 0.01). A significant increase (P < 0.001) in body weight was detected in human colostrum-treated pups on post natal day (PND) 7 and 21 vs suckling pups in group 1. A delay in eye opening was noticed in the treated rats in group 1 on PND 13 compared with the control group and group 2. Administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception resulted in significantly reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in study 1 compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). However, human colostrum uptake inhibited increases in the level of transglutaminase antibody in autistic pups with coeliac disease. CONCLUSION: The effects of early-life nutrition and human colostrum on the functional maturation of the duodenal villi in autistic rats with coeliac disease that might limit or prevent the coeliac risk with autism. PMID:23745030

Selim, Manar E; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

2013-01-01

240

Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or inferiority that will transmit to its offspring. PMID:25529426

Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

2015-03-01

241

Usual Intake of Energy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy Table A44. Energy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1426.1 (17.93) 963.7 (18.47) 1052.5

242

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

243

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

244

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

245

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

246

The effects of purified alcohol extracts from soy products on feed intake and growth of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of purified alcohol extracts (PAES) from soybean meal (PAES I) and soy protein isolate (PAES II) on feed intake, growth and intestinal mucosa of chinook salmon and rainbow trout. The PAES were prepared by an extraction process aiming at the isolation of soyasaponins. In the first study, a series of diets were

Dominique P Bureau; Andrew M Harris; C Young Cho

1998-01-01

247

Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Adhesion to HeLa Cells by Human Colostrum: Detection of Specific slgA Related to EPEC Outer-Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colostrum and a high molecular weight colostrum fraction (HMWF; > 14,000D) prevented the adhesion of localized adherent (LA+) O111:H––enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to HeLa cells. This effect was abolished after absorption with an O111:H––LA+ EPEC strain, but absorption with a LA- strain of same serotype had no effect on the process. A low molecular weight fraction (< 14,000 D),

Lilia M. Camara; Solange B. Carbonare; Lourdes M. Silva; Magda M. S. Carneiro-Sampaio

1994-01-01

248

Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-?B-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-?B induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-?B-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-?B-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-?B-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-?B-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens. PMID:25471114

Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

2014-12-01

249

Dogs shed Neospora caninum oocysts after ingestion of naturally infected bovine placenta but not after ingestion of colostrum spiked with Neospora caninum tachyzoites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of Neosporacaninum for dogs. For this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived N.caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledonary tissue from N.caninum seropositive cows. One dog served as a negative control during the

Th Dijkstra; M Eysker; G Schares; F. J Conraths; W Wouda; H. W Barkema

2001-01-01

250

The physiological and production effects of increased dietary intake of vitamins E and C in feedlot cattle challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1.  

PubMed

The physiological and production effects of feeding additional vitamin E and ruminally protected vitamin C were examined in cattle challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1). Forty-eight individually penned 6-mo-old Angus and Angus crossbred heifer calves with a mean BW of 151 kg were allocated randomly to four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Pelleted diets provided either 15 or 185 IU/kg of DM of vitamin E, with or without 3.7 g of ruminally protected vitamin C/kg of DM. Blood samples were taken at start of the experiment and at wk 4, 5, and 6. At the start of wk 5, half of each of the dietary groups was challenged with BHV 1. Feeding additional vitamin E was associated with greater (P < 0.001) mean plasma alpha-tocopherol. In contrast, feeding ruminally protected vitamin C was not associated with greater (P = 0.59) mean plasma ascorbate concentration; however, feeding ruminally protected vitamin C was associated with lower (P = 0.03) mean blood total superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD) concentration. Calves fed additional vitamin E had greater (P = 0.05) mean plasma beta-carotene concentrations. There were interactions between dietary intake of vitamins E and C with respect to serum ceruloplasmin concentration (P = 0.01) and G:F (P = 0.05). Bovine herpesvirus 1 challenge was associated with lower white cell count (P = 0.007), lymphocyte count (P < 0.001), and DMI (P = 0.03). Feeding additional vitamin E to calves challenged with BHV 1 was associated with a lower (P = 0.03) serum ceruloplasmin concentration. There was a non-significant trend towards an interaction (P = 0.06) between the feeding of vitamins E and C, with virus-challenged calves fed additional vitamin E alone having greater plasma retinol concentrations. The feeding of vitamins E and/or C in calves challenged with BHV 1 was associated with alterations in the concentrations of other antioxidants. More severe disease may have translated these cellular effects to changes in health and performance. PMID:16160055

Cusack, P M V; McMeniman, N P; Lean, I J

2005-10-01

251

Leptin and ghrelin levels in colostrum, milk and blood plasma of sows and pig neonates during the first week of lactation.  

PubMed

Radioimmunology was used to determine leptin and ghrelin levels in sow colostrum and milk in relation to those in sow and neonatal pig blood plasma and to the body weight of piglets during the first week of lactation. The highest concentration of leptin was found in colostrum on the second day of lactation (69.3?±?6.3?ng/mL). Leptin concentrations in sow plasma were significantly lower than in colostrum/milk (2.19?±?0.9?ng/mL, P?=?0.7692) and were stable in the first 7 days of lactation. Total and active ghrelin concentrations in colostrum/milk were stable in the measured time points (6734?±?261?pg/mL, P?=?0.3397; 831?±?242?pg/mL, P?=?0.3988, respectively). Total ghrelin concentrations in sow plasma were lower than in colostrum/milk. These results indicate that pigs follow a unique species-specific pattern of leptin and ghrelin synthesis, release and existence, and that the mammary gland is an important source of leptin and ghrelin contained in colostrum/milk. PMID:23910951

Woli?ski, Jaros?aw; S?upecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

2014-02-01

252

The effect of serum and colostrum immunoglobulins from buffaloes infected with Toxocara vitulorum on T. vitulorum larvae in vitro and in vivo in mice.  

PubMed

Serum and colostrum were collected from adult buffalo cows naturally infected with Toxocara vitulorum. When injected into mice, the colostrum reduced the number of larvae of T. vitulorum that migrated in the mice. Injection of particularly the IgG-containing fraction but also the IgM-containing fraction of Sephadex G200-chromatographed colostrum also passively protected mice. When incubated for 6 h in buffalo serum or colostrum or fractions of these from Sephadex G200 and diethylaminoethanol Sephadex, T. vitulorum larvae had their activity in vitro curtailed. When the larvae were then fed to mice, their ability to migrate was markedly inhibited as compared with that of larvae that had been incubated in fetal calf serum or in helminth-free sheep colostrum. Fractions of serum and colostrum containing IgG1 had greater inhibitory effects both on the larvae in vitro and on their subsequent migration in mice than did IgG2-containing fractions. IgM also inhibited the larvae as 2-mercaptoethanol reduction of IgM in the IgM-containing peak eluted from Sephadex G200 reduced the inhibitory activity of this peak, although the activity was not completely abrogated. PMID:7971930

Rajapakse, R P; Lloyd, S; Fernando, S T

1994-01-01

253

A variant peptide of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin inhibits angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity.  

PubMed

?-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk ?-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk ?-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 ± 2 ?M, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393

Rohit, A C; Sathisha, K; Aparna, H S

2012-07-01

254

Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. PMID:25175558

Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

2015-01-01

255

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

256

Usual Intake of Milk  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

257

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

258

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

259

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

260

Bovine colostrum, training status, and gastrointestinal permeability during exercise in the heat: a placebo-controlled double-blind study.  

PubMed

Heat stress can increase gastrointestinal permeability, allowing ingress of gram-negative bacterial fragments and thus potentially inflammation and ultimately endotoxemia. Permeability may rise with intense exercise, yet some data indicate that endotoxemia may be mitigated with bovine colostrum supplementation. Using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested whether bovine colostrum (COL; 1.7 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 7 days) would attenuate physiological strain and aid exercise capacity in the heat, especially in untrained individuals. Seven trained men (T; peak oxygen uptake 64 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 8 untrained men (UT, peak oxygen uptake 46 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) exercised for 90 min in 30 °C (50?% relative humidity) after COL or placebo (corn flour). Exercise consisted of 15-min cycling at 50?% heart rate reserve (HRR) before and after 60 min of running (30 min at 80?% HRR then 30-min distance trial). Heart rate, blood pressure (Finometer), esophageal, and skin temperatures were recorded continuously. Gastrointestinal permeability was assessed from urine (double-sugar model, using high-performance liquid chromatography) and blood (intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP). The T group ran ?2.4 km (35%) further than the UT group in the distance trial, and I-FABP increased more in the T group than in the UT group, but physiological and performance outcomes were unaffected by colostrum supplementation, irrespective of fitness. Circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were higher following exercise, but were not modulated by fitness or COL. Despite substantial thermal and cardiovascular strain incurred in environmental conditions in which exertional endotoxemia may occur, bovine colostrum supplementation had no observable benefit on the physiology or performance of either highly trained endurance athletes or untrained individuals. PMID:25068884

Morrison, Shawnda A; Cheung, Stephen S; Cotter, James D

2014-09-01

261

Vitamin E, lipid fractions, and fatty acid composition of colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk: an international comparative study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid compo- sition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transi- tional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lac- tation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased. These changes re- flect augmented de novo synthesis of fatty acids (8:0, 10:0, 12: 0, and

E Rudy Boersma; Pieter J Offringa; Frits AJ Muskiet; William M Chase; Ira J Simmons

262

Elevated extrahepatic expression and secretion of mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) into colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) was secreted at highly elevated levels in bovine, equine and ovine colostrum and found at lower levels in milk 4 days postparturition. N-terminal sequencing of the mature M-SAA3 protein from all the three species revealed a conserved four amino acid motif (TFLK) within the first eight residues. This motif has not been reported to

Thomas L. McDonald; Marilynn A. Larson; David R. Mack; Annika Weber

2001-01-01

263

Serum and colostrum antibody responses induced by jet-injection of sheep with DNA encoding a Cryptosporidium parvum antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15\\/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb

Mark Jenkins; David Kerr; Ronald Fayer; Robert Wall

1995-01-01

264

Predicting the forage intake by lactating cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current National Research Council (NRC) model to estimate the dry matter intake by cows is based on a single equation related to metabolic size and net energy density of the diet. However, research has indicated that the observed dry matter production by grazing cows can be influenced by animal...

