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Sample records for intake levels biological

  1. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  2. A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Zlotkin, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL. PMID:16424135

  3. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Béder, I

    2000-01-01

    Plasma carnitine levels were measured in two alternative nutrition groups--strict vegetarians (vegans) and lactoovovegetarians (vegetarians consuming limited amounts of animal products such as milk products and eggs). The results were compared to an average sample of probands on mixed nutrition (omnivores). Carnitine levels were correlated with the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine (as substrates of its endogenous synthesis), since the intake of carnitine in food is negligible in the alternative nutrition groups (the highest carnitine content is in meat, lower is in milk products, while fruit, cereals and vegetables contain low or no carnitine at all). An average carnitine level in vegans was significantly reduced with hypocarnitinemia present in 52.9% of probands. Similarly, the intake of methionine and lysine was significantly lower in this group due to the exclusive consumption of plant proteins with reduced content of these amino acids. Carnitine level in lactoovovegetarians was also significantly reduced, but the incidence of values below 30 micromol/l was lower than in vegans representing 17.8% vs. 3.3% in omnivores. Intake of methionine and lysine was also significantly reduced in this group, but still higher compared to vegans (73% of protein intake covered by plant proteins). Significant positive correlation of carnitine levels with methionine and lysine intake in alternative nutrition groups indicates that a significant portion of carnitine requirement is covered by endogenous synthesis. Approximately two thirds of carnitine requirement in omnivores comes from exogenous sources. The results demonstrate the risks of alternative nutrition with respect to the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine, and with respect to the intake and biosynthesis of carnitine. PMID:11043928

  5. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  6. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  7. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  8. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    PubMed

    Rácz, Beáta; Dušková, Michaela; Jandíková, Hana; Hill, Martin; Vondra, Karel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2015-01-01

    The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48±2.99 years; average BMI 21.3±1.3 kg/m2); they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre). Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium), however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels. PMID:26654802

  9. Towards an improved estimation of the biological components of residual feed intake in growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Savietto, D; Berry, D P; Friggens, N C

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed and predicted feed intake. It is calculated as the residuals from a multiple regression model of DMI on the various energy expenditures (e.g., maintenance, growth, activity). Residual feed intake is often cited to be indicative of feed efficiency differences among animals. However, explaining a large proportion of the (phenotypic and genetic) interanimal variation in RFI remains difficult. Here we first describe a biological framework for RFI dwelling on similarities between RFI and energy balance. Alternative phenotypic and genetic statistical models are subsequently applied to a dataset of 1,963 growing bulls of 2 British and 3 Continental breeds. The novel aspect of this study was the use of a mixed model framework to quantify the heritable interanimal variation in the partial regression coefficients on the energy expenditure traits within the RFI equation. Heritable genetic variation in individual animal regression coefficients for metabolic live weight existed. No significant genetic variation in animal-level regression coefficients for growth or body fat level, however, existed in the study population. The presence of genetic variation in the partial regression coefficient of maintenance suggests the existence of interanimal variation in maintenance efficiency. However, it could also simply reflect interanimal genetic variation in correlated energy expenditure traits not included in the statistical model. Estimated breeding values for the random regression coefficient could be useful phenotypes in themselves for studies wishing to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing differences among animals in RFI. PMID:24664556

  10. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  11. Estimated intake levels for Finnish children of methylmercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Knip, Mikael; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Leino, Olli; Simell, Olli; Sinkko, Harri; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Veijola, Riitta; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6 years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33 μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1 μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6 μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6 years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children. PMID:22425939

  12. Genetic variation in multiple biologic pathways, flavonoid intake and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; McCullough, Lauren E.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Steck, Susan E.; Fink, Brian N.; Xu, Xinran; Ahn, Jiyoung; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Crew, Katherine D.; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I.; Chen, Jia; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported an inverse association between flavonoid intake and breast cancer incidence, which has been confirmed by others; but no studies have considered simultaneously potential interactions of flavonoids with multiple genetic polymorphisms involved in biologically-relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and one-carbon metabolism). Methods To estimate interaction effects between flavonoids and 13 polymorphisms in these four pathways on breast cancer risk, we used population-based data (N = 875 cases and 903 controls) and several statistical approaches, including conventional logistic regression and semi-Bayesian hierarchical modeling (incorporating prior information on the possible biological functions of genes), which also provides biologic pathway-specific effect estimates. Results Compared to the standard multivariate model, the results from the hierarchical model indicate that gene-by-flavonoid interaction estimates are attenuated, but more precise. In the hierarchical model, the average effect of the deleterious versus beneficial gene, controlling for average flavonoid intake in the DNA repair pathway, and adjusted for the three other biologically-relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, and one-carbon metabolism), resulted in a 27% increase risk for breast cancer [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.70, 2.29]. However, the CI was wide. Conclusions Based on results from the semi-Bayesian model, breast cancer risk may be influenced jointly by flavonoid intake and genes involved in DNA repair, but our findings require confirmation. PMID:24281852

  13. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  14. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  15. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  16. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  17. Global assessment of select phytonutrient intakes by level of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Spungen, Judith H; Herman, Dena R; Randolph, R Keith

    2014-09-28

    Despite dietary recommendations that have repeatedly underscored the importance of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, intakes worldwide are lower than recommended levels. Consequently, the diets of many individuals may be lacking in nutrients and phytonutrients typical of a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we estimated phytonutrient intakes by adults categorised by sex, level of fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 v. ≥ 5 servings/d), and geographic diet cluster. Intakes of nine select phytonutrients were estimated from the 2002-4 World Health Survey fruit and vegetable servings intake data (n 198,637), the FAO supply utilisation accounts data, and phytonutrient concentration data obtained from the US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature. Percentage contributions to each phytonutrient intake from fruit and vegetable sources were also estimated. Estimated intakes of phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables varied across the thirteen geographic diet clusters, reflecting regional differences in both numbers and proportions of fruit and vegetable servings consumed, and the specific types of fruits and vegetables available in the diet. The mean phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables were approximately 2- to 6-fold the mean phytonutrient intakes by adults with low fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 servings/d). In some cases, phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables in one geographic diet cluster were lower than the intakes by adults reporting < 5 servings/d in another cluster. The findings from this assessment provide important information regarding the major dietary patterns of phytonutrient intakes across geographic diet clusters. PMID:25108700

  18. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  19. Soy intake and urinary sex hormone levels in preschool Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Masue, Takako; Sahashi, Yukari; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2011-05-01

    The authors investigated whether soy intake is associated with sex steroid levels in Japanese children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were substantially healthy preschoolers, 230 boys and 198 girls, aged 3-6 years. Dietary data, including soy intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records. Each child's dietary intake was controlled for total energy intake using the Willett method (Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 1990:245-271). Urinary estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and 5-androstene-3β,17α diol levels measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and urinary dehydroepiandrosterone level measured with a radioimmunoassay, were adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. In the analysis of covariance for sex steroids after adjustments for age and body mass index, soy intake was significantly negatively related to estrone and estradiol in boys and positively related to testosterone and 5-androstene-3β,17α diol in girls. Isoflavone had a significant tendency to be negatively associated with estradiol in boys and to be positively associated with testosterone in girls. Total energy intake was not associated with any sex steroids in boys or girls. These results suggest that soy intake might affect the secretion or metabolism of sex steroids in childhood and that the effects might differ by sex. PMID:21427172

  20. Breaking down levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Bertolaso, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Understanding biological behaviours implies explaining the organization of living beings. Cancer compromises the normal structure and function of tissues, cells, and genes so that it appears as a multilevel phenomenon. The biology of cancer is thus giving us interesting insights on the organization of a biological system and its hierarchical phenomenology. My thesis is that understanding the dynamics of this biological system implies making explicit features of a non-univocal notion of organization and two different dimensions of the parts-whole dependence, i.e. different modes of causality in maintaining levels of organization. The argument follows the analysis of some features of the biology of cancer. Convergence of interpretative models towards an operational account of levels, i.e. through concepts that focus on the dynamic control of levels' organization, contributes to this analysis too. A multi-unity perspective replaces the parts-whole perspective to explain what conditions the hierarchical control of biological behaviours depends on and how that dependency works. PMID:24640420

  1. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  2. Inhalation and ingestion intakes with associated dose estimates for level II and level III personnel using Capstone study data.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Lodde, Gordon M; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Daxon, Eric G

    2009-03-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) intake rates and subsequent dose rates were estimated for personnel entering armored combat vehicles perforated with DU penetrators (level II and level III personnel) using data generated during the Capstone DU Aerosol Study. Inhalation intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cascade impactors worn by sample recovery personnel and from cascade impactors that served as area monitors. Ingestion intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cotton gloves worn by sample recovery personnel and from wipe-tests samples from the interior of vehicles perforated with large-caliber DU munitions. The mean DU inhalation intake rate for level II personnel ranged from 0.447 mg h(-1) based on breathing zone monitor data (in and around a perforated vehicle) to 14.5 mg h(-1) based on area monitor data (in a perforated vehicle). The mean DU ingestion intake rate for level II ranged from 4.8 mg h(-1) to 38.9 mg h(-1) based on the wipe-tests data including surface-to-glove transfer factors derived from the Capstone data. Based on glove contamination data, the mean DU ingestion intake rates for level II and level III personnel were 10.6 mg h(-1) and 1.78 mg h(-1), respectively. Effective dose rates and peak kidney uranium concentration rates were calculated based on the intake rates. The peak kidney uranium concentration rate cannot be multiplied by the total exposure duration when multiple intakes occur because uranium will clear from the kidney between the exposures. PMID:19204492

  3. Inhalation and Ingestion Intakes with Associated Dose Estimates for Level II and Level III Personnel Using Capstone Study Data

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Lodde, Gordon M.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Daxon, Eric G.

    2009-03-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) intake rates and subsequent dose rates were estimated for personnel entering armored combat vehicles perforated with DU penetrators (level II and level III personnel) using data generated during the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. Inhalation intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cascade impactors worn by sample recovery personnel and from cascade impactors that served as area monitors. Ingestion intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cotton gloves worn by sample recovery personnel and from wipe test samples from the interior of vehicles perforated with large caliber DU munitions. The mean DU inhalation intake rate for level II personnel ranged from 0.447 mg h-1 based on breathing zone monitor data (in and around a perforated vehicle) to 14.5 mg h-1 based on area monitor data (in a perforated vehicle). The mean DU ingestion intake rate for level II ranged from 4.8 mg h-1 to 38.9 mg h-1 based on the wipe test data including surface to glove transfer factors derived from the Capstone data. Based on glove contamination data, the mean DU ingestion intake rates for level II and level III personnel were 10.6 mg h-1 was and 1.78 mg h-1, respectively. Effective dose rates and peak kidney uranium concentration rates were calculated based on the intake rates. The peak kidney uranium concentration rate cannot be multiplied by the total exposure duration when multiple intakes occur because uranium will clear from the kidney between the exposures.