265

(Tolerable daily intake of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler was asked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to participate as a temporary advisor in a Consultation on Tolerable Daily Intake from Food of 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) in Bilthoven, Netherlands, December 4--7, 1990. The goal of the Consultation was to review the scientific literature and, based on a comprehensive toxicological evaluation, develop guidelines for Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that could be used on an international basis. The Consultation was also to develop guidelines for risk management of TCDD with emphasis on dairy products and other food sources.

Travis, C.C.

1990-12-17

266

Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine  

PubMed Central

Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2013-01-01

267

Histochemical distribution of intestinal enzymes of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fed lyophilized bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

Enzyme activity was evaluated in the intestine of juvenile pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, fed diets containing 0, 10 or 20 % of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. The enzymes intestinal acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP, respectively), nonspecific esterase (NSE), lipase (LIP), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were studied using histochemistry in four intestinal segments (S1, S2, S3 and rectum). Moderate activity of the DAP IV was detected in the three last intestinal segments, but no differences among the treatments were detected. Enzymes LAP, NSE and LIP were weakly stained in all intestinal segments and the inclusion of 10 or 20 % of LBC in the diet commanded a moderate reaction to NSE in the S3 segment at day 60. ACP activity was detected only in the brush border of the S1 segment of fish fed 0 % LBC for either 30 or 60 days. The activity of ALP was very strong in the first intestinal segment, but a weak reaction was seen in the last segments. The inclusion of 20 % of LBC changed the pattern of staining to the ALP, eliciting moderate staining in S2 at day 30 and S1 at day 60. The consumption of diets containing LBC by juvenile pacu did not have significant implications in intestinal enzymatic activity, which still was not fully stimulated. PMID:24823663

Moretti, Débora B; Nordi, Wiolene M; Cruz, Thaline M P; Cyrino, José Eurico P; Machado-Neto, Raul

2014-10-01

268

Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.  

PubMed

Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness. PMID:23521162

Teimouri Yansari, A

2014-02-01

269

Mothers' "liquid gold": a quality improvement initiative to support early colostrum delivery via oral immune therapy (OIT) to premature and critically ill newborns.  

PubMed

Early breast milk, known as colostrum ("liquid gold") provides immune benefits to infants, offering potential risk reduction for nosocomial infection (NI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal emergency. Provision of colostrum is recognized as oral immune therapy (OIT) and is valuable to all NICU infants unable to feed orally. A quality improvement project was initiated by the multidisciplinary NICU Quality Care Council at London Health Sciences Centres-Victoria (LHSC-VH) to obtain mothers' colostrum for early OIT. The initiative was driven by the Canadian EPIQ (Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality) group as a means of reducing the rates of NEC and NI, two major morbidities in the NICU. The overall aim was to facilitate the availability of OIT to preterm and critically ill neonates as soon as possible after birth. PMID:24860950

Pletsch, Donna; Ulrich, Cindy; Angelini, Michelle; Fernandes, Gail; Lee, David S C

2013-01-01

270

Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).  

PubMed

Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

2014-08-01

271

Insufficient Colostrum Ingestion is a Risk Factor for Polyarthritis and/or Phlegmon in Hand-Reared Reticulated Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 Cases (2003–2012)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0–2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0–6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

KIDO, Nobuhide; NAGAKURA, Kasumi; ITABASHI, Masanori; ONO, Kaori; DAN, Mayuko; MATSUMOTO, Rei; OMIYA, Tomoko

2014-01-01

272

Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers  

PubMed Central

Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21526980

Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M

2011-01-01

273

Wholegrain intake and the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Tehranian adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although dietary guidelines recommend increased intake of grain products to prevent chronic diseases, no epidemio- logic data associate whole-grain intake with hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relation between whole-grain intakes and the prevalence of HW phenotype in adults in Tehran, Iran. Design: Whole-grain intake, serum triacylglycerol concentration, andwaistcircumference(WC)wereassessedinapopulation-based, cross-sectional study of 827 Iranian subjects

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

274

Positive and negative trends in university students' food intake.  

PubMed

In the time period 1992-2004 the food intake data (24 hour recall, frequency questionnaire) in 3 417 students of Medical Faculty Comenius University in Bratislava (1257 men and 2160 women, the mean age 22.38 +/- 1.34) were obtained. The aim of this study was to evaluate the food intake and its trends in university students. Students' food consumption has not been in agreement with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). The meat consumption was structurally unbalanced, though quantitatively sufficient (99% RDA); milk intake (75% RDA) was insufficient, fruit (65% RDA) and vegetable intake (62% RDA) even critical. On contrary, cereal products intake was excessive (130% RDA). Men eat more meat (p < 0.001), milk (p < 0.001), eggs (p < 0.01), cereals (p < 0.001) and fat (p < 0.001) than women. Women eat more fruit, vegetable and sugar than men. In the time period 1992-2004, students' meat consumption has decreased about 18%, milk and eggs about 23%, fruit about 42% and cereals intake has decreased about 45%. The fruit and vegetable intake structure has substantially improved (higher content of fresh fruit, fewer preserved products). In spite of a higher health awareness in students and tendency towards proper diet, their food intake has been negatively influenced by decreasing purchasing power in Slovak population (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 15). PMID:16913085

Stefanikova, Z; Sevcikova, L; Jurkovicova, J; Sobotova, L; Aghova, L

2006-01-01

275

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

276

Chemical characterisation of six oligosaccharides in a sample of colostrum of the brown capuchin, Cebus apella (Cebidae: Primates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrates were extracted from a sample of brown capuchin colostrum and six of the component oligosaccharides were separated and purified by gel filtration and preparative thin layer chromatography. Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR to be as follows:Gal ? 1?4[Fuc ? 1?3]Glc (3-fucosyllactose)Gal ? 1?3Gal ? 1?4Glc (?-3?-galactosyllactose)Gal ? 1?6Gal ? 1?4Glc (?-6?-galactosyllactose)Gal ? 1?3[Gal ? 1?4GlcNAc ? 1?6]Gal ?

Tadasu Urashima; Yuhko Kawai; Tadashi Nakamura; Ikichi Arai; Tadao Saito; Misako Namiki; Koh-ichi Yamaoka; Kazuyuki Kawahawa; Michael Messer

1999-01-01

277

Early Administration of Oropharyngeal Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Human milk reduces morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. However, clinical instability often precludes ELBW infants from receiving early enteral feeds. This study compared clinical outcomes before and after implementing an oropharyngeal colostrum (COL) protocol in a cohort of inborn (born at our facility) ELBW infants. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of inborn ELBW infants admitted to the Duke Intensive Care Nursery from January 2007 to September 2011. In November 2010, we initiated a COL protocol for infants not enterally fed whose mothers were providing breastmilk. Infants received 0.1?mL of fresh COL to each cheek every 4 hours for 5 days beginning in the first 48 postnatal hours. We assessed demographics, diagnoses, feeding history, and mortality and for the presence of medical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), surgical NEC, and spontaneous perforation. Between-group comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank sum testing where appropriate. Results: Of the 369 infants included, 280 (76%) were born prior to the COL protocol (Pre-COL Cohort [PCC]), and 89 (24%) were born after (COL Cohort [CC]). Mortality and the percentage of infants with surgical NEC and spontaneous perforations were statistically similar between the groups. The CC weighed an average (interquartile range) of 1,666 (1,399, 1,940) g at 36 weeks versus 1,380 (1,190, 1,650) g for the PCC (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis with birth weight as a covariable, weight at 36 weeks was significantly greater (37 g; p<0.01). Conclusions: Initiating oropharyngeal COL in ELBW infants in the first 2 postnatal days appears feasible and safe and may be nutritionally beneficial. Further research is needed to determine if early COL administration reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23805944

Seigel, Jonathan K.; Smith, P. Brian; Ashley, Patricia L.; Cotten, C. Michael; Herbert, Claudia C.; King, Beth A.; Maynor, Angela R.; Neill, Sara; Wynn, James; Bidegain, Margarita

2013-01-01

278

Site-specific glycosylation of secretory immunoglobulin a from human colostrum.  

PubMed

Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a major glycoprotein in milk and plays a key role in mediating immune protection of the gut mucosa. Although it is a highly glycosylated protein, its site-specific glycosylation and associated glycan micro-heterogeneity have still not been fully elucidated. In this study, the site-specific glycosylation of sIgA isolated from human colostrum (n = 3) was analyzed using a combination of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS and in-house software (Glycopeptide Finder). The majority of the glycans found are biantennary structures with one or more acidic Neu5Ac residues; however, a large fraction belonged to truncated complex structures with terminal GlcNAc. Multiple glycosites were identified with nearly 30 glycan compositions located at seven sites on the secretory component, six compositions at a single site on the J chain, and 16 compositions at five sites on the IgA heavy (H) chain. Site-specific heterogeneity and relative quantitation of each composition and the extent of occupation at each site were determined using nonspecific proteases. Additionally, 54 O-linked glycan compositions located at the IgA1 hinge region (HR) were identified by comparison against a theoretical O-glycopeptide library. This represents the most comprehensive report to date detailing the complexity of glycan micro-heterogeneity with relative quantitation of glycoforms for each glycosylation site on milk sIgA. This strategy further provides a general method for determining site-specific glycosylation in large protein complexes. PMID:25629924

Huang, Jincui; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan; Strum, John S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

2015-03-01

279

Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males.  

PubMed

Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training load±SD, 50.5±28.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515

Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen

2014-07-01

280

Fat emulsion composition alters intake and the effects of baclofen.  

PubMed

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: (1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and (2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

Wang, Y; Wilt, D C; Wojnicki, F H E; Babbs, R K; Coupland, J N; Corwin, R L C

2011-12-01

281

Vitamin E, lipid fractions, and fatty acid composition of colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk: an international comparative study.  

PubMed

Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased. These changes reflect augmented de novo synthesis of fatty acids (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, and 14:0) in the mammary gland and a tendency of increasing fat-globule size as milk matures. Transitional and mature milks, but particularly colostrum, contained higher concentrations of components considered to be derived from the fat-globule membrane (cholesterol, tocopherols, percentage long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with those reported for Western countries. Percentage medium-chain fatty acids in mature milk was two to three times higher than in developed countries. Differences from data from studies in Western countries are discussed in relation to analytical methods and possible consequences for lipid digestion, lipid absorption, growth, and brain development. PMID:2021129

Boersma, E R; Offringa, P J; Muskiet, F A; Chase, W M; Simmons, I J

1991-05-01

282

Inhibition of S-fimbria-mediated adhesion to human ileostomy glycoproteins by a protein isolated from bovine colostrum.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to isolate and purify the component in bovine colostrum which is responsible for the inhibition of S-fimbria-mediated adhesion of Escherichia coli. Whey from defatted colostrum was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the < 100K, < 30K, and < 10K fractions and the colostral whey were tested for inhibition of in vitro adhesion of radiolabelled S-fimbria-bearing E. coli to human ileostomy glycoproteins, which provide a model for human intestinal mucus. The inhibiting compound was purified from a dialyzed < 30K fraction with an anion exchange column which was eluted with a NaCl gradient (0 to 1.0 M). The compound was found to be a heat-resistant but pepsin-sensitive protein with an Mr of approximately 18,000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 5.75. The protein appears to block receptor sites for S-fimbriae on ileostomy glycoproteins, with steric hindrance being the most likely mechanism. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the amino terminus of the 18K protein showed similarity with the sequence of beta-lactoglobulin. PMID:7591156

Ouwehand, A C; Conway, P L; Salminen, S J

1995-01-01

283

Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk  

SciTech Connect

Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

1987-05-01

284

Chemical characterisation of six oligosaccharides in a sample of colostrum of the brown capuchin, Cebus apella (Cebidae: primates).  

PubMed

Carbohydrates were extracted from a sample of brown capuchin colostrum and six of the component oligosaccharides were separated and purified by gel filtration and preparative thin layer chromatography. Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR to be as follows: Gal beta 1-->4[Fuc alpha 1-->3]Glc (3-fucosyllactose) Gal beta 1-->3Gal beta 1-->4Glc (beta-3'-galactosyllactose) Gal beta 1-->6Gal beta1-->4Glc (beta-6'-galactosyllactose) Gal beta-->3[Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->6]Gal beta 1-->4Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I) Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->3[Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->6]Gal beta 1-->4Glc (lacto-N-neohexaose) Neu5Ac alpha 2-->3Gal beta 1-->4Glc (3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose) Of these, all except lacto-N-novopentaose I have been previously found in human milk or colostrum. PMID:10661722

Urashima, T; Kawai, Y; Nakamura, T; Arai, I; Saito, T; Namiki, M; Yamaoka, K; Kawahawa, K; Messer, M

1999-11-01

285

Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

2015-03-13

286

Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

287

Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

288

Evaluation of the risk of paratuberculosis in adult cows fed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA-positive or -negative colostrum as calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective - Estimate the risk of MAP infection in Holstein calves associated with ingestion of MAP DNA positive (vs negative) colostrum at birth. Animals - 205 Holstein heifer calves born in 12 commercial dairy herds. Procedure - Every calf born was separated from its dam within 30 to 60 minutes ...

289

Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1071 newborn calves from six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning p...

290

Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes  

PubMed Central

Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

Booth, Sarah L.

2012-01-01

291

Effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on serum immunoglobulin concentration, health status and body weight gain in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.  

PubMed

The effect of method and time of first colostrum feeding on the concentration of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves. The hypotheses were that the variable method and time of first colostrum feeding might affect the level of serum Ig and in turn the growth performance and health status of the claves during the early age. The newborn calves were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental groups - G-1: allowed to suckle the dam at own choice, G-2: separated immediately after birth and allowed to suckle the dam first at 6 h and then at own choice, G-3: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam first at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h, G-4: bottle fed ad libitum colostrum of its own dam within 1 h, at 6 h and then at 6-h intervals until 24 h. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were lowest (p < 0.01) at birth and increased following colostrum feeding irrespective of the experimental group. Highest concentrations of all the Ig classes were observed at 12-24 h after birth. The concentrations then transiently decreased from day 7 to 14, and then steadily increased after day 28. The concentrations of IgG (p < 0.01) and IgA (p < 0.05) were higher in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the first week after birth. Similarly, higher concentration of IgA (p < 0.05) was found in G-1 in relation to the other groups during the rest of the experimental period. The apparent absorption efficiency of colostral IgG was higher (p < 0.05) in G-4 in relation to G-3. Growth rate and health status were not influenced by the method and time of first colostrum feeding. In conclusion, a 6-h delay in the first colostrum feeding reduced the level of serum Ig noticeably. PMID:21198956

Mech, A; Dhali, A; Baruah, K K; Singh, R K; Mondal, S K; Rajkhowa, C

2011-12-01

292

Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 1. Food intake, milk production, tissue changes and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

The loss of phosphates from dairy farms contributes to the eutrophication of waterways. Whilst reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce phosphate losses, diets containing inadequate dietary P may have a negative effect on cow health and performance. To address this issue, 100 winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P. The experiment was conducted over a 4-year period, with 80 primiparous cows commencing the study in year 1, while a further 20 primiparous cows commenced the study in year 2. Rations offered during the winter comprised grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM respectively), and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P winter diets respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P summer diets respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations 1 to 4 respectively. Dietary P level had no significant effect on food intake, milk output or milk composition (P > 0.05). Plasma P concentrations were significantly lower with cows offered the 'low' P diet in each of lactations 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). In each of lactations 3 and 4, cows offered the 'low' P diet tended to have lower condition scores and live weights than those offered the 'high' P diet. The results of this experiment highlight that the P content of dairy cow diets can be substantially reduced with no detrimental effect on dairy cow performance. PMID:22444042

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; McCoy, M A; Kilpatrick, D J

2010-04-01

293

Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.  