  4. Nuffield A-level Biological Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.; Dowdeswell, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives, intended outcomes, subject matter content, and methods of examining practical and theoretical work in Nuffield A-level biology. Outlines rationale for the organization of the materials produced, justifies using compulsory investigative student projects, suggests procedures for introducing the course and lists relevant…

  5. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  6. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  7. Recording of fluid, beverage and water intakes at the population level in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan; Le Bellego, Laurent; König, Jürgen; Piekarz, Ana; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Tennant, David R

    2016-08-01

    The European Food Safety Authority's 2010 scientific opinion on dietary reference values for total water intakes was partly based on observed intakes in population groups. Large variability was observed, and it is unlikely that these differences can be explained by differences in climate, activity level and/or culture. This suggests that there are uncertainties in the methodologies used to assess water intake from food and fluids, including all types of beverages. To determine current methods for recording and reporting total water, beverages and fluid intakes, twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In total, twelve countries responded and ten completed surveys were summarised. Countries reported that their survey was representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status. However, a variety of methods were used - that is, repeated 24-h recalls, estimated food diaries and FFQ. None of the methods were validated to assess water and fluid intakes. The methods used to record liquid foods - for example, soup and diluted drinks - were inconsistent. Clarity and consistency on definitions of categories of beverages to facilitate comparisons between countries are needed. Recommendations for a unified approach to surveying and quantifying intake of water from fluids and foods are proposed. PMID:27326891

  8. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  9. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  10. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization. PMID:26936644

  11. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  12. Perspectives and progress on upper levels of intake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine L; Meyers, Linda D

    2012-12-01

    In the US, recognition of the appropriateness of including an upper level of intake estimate among reference values for nutrient substances was made in 1994 when the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) specified the inclusion of an "upper safe" level among its proposed reference points for intake of nutrients and food components. By 1998, a group convened by the IOM had established a risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients, eventually termed the tolerable upper intake levels (UL). A risk assessment framework (i.e., a scientific undertaking intended to characterize the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from human exposure to agents in the environment), as developed in other fields of study, was a logical fit for application to nutrients. But importantly, whereas risk assessment requires that information be organized in specific ways, it does not require specific scientific evaluation methods. Rather, it makes transparent and documents the decision-making that occurs given the available data and the related uncertainties. During the 1990s and beyond, the various IOM committees charged with developing UL for a range of nutrients utilized the risk assessment framework, making modifications and adjustments as dictated by the data. This experience informed the general organizational process for establishing UL but also underscored the dearth of data. For many reasons, undertaking scientific research and obtaining data about the effects of excessive intake have been challenging. It is time to consider creative and focused strategies for modeling, simulating, and otherwise studying the effects of excessive intake of nutrient substances. PMID:23077188

  13. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Background/objectives Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium. PMID:22952457

  14. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk

  15. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control. PMID:26037633

  16. Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients. PMID:25470614

  17. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  18. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  19. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  20. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  1. Intranasal Insulin Suppresses Food Intake via Enhancement of Brain Energy Levels in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Friedrich, Alexia; Rezmer, Magdalena; Melchert, Uwe H.; G. Scholand-Engler, Harald; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo–controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ± 0.37 kg/m2) aged 22–28 years were intranasally administered insulin (40 IU) or placebo after an overnight fast. Cerebral energy metabolism was assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At 100 min after spray administration, participants consumed ad libitum from a test buffet. Our data show that intranasal insulin increases brain energy (i.e., adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine levels). Cerebral energy content correlates inversely with subsequent calorie intake in the control condition. Moreover, the neuroenergetic rise upon insulin administration correlates with the consecutive reduction in free-choice calorie consumption. Brain energy levels may therefore constitute a predictive value for food intake. Given that the brain synchronizes food intake behavior in dependence of its current energetic status, a future challenge in obesity treatment may be to therapeutically influence cerebral energy homeostasis. Intranasal insulin, after optimizing its application schema, seems a promising option in this regard. PMID:22586589

  2. Phytoestrogens in soy-based infant foods: concentrations, daily intake, and possible biological effects.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-03-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially available soy-based infant formulas, infant cereals, dinners, and rusks. We also assayed phytoestrogens in dairy-based formulas and in breast milk from omnivorous or vegetarian mothers. In most cases, the glucoside forms of the phytoestrogens were hydrolyzed before separation by HPLC. Mean (+/-SEM) total genistein and daidzein contents in four soy infant formulas were 87+/-3 and 49+/-2 microg/g, respectively. The phytoestrogen content of cereals varied with brand, with genistein ranging from 3-287 microg/g and daidzein from 2-276 microg/g. By contrast, no phytoestrogens were detected in dairy-based infant formulas or in human breast milk, irrespective of the mother's diet (detection limit = 0.05 microg/ml). When fed according to the manufacturer's instruction, soy formulas provide the infant with a daily dose rate of total isoflavones (i.e., genistein + daidzein) of approximately 3 mg/kg body weight, which is maintained at a fairly constant level between 0-4 months of age. Supplementing the diet of 4-month-old infants with a single daily serving of cereal can increase their isoflavone intake by over 25%, depending on the brand chosen. This rate of isoflavone intake is much greater than that shown in adult humans to alter reproductive hormones. Since the available evidence suggests that infants can digest and absorb dietary phytoestrogens in active forms and since neonates are generally more susceptible than adults to perturbations of the sex steroid milieu, we suggest that it would be highly desirable to study the effects of soy isoflavones on steroid-dependent developmental processes in human babies. PMID

  3. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake and urinary levels of prostaglandin E₂ metabolite in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Rimando, Joseph; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory mediator that plays key roles in promoting tumor development and progression. Urinary concentration of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) has been recently proposed as a promising cancer biomarker. Using dietary intake data from 600 postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years, we examined cross-sectional relationships between fruit and vegetable intake and urinary levels of PGE-M, determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, increasing consumption of fruits, but not vegetables, was associated with reduced levels of urinary PGE-M (P for linear trend = 0.02), with geometric means of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.2-6.6] in the lowest quintile versus 4.8 (95% CI: 4.3-5.4) in the highest quintile (Q5) of fruit consumption. A better quality diet, indicated by higher scores on the Healthy Eating Index, was also associated with decreased PGE-M (P for linear trend <0.01). The lack of association with vegetable intake may be related to variation in antioxidant capacities of the major dietary sources of fruits and vegetables for the study participants. Our findings suggest that urinary PGE-M may be modifiable by a healthy diet that follows current national dietary guideline. Further studies are warranted to assess potential utility of urinary PGE-M in assessing cancer prevention efficacy. PMID:25811232

  5. Rats with spontaneous high level of NaCl intake have hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Belló, A A; Covian, M R

    1991-11-01

    The thyroid function was studied by means of a comparison between rats that drank daily less than 2 mEq of a NaCl solution (control) and rats that spontaneously drank daily above 4 mEq of this solution (0.25 M), which is considered aversive to rats. It was found that, in these rats, the protein-bound iodine (PBI-127) and the radioactive iodine uptake (I-131) were less than in the control rats, in spite of similar thyroid weight. It seems, therefore, that the rats that drank high levels of the aversive salt solution have hypothyroidism. This finding shows another link between the thyroid gland and NaCl intake. These data have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments in which NaCl intake is studied. PMID:1805272

  6. Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jamie I.; Kim, Il-Young; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia. Several studies have identified protein (especially the essential amino acids) as a key nutrient for muscle health in elderly adults. Elderly adults are less responsive to the anabolic stimulus of low doses of amino acid intake compared to younger individuals. However, this lack of responsiveness in elderly adults can be overcome with higher levels of protein (or essential amino acid) consumption. The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults. PMID:27338461

  7. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, B; Predojević, Z

    2008-05-01

    Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

  9. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk. PMID:27085960

  10. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. PMID:24095201

  11. Explaining fruit and vegetable consumption: the theory of planned behaviour and misconception of personal intake levels.

    PubMed

    Bogers, R P; Brug, J; van Assema, P; Dagnelie, P C

    2004-04-01

    The influence of individuals' misconceptions in assessing fruit and vegetable consumption on the ability of the theory of planned behaviour to explain variance in the consumption of these foods was studied. Dutch women (mean age 41, n=159) completed a questionnaire assessing the theory's constructs with regard to the daily consumption of at least two pieces of fruit and 200 gram of vegetables. Consumption was assessed using a self-rated measure and more objectively with a food-frequency questionnaire. Both measures were combined to classify participants according to the accuracy of their self-assessed intake levels ('realists' vs. 'overestimators'). The model explained variation in objective fruit and vegetable intake much better among realists (R2 = 45% for fruits and 39% for vegetables) than among overestimators (R2 = 18% and 5%, respectively). Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intentions and behaviour. When plasma vitamin C and carotenoid concentrations were used as objective indicators for fruit and vegetable intake, the explanatory value of the model was lower, but again more variance was explained among realists than among overestimators. We conclude that awareness of personal behaviour should be taken into account when applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain dietary behaviours as well as to design health education interventions. PMID:15010180

  12. Con: Reducing salt intake at the population level: is it really a public health priority?

    PubMed

    Graudal, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Scientific evidence to support the recommended salt intake of < 5.8 g/day is virtually non-existingent. There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of salt reduction (SR) below 5.8 g on health outcomes. The effect of SR on blood pressure (BP) reaches maximal efficacy at 1 week. RCTs in healthy individuals lasting at least 1 week show that the effect of SR on BP is <1 mmHg, but that SR has significant side effects, including increases in renin, aldosterone, noradrenalin, adrenalin, cholesterol and triglyceride. Still, disregarding confounders and side effects, health authorities use BP effects obtained in studies of pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to recommend SR in the healthy population and use these biased BP effects in statistical models indirectly to project millions of saved lives. These fantasy projections are in contrast to real data from prospective observational population studies directly associating salt intake with mortality, which show that salt intake <5.8 g/day is associated with an increased mortality of ∼15%. The population studies also show that a very high salt intake >12.2 g is associated with increased mortality. However, since <5% of populations consume such high amounts of salt, SR at the population level should not be a public health priority. Consequently, this policy should be abolished, not because any attempt to implement it has failed, and not because it costs taxpayers and food consumers unnecessary billions of dollars, but because-if implemented-it might kill people instead of saving them. PMID:27488354

  13. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  14. Dietary Intake Estimates and Urinary Cadmium Levels in Danish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Levine, Keith; McElroy, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Harrington, James M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a known carcinogen that can disrupt endocrine signalling. Cigarette smoking and food are the most common routes of non-occupational exposure to cadmium. Cadmium accumulates in the kidney and can be measured in urine, making urine cadmium (U-Cd) a biomarker of long-term exposure. However dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake estimates are often used as surrogate indicator of cadmium exposure in non-smoking subjects. It is therefore important to investigate the concordance between D-Cd estimates obtained with Food Frequency Questionnaires and U-Cd. Methods U-Cd levels were compared with estimated dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake in 1764 post-menopausal women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. For each participant, a food frequency questionnaire, and measures of cadmium content in standard recipes were used to judge the daily intake of cadmium, normalized by daily caloric intake. Cadmium was measured by ICP-MS in spot urine sampled at baseline and normalized by urinary creatinine. Information on diet, socio-demographics and smoking were self-reported at baseline. Results Linear regressions between U-Cd and D-Cd alone revealed minimal but significant positive correlation in never smokers (R2 = 0.0076, β = 1.5% increase per 1 ng Cd kcal-1, p = 0.0085, n = 782), and negative correlation in current smokers (R2 = 0.0184, β = 7.1% decrease per 1 ng Cd kcal-1 change, p = 0.0006, n = 584). In the full study population, most of the variability in U-Cd was explained by smoking status (R2 = 0.2450, n = 1764). A forward selection model revealed that the strongest predictors of U-Cd were age in never smokers (Δ R2 = 0.04), smoking duration in former smokers (Δ R2 = 0.06) and pack-years in current smokers (Δ R2 = 0.07). Food items that contributed to U-Cd were leafy vegetables and soy-based products, but explained very little of the variance in U-Cd. Conclusions Dietary-Cd intake estimated from food frequency questionnaires correlates only minimally