PubMed

Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430

Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

2015-02-01

294

Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

2014-01-01

295

Effects of short-term fructooligosaccharide intake on equol production in Japanese postmenopausal women consuming soy isoflavone supplements: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that some of the clinical effectiveness of soy or daidzein, which is a type of isoflavone, may be attributed to a person’s ability to produce equol from daidzein. Equol, which is a metabolite of one of the major soybean isoflavones called daidzein, is produced in the gastrointestinal tract by certain intestinal microbiota where present. Habitual dietary patterns may alter the intestinal bacterial profile, and influence the metabolism of isoflavones and the production of equol. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have a prebiotic activity as well as being a dietary fibre. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether FOS supplementation increases equol production in equol producers and stimulates equol production in equol non-producers in Japanese postmenopausal women. Methods A soy challenge was used to assess equol-producer status prior to the start of the study in healthy postmenopausal Japanese women. The study involved 4 separate groups in randomised crossover design. First, subjects were classified as equol producers (n = 25) or non-producers (n = 18), and then they were randomly assigned to the FOS or control group. All subjects received a daily dose of 37 mg isoflavone conjugates in the capsule (21 mg aglycone form) and either FOS (5g/day) or sucrose as control, in a randomised crossover study design. Equol -production was assessed by testing the serum and urine before and after the 2-week supplementation period. Results The analyses were conducted on 34 subjects completed the study, 21 (61.8%) were classified as equol producers, and 13 (38.2%) as non-producers. Significant differences were observed in the interaction effect of time × equol state after 1 week of intervention (p = 0.006). However there were no effects after 2 weeks of intervention (p = 0.516). Finally, in both equol producers and non-producers, FOS supplementation did not affect the serum equol concentration or the urinary equol to daidzein concentration ratios. Conclusions We have reported that FOS intervention (5 g/day for 2 weeks) does not significantly modulate the capacity of intestinal microbiota to produce equol in postmenopausal Japanese women, in either equol producers or non-producers in this pilot study. Further larger investigations that explore the roles of specific intestinal microbiota in equol production will enable the establishment of dietary conditions that are required to enhance equol production. PMID:24034304

2013-01-01

296

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

297

Usual Intake of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

298

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

299

Usual Intake of Solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

300

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

301

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

302

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

303

Usual Intake of Other fruits  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2

304

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

305

Usual Intake of Other vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

306

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

307

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

308

Dairy intake and changes in blood pressure over 9 years: the ARIC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy product intake could contribute to preventing hypertension, but information linking intake of these foods with changes in blood pressure over long periods of time, particularly in non-whites, is scarce. We analyzed the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective cohort in the United States, to assess whether different types of dairy products were associated with changes in blood pressure

A Alonso; L M Steffen; A R Folsom

2009-01-01

309

MEETING ADEQUATE INTAKE FOR DIETARY CALCIUM WITHOUT DAIRY FOODS IN ADOLESCENTS, AGED 9-18 YEARS (NHANES 2001-2002)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the US, approximately 50% of total dietary calcium intake is provided by milk and milk products. However, a large proportion of children do not drink milk. The current study was designed to 1) determine the maximal amount of calcium intake obtained from food for children without dairy intake, and...

310

Differentials in colostrum feeding among lactating women of block RS Pura of J and K: A lesson for nursing practice  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast feeding is universally and traditionally practicised in India. Experts advocate breast feeding as the best method of feeding young infants. Objective: To assess the role of various factors in determining colostrum feeding in block R. S. Pura of district Jammu. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design with villages as the primary sampling unit and lactating mothers as secondary sampling unit. Villages were divided into different clusters on the basis of population and sampling units were selected by a simple random technique. Results and Conclusion: Breastfeeding is almost universal in R. S. Pura. Differentials in discarding the first milk were not found to be important among various socioeconomic groups and the phenomenon appeared more general than specific. PMID:23853653

Raina, Sunil Kumar; Mengi, Vijay; Singh, Gurdeep

2012-01-01

311

Mixing zone and drinking water intake dilution factor and wastewater generation distributions to enable probabilistic assessment of down-the-drain consumer product chemicals in the U.S.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure and associated ecological risk related to down-the-drain chemicals discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are strongly influenced by in-stream dilution of receiving waters which varies by geography, flow conditions and upstream wastewater inputs. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute, Washington D.C.) was utilized to determine probabilistic distributions for no decay and decay-based dilution factors in mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions. The dilution factors derived in this study are "combined" dilution factors which account for both hydrologic dilution and cumulative upstream effluent contributions that will differ depending on the rate of in-stream decay due to biodegradation, volatilization, sorption, etc. for the chemical being evaluated. The median dilution factors estimated in this study (based on various in-stream decay rates from zero decay to a 1h half-life) for WWTP mixing zones dominated by domestic wastewater flow ranged from 132 to 609 at mean flow and 5 to 25 at low flow, while median dilution factors at drinking water intakes (mean flow) ranged from 146 to 2×10(7) depending on the in-stream decay rate. WWTPs within the iSTREEM® model were used to generate a distribution of per capita wastewater generated in the U.S. The dilution factor and per capita wastewater generation distributions developed by this work can be used to conduct probabilistic exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals in influent wastewater, wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and at drinking water intakes in the conterminous U.S. In addition, evaluation of types and abundance of U.S. wastewater treatment processes provided insight into treatment trends and the flow volume treated by each type of process. Moreover, removal efficiencies of chemicals can differ by treatment type. Hence, the availability of distributions for per capita wastewater production, treatment type, and dilution factors at a national level provides a series of practical and powerful tools for building probabilistic exposure models. PMID:25770452

Kapo, Katherine E; McDonough, Kathleen; Federle, Thomas; Dyer, Scott; Vamshi, Raghu

2015-06-15

312

Evaluation of an animal model system for cryptosporidiosis: therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin.  

PubMed

Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective drugs against C. parvum can be detected within 5 days after the onset of treatment in either model. PMID:8556484

Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J

1994-07-01

313

Evaluation of a commercial bovine colostrum replacer for achieving passive transfer of immunity in springbok calves (Antidorcas marsupialis).  

PubMed

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs in ruminant species when there is inadequate absorption of immunoglobulins from the colostrum. In zoologic establishments, FPT can be a common occurrence in hand-raised ruminant neonates fed insufficient amounts of colostrum replacer (CR) and/or poor-quality CR. The goals of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a commercial bovine CR at achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity and evaluate tests to assess FPT in nondomestic ruminant species. In the past several years, research in dairy calves has shown that passive transfer rates can be dramatically improved if the CR dose is doubled. The treatment group (n = 10) consisted of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) calves fed Land O'Lakes bovine commercial CR at a dose of > or = 4.68 g of immunoglobulin G (22 g of CR powder) per kilogram of animal's body weight divided into five feedings over 24 hr. The control group (n=7) consisted of calves that nursed from their dams. This study reported no significant difference between the proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer in the treatment (80%) and control (71%) groups (P= 1.00). Morbidity and mortality rates until weaning were 0% in both groups. The study also determined the sensitivity and specificity values (n = 37) for five serum tests (y-glutamyl-transferase [GGT], globulin, glutaraldehyde coagulation [GC], sodium sulfite turbidity test, and total protein) used to determine passive transfer status in springbok calves. This study recommends the following serum tests and cutoff ranges for determining FPT in springbok calves: globulin < or = 1.85 mg/dl, GGT < or = 228.5 IU/ L, and GC > or = 28 min. PMID:24063080

Thompson, Kimberly A; Lamberski, Nadine; Kass, Philip H; Coons, David; Chigerwe, Munashe

2013-09-01

314

Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

2014-09-01

315

[Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].  

PubMed

The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

2008-09-01

316

Intake system for diesel cycle engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake system for diesel cycle engines comprising intake passage means leading through intake port means to combustion chamber means and timing valve means provided in the intake passage means in the vicinity of the combustion chamber means. It also comprises control means for normally closing the timing valve means in a predetermined period of an intake stroke wherein the intake port means is opened to the combustion chamber means and for opening the timing valve means in the remaining period of the intake stroke, and gas drawing means opening to the intake passage means upstream of the timing valve means.

Sahara, M.; Nishida, T.; Sado, O.; Kashimoto, M.

1986-11-25

317

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

2014-01-01

318

Assessment of salt intake: how accurate is it?  

PubMed

The aims of this review paper are to provide an overview of the association of sodium intake with cardiovascular health, to identify sodium in our global food supply and to describe problems associated with assessment of dietary sodium intake. Excess sodium intake may contribute to the development of hypertension in some individuals, consequently increasing CVD risk. The average intake of sodium in populations around the world far exceeds the actual body's needs. Processed and restaurant foods contribute the most dietary sodium for Americans and other populations worldwide. There is a worldwide focus on reducing sodium content of food products in an effort to reduce health related issues associated with excessive salt and sodium intake in individuals. In several countries, regulations have been introduced to lower the sodium content of foods. Manufacturers are complying with these regulations by formulating new products to meet these standards. However, the variability in food sodium content poses challenges to researchers to accurately assess dietary sodium intakes of individuals. There are differences in sodium content of foods in databases compared with nutritional information provided by manufacturers for the same food products. Variations also exist in restaurant foods, where values differ from those available on restaurant websites. Sodium may be either underestimated or overestimated; it is not always on target. Awareness of the variability among food products is crucial but capturing sodium content of every food in the market is not feasible. Whenever possible, updating databases is critical. In conclusion, it is not feasible to capture the sodium content of every food in the marketplace but being aware of these differences is essential to assessing actual sodium consumption. Since biological determinations are burdensome and impractical, it is imperative for researchers and other health professionals to participate in the development and implementation of tools to accurately assess sodium intake in individuals. PMID:23458087

Champagne, Catherine M; Cash, Katherine C

2013-08-01

319

Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic "browning" generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed and are harmful to human health remains highly controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, inflammatory mediators, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for 6 wk with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 y, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared at either high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-? receptors I and II), soluble receptor for AGEs, and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs were measured at baseline and after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In the low-AGE diet group, the following changed from baseline to 6 wk (mean ± SE): serum CML from 763 ± 24 to 679 ± 29 ng/mL (P = 0.03) and urine CML from 1.37 ± 1.47 to 0.77 ± 2.01 ?g/mL creatinine (P = 0.02). There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high-AGE diet group. A high- or low-AGE diet had no significant impact on peripheral arterial tonometry or any inflammatory mediators after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged to older adults, consumption of a diet high or low in AGEs for 6 wk had no impact on endothelial function and inflammatory mediators, 2 precursors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24744309

Semba, Richard D; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J; Sun, Kai; Turner, Randi; Silber, Harry A; Talegawkar, Sameera; Ferrucci, Luigi; Novotny, Janet A

2014-07-01

320

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

321

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10  

Cancer.gov

We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

322

Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.  

PubMed

Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ?-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (?9 to 11), trans-18:1 (?6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

2014-12-10

323

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

324

Changes in colostrum composition and in the permeability of the mammary epithelium at about the time of parturition in the goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. Changes in milk composition and in mammary permeability to labelled sucrose and monovalent ions have been studied in late\\u000a pregnancy and at the time of parturition. These data have been compared with those obtained previously in lactating goats.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Colostrum contained more sodium, chloride, protein, immunoglobulins and less potassium and lactose than milk. The composition\\u000a of the aqueous phase

J. L. Linzell; M. Peaker

2009-01-01

325

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

326

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

327

Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

1980-01-01

328

Fiber intake and childhood appendicitis.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the possible role of fiber in the etiology of acute appendicitis, 203 consecutive appendectomized children with histologically proved appendicitis and 1922 controls were studied by the diet history method. Statistics were performed by multivariate analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and chi 2. Appendectomized children had statistically significant lower mean daily intake of fiber (17.4 g versus 20.4 g, P < 0.001) including all fiber fractions: cellulose, uronic acid, pentose, exose and lignin. No statistical difference was found for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake. Discriminant analysis proved that only cellulose and exose are independently correlated to appendicitis and lower fiber intake is thought to be the cause in 70% of the cases. Recurrent abdominal pain, chronic constipation and positive family history of appendectomy were more frequent in appendectomized children (P < 0.001). This study gives evidence that low fiber intake could play an important role in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. PMID:10945110

Adamidis, D; Roma-Giannikou, E; Karamolegou, K; Tselalidou, E; Constantopoulos, A

2000-05-01

329

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

330

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

331

Dietary intakes and leptin concentrations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Leptin, a peptide contained 146 amino-acids, is mostly secreted from adipose tissue and it has a critical role on regulation of body weight, body fat mass, appetite, and food intakes. We tried to review the previous evidence regarding the effects of dietary intakes, including consumption of carbohydrates, fats and protein on concentrations of leptin concentration. METHODS We searched in PubMed search engine to January 2013 by using the following key words: dietary intake, diet, dietary fat, high-fat diet, dietary carbohydrate, high carbohydrate diet, dietary protein, high protein diet in combination with leptin, adipokine. Then, we recruited 35 articles to review in the present study. RESULTS It seems that beside the amount of fats, type of fatty acids have the key roles on circulating leptin concentration. Energy intake also significantly associated with the hormone. Studies regarding the association between carbohydrate intake and concentration of lepton have been reached to contradictory results. It seems that protein intake can increase the lepton activity. CONCLUSION Findings from several studies suggest that a diet display an important role on change the concentration of lepton. PMID:25477984

Izadi, Vajiheh; Saraf-Bank, Sahar; Azadbakht, Leila

2014-01-01

332

Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.  

PubMed

The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

2006-01-01

333

Evaluation of nutrient intake in early post kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs. PMID:23429928

Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Won Gyoung

2013-01-01

334

Evaluation of Nutrient Intake in Early Post Kidney Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs. PMID:23429928

Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee

2013-01-01

335

Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

336

Physiological aspects of the regulation of food intake J.M. FORBES  

E-print Network

that these signals are additive and are integrated in the hypothalamus with information from the higher brain behaviour (see BmLE and FORBES, 1974). II. - Individual factors affecting food intake A. - ProductsPhysiological aspects of the regulation of food intake J.M. FORBES Department of Animal Physiology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Farming practices in Sweden related to feeding milk and colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials to dairy calves  

PubMed Central

Background Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed. Results Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns. Conclusions Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy farms. Future work should focus on the effect of waste milk feeding on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. PMID:23837498

2013-01-01

338

The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.  

PubMed

The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

Lione, A

1983-02-01

339

Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h light–dark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An understanding of simultaneous changes in meal size and meal number

Michael M Meguid; Serguei O Fetissov; Madhu Varma; Tomoi Sato; Lihua Zhang; Alessandro Laviano; Filippo Rossi-Fanelli

2000-01-01

340

Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

2011-09-01

341

Influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.  

PubMed

Immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (Mat-Abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. Here, we report the anti-FMDV humoral responses elicited in calves with or without Mat-Abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in Argentina. Anti-FMDV (O1/Campos strain) antibodies (Abs) were evaluated by Liquid Phase Blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT), isotype ELISA (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM) and avidity ELISA, to allow for the first time a more detailed description of the humoral responses elicited. Our results show that primary IgM responses to FMDV vaccination only became evident as Mat-Abs titers decreased. Likewise, prime and boost vaccination schedules, applied 35 days apart to groups of calves with high or low levels of Mat-Abs, showed that the levels of preexisting neutralizing Mat-Abs prevented the loss of total Abs measured by LPB-ELISA but negatively interfered with the induction of virus neutralizing responses. Altogether, these findings indicate that comprehensive serological characterization of immune responses generated after vaccination in calves may reveal important information on the actual effectiveness of vaccination strategies for young animals, particularly in endemic settings. PMID:24968156

Bucafusco, Danilo; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Pega, Juan; Juncos, María Sol; Schammas, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

2014-11-12

342

BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

2013-01-01

343

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

344

Food intakes of adult Melbourne Chinese.  

PubMed

Food intake patterns of 545 adult Melbourne Chinese were studied in 1988 and 1989 using a 220-item food-frequency questionnaire appropriate for Chinese eating practices. Men and women were compared, adjusting for age, time in Australia and education. Men consumed more rice and alcoholic beverages as energy. In women, the energy intake was derived from foods of traditional Chinese types. There were two types of consumption patterns: in the first group were those who acculturated towards an Australian way of eating by replacing some traditional Chinese foods, such as rice, pork, leafy green and cruciferous vegetables, soups and tea, with 'new foods', such as wheat products, red meats and coffee; in the second were those who limited their intake to a handful of traditional Chinese foods as the major source of energy. The educated, the professional and those with an administrative profession, the Australian-born and those with a longer length of stay fitted into the first group, and were more acculturated towards Australia than those born in the People's Republic of China or Vietnam and who migrated at an older age. The first group may benefit from the best of both worlds, but may risk the diseases of an industrialised society. The second group may be trapped at a cultural crossroads and may be unable to make appropriate food choices. Public health efforts in Australia, where one in every five is overseas-born, should provide for nutrition and health education for new and aged migrants of non-European cultural backgrounds. PMID:8616204

Hsu-Hage, B H; Ibiebele, T; Wahlqvist, M L

1995-12-01

345

Food intake patterns in urban Beijing Chinese.  

PubMed

This study investigated the food consumption patterns of 430 Beijing Chinese adults and assessed the impact on these patterns of the following socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age, educational achievement, and gross household income. Food intake by category, food variety and meal patterns were assessed using a 156-item food frequency questionnaire. It was found that gender and age were the most important factors to influence food consumption patterns. Men consumed more wheat products, red meat and tea, whereas women consumed more vegetables, fruit, nuts, fish, eggs and milk. Women also tended to consume a wider variety of food than did men. Furthermore, it was found that younger and more educated people tended to consume a wider variety of food. Age also had an important influence on the food intake. Younger and generally more educated adults tended to consume foods associated with affluence: meats, soft drinks and beer, while the older population tended to consume more vegetables (women only), milk and tea in their diets. Because education is closely correlated with age in this Beijing Chinese population, it appeared to have little effect on the food intake patterns, after adjusting for age. The older members of this population, who probably have a decreased functional reserve of nutrients, and the less educated, appeared not to be taking advantage of the availability of a wide variety of food, further increasing the risk of nutrient deficiency. On the other hand, the younger and more educated, who tended to consume a wide variety of foods, were more likely to maintain adequate nutritional standards. However, their tendency to consume food associated with affluence, such as meat and beer, may point toward an increased risk of those diseases prevalent in affluent societies, such as obesity, diabeties, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and osteoporosis. Ongoing nutrition surveillance and appropriate nutrition education will be required increasingly for Beijing Chinese and similar communities. PMID:24393637

Fu, P; Zhang, H; Siew, S M; Wang, S Q; Xue, A; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wahlqvist, M L; Wang, Y F; Li, X X

1998-06-01

346

Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?  