  15. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  16. Intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients in the Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Chang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ien-Lan; Kao, Mei-Ding; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine dietary intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients for the Taiwanese elderly in order to relate nutrient intakes to food choices and to provide suggestions for dietary improvement. The data were derived from the 24-hour recalls from 1,911 subjects (955 males and 956 females) aged 65 and above, who participated in the Elderly NAHSIT carried out from 1999 to 2000. The differences in food consumption patterns between the elderly and younger adults (aged 19 to 64) were also evaluated by comparison with data obtained from NAHSIT 1993-1996. The results revealed that cereals/roots, meat, other protein-rich foods and fats/oils contributed most to daily energy intake. The energy contributions from fats/oils, poultry, meat, other protein-rich foods, refreshments/snacks, alcoholic beverages, and miscellaneous food groups were lower in elderly diets compared with those of younger adults. Meat and cereals/roots were the major food sources of protein. The main carbohydrate-contributing food group was cereals/roots, while primary lipid sources were meat and fats/oils for the elderly. The food groups with a high contribution to vitamin intake were the following: vegetables for vitamin A; meat and cereals/roots for vitamin B1; dairy products, vegetables, cereals/roots and meat for vitamin B2; cereals/roots, seafood and meat for niacin; meat, vegetables and cereals/roots for vitamin B6; plant oils for vitamin E; and vegetables and fruit for vitamin C. The highest ranked food sources for minerals are listed as follows: dairy products, vegetables and seafood for calcium; dairy products and cereals/roots for phosphorous; vegetables and meat for iron; and vegetables, cereals/ roots, other protein-rich foods and seafood for magnesium. The elderly were found to consume more salt, dairy products and vegetables, but less poultry and meat than their younger counterparts. In summary, differences in consumption patterns between the

  17. Constant light induces alterations in melatonin levels, food intake, feed efficiency, visceral adiposity, and circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Cyrilla H; Murphy, Helen M

    2009-10-01

    Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water intake, circadian activity levels, and behavior. LL animals had lower melatonin levels in the subjective dark compared to LD and DD animals. Food intake, relative food intake, and water intake values were lower and feed efficiency was more positive in LL animals compared to LD and DD animals. In addition, LL animals exhibited greater visceral adiposity than the other two groups. The circadian rhythmicity of activity became free-running in LL animals and there was a decrease in overall activity. Notable behavioral changes in LL animals were an increase in irritability and excitability. Results indicate that a decrease in melatonin levels and concomitant changes in metabolism, circadian rhythms, and behavior are consequences of exposure to constant light. PMID:19761654

  18. Is "Levels of Organization" a Useful Biological Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Burton S.

    1976-01-01

    Cites numerous examples of exceptions to rules which define levels of organization in the biological sciences. Advocates deemphasizing the teaching of the concept of levels of organization because of the ambiguity of the definitions. (CP)

  19. Asymmetry at the molecular level in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    2005-10-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are made of homochiral building blocks. Proteins are composed of L-amino acids (and not D-amino acids); nucleic acids such as DNA have D-ribose sugars (and not L-ribose sugars). It is not clear why nature selected a particular chirality. Selection could have occurred by chance or as a consequence of basic physical chemistry. Possible proposals, including the contribution of the parity violating the weak nuclear force, are discussed together with the mechanisms by which this very small contribution might be amplified. Homochirality of the amino acids has consequences for protein structure. Helices are right handed and beta sheets have a left-hand twist. When incorporated into the tertiary structure of a protein these chiralities limit the topologies of connections between helices and sheets. Polypeptides comprised of D-amino acids can be synthesized chemically and have been shown to adopt stable structures that are the mirror image of the naturally occurring L-amino acid polypeptides. Chirality is important in drug design. Three examples are discussed: penicillin; the CD4 antagonistic peptides; and thalidomide. The absolute hand of a biological structure can only be established by X-ray crystallographic methods using the technique of anomalous scattering.

  20. Peripheral Signals of Food Intake in Response to Low Leptin Levels Induced by Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Wade, Charles E.; Stein, T. P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance, following hypergravity. The study was conducted in two experiments. In experiment 1 rats were centrifuged at either 1.5, 2, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14 of experiment 1, mean body mass of the 1.5 and 2 G groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower than controls. No differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass). Epididymal fat in the 2 G group was 21% lower than controls and 14% lower than the 1.5 G group. Plasma leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.5 and 2 G groups by 45 and 63%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between G load and urinary catecholamines. In experiment 2, rats were centrifuged at either 1.25, 1.5, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14, body mass and food intake were similar between the 1, 1.25, and 1.5 G groups. Epididymal fat was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (14%) and 1.5 (19%) G groups. Leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (45%) and 1.5 (46%) G groups. No differences were found in urinary epinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine levels were significantly higher than controls in each centrifuge group. During hypergravity exposure, food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  1. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Pike, Malcolm C; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G

    2010-02-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach US incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the breast cancer incidence rates observed among Asian migrants to the United States. Study subjects in this population-based case-control study included 597 incident cases of breast cancer of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino ethnicity living in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles, and Oahu, Hawaii, and 966 population controls frequency matched on age, ethnicity, and area of residence. The fraction of smokers and drinkers was significantly higher in women born in Western compared with Eastern countries. However, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9-1.6) or alcohol drinking (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1) in this population of low consumers of alcohol (median intake among drinkers in grams per day was 0.48 for cases and 0.40 for controls). These data suggest that low alcohol intake is not related to increased breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and that neither alcohol nor cigarette use contributed to the elevated risks in Asian-American women associated with migration patterns and Westernization. PMID:19597702

  2. Polyphenol levels in human urine after intake of six different polyphenol-rich beverages.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideyuki; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Mennen, Louise; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2005-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested to participate in the prevention of CVD and cancer. It is essential for epidemiological studies to be able to compare intake of the main dietary polyphenols in populations. The present paper describes a fast method suitable for the analysis of polyphenols in urine, selected as potential biomarkers of intake. This method is applied to the estimation of polyphenol recovery after ingestion of six different polyphenol-rich beverages. Fifteen polyphenols including mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), several phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, m-coumaric, gallic, and 4-O-methylgallic acids), phloretin and various flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringenin) were simultaneously quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionisation mass-MS (HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) with a run time of 6 min per sample. The method has been validated with regard to linearity, precision, and accuracy in intra- and inter-day assays. It was applied to urine samples collected from nine volunteers in the 24 h following consumption of either green tea, a grape-skin extract, cocoa beverage, coffee, grapefruit juice or orange juice. Levels of urinary excretion suggest that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin, naringenin or hesperetin could be used as specific biomarkers to evaluate the consumption of coffee, wine, tea or cocoa, and citrus juices respectively. PMID:16197573

  3. Dietary Oily Fish Intake and Blood Pressure Levels: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Castillo, Pablo R; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fish consumption on blood pressure is controversial. The authors measured blood pressure and calculated oily fish servings per week in 677 community-dwellers aged 40 years and older living in rural coastal Ecuador. Using regression models with linear splines, the authors evaluated whether dietary fish intake was related to blood pressure levels, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean oily fish consumption was 9.1±5.6 servings per week. There was a nonlinear relationship between systolic pressure and fish servings. In the group of individuals consuming up to five servings per week, each serving significantly reduced systolic pressure by 2.3 mm Hg (P=.020). Any extra serving provided no further effects. The study shows an inverse relationship between oily fish consumption and systolic pressure. Currently recommended amounts of dietary oily fish intake per week (1-2 servings) might be insufficient to exert beneficial effects of fish in the control of blood pressure. PMID:26395549

  4. Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, S; Sonestedt, E; Ericson, U; Gullberg, B; Wirfält, E; Hedblad, B; Orho-Melander, M

    2012-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the FA desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with LDL, HDL, and triglyceride concentrations. Because FADS converts α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid into PUFAs, we investigated the interaction between different PUFA intakes and the FADS polymorphism rs174547 (T>C) on fasting blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. We included 4,635 individuals (60% females, 45-68 years) from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed by a modified diet history method including 7-day registration of cooked meals. The C-allele of rs174547 was associated with lower LDL concentration (P = 0.03). We observed significant interaction between rs174547 and long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes on LDL (P = 0.01); the C-allele was only associated with lower LDL among individuals in the lowest tertile of long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes (P < 0.001). In addition, significant interaction was observed between rs174547 and the ratio of ALA and linoleic FA intakes on HDL (P = 0.03). However, no significant associations between the C-allele and HDL were detected within the intake tertiles of the ratio. Our findings suggest that dietary intake levels of different PUFAs modify the associated effect of genetic variation in FADS on LDL and HDL. PMID:22451038

  5. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  6. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of ‘biological relativity’ and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  7. Elevated plasma leptin levels of fasted rainbow trout decrease rapidly in response to feed intake.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Marcus; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2015-04-01

    Leptin has an anorexigenic effect in fish, indicating a role in regulation of growth and energy homeostasis. The study aimed to further clarify the physiological role of leptin in rainbow trout, specifically its short-term response to feed intake after a period of fasting. Utilizing a salmonid leptin radioimmunoassay, the study demonstrates differences in plasma leptin levels in fishes with different nutritional status and at the onset of feeding. Some of the fasted fish were clearly in a state of anorexia, and did not initiate feeding during the 72h refeeding period. For those fish that did initiate feeding, both previously fed and fasted, plasma leptin levels rapidly decreased during the first 24h in correlation with increased amount of food reaching the gastrointestinal tract, while non-feeding individuals retained a high plasma leptin levels. The data indicate that the leptin-induced anorexic state is broken after onset of feeding and that the regulatory mechanisms leading to decreased plasma leptin levels are linked to nutrient levels. PMID:25745812

  8. Kant on biological teleology: Towards a two-level interpretation.

    PubMed

    Quarfood, Marcel

    2006-12-01

    According to Kant's Critique of the power of judgment, teleological considerations are unavoidable for conceptualizing organisms. Does this mean that teleology is more than merely heuristic? Kant stresses the regulative status of teleological attributions, but sometimes he seems to treat teleology as a constitutive condition for biology. To clarify this issue, the concept of natural purpose and its role for biology are examined. I suggest that the concept serves an identificatory function: it singles out objects as natural purposes, whereby the special science of biology is constituted. This relative constitutivity of teleology is explicated by means of a distinction of levels: on the object level of biological science, teleology is taken as constitutive, though it is merely regulative on the philosophical meta level. This distinction also concerns the place of Aristotelian teleology in Kant: on the object level, the Aristotelian view is accepted, whereas on the meta level, an agnostic stance is taken concerning teleology. PMID:17157769

  9. The Second-Level Biology Course: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisenherz, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies from the literature some of the diverse roles that second-level biology courses serve within a school curriculum, discussing factors that may explain the current status of these courses. Course types include college preparatory, minicourses, biologic techniques, societal issues, career awareness, and courses for terminal students. (JM)

  10. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%. PMID:15206611

  11. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation. PMID:22766005

  12. Changes in sleep, food intake, and activity levels during acute painful episodes in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn; Beyer, Judith E; Treadwell, Marsha; Styles, Lori

    2006-02-01

    As part of a larger study that examined pain experience, pain management, and pain outcomes among children with sickle cell disease, functional status (sleep, food intake, and activity levels) was examined during hospitalization for acute painful episodes. Children were asked to rate the amount of pain they experienced as well as the amount of time they slept, the amount of food they ate, and the amount of activity they had everyday. Children reported high levels of pain, which showed only a small decrease throughout hospitalization, and had disrupted sleep and wake patterns, decreased food intake, and decreased activity levels. Nurses need to routinely monitor functional status during acute painful episodes so that strategies to promote adequate sleep, food intake, and activity may be incorporated to minimize long-term negative outcomes in children with sickle cell disease. PMID:16428011

  13. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  14. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  15. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  16. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  17. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  18. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  19. Evaluation of models for developing biological input for the design and location of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    An approach for assessing multiple stimulus/response relations between fish and water intake structures is presented in this report. The approach stresses stimulus/response relations influencing fish and shellfish distribution and is made up of two methods. The first places emphasis on spatial and temperal distributions of populations; information is presented in the form of a non-predictive model, which allows for organizing information and documenting review processes. The second approach encompasses functional relationships between environmental and biological stimuli and responses of organisms. By using the two methods together, functional relationships can be evaluated to define the distribution of a fish or shellfish species. This information can then be used to resolve questions relating to impingement and entrainment.