PubMed Central

Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

2011-01-01

347

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

348

Engine air intake control system  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlling the amount of air taken in by an engine comprises an air duct tube bypassing a throttle valve of an intake tube for taking in air supplied to an automobile engine, a plurality of valves for regulating the amount of air passing through the air duct tube, and control device therefor. The amount of air in the bypass is controlled in accordance with the temperature and number of revolutions of the engine and the air intake pressure downstream of the throttle valve. During the idling of the engine, the air intake control system generates a signal representing the standard engine idling revolutions in accordance with the engine temperature, compares the actual engine revolutions with a reference, and regulates the amount of air flowing in the bypass by use of the results of a comparison, thus rendering the actual engine revolutions identical to the reference. During the loaded engine operation, by contrast, the amount of bypass air is so controlled that the air intake pressure downstream of the throttle valve is maintained at predetermined constant value.

Fujisawa, H.; Kinugawa, M.; Omori, N.; Sueishi, M.

1980-12-09

349

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment  

E-print Network

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health or ADHD evaluation for review prior to scheduling your first medication appointment in the Mental Health). Contact the Medical Social Worker for resources­ 612-624-8182. · Long Term Therapy: The Mental Health

Weiblen, George D

350

water intake Water sampling site  

E-print Network

x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

351

Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Z?otnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level – 294?g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets – 262?g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P???0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed analysis of correlations that occurred between fat, fatty acids and traits associated with piglet rearing confirmed that linolic acid (C18:2; n-6) was highly significantly correlated with piglets' body weights (r?=?0.456**) and was negatively correlated with piglets' deaths (r?=??0.312). On the other hand, fat revealed correlation with body weight gains of piglets (r?=?0.333*_ and a negative correlation with deaths of piglets (r?=??0344*). Recapitulating, the results of the performed experiments revealed that differences in the levels of fat and fatty acids found in sows' colostrum and milk influenced results of piglet rearing. Together with the increase in the content of fat and UFA in sows' colostrum and milk, piglets were characterized by the best body weight, growth rate, as well as by small mortality. PMID:25041642

Skrzypczak, Ewa; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goli?ski, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczy?ski, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

2015-01-01

352

Impact of fat and selected profiles of fatty acids contained in the colostrum and milk of sows of native breeds on piglet rearing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of fat and selected fatty acids found in the milk of sows on the rearing of native breed piglets. Simultaneously, in order to improve the accuracy of the performed analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the applied analytic methodology. The experimental animal material comprised 60 sows of the indigenous White Z?otnicka breed. Colostrum and milk were collected on the first and 14th days of lactation. In all, 240 samples were collected. The following parameters were determined in the course of the experiment: number and weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as deaths of piglets. A total of 1270 born piglets was subjected to investigations. The performed experiments demonstrated that, with the progress of the lactation period, the content of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) turned out to be statistically significant and showed a growing tendency. Fat increased by about 2% and palmitic acid (C16:0) increased most, that is by 5%. Linolic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids revealed decreasing trends. Irrespective of the day of lactation, the level of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) determined in sows' colostrum and milk was higher in comparison with that of SFA, and the UFA to SFA ratio ranged from 1.84% to 1.33%. Proportions of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were determined at the level of about 1.6:1.0 in the colostrum and 1.3:10 in milk. The highest daily body weight gains were recorded in the case of piglets derived from sows with the highest fat level - 294?g, while in the case of stearic acid (C18:0), the smaller its concentration in the colostrum and milk of the experimental sows, the better body weight gains of piglets - 262?g. At the same time, stearic acid (C18:0) was found to exert a statistically significant effect on piglet mortality at the level of P???0.05. Its highest concentration caused the highest proportion of deaths among piglets - 16.23%. The performed analysis of correlations that occurred between fat, fatty acids and traits associated with piglet rearing confirmed that linolic acid (C18:2; n-6) was highly significantly correlated with piglets' body weights (r?=?0.456**) and was negatively correlated with piglets' deaths (r?=?-0.312). On the other hand, fat revealed correlation with body weight gains of piglets (r?=?0.333*_ and a negative correlation with deaths of piglets (r?=?-0344*). Recapitulating, the results of the performed experiments revealed that differences in the levels of fat and fatty acids found in sows' colostrum and milk influenced results of piglet rearing. Together with the increase in the content of fat and UFA in sows' colostrum and milk, piglets were characterized by the best body weight, growth rate, as well as by small mortality. PMID:25041642

Skrzypczak, Ewa; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Goli?ski, Piotr; Szulc, Karolina; Buczy?ski, Janusz T; Babicz, Marek

2015-01-01

353

Intake system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intake system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising working chamber means having a volume which changes cyclically between a top dead center of a smallest volume and a bottom dead center of a largest volume, intake passage means adapted to be cyclically opened to the working chamber means in an intake stroke which starts prior to the

M. Hitorai; S. Okazaki; K. Onishi; J. Sasaki; K. Tominaga

1988-01-01

354

Multi-residue method for the determination of 57 persistent organic pollutants in human milk and colostrum using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure.  

PubMed

Human breast milk represents the best choice for the nutrition of infants. However, in addition to containing beneficial nutrients and antibodies, it can also be considered the best indicator of infant exposure to contaminants. We developed a multi-residue method using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 57 persistent organic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides, 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human milk and colostrum samples. We have used primary secondary amine in the clean-up step as it gave a more efficient separation of the analytes from fat and superior removal of the co-extracted substances compared with gel permeation chromatography. No significant matrix effect was observed for the tested pollutants, and therefore matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 74.8-113.0 %. The precision was satisfactory, with relative standard deviations below 16 %, while values of 0.1-0.4 ?g L(-1) were established as the limit of quantification for all the target analytes (0.05 and 100 ?g L(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 18 human colostrum and 23 mature milk samples. All the samples tested were positive for at least nine different residues, with some samples containing up to 24 contaminants. Remarkably, the contaminants hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, PCB 180, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were present in 100 % of the colostrum and mature milk samples analyzed. PMID:24162817

Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

2013-11-01

355

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

356

Tips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content and choose the product that is lower in  

E-print Network

Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 What Sodium doeS in the Body · Helps maintain water balance · RegulatesTips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe 1 2 3 4 5 Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content at the table. Sodium: The Facts By Beth H. Olson, Ph.D., MSU Extension Nutrition Specialist, Department of Food

357

Recognition of Gram-positive Intestinal Bacteria by Hybridoma- and Colostrum-derived Secretory Immunoglobulin A Is Mediated by Carbohydrates*  

PubMed Central

Humans live in symbiosis with 1014 commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with Gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of Gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with Gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for Gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system. PMID:21454510

Mathias, Amandine; Corthésy, Blaise

2011-01-01

358

Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients  

PubMed Central

Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p < 0.05 for all values). Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness. PMID:12165100

Shahar, Suzana; Chee, Kan Yin; Wan Chik, Wan Chak Pa'

2002-01-01

359

Intake system for diesel cycle engines  

SciTech Connect

An intake system is described for diesel cycle engines comprising intake passage means leading through intake port means to combustion chamber means. A timing suction pressure responsive valve means provides closing the intake passage means in a beginning period of intake strokes. The intake port means is opened to the combustion chamber means. Opening the intake passage in the remainder period of the intake stroke is characterized by the fact that the valve means includes a valve member which is movable between a closed position where it closes the intake passage means and an open position where it opens the intake passage means. Means biases the valve member toward the closed position, the valve member has a first surface which is subjected in the closed position to a pressure in the intake passage means upstream the valve means and a second surface which is subjected in the closed position to a pressure in the combustion chamber means so that a difference between the pressures on the first and second surfaces of the valve member assists the biasing means biasing the valve member to the closed position. The valve actuator means comprises suction pressure chamber means defined at least partly by, a pressure responsive movable member. A means connects the movable member with the valve member so that a movement of the movable member is transmitted to the valve member and communicates passage means for suction pressure chamber.

Nakamura, S.; Sakurai, S.; Nishida, T.; Sahara, M.

1987-07-28

360

Pemphigus erythematosus relapse associated with atorvastatin intake  

PubMed Central

Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Herein we report the case of a 70 year-old man who developed a relapse of pemphigus erythematosus, a syndrome with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus, after atorvastatin intake. PMID:25258514

Lo Schiavo, Ada; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Romano, Francesca; Cozzi, Roberto

2014-01-01

361

Dietary intake and sources of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in German adults.  

PubMed

Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) was analysed, stratified by sex and age groups, using data from the German Nutrition Survey 1998. The median intake of both fatty acids combined (EPA and DHA) was 141 mg per day among women and 186 mg among men. In all age groups, women consumed less EPA and DHA than men, partly because of lower total intake. The lowest median intake was observed among women aged 18-24 years (84 mg) and the highest median intake among men aged 45-54 years (217 mg). The main sources of these fatty acids are fish (68%), eggs (12%), poultry (7%), meat and sausages (7%). The remaining 6% of EPA and DHA is supplied by bakery products. PMID:16482078

Bauch, A; Lindtner, O; Mensink, G B M; Niemann, B

2006-06-01

362

Associations of plant food, dairy product, and meat intakes with 15-y incidence of elevated blood pressure in young black and white adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Consumptionofplantfoodsanddairyandmeatprod- ucts may moderate increases in blood pressure. Objective: The objective was to evaluate associations of dietary intake with the 15-y incidence of elevated blood pressure (EBP; ie, incidentsystolicBP130mmHg,diastolicBP85mmHg,oruse of antihypertensive medication). Design: Proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate relationsofdietaryintakeatyears0and7withthe15-yincidenceof EBP in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study of 4304 participants aged 18-30 y at

Lyn M Steffen; Candyce H Kroenke; Xinhua Yu; Mark A Pereira; Martha L Slattery; Linda Van Horn; Myron D Gross; David R Jacobs Jr

363

Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

2014-01-01

364

Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.  

PubMed

Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

2008-10-01

365

Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs. PMID:21697816

McGowan, C A; Byrne, J; Walsh, J; McAuliffe, F M

2011-09-01

366

Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.  

PubMed

Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations. PMID:23017313

Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2012-01-01

367

Investigation of the melanocyte stimulating hormones on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3-R) and melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4-R), are expressed in many discrete medial hypothalamic nuclei implicated in feeding regulation. The pro-opiomelanocortin product ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), an MC3\\/4-R agonist, decreases food intake following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in rats. MC4-R’s involvement in feeding has been established although a function for the MC3-R is unclear. We investigated endogenous melanocortin ligand binding

Caroline R Abbott; Michela Rossi; Min-Seon Kim; Samaher H AlAhmed; Gillian M Taylor; Mohammad A Ghatei; David M Smith; Stephen R Bloom

2000-01-01

368

IS GREATER INTAKE OF DAIRY AND CALCIUM A RISK FACTOR OF PROSTATE CANCER? A META-ANALYSIS OF PROSPECTIVE STUDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. High intakes of calcium and dairy products may increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans now recommends that all Americans increase their dairy intake. The current study is to examine the ass...

369

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

370

Dietary Intakes of Geriatric Patients in Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individually weighed food intakes have been obtained over an 8-day period from 14 men (age range 63-91 years) 25 women (age range 61-94 years) resident in geriatric wards in an Essex hospital. Nutrient intakes have been computed from food composition tables vitamin C also by chemical analysis. Energy intakes were low compared with those obtained in other surveys, and were

Elizabeth Evans; Anne L. Stock

1971-01-01

371

Neuropeptide FF reduces food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neuropeptide FF (NPFF), a mammalian FMRFamide-like peptide with antiopioid activity, on food intake was investigated in food-deprived rat. The ICV administration of NPFF (5 or 10 ?g\\/rat) reduced food intake during the first 60 min after administration. ICV injection of naloxone (10 or 100 ?g\\/rat), an opioid antagonist, also decreased food intake. However, the combination of NPFF

Takashi Murase; Hiroshi Arima; Kunikazu Kondo; Yutaka Oiso

1996-01-01

372

Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.

1993-12-31

373

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

374

MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

375

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

376

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

377

Central nervous system control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its

Michael W. Schwartz; Stephen C. Woods; Daniel Porte Jr; Randy J. Seeley; Denis G. Baskin

2000-01-01

378

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0

379

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

380

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

381

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds Table A31. Nuts and seeds: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.3 (0.04) 0.0

382

FEED INTAKE BEHAVIOR AND IMPLICATIONS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of feed intake has been greatly facilitated by the recent development of computerized systems that monitor the feed intake of individual animals within a group. Such equipment was originally designed for use by breeding stock supply organizations in the performance testing of pigs in group situations. The majority of selection programs for pigs place considerable emphasis on feed

Mike Ellis

383

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

384

SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

1 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE The Sexual Harassment Awareness and Intake Awareness Committee (SHAIC) is responsible for educating employees about sexual harassment and its potential consequences to the University community, and for overseeing sexual harassment training. The SHAIC

Brinkmann, Peter

385

Sleep and energy intake in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Background And Objectives: Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Methods: Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Results: Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping <10?h consumed around 50?kcal per day more than those sleeping 11–<12?h a night (the optimal sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain. PMID:24667887

Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J

2014-01-01

386

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

387

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

388

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

389

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

390

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

391

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

392

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

393

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

394

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

395

Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.  

PubMed

Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

2014-05-01

396

[Dietary intake assessments: for who? why?].  

PubMed

The use of dietary intake assessment and questionnaires in clinical practice is largely debated, particularly for obese patients. The time needed to carry out them is very long, and the results are little or not at all workable due to the underreporting which may represent up to 50% of intakes for some patients. The usual methods and tools to evaluate dietary intakes are presented, they should not be used to calculate energy intake, but they permit to initiate a dialogue with the patient on his/her dietary pattern. The analysis of the dietary pattern is the first step in diet prescription and is essential to weight management and follow-up. This analysis must consider 3 important components: type of food usually eaten and preferred, the circumstances and environment of food intakes and meals, possible disorders of eating behaviour. Some results on food consumption in adults and children from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé Study are presented. PMID:12733326

Romon, M; Borys, J M

2002-12-01

397

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2013-07-01

398

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2010-07-01

399

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2011-07-01

400

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2012-07-01

401

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2014-07-01

402

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2014-07-01

403

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2012-07-01

404

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2013-07-01

405

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

406

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

407

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

408

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

410

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

411

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

414

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

415

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2013-07-01

416

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2011-07-01

417

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2012-07-01

418

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2014-07-01

419

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2014-07-01

420

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2012-07-01

421

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

422

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

423

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2011-07-01

424

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2013-07-01

425

Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health in neonatal dairy calves.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased, mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxins intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of the effects of clinoptilolite supplementation on hematology, serum proteins, performance, and health. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1 and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For test 1 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48h and for test 2 group, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth and sixth weeks of life (end of the experiment: 42 days of life) and analyzed for hematology, plasma fibrinogen and for total protein, albumin, beta and gamma globulin measurement. Performance and health of calves were also recorded during the experiment. For statistical analysis of data a repeated measures approach using ANOVA with Mixed linear models, and chi-test was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the values of hematocrit (HCT), red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), monocyte (Mono), and albumin (Alb). The values of most above parameters were significantly higher in test group 2, except MCV that was significantly lower in test group 1 than other trial groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was seen for other measured parameters, performance, and health between trial groups. PMID:18343011

Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Daraei, F

2008-06-01

426

The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children. PMID:24494056

Nucci, Anita M.; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F.; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

2013-01-01

427

Calcium intake is not related to breast cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women  

PubMed Central

There is experimental evidence that calcium protects against breast cancer development. Prospective epidemiologic studies supporting a protective effect of calcium on breast cancer risk have mainly been limited to Western populations. We examined the association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large population-based prospective cohort. Calcium intake and supplement use was assessed by in-person interviewer using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 14.2±3.5 years, 823 cohort participants developed invasive breast cancer. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were fitted to examine the associations between calcium intake and breast cancer risk. Vegetables were the primary food source of calcium in this study population, followed by dairy products, grains and soy foods. Calcium intake was not associated with breast cancer risk, comparing highest quartile (>345.6 mg/1000 kcal/day) to lowest quartile (<204.5mg/1000 kcal/day) of intake. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, body mass index, dietary vitamin D or stage of disease at diagnosis. Our findings do not support a hypothesis for calcium in breast cancer chemoprevention, contrary to findings from previous studies among Western populations with higher calcium intake primarily from dairy products and supplements. PMID:23319293

Li, Jingmei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Ai-Zhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Butler, Lesley M.

2013-01-01

428

Advances in Colostrum Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) continues to affect a significant portion of North American dairy calves, contributing to high preweaning morbidity and mortality rates as well as impaired long-term health and performance. The goal of this presentation is to review key components of a successful c...

429

Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

2013-01-01

430

Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile). Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to spend most time in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The consumption of foods from the remaining food groups, did not differ between the physical activity levels in both sexes. Conclusion It can be concluded that dietary habits diverge between adolescents with different self-reported physical activity levels. For some food groups a difference in intake could be found, which were reflected in differences in some nutrient intakes. It can also be concluded that physically active adolescents are not always inclined to eat healthier diets than their less active peers. PMID:21294914

2011-01-01

431

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

432

Comparison of serum, ear notches, and nasal and saliva swabs for Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection in colostrum-fed persistently infected (PI) calves and non-PI calves.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of neonatal and young calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) may be complicated by interference from colostrum-derived specific antibodies. Ten calves, with 3 calves identified as PI and 7 as non-PI were used in the current study. All non-PI calves were shown to be seropositive for BVDV-specific antibodies by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) on serum. Serum samples, ear notch samples, and nasal and saliva swabs were collected from each calf from birth until 12 weeks of age and tested by ELISA for BVDV-specific antigen and antibodies. Following colostrum ingestion, Ab-ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios rose by a mean of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-1.25) and 1.72 (95% CI = 1.55-1.89) in seropositive, non-PI calves and in PI calves, respectively. The mean S/P ratios then declined to approximately 1.1 in non-PI calves and 0.5 in PI calves at between 60 and 80 days of age. In PI calves, testing for antigen in serum and nasal and saliva swabs was subject to interference by colostrum-derived antibodies in calves up to 3 weeks of age. Nasal swabs were less affected than serum and saliva swabs. Ear notches maintained positive ACE corrected optical densities at all sample times, despite a drop in the signal following the ingestion of colostrum. PMID:25227419

Lanyon, Sasha R; Sims, Sarah K; Cockcroft, Peter D; Reichel, Michael P

2014-11-01

433

Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from cows immunized with recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particle (CLP) or virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotypic passive immunity to IND (P[5]G6) bovine rotavirus (BRV) was evaluated. Three groups of calves (n = 5 per group) were fed 1% pooled colostrum supplements (birth to 7 days of age) from BRV seropositive cows vaccinated with recombinant SA11(P[2]G3) rotavirus-like particles (VLPs), recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particles (CLPs), or inactivated SA11 rotavirus (SA11). Control calves (n = 5 per

F. M. Fernandez; M. E. Conner; D. C. Hodgins; A. V. Parwani; P. R. Nielsen; S. E. Crawford; M. K. Estes; L. J. Saif

1998-01-01

434

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25424037

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-11-28

435

Caffeine Intake May Modulate Inflammation Markers in Trained Rats  

PubMed Central

Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. PMID:24763113

Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Souza, Mauren Assis; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Stefanello, Silvio Terra; Bresciani, Guilherme; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Barbosa, Nilda de Vargas

2014-01-01

436

Caffeine intake may modulate inflammation markers in trained rats.  