  20. Effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization by Alpine dairy goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six lactating Alpine does were used to determine effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization. Twelve does were assigned to measurement periods in early, mid-, and late lactation (wk 5, 13, and 27, respectively). For six does of each group, after ad libitum c...

  1. EFFECT OF INITIAL BODY CONDITION OF BOER X SPANISH YEARLING WETHERS AND LEVEL OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON BODY COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...

  2. Fate of dietary cadmium at two intake levels in the odonate nymph, Aeshna canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.A.; Lasenby, D.C.; Evans, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    While it is known that Cadmium (Cd) is concentrated from the water to the tissues of aquatic biota through respiration and surface adsorption, the role of food in the uptake of Cd is not well understood, and current evidence is contradictory. In study the flux of dietary Cd through aquatic invertebrates, it has been repeatedly noted that the Cd concentration of faecal pellets is much greater than that of the food source. This seems to indicate that the majority of dietary Cd is subsequently egested, and that food is therefore not an important source of Cd accumulation. In the present study the authors monitored the flux of dietary Cd using the mass balance technique with the dragonfly nymph (Aeshna canadensis). The use of a predatory test organism eliminates the problem of the predator selecting food of high C4 concentration, as the animals are fed discrete, quantifiable prey items of known metal concentration. Faeces of predatory invertebrates are generally excreted in the form of compact pellets facilitating chemicals analysis of determination of metal egestion. Nymphs were first fed rations of a Cd concentration typical of prey items found in relatively unpolluted waters, and were then exposed to a Cd-enriched diet to determine if a change in metal flux and body accumulation occurred at elevated levels of dietary intake.

  3. Consumption of calcium in the U.S.: food sources and intake levels.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K H; Heimbach, J T

    1994-08-01

    Calcium intake is one of a number of factors that affect peak bone mass. Low bone mass is related to increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Data from the USDA 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey were used to determine populations most at risk of less than optimal calcium intake and food sources of calcium intake. Mean per capita daily consumption of calcium for the total U.S. population was 737 mg and varied by region of the country, household income, ethnic group, sex, and age. For most groups of females, intake was substantially less than the RDA. About 50% of total dietary calcium was supplied by milk and milk products. Milk and cheese used as ingredients in meat, grain, and vegetable mixtures contributed another 20% of dietary calcium. The remaining 30% of calcium was provided by grains and grain products, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds. PMID:8064396

  4. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  5. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  7. Dietary intake of Zinc, serum levels of Zinc and risk of gastric cancer: A review of studies

    PubMed Central

    Khayyatzadeh, Sayyed Saeid; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Foroughi, Mahdi; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is considered as most fourth common cancer in the world. Findings from animal, experimental and epidemiologic studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of stomach cancer. Among dietary factors, Zinc status has received great attention in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to review the association of serum levels of Zinc, dietary intake of Zinc and GC risk. A complete search was performed about the association of Zinc status and risk of GC was in databases electronic through such as ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, IrMedx and SID. Our results of current review suggest that dietary intake of Zinc and serum levels of Zinc are lower in GC patient. In other word, high serum levels of Zinc may be protective in GC risk. However, it seems further studies in particular epidemiological studies with large scale setting are required to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:26261820

  8. Towards an upper level ontology for molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; Wermter, Joachim; Hahn, Udo

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing need for the general-purpose description of the basic conceptual entities in the life sciences. Up until now, upper level models have mainly been purpose-driven, such as the GENIA ontology, originally devised as a vocabulary for corpus annotation. As an alternative,we here present BioTop, a description-logic-based top level ontology for molecular biology, which we consider as an ontologically conscious redesign of the GENIA ontology. PMID:17238430

  9. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  10. Teaching information literacy skills to sophomore-level biology majors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-05-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner. PMID:25949754

  11. Teaching Information Literacy Skills to Sophomore-Level Biology Majors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university’s databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner. PMID:25949754

  12. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers.

  13. An intermediate-level course on Biological Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Phil

    2004-03-01

    I describe both undergraduate and graduate 1-semester courses designed to give a survey of Biological Physics. The courses cover classical as well as recent topics. The undergraduate version requires calculus-based first-year physics as its prerequisite. With this level of assumed background, we can arrive at topics such as molecular motors, manipulation of single molecules, and the propagation of nerve impulses. Students majoring in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, and every engineering major (as well as a few in biology), end up taking this course. The graduate course covers the same material but includes exercises with symbolic mathematics packages and data modeling.

  14. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  15. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio and intake level on utilization of early vegetative alfalfa silage by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Lamas, G; Combs, D K

    1991-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure the effects of intake and forage: grain ratio on utilization of early maturity alfalfa silage in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, diets with three forage: concentrate ratios (percentage of silage, percentage NDF): low (56, 28.3), medium (71, 31.0), or high (86, 33.4) were fed ad libitum to six lactating, ruminally cannulated cows in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. The same diets were then fed at 1.3 x maintenance intake to six gestating dry cows. Dairy milk yield and percentage and yield of milk protein and casein were higher for cows fed the low silage diet than for cows receiving other treatments. Fat percentage and yield were not different among diets. Lactating cows consumed more DM on low silage (23.0 kg/d) than on medium or high silage diets (21.4 kg), but NDF intake as percentage of BW was higher for the high silage diet. Digestibility of DM in the lactating (70.7, 69.9, and 67.5% for low, medium, and high) and dry cows (76.7, 73.5, and 69.0%, respectively) decreased as the level of silage increased. Depression in digestibility was greater as dietary concentrate increased. Cows fed the high silage diet had a faster fractional passage rate of solids and higher rumen fill. Digestion of concentrate cell walls appeared to be depressed more than alfalfa cell walls as intake increased. PMID:1646242

  16. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  17. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type. PMID:25198797

  18. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  19. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  20. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  1. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area. PMID:26991380

  2. Differences in hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide in the general population with respect to dietary intake, smoking habits and gender.

    PubMed

    Hagmar, Lars; Wirfält, Elisabet; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2005-02-01

    The variation in dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) has been studied through measurement of hemoglobin adduct levels from AA, as a measurement of internal dose, in a sample from the blood bank of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort (n=28,098). The blood donors are well characterised with regard to their food habits, and 142 individuals were selected to obtain highest possible variation in the adduct levels from AA (none, random or high intake of coffee, fried potato, crisp bread and snacks, food items estimated to have high levels of AA). Among 70 non-smokers the AA-adduct levels varied by a factor of 5, and ranged between 0.02 and 0.1 nmol/g, with considerable overlap in AA-adduct levels between the different dietary groups. There was a significant difference between men with high dietary exposure to AA compared to men with low dietary exposure (P=0.04). No such difference was found for women. As expected a higher level (range: 0.03-0.43 nmol/g) of the AA-adduct, due to AA in tobacco smoke, was found in smokers. Smoking women with high dietary exposure to AA had significantly higher AA-adduct levels compared to smoking women with low dietary exposure (P=0.01). No such significant difference was found in smoking men. The median hemoglobin (Hb) adduct level in the randomly selected group of non-smokers was compatible with earlier studies (0.031 nmol/g). The variation in the average internal dose, measured as Hb adducts, was somewhat smaller than estimated for daily intake by food consumption questionnaires in other studies. Thus, the observed relatively narrow inter-individual variation in AA-adduct levels means that estimates of individual dietary AA intake have to be very precise if they should be useful in future cancer epidemiology. PMID:15668117

  3. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  4. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students' perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest…

  5. Vitamin D intake, serum Vitamin D levels, and risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khayatzadeh, Saeid; Feizi, Awat; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: We are aware of no systematic review or meta-analysis of published findings about the association between Vitamin D status and risk of gastric cancer (GC). We systematically reviewed the current evidence on the association between Vitamin D intake as well as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and risk of GC. Materials and Methods: Published evidence in this area was searched to August 2014 through the use of ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Ovid Database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for relevant articles by cross-referencing. Seven articles had reported odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RR) as their effect size; four papers had reported the ORs between Vitamin D intake and GC; and three papers had reported the association between serum 25(OH)D and risk of GC. Results: Pooled effect size for comparison of highest versus lowest intakes of Vitamin D was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.25; P = 0.26) indicating no significant association between Vitamin D intake and risk of GC. We failed to find a significant association between serum Vitamin D levels and risk of GC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.74-1.14; P = 0.429). Among men, the pooled effect size or highest versus lowest category of serum Vitamin D levels was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.18, P = 0.49). The corresponding figures in women were 1.04 and 95% CI: 0.74-1.47 (P = 0.80). Conclusion: We found no evidence for the significant association between Vitamin D status and risk of GC. However, due to limited data in this field, further studies are required to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:26664428

  6. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  7. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    PubMed

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  8. Thiamin intakes and erythrocyte thiamin levels in eleven-year-old children in the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuyzen, J; Steyn, N P; Icke, G C; Davis, R E

    1988-07-01

    Dietary intake of thiamin has been evaluated in a series of 615 eleven-year-old children in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Thiamin intakes, determined by 24-hour recall and local food composition tables, were highest in rural white children (boys 1.49 mg/day, girls 1.11 mg), followed by rural black (Xhosa) children (1.33, 1.15 mg), and lowest in rural (1.18, 1.11 mg) and urban coloured (Euro-African-Malay) subjects (1.11, 0.85 mg). The group means exceeded WHO recommended daily intakes except for urban coloured girls. Thiamin nutritional status was determined by automated microbiological assay of thiamin in erythrocytes in a subsample of 69 children. One urban coloured child was thiamin deficient. The highest mean value (69.4 micrograms/l) was found in rural coloured children, followed by their urban counterparts (64.8 micrograms/l) and black rural children (63.6 micrograms/l). Rural white children had the lowest mean value (60.3 micrograms/l). In general, thiamin stores in these children appear to be adequate. PMID:3188211

  9. Influence of lasalocid level on forage intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, liquid flow and performance of beef cattle grazing winter range.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K A; Cochran, R C; Corah, L R; Avery, T B; Zoellner, K O; Higginbotham, J F

    1987-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of lasalocid level on performance, intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and fluid flow of beef cattle grazing dormant, tallgrass prairie. In Exp. 1, 120 pregnant, mature beef cows of primarily Hereford breeding (avg wt = 471 kg) were randomly assigned to received 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg lasalocid X head-1 X d-1 in 1.82 kg supplement. Weight changes at 30, 60 or 90 d, condition score change and calf birth weight were not affected (P greater than .10) by lasalocid level. In Exp. 2, estimates of intake and digestibility were obtained with 40 pregnant, mature Hereford cows (avg wt = 474 kg) and 12 esophageal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 225 kg), using Yb and indigestible acid detergent fiber as markers for fecal output and digestibility, respectively. Levels of lasalocid provided to cows and steers were similar, on a body weight (BW) basis, to those in Exp. 1 and corresponded to approximately 0, .22, .44 or .66 mg lasalocid/kg BW. Total diet and forage organic matter digestibility for beef cows decreased (P less than .01) at the .22 mg/kg BW level, but increased at the .44 and .66 mg/kg BW levels. Organic matter intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by lasalocid addition. In Exp. 3, 16 ruminal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 227 kg) were given the same lasalocid dosages per kg BW as in Exp. 2, and were used to study the effects of lasalocid on ruminal fermentation and fluid flow characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667441

  10. Metals and PCB levels in some edible marine organisms from the Ionian Sea: dietary intake evaluation and risk for consumers.

    PubMed

    Giandomenico, Santina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Di Leo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of some metals (Cd, Cu, As, Hg, Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in edible marine organisms from different trophic levels and feeding behaviour like bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Chlamys glabra), gastropod molluscs (Hexaplex trunculus) and some commercial species of fish (Trachurus trachurus, Boops boops, Sarpa salpa and Gobius niger). These species were collected in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy), classified as 'Site of National Interest' established by National Law 426 (1998) and included in the 'National Environmental Remediation and Restoration Projects'. The aim of this work was to investigate contamination levels and public health risks, associated with consuming seafood harvested from these areas. Moreover, in this study, was also estimated the weekly intake in children and adults, both for metals and PCBs. In comparison with the permissible limits set by EC Regulations, Cd and Pb levels were over the limit in the H. trunculus (in all sampling stations) and in the fish T. trachurus respectively. PCBs were over the legal limit in all sampled species with the exception of M. galloprovincialis (station 1), C. glabra and the herbivorous fish S. salpa. In the fish T. trachurus, for example, the concentration of six target PCBs was about five times higher than the EC limit. The estimated intakes of those trace elements included in this study through seafood consumption by the population exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for Cd and Hg in the H. trunculus and T. trachurus, especially in children. Moreover, hazard quotience (HQ) for Hg and Cd was >1 in the children for T. trachurus and H. trunculus consumption. As regard non-dioxin-like PCB (NDL-PCB), the estimated intake were always above the 'provisional guidance value' (70 ng/kg body weight) Arnich et al. (Regul Toxicol Pharm 54

  11. Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone. PMID:26123777

  12. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  13. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents

  14. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  15. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  16. Pro: Reducing salt intake at population level: is it really a public health priority?

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2016-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake reduces blood pressure, stroke and other cardiovascular events, including chronic kidney disease, by as much as 23% (i.e. 1.25 million deaths worldwide). It is effective in both genders, any age, ethnic group, and in high-, medium- and low-income countries. Population salt reduction programmes are both feasible and effective (preventive imperative). Salt reduction programmes are cost-saving in all settings (high-, middle- and low-income countries) (economic imperative). Public health policies are powerful, rapid, equitable and cost-saving (political imperative). The important shift in public health has not occurred without obstinate opposition from organizations concerned primarily with the profits deriving from population high salt intake and less with public health benefits. A key component of the denial strategy is misinformation (with 'pseudo' controversies). In general, poor science has been used to create uncertainty and to support inaction. This paper summarizes the evidence in favour of a global salt reduction strategy and analyses the peddling of well-worn myths behind the false controversies. PMID:27488355

  17. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  18. ``Physical Concepts in Cell Biology,'' an upper level interdisciplinary course in cell biophysics/mathematical biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2009-03-01

    I will describe my experience in developing an interdisciplinary biophysics course addressed to students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level, in collaboration with colleagues in physics and biology. The students had a background in physics, biology and engineering, and for many the course was their first exposure to interdisciplinary topics. The course did not depend on a formal knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Instead, the approach was based on dynamics. I used diffusion as a universal ``long time'' law to illustrate scaling concepts. The importance of statistics and proper counting of states/paths was introduced by calculating the maximum accuracy with which bacteria can measure the concentration of diffuse chemicals. The use of quantitative concepts and methods was introduced through specific biological examples, focusing on model organisms and extremes at the cell level. Examples included microtubule dynamic instability, the search and capture model, molecular motor cooperativity in muscle cells, mitotic spindle oscillations in C. elegans, polymerization forces and propulsion of pathogenic bacteria, Brownian ratchets, bacterial cell division and MinD oscillations.

  19. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  20. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, P<.01) and moderately correlated with ORAC (r=0.34, P<.05). Pearson correlation analyses showed that plasma TAC values by VCEAC and ORAC had positive correlation with plasma uric acid (r=0.56 for VCEAC; r=0.49 for ORAC) and total phenolics (r=0.63 for VCEAC; r=0.36 for ORAC). However, TAC measured by FRAP was correlated only with uric acid (r=0.69). After multivariate adjustment, plasma TAC determined by VCEAC was positively associated with dietary intakes of γ-tocopherol (P<.001), β-carotene (P<.05), anthocyanidins (P<.05), flavones (P<.05), proanthocyanidins (P<.01) and TAC (P<.05), as well as with plasma total phenolics (P<.05), α-tocopherol (P<.001), β-cryptoxanthin (P<.05) and uric acid (P<.05). The findings indicate that plasma TAC measured by VCEAC reflects both dietary and plasma antioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. PMID:22617460

  1. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  2. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Effect of Television Advertising on Food Intake in Children: Why Such a Sensitive Topic is Lacking Top-Level Evidence?

    PubMed

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Foltran, Francesca; Berchialla, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at assessing the effect of television advertising on food intake in children from 4 to 12 years old. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed database and included if they assessed the effect of direct exposure to television food advertising over the actual energy intake of children. Seven studies out of 2166 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association between television advertising and energy intake is based on a very limited set of randomized researches lacking a solid ground of first-level evidence. PMID:25105865

  3. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  4. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels. PMID:26499850

  5. Effects of graded levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains and degraded intake protein on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed steam-flaked corn based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments evaluated different levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains (SWDG) and effects of increasing levels of degraded intake protein (DIP) in SWDG on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. In Experiment 1, 200 steers (average BW = 404 kg) were fed increasing levels of...

  6. The Oral Intake of Organic Germanium, Ge-132, Elevates α-Tocopherol Levels in the Plas-ma and Modulates Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles to Promote Immune Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Takeda, Tomoya; Tokuji, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The common water-soluble organic germanium compound poly-trans-[(2-carboxyethyl) germasesquioxane] (Ge-132) exhibits activities related to immune responses and antioxidant induction. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative effect of dietary Ge-132 in the plasma of mice. Male ICR mice (seven mice per group) received an AIN-76 diet with 0.05% Ge-132; three groups received the Ge-132-containing diet for 0, 1 or 4 days. The plasma alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentration increased from 6.85 to 9.60 μg/ml after 4 days of Ge-132 intake (p<0.05). We evaluated the changes in hepatic gene expression related to antioxidative activity as well as in the entire expression profile after one day of Ge-132 intake, using DNA microarray technology. We identified 1,220 genes with altered expression levels greater than 1.5-fold (increased or decreased) as a result of Ge-132 intake, and α-tocopherol transfer protein (Ttpa) gene expression was increased 1.62-fold. Immune activation was identified as the category with the most changes (containing 60 Gene Ontology (GO) term biological processes (BPs), 41 genes) via functional clustering analysis of altered gene expression. Ge-132 affected genes in clusters related to ATP production (22 GO term BPs, 21 genes), lipid metabolism (4 GO term BPs, 38 genes) and apoptosis (5 GO term BPs). Many GO term BPs containing these categories were significantly affected by the Ge-132 intake. Oral Ge-132 intake may therefore have increased plasma α-tocopherol levels by up-regulating α-tocopherol transfer protein (Ttpa) gene expression. PMID:26098482

  7. Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Reinhold

    2006-04-01

    The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D is 50 mcg/d (2000 iu/d) in North America and in Europe. In the United Kingdom a guidance level exists for vitamin D, 25 mcg/d (1000 iu/d), defined as the dose "of vitamins and minerals that potentially susceptible individuals could take daily on a life-long basis, without medical supervision in reasonable safety." Exposure of skin to sunshine can safely provide an adult with vitamin D in an amount equivalent to an oral dose of 250 mcg/d. The incremental consumption of 1 mcg/d of vitamin D3 raises serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D ] by approximately 1 nmol/L (0.4 microg/L). Published reports suggest toxicity may occur with 25(OH)D concentrations beyond 500 nmol/L (200 microg/L). Older adults are advised to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. The preceding numbers indicate that vitamin D3 intake at the UL raises 25(OH)D by approximately 50 nmol/L and that this may be more desirable than harmful. The past decade has produced separate North American, European, and U.K. reports that address UL or guidance-level values for vitamin D. Despite similar well-defined models for risk assessment, each report has failed to adapt its message to new evidence of no adverse effects at higher doses. Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health. PMID:16549491

  8. Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

  9. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26226960

  10. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  11. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  12. Biological marker of furfural, chemicals without administrative control level.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Hori, Hajime; Higashi, Toshiaki; Nagatomo, Hiroko; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Ohsato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo

    2007-06-01

    Furfural, a colorless liquid used in solvent-extraction processes, petroleum refining and as a rubber additive, has been assigned an occupational exposure limit of 2.5 ppm by the Japan Society for Occupational Health, but an administrative control level for furfural has not been established. In order to conduct effective occupational health management in workplaces where furfural is used, we measured furfural concentrations in working environments and collected urine samples to measure furoic acid levels (one of the principal metabolites), which act as a biomarker of exposure to furfural. The measurements of airborne concentrations in a working environment where furfural or a solution containing furfural was handled were made in 2004. Workers answered a questionnaire on working conditions, urine samples were collected at the end of the workshift, and furoic acid in the urine was measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The ambient concentrations of furfural during the period were 2.1 ppm in a mixer room and 1.6 ppm in a filling room. The mean concentrations of furoic acid in the workers' urine were 7.7 +/- 7.8 mg/g-creatinine in summer and winter, respectively (normal range: 3 - 60 mg/g-creatinine). The average exposure to furfural per month calculated by multiplying the concentration in the working environment by working hours for a month was 86.4 +/- 108.6 ppm hours/months (mean +/- standard deviation) (range; 0 - 336 ppm hours/month). The relationship between average exposure to furfural and furoic acid in the urine was analyzed by simple linear regression analysis and a positive correlation was found. These findings suggest that furoic acid in urine is useful for biological monitoring of exposure to furfural, and that the measurement of both furfural in the environment and furoic acid in the urine are beneficial in occupational health management of furfural. PMID:17582986

  13. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  14. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  15. Dietary Patterns, n-3 Fatty Acids Intake from Seafood and High Levels of Anxiety Symptoms during Pregnancy: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Juliana dos Santos; Kac, Gilberto; Emmett, Pauline; Davis, John M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy. Objective To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy. Design Pregnant women enrolled from 1991–1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530). Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week) from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥9 corresponding to the 85th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. Results Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65–0.93) and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73–0.97) pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08–1.44) were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25–1.87) when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. PMID:23874437

  16. Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers. Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey.

    PubMed

    Arcella, D; Le Donne, C; Piccinelli, R; Leclercq, C

    2004-04-01

    In a previous study, Italian female teenagers regular consumers of sugar free soft drinks and table-top sweeteners were suggested to have a higher intake of intense sweeteners than other teenagers. A food frequency questionnaire designed to identify adolescents who were high consumers of these food products was filled in by a randomly extracted sample of teenagers (n=3982) living in the District of Rome (Italy) in year 2000. A consumer survey was then carried out in a randomly extracted sub-sample of males and females and in all females who reported high consumption of sugar-free soft drinks and/or table-top sweeteners. A total of 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. For each sugar-free product, producers provided the concentration of intense sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate). No intake in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was observed. Also medicines and supplements were taken into account and these did not result in a large impact on chronic exposure to intense sweeteners. The intake levels did not exceed the ADI even under a worst case scenario which was performed to take into consideration a hypothetical future substitution of all regular food products with their sugar-free version. It can be concluded that, with the observed current consumption patterns and occurrence levels, the risk of an excessive intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers is extremely low. PMID:15019193

  17. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  18. Effect of food intake on plasma levels and antihypertensive response during maintenance therapy with endralazine.

    PubMed

    Kindler, J; Rüegg, P C; Neuray, M; Pacha, W

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC assay has been used to determine the effect of food on plasma endralazine levels in 8 patients with essential hypertension. Subjects were investigated whilst on maintenance therapy with endralazine combined with a fixed antihypertensive baseline treatment for at least 4 weeks, samples being collected after the usual oral morning dose of endralazine (5 mg and 10 mg), on two occasions at least 7 days apart. Endralazine was administered with the concomitant therapy in randomised order once 90 min before and once immediately after a standard breakfast. Acetylator status did not affect its pharmacokinetics in the postprandial study after a 5 mg dose, the peak endralazine concentration averaged 57.5% lower and the AUC had fallen significantly by 49.9%, whereas after 10 mg the postprandial peak level and the AUC were 82.9% and 64.7%, lower. In the 5 mg study the mean arterial blood pressure was decreased by 30 mm Hg in the fasting subjects and by 21 mm Hg in the postprandial group. For the 10 mg dose the corresponding values were 35 and 24 mm Hg. The blood pressure lowering effect was only weakly correlated with the food--related reduction in the plasma endralazine levels. The results suggest that endralazine has a similar kinetic interaction with food as that found for hydralazine. PMID:3609114

  19. Total and dialyzable levels of manganese from duplicate meals and influence of other nutrients: Estimation of daily dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Ryenold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Lopez-Ga De La Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, Maria C

    2008-07-01

    Both total and dialyzable Mn levels were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Both mineral fractions were measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method previously optimized. A total mean Mn fraction of 1.03±0.49mg was found in the meals. The Mn supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p<0.001) correlated with macronutrient content (carbohydrates, fibre and protein). The mean Mn fraction dialyzed through the dialysis membrane was 0.23±0.17mg (22.0±8.93% as bioaccessible fraction). The total and dialyzable Mn fractions found for breakfasts were significantly lower (p<0.001). Nevertheless, the Mn bioavailabilities expressed as the percentage of dialyzable element, were not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner). A significant correlation between the total and the dialyzable fraction of Mn in meals was found (p<0.001, r=0.78, r(2)=0.61). The dialyzed element fractions present in meals were significantly correlated mainly with carbohydrates, protein and several amino acid levels (p <0.01). Foods with higher carbohydrate and therefore energy contents, e.g. cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, would be primary sources of bioaccessible Mn in the diet. The bioaccessibility of Mn was only significant influenced by energy, carbohydrates and Se levels present in meals. The mean Mn daily dietary intake (DDI) was 3.05±0.61mgday(-1). PMID:26054271

  20. Analysis of the Content of Biology Curricula, Courses, and Texts by Means of Biological Levels of Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    A method of analyzing the content of biology/curricula, courses, and texts on the basis of the relative emphasis on different levels of biological organization, is discussed. It is suggested that this method may have led to unwarranted contrasts between traditional and modern curricula. A simple modification is proposed. (Author/BB)

  1. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  2. Blood aluminum levels as a function of aluminum intake from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquest, E.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H. )

    1991-04-01

    Questions regarding the health effects of aluminum are still unanswered. The speciation, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of aluminum are not well understood. Furthermore, no animal or human studies of aluminum absorption have been reported using drinking water as the source of aluminum. The following experiment attempted to reach a better understanding of the bioavailability of aluminum from drinking water. Its objective was to determine whether or not increased aluminum ingestion from drinking water would be reflected in increased serum and whole blood aluminum levels in the baboon experimental model.

  3. Effect of tomato intake on striatal monoamine level in a mouse model of experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Takaaki; Arimoto, Yasushi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2002-06-01

    An ingestion of tomato powder rich in lycopene was examined for its effect on mice with Parkinson's disease-like syndrome induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). To assess the preventive effect of tomato against the MPTP-induced selective destruction of dopaminergic nigrostrie, we determined striatal dopamine (DA). A 4-wk ingestion of the experimental diet containing 20% (w/w) lyophilized tomato powders before MPTP treatment prevented a decrease in the DA level. This suggests that the tomato ingestion might serve as a preventive against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease caused by MPTP and other environmental toxins. PMID:12350086

  4. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  5. Mode 3 Project-Based O-Level: Part II Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greatorex, D.; Lock, R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a British biology course for the O-level which aims to promote the understanding of broad biological principles through an environmental approach. Results of proper assessment and overall examination performance are also revealed. (HM)

  6. A-level Biology in West Africa: A New Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewer, D. W.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a biology course developed for West African senior high school students. Ecology is used as an integrating theme, and the approach is problem centered. Discusses the proposed form of examinations in the course. (EB)

  7. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats. PMID:20827343

  8. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Tatár, P; Angyal, R; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M; Jánosová, H

    1987-05-01

    The effect of sauna on thyroid function parameters and its modification by glucose was studied in young euthyroid male volunteers. A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment. Plasma rT3 also increased in sauna, this response was, however, blunted by the higher glycemia. TSH response to sauna was definitely present in young men (aged 20 to 25) and absent in middle-aged ones (50 to 55). To explore the mechanism of the effect of increased glycemia, TRH tests were performed and dopamine infusions were administered with and without glucose pretreatment. Increased glycemia did not affect TSH and T3 response to TRH in young volunteers; however, 90 minutes after the administration, plasma rT3 levels were significantly lower in glucose pretreated subjects than in those receiving TRH injections after water pretreatment. Simultaneous infusion of glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of dopamine infusion on plasma TSH. It was concluded that glucose directly modulates the effect of sauna on plasma TSH at a suprapituitary level, while the inhibiting effect of glucose on plasma rT3 response to sauna and TRH is probably mediated by the insulin effect on thyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:3106755

  9. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students’ perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students’ perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the course. Alignment between student perception and determined knowledge was significantly more accurate on the posttest compared with the pretest. Students whose determined knowledge was in the upper quartile had significantly better alignment between their perception and determined knowledge on the pre- and posttest than students in the lower quartile. No difference exists between how students perceived their knowledge between upper- and lower-quartile students. There was a significant difference in alignment of perception and determined knowledge between males and females on the posttest, with females being more accurate in their perception of knowledge. This study provides evidence of discrepancies that exist between what students perceive they know and what they actually know. PMID:26086662

  10. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students' perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students' perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the course. Alignment between student perception and determined knowledge was significantly more accurate on the posttest compared with the pretest. Students whose determined knowledge was in the upper quartile had significantly better alignment between their perception and determined knowledge on the pre- and posttest than students in the lower quartile. No difference exists between how students perceived their knowledge between upper- and lower-quartile students. There was a significant difference in alignment of perception and determined knowledge between males and females on the posttest, with females being more accurate in their perception of knowledge. This study provides evidence of discrepancies that exist between what students perceive they know and what they actually know. PMID:26086662

  11. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Lisa A; Sherwood, Kelly L; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55). Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and RBC (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) folate concentrations at 16-wk postpartum. Plasma and RBC folate values at 16-wk postpartum correctly identified the quartile of folate intake of only 26 of 55 (47%) and 18 of 55 (33%) of subjects, respectively. The mean RBC folate concentration of women consuming 151–410 μg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and

  12. Total body phylloquinone and its turnover in human subjects at two levels of vitamin K intake.

    PubMed

    Olson, Robert E; Chao, Jean; Graham, Donna; Bates, Margaret W; Lewis, Jessica H

    2002-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total body phylloquinone and its metabolic turnover in human subjects using a tracer dose of [5-H3]phylloquinone containing 4 MBq/mmol. Seven subjects aged 22 to 49 years were given 0.3 microg isotopic phylloquinone intravenously on a control diet (75 microg phylloquinone/d) and blood, urine and faeces were sampled periodically for 6 d. Five of these subjects were studied a second time after 3-8 weeks on a low-vitamin K diet (8 microg/d). The changes in the radioactivity of plasma phylloquinone with time were analysed by the method of residuals and fitted to a curve composed of two exponential components. The size of the exchangeable body pool was calculated by isotope dilution. Plasma phylloquinone levels fell during vitamin K restriction but the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors did not change. After injection the first exponential decay curve t1/2 was 1.0 (sd 0.47) h in the subjects on the control diet and 0.49 (sd 0.27) h after vitamin K restriction. On the control diet, the second exponential t1/2 was 27.6 (sd 124) h that did not change on the low-vitamin K diet ( (sd 13.5) h). These results indicate that the turnover time for phylloquinone in human subjects is about 1.5 d. Urinary excretion of 3H-metabolites ranged from 30 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 38 % on the restricted diet and had the same turnover rate as the second component of the plasma decay curves. The exchangeable body pool of phylloquinone declined from about 1.0 microg/kg before restriction to lower values after vitamin K restriction. The faecal excretion of phylloquinone and its metabolites fell from 32 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 13 % on the restricted diet. PMID:12067424

  13. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

  14. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  15. Influence of supplemental whole flaxseed level on forage intake and site and extent of digestion in beef heifers consuming native grass hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of supplemental whole flaxseed level on intake and site and extent of digestion in beef cattle consuming native grass hay. Nine Angus heifers (avg. BW 303 ± 6.7 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 × 3 ...

  16. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats. PMID:20363983

  17. Drospirenone intake alters plasmatic steroid levels and cyp17a1 expression in gonads of juvenile sea bass.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria; Fernandes, Denise; Medina, Paula; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2016-06-01

    Drospirenone (DRO) is one of the most widely used progestins in contraceptive treatments and hormone replacement therapies. The pharmacokinetics and potential toxicological effects of DRO were investigated in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed through the diet (0.01-10 μg DRO/g) for up to 31 days. DRO was detected in the blood (4-27 ng/mL) of fish exposed to the highest concentration, with no significant bioaccumulation over time and no alteration of hepatic metabolizing enzymes, namely, CYP1A and CYP3A-catalysed activities and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT). Pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17P4), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (17P5), androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were determined in plasma and gene expression of cyp17a1, cyp19a1a and cyp11β analysed by qRT-PCR in gonads. The significant increase in plasmatic levels of 17P5, 17P4 and AD detected after 31 days exposure to 10 ng DRO/g together with the increased expression of cyp17a1 in females evidence the ability of DRO to alter steroid synthesis at low intake concentrations (7 ng DRO/day). However, the potential consequences of this steroid shift for female reproduction remain to be investigated. PMID:26995450

  18. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention. PMID:26684403

  19. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  20. Vitamin D intake, blood 25(OH)D levels, and breast cancer risk or mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y; Je, Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies suggest potential anti-carcinogenic properties of vitamin D against breast cancer risk, but the epidemiological evidence to date is inconsistent. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with a hand search for eligible studies to examine the association between vitamin D status (based on diet and blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) and breast cancer risk or mortality in a meta-analysis. A random-effect model was used to calculate a pooled adjusted relative risk (RR). Results: A total of 30 prospective studies (nested case-control or cohort) were included for breast cancer incidence (n=24 studies; 31 867 cases) or mortality (n=6 studies; 870 deaths) among 6092 breast cancer patients. The pooled RRs of breast cancer incidence for the highest vs the lowest vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88–1.01) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.83–1.02), respectively. Among breast cancer patients, high blood 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower breast cancer mortality (pooled RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.85) and overall mortality (pooled RR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.48–0.79). There was no evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high vitamin D status is weakly associated with low breast cancer risk but strongly associated with better breast cancer survival. PMID:24714744

  1. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  2. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  3. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Pilajun, R; Polyorach, S; Cherdthong, A; Khejornsart, P; Rowlinson, P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, population of protozoa and fungi, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by cottonseed meal levels (p>0.05). Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw. PMID:25049873

  4. Effect of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls on pasture.

    PubMed

    Neto, A Jose; Messana, J D; Ribeiro, A F; Vito, E S; Rossi, L G; Berchielli, T T

    2015-05-01

    Intake of tropical grass forages alone is generally insufficient to avoid nutrition imbalances and reduced animal performance; therefore, supplementation is often recommended. The hypothesis of the present study is that when combined with fat, soybean hulls (SH) could replace corn as a source of energy, reducing methane production without affecting animal performance. This study evaluated the effects of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, digestibility, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls (P = 44; initial BW = 250.69 ± 27 kg) fed cv. Xaraés during the rainy season. There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation with regard to intake of DM (P = 0.67), forage DM (P = 0.55), supplement DM (P = 0.14), OM (P = 0.66), CP (P = 0.74), NDF (P = 0.50), ether extract (EE; = 0.47), and GE ( P= 0.68). The intake of EE was greater for animals supplemented with oil than those fed supplements without oil (P < 0.01). There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation on digestibility of DM (P= 0.18), OM (P = 0.11), NDF (P= 0.42), and EE (P = 0.14). Moreover, there was interaction between starch and oil supplementation on GE (P < 0.01). Independent of starch level used, the addition of oil decreased the digestibility of OM (P = 0.04) and NDF (P = 0.03). There were no main effects of starch level, oil, or interaction between starch and oil for initial BW (P = 0.10), final BW (P = 0.94), ADG (P = 0.40), feed efficiency (P= 0.37), and carcass gain (P = 0.38). There was no interaction between starch-based supplementation level and oil on methane emissions when expressed in grams per day (P = 0.77), kilograms per year (P = 0.77), grams per kilogram DMI (P = 0.53), and grams per kilogram carcass gain (P= 0.31). There was, however, an interaction (P = 0.04) between starch level and oil on methane emissions when corrected for NDF intake. Additionally, oil decreased enteric methane emission

  5. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Jessica P.; Zeituni, Erin M.; Thierer, James H.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Boehm, Erica D.; Cerchione, Derek M.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4–6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins

  6. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Zeituni, Erin M; Thierer, James H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Brown, Alexandria C; Boehm, Erica D; Cerchione, Derek M; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4-6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and

  7. Polymorphism of rs1836882 in NOX4 Gene Modifies Associations between Dietary Caloric Intake and ROS Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Wang, Ningfu; Chen, Huaihong; Jin, Qihui; Zhang, Ruoyu; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Excessive caloric intake is a contributing risk factor for human metabolic disorders. Caloric restriction may prolong a person’s life by lowering the incidence of deadly diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been associated with the biochemical basis of the relationship between caloric intake and pathophysiologic processes. Polymorphisms associated with ROS generation genes are being increasingly implicated in inter-individual responses to daily caloric intake alterations. In the current study, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1836882, in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene’s promoter region was found to modulate associations between dietary caloric intake and ROS levels in PBMC. Based on rs1836882, 656 Chinese Han participants were classified into CC, CT and TT genotypes. ROS levels in PBMC were significantly higher in the CC or CT genotypes compared with the TT genotype with the same increases in daily caloric intake. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, NOX4 promoter region with rs1836882 (T) was observed to have a higher affinity for hepatocyte nuclear factor gamma (HNF3γ) protein than rs1836882 (C). HNF3γ protein over-expression decreased NOX4 gene transcriptional activity in the TT genotype more than in the CC genotype (5.68% vs. 2.12%, P<0.05) in a dual luciferase reporter assay. By silencing the NOX4 gene using small interfering RNA or over-expressing HNF3γ using an expression plasmid, serum from high dietary caloric intake participants decreased ROS levels in PBMC of the TT genotype more than in the CC or CT genotype via HNF3γ down-regulating the NOX4 gene expression signaling pathway. This is the first study to report on the functions of phenotypes of rs1836882 in the NOX4 gene, and it suggests rs1836882 as a candidate gene for interpreting inter-individual ROS levels differences in PBMC induced by alterations in daily caloric intake. PMID:24392026

  8. Comparison of plasma and intake levels of antioxidant nutrients in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy people in Taiwan: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chen, Pei-Ying; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2010-01-01

    The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is increasing evidence that individuals with high antioxidative nutrient levels in the diet or in blood tend to maintain better lung function. This study was conducted to determine whether COPD patients in Taiwan have lower plasma concentrations of antioxidative nutrients than do healthy people, and whether the dietary habits of COPD patients in Taiwan affect their intake of vitamin C and carotenoids. Thirty-four COPD patients and 43 healthy persons (with normal lung function) aged 50 years or older were recruited. Fasting venous blood was collected to measure concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotenoids. Endogenous and H2O2-induced additional DNA damage (markers of oxidative stress) in white blood cells were assayed. Dietary intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Compare to the healthy controls, COPD patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E; alpha- and beta-carotene; and total carotenoids but significantly higher endogenous and H2O2-induced white blood cell DNA damage. Intakes of vitamin C and several carotenoids were lower in the COPD group, and COPD patients consumed significantly fewer vegetables and fruits than did the healthy controls. In conclusion, COPD patients in Taiwan have lower levels of antioxidative nutrients in their plasma and diet than do healthy people. Intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids are correlated with dietary habits. PMID:20805084

  9. Volatile N-nitrosamine formation after intake of nitrate at the ADI level in combination with an amine-rich diet.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, I T; Pachen, D M; Dallinga, J W; Kleinjans, J C; van Maanen, J M

    1998-01-01

    Formation of nitrite from ingested nitrate can result in several adverse health effects and implies a genotoxic risk as a consequence of endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. We studied the formation of volatile N-nitrosamines after intake of nitrate at the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level in combination with a fish meal rich in amines as nitrosatable precursors. Twenty-five volunteers consumed this meal during 7 consecutive days; a diet low in nitrate was consumed during 1 week before and 1 week after the test week. Nitrate intake at the ADI level resulted in a significant rise in mean salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations. Mean urinary nitrate excretion increased from 76 mg/24 hr in the first control week to 194 and 165 mg/24 hr in the test week, followed by a decline to 77 mg/24 hr in the second control week. The urine samples were analyzed for volatile N-nitrosamines, and both N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) were detected in the samples. Mean urinary NDMA excretion significantly increased from 287 ng/24 hr in the control week to 871 and 640 ng/24 hr in the test week and declined to 383 ng/24 hr in the second control week. Excretion of NPIP was not directly related to the nitrate intake and composition of the diet. Nitrate excretion and NDMA excretion were significantly correlated, as well as salivary nitrate and nitrite concentration and NDMA excretion. We conclude that nitrate intake at the ADI level in combination with a fish meal containing nitrosatable precursors increases NDMA excretion in urine and thus demonstrates increased formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681972

  10. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ2-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, < 650 mg/day), according to recommended intakes of calcium for women aged 19-29 years. RESULTS The LC group constituted 77.9% of total subjects. Nutrition knowledge was not different according to calcium intake. Three out of 12 outcome expectations items were significantly different between the HC and LC groups. Subjects in the HC group agreed more strongly with the practical benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P < 0.01) and 'going well with other snacks' (P < 0.05), compared to those in the LC group. Negative expectations of 'indigestion' were stronger in the LC group than HC group (P < 0.001). Among self-efficacy items, perceived ability of 'eating dairy foods for snacks' (P < 0.001), 'eating dairy foods every day' (P < 0.01), and 'eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P < 0.05) differed significantly between the HC and LC groups. Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P < 0.001), anchovy, seaweeds, green vegetables, protein-rich foods (P < 0.05), and less frequent consumption of sweets or soft drinks (P < 0.01) were significantly related to calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS This study found that outcome expectations, self-efficacy in consuming calcium-rich foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address

  11. IERL-RTP PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BIOLOGICAL TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives revised procedures for Level 1 environmental assessment biological tests, and supersedes the first edition, EPA-600/7-77-043 (NTIS No. PB 268484), published in April 1977. The revised biological procedures complement the Level 1 chemical and physical procedures p...

  12. Just the Facts? Introductory Undergraduate Biology Courses Focus on Low-Level Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…

  13. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  14. The influence of natural diet composition, food intake level, and body size on ingesta passage in primates.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Streich, W Jürgen; Nunn, Charles L; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hohmann, Gottfried; Schwarm, Angela; Hummel, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    An important component of digestive physiology involves ingesta mean retention time (MRT), which describes the time available for digestion. At least three different variables have been proposed to influence MRT in herbivorous mammals: body mass, diet type, and food intake (dry matter intake, DMI). To investigate which of these parameters influences MRT in primates, we collated data for 19 species from trials where both MRT and DMI were measured in captivity, and acquired data on the composition of the natural diet from the literature. We ran comparative tests using both raw species values and phylogenetically independent contrasts. MRT was not significantly associated with body mass, but there was a significant correlation between MRT and relative DMI (rDMI, g/kg(0.75)/d). MRT was also significantly correlated with diet type indices. Thus, both rDMI and diet type were better predictors of MRT than body mass. The rDMI-MRT relationship suggests that primate digestive differentiation occurs along a continuum between an "efficiency" (low intake, long MRT, high fiber digestibility) and an "intake" (high intake, short MRT, low fiber digestibility) strategy. Whereas simple-stomached (hindgut fermenting) species can be found along the whole continuum, foregut fermenters appear limited to the "efficiency" approach. PMID:18450489

  15. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  16. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality. PMID:20553076

  17. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran

    2011-01-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R2 = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R2 = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R2 = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients. PMID:21556230

  18. Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, M.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Gaskins, A.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is increased consumption of dairy foods associated with lower semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER We found that intake of full-fat dairy was inversely related to sperm motility and morphology. These associations were driven primarily by intake of cheese and were independent of overall dietary patterns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that environmental estrogens could be responsible for the putative secular decline in sperm counts. Dairy foods contain large amounts of estrogens. While some studies have suggested dairy as a possible contributing factor for decreased semen quality, this finding has not been consistent across studies. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study (n = 189) was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the University of Rochester. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years were included in this analysis. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between dairy intake and conventional semen quality parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology and ejaculate volume) adjusting for age, abstinence time, race, smoking status, body mass index, recruitment period, moderate-to-intense exercise, TV watching and total calorie intake. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Total dairy food intake was inversely related to sperm morphology (P-trend = 0.004). This association was mostly driven by intake of full-fat dairy foods. The adjusted difference (95% confidence interval) in normal sperm morphology percent was −3.2% (−4.5 to −1.8) between men in the upper half and those in the lower half of full-fat dairy intake (P < 0.0001), while the equivalent contrast for low-fat dairy intake was less pronounced [−1.3% (−2.7 to −0.07; P= 0.06)]. Full-fat dairy intake was also associated with significantly lower percent progressively motile sperm (P= 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS

  19. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  20. Folate Intake at RDA Levels Is Inadequate for Mexican American Men with the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype123

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Claudia; Veenema, Kristin; Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Tran, Sally; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Moriarty, David J.; Maletz, Charles V.; Caudill, Marie A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the 1998 folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA), the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C→T variant has emerged as a strong modifier of folate status. This controlled feeding study investigated the adequacy of the RDA, 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents (DFE), for Mexican American men with the MTHFR 677CC or TT genotype. Because of the interdependency between folate and choline, the influence of choline intake on folate status was also assessed. Mexican American men (n = 60; 18–55 y) with the MTHFR 677CC (n = 31) or TT (n = 29) genotype consumed 438 μg DFE/d and total choline intakes of 300, 550 (choline adequate intake), 1100, or 2200 mg/d for 12 wk. Folate status response was assessed via serum folate (SF), RBC folate, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and urinary folate. SF decreased (P < 0.001) 66% to 7.9 ± 0.7 nmol/L (means ± SEM) in men with the 677TT genotype and 62% to 11.3 ± 0.9 nmol/L in the 677CC genotype. Plasma tHcy increased (P < 0.0001) 170% to 31 ± 3 μmol/L in men with the 677TT genotype and 18% to 11.6 ± 0.3 μmol/L in the 677CC genotype. At the end of the study, 34% (677TT) and 16% (677CC) had SF concentrations <6.8 nmol/L and 79% (677TT) and 7% (677CC) had tHcy concentrations >14 μmol/L. Choline intake did not influence the response of the measured variables. These data showed that the folate RDA is not adequate for men of Mexican descent, particularly for those with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and demonstrated a lack of influence of choline intake on the folate status variables measured in this study. PMID:18156406

  1. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. PMID:26720813

  2. Interactomes to Biological Phase Space: a call to begin thinking at a new level in computational biology.

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael

    2007-09-01

    Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3

  3. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects. PMID:26404241

  4. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects. PMID:26404241

  5. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  6. Controversial Issues and the Teaching of A-Level Biology: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    This thesis focuses on the espoused beliefs, values, and attitudes of experienced A-Level Biology teachers in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of major interest is the thinking behind what the teachers in this study regard as the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues given the teaching…

  7. The impact of an introductory college-level biology class on biology self-efficacy and attitude towards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Megan Elizabeth

    Self-efficacy theory was first introduced in a seminal article by Albert Bandura in 1977 entitled "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Since its original introduction, self-efficacy has been a major focus of academic performance, anxiety, career development, and teacher retention research. Self-efficacy can be defined as the belief an individual possesses about their ability to perform a given task. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy should be measured at the highest level of specificity due to the fact that different people are efficacious in different areas. Interested in students' efficacy toward biology, Ebert-May, Baldwin, & Allred (1997) created and validated a survey to measure students' biology self-efficacy. Their survey was modeled after the guidelines for science literacy, and loaded to three sub-factors; methods of biology, generalization to other science courses, and application of the concepts. As self-efficacy theory has been related to effort expenditure and persistence (Bandura, 1977; 1997), one might think it would have some effect on students' attitudes toward the topic at hand. The current research investigated what changes in biology self-efficacy occurred after an introductory biology course with an inquiry based laboratory learning environment. In addition, changes in students' attitudes towards science were explored and how self-efficacy might affect them.

  8. IERL-RTP PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BIOLOGICAL TESTS FOR PILOT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives Level 1 biological testing procedures (recommended by Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory--Research Triangle Park) for personnel experienced in conducting bioassays on samples from industrial and energy producing processes. The phased environmental asses...

  9. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. PMID:26868722

  10. A randomized 3x3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The behavioral outcome of food ingestion is a complex process that involves psychological and biological factors. Avocados are nutrient dense with properties that may favorably impact energy balance. This study sought to evaluate if incorporating approximately one half of a Hass avocado by addition or inclusion into a lunch meal will influence post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin response, and subsequent energy intake among overweight adults. Methods This was a randomized 3x3 single-blind crossover design study with 26 healthy overweight adults (mean ±SD age 40.8±11.0 years and BMI 28.1±2.4 kg/m2). Participants consumed a standardized breakfast followed by 1 of 3 lunch test meals [Control (C), avocado-free; Avocado Inclusive (AI); and, Avocado Added (AA)]. Participants rated five appetite sensations using a visual analog scale (VAS) before lunch and at specific intervals over 5 hours following the start of the test meal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured before lunch and at specific intervals over 3 hours following the start of the test meal. Mixed models were used to compare differences among the 3 test meals, and the area under the curve (AUC0-xh) was computed for the VAS and biological measures. Results There were significant differences in the AUC(0-5h) for the self-reported feelings of satisfaction (P=0.04) and desire to eat (P=0.05) in the mixed model analysis. Compared to the C test meal, the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 23% (P=0.05) and decreased the desire to eat by 28% (P=0.04) for the AUC(0-5h). For the AUC(0-3h), the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 26% (P=0.02) and decreased the desire to eat by 40% (P=0.01) as compared to the C test meal. Compared to the AI meal, the AUC(0-3h) for blood insulin was higher in the C and AA meals (P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively). Conclusions The addition of approximately one half of a Hass avocado at a lunch meal can influence post-ingestive satiety over a subsequent 3 and 5

  11. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528562

  12. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528561

  13. Bioconcentration of mercury by mushroom Xerocomus chrysenteron from the spatially distinct locations: levels, possible intake and safety.

    PubMed

    Dryżałowska, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in specimens of Red Cracking Bolete (Xerocomus chrysenteron) (Bull.) Quél. and overlying soil (0-10cm) collected from 22 spatially distributed sites in Poland during 1996-2013 to assess the potential of this species to bioconcentrate Hg and possible intake by humans. The mean Hg concentrations ranged from 80 to 630 for caps and from 28 to 380ng/g dry matter (dm) for stipes. Decrease in the potential of this mushroom species to bioconcentrate Hg both in caps and stipes was observed when the Hg content in soil substratum increased from 15 to 75-94ng/g dm. A maximum median value for bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Hg determined for caps was 18 for soil with Hg content at 15ng/g dm and decreased to 0.97-3.8 for soils that contained Hg at 37-94ng/g dm. Caps of X. chrysenteron consumed at a volume of 300g daily in a week can yield an exposure amount of Hg at 0.0168-0.1323mg (0.00024 to 0.00189mg/kg body mass); these values are well below the provisionally tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) for inorganic Hg. PMID:24927386

  14. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  15. Job Satisfaction Levels of Secondary School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskan, A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…

  16. Applying a biomedical top-level ontology to encode biological taxa.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger; Schulz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Classifying biological entities in terms of species and taxa is an important endeavor in biology. But even though many statements within current biomedical ontologies are indeed taxon-dependent, no standard way exists to properly introduce taxon or species information into current ontological architectures. Therefore we discuss various practices to represent such information by applying a biomedical top-level ontology combined with other standard approaches like description logics or the OBO Foundry. PMID:18999119

  17. Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Devrim; Çakıroğulları, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

  18. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  19. ASSESSMENT OF INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF VITAMIN B1, B2, AND B6 IN MEN AND WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Hübner-Wozniak, E.; Lewandowska, I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  20. Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Hedvig; Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-07-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α is recognized as the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, recently a novel isoform, PGC-1α4, that specifically regulates muscle hypertrophy was discovered. Because stimulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is tightly coupled to hypertrophy, we hypothesized that activation of this pathway would upregulate PGC-1α4. Eight male subjects performed heavy resistance exercise (10 × 8-12 repetitions at ∼75% of 1 repetition maximum in leg press) on four different occasions, ingesting in random order a solution containing essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, or flavored water (placebo) during and after the exercise. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and immediately after exercise, as well as following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Signaling through mTORC1, as reflected in p70S6 kinase phosphorylation, was stimulated to a greater extent by the EAA and BCAA than the leucine or placebo supplements. Unexpectedly, intake of EAA or BCAA attenuated the stimulatory effect of exercise on PGC-1α4 expression by ∼50% (from a 10- to 5-fold increase with BCAA and EAA, P < 0.05) 3 h after exercise, whereas intake of leucine alone did not reduce this response. The 60% increase (P < 0.05) in the level of PGC-1α1 mRNA 90 min after exercise was uninfluenced by amino acid intake. Muscle glycogen levels were reduced and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 activity and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhanced to the same extent with all four supplements. In conclusion, induction of PGC-1α4 does not appear to regulate the nutritional (BCAA or EAA)-mediated activation of mTORC1 in human muscle. PMID:27245337

  1. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  2. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  3. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull. PMID:25049819

  4. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  5. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women. PMID:24812518

  6. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  7. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  8. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  9. Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.

    PubMed

    Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

  10. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development. PMID:27090561

  11. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243

  12. Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy: Auscultation of Biological Systems at the Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) offers unprecedented sensitivity to optical absorption and opens a new window to study biological systems at multiple length- and timescales. In particular, optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM) has pushed the technical envelope to submicron length scales and millisecond timescales. Here, we review the state of the art of OR-PAM in biophysical research. With properly chosen optical wavelengths, OR-PAM can spectrally differentiate a variety of endogenous and exogenous chromophores, unveiling the anatomical, functional, metabolic, and molecular information of biological systems. Newly uncovered contrast mechanisms of linear dichroism and Förster resonance energy transfer further distinguish OR-PAM. Integrating multiple contrasts and advanced scanning mechanisms has capacitated OR-PAM to comprehensively interrogate biological systems at the cellular level in real time. Two future directions are discussed, where OR-PAM holds the potential to translate basic biophysical research into clinical healthcare. PMID:23972836

  13. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of β-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Çetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    β-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of β-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of β-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of β-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by β-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1 3 μg. This means that the β-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of β-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of β-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of β-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of

  14. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of β-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Çetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    β-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of β-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of β-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of β-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by β-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1-3 μg. This means that the β-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of β-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of β-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of β-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of

  15. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-05-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes; and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  16. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  17. Examining portfolio-based assessment in an upper-level biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Brittany Ann

    Historically, students have been viewed as empty vessels and passive participants in the learning process but students actually are active forming their own conceptions. One way student learning