PubMed

Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. PMID:24763113

Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Souza, Mauren Assis; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Stefanello, Silvio Terra; Bresciani, Guilherme; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda

2014-04-01

437

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-12-01

438

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

439

Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.  

PubMed

Vitamin intakes of 255 toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) were estimated from food consumption recorded during 1 y at sites in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Mean intakes were compared with requirements standards by using a probability approach to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes. There were predicted inadequacies for vitamin A (32%) and riboflavin (20%) in Egypt, vitamins A (68%) and C (63%) and riboflavin (52%) in Mexico, and vitamin B-12 (44%) in Kenya. Vitamin E was inadequate in all diets, but in relation to polyunsaturated fatty acids only the intake in Mexico was low. No diet provided the recommended amount of vitamin D, but its dietary requirement is uncertain. Correlations among nutrient intakes suggest factors that may contribute to reported associations of consumption of animal products with improved growth or development among these children: provision of vitamin B-12 and available minerals, displacement of fiber and phytate-rich energy sources, and increased energy density. PMID:8237849

Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P; Beaton, G H; Lein, D

1993-09-01

440

Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35–74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g\\/day) and energy (kcal\\/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes

M C Ocké; N Larrañaga; S Grioni; S W van den Berg; P Ferrari; S Salvini; V Benetou; J Linseisen; E Wirfält; S Rinaldi; M Jenab; J Halkjær; M U Jakobsen; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; R Kaaks; M Bergmann; E Moutsiou; A Trichopoulou; C Lauria; C Sacerdote; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; P H M Peeters; A Hjartåker; C L Parr; M J Tormo; M J Sanchez; J Manjer; V Hellstrom; A Mulligan; E A Spencer; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani

2009-01-01

441

Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

442

Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promoti...

443

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

444

INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA. Legislation/Enabling Authority: Section 308 Supported Program: Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

445

An intake of C14-labelled dichlorobenzene.  

PubMed

An intake of C14 in the form of dichlorobenzene was followed up with 90 spot urine samples over a period of almost 2 weeks. This dataset has been fitted by a model consisting of three exponential terms. The intake and effective dose have been calculated. This case has been used to examine the effects of recent proposals by ICRP concerning the calculation of effective dose and the use of non-standard biokinetic models. PMID:24687009

Bull, Richard; Roberts, Gareth

2015-01-01

446

Electrolyte Intake and Nonpharmacologic Blood Pressure Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To characterize relationships between sodium and potassium intakes and blood pressure control.METHODS: We analyzed repeated 24-hour diet recalls and 24-hour urine assays from 873 elderly participants with established hypertension in a 3-year clinical trial of lifestyle interventions. Pooled estimates of electrolyte intakes were developed using hierarchical measurement error models and related to nonpharmacologic blood pressure control.RESULTS: Relative decreases in

Mark A Espeland; Shiriki Kumanyika; Carla Yunis; Beiyao Zheng; W. Mark Brown; Sharon Jackson; Alan C Wilson; Judy Bahnson

2002-01-01

447

NPY Effects on Food Intake and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this review is to critically assess the evidence that neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays both an important role in the\\u000a control of food intake and in the peripheral metabolic processes linked to the obese state. When given into the brain, NPY\\u000a stimulates food intake and a variety of metabolic processes that promote fat deposition. The stimulation of food

N. R. LevensI; M. Félétou; J.-P Galizzi; J.-L. Fauchére; O. Della-Zuana; M. Lonchampt

448

Relation between dietary intake and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated adherence to current dietary recommendations of children with cystic fibrosis and mild lung disease and their siblings by comparing energy intake. Fifty children (25 with cystic fibrosis) aged between 7 and 12 years completed the study. Energy intake was assessed by weighed dietary intake, resting energy expenditure was used to calculate recommended daily intakes. The children with

H Anthony; J Bines; P Phelan; S Paxton

1998-01-01

449

1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ALTITUDE). CONSTRUCTED WITH CONCRETE AND RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1948. INCLUDES INTAKE SCREEN AT LEFT AND SLUICE GATE AT RIGHT. TWO 8" CAST-IRON PIPES CARRY WATER FROM THE INTAKE TO THE OLD DAM (FORMER INTAKE) DOWN LINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

450

Measuring food intake with digital photography  

PubMed Central

The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

2014-01-01

451

Hydraulic radial piston pump intake porting arrangement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic radial piston pump having a slider block mounted on an eccentric of a rotary shaft in a hydraulic fluid supplied cavity. A piston is mounted in a cylinder disposed radially to the shaft. The piston has a flat working face at one end operating in the cylinder and a flat pad at an opposite end slidably engaged by a flat face of the slider block so as to force the piston outward on a compression stroke on shaft rotation. A yoke retains the piston to the slider block so as to retract the piston inward on an intake stroke on shaft rotation characterized by intake porting means for communicating the cavity with the working end of the piston. It comprises an intake passage extending centrally and axially through the piston from the working end to the pad resulting in an annular face at both piston ends. An elongated intake slot in the face of the slider block extends from a point continuously open to the cavity to a point that opens to the intake passage at the pad end on relative movement of the slider block during the intake stroke to just prior to the compression stroke. The annular faces at the working and pad ends of the piston having substantially equal areas to prevent hydraulic film from developing between the slider block and pad and thereby prevent their separation during compression.

Miller, G.T.

1987-06-16

452

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

453

Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in Finnish adults.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins are polyphenols that may have beneficial effects on human health and provide protection against chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on quantitative intake of polyphenols. The aims of this study were to estimate the quantitative intakes of polyphenols by using analyzed concentrations together with individual food consumption records and to determine major dietary sources. Analyzed concentrations of phenolic acids, anthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins (44 total polyphenol compounds) were entered into the national food composition database, Fineli. The absolute intakes of the polyphenols and the corresponding food sources were calculated on the basis of 48-h dietary recalls of 2007 Finnish adults. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 863 +/- 415 mg/d. Phenolic acids comprised the dominant group of polyphenols (75% of total intake) followed by proanthocyanidins (14%) and anthocyanidins and other flavonoids (10%). Due to their high consumption and high concentrations of phenolic acids, coffee and cereals were the main contributors to total polyphenol intake. Berries and berry products were the main source for anthocyanidins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins, and fruits were the main source for flavonols, flavones, and flavanones. The results give additional support to the recommendations for a varied diet with fruits, berries, cereals, and vegetables. PMID:18287367

Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Törrönen, Riitta; Koponen, Jani M; Sinkko, Harri; Hellström, Jarkko; Reinivuo, Heli; Mattila, Pirjo

2008-03-01

454

Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.  

PubMed

Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

2014-12-01

455

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

456

Reconstruction of long-lived radionuclide intakes for Techa riverside residents: 137Cs.  

PubMed

Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The Sr intake function was recently improved, taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio Cs-to-Sr in river water. Intake via Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows' milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000-9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River, the Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows' milk was the main source of Cs in diet in the upper-Techa River region. PMID:23532077

Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2013-05-01

457

Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p < 0.05). Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in serum of clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p < 0.05). The concentrations of phosphorus were significantly lower in test groups than control group (p < 0.05). Sodium concentrations were significantly higher in clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p < 0.05). Potassium and magnesium concentrations were not affected by clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need and utilization of Ca in growing animals, clinoptilolite supplementation could increase available Ca. Based on the results of the present study and the importance of dietary phosphorus in many physiologic processes, the level of phosphorus in diet of neonatal dairy calves must be considered and adapted when clinoptilolite was supplemented. With an adequate supply of good quality drinking water, cattle can tolerate large quantities of dietary sodium chloride. Thus, it seems that significant increase in serum Na concentration during short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in neonatal calves could be well tolerated without any adverse effects. PMID:18317705

Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

2008-01-01

458

ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

459

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

460

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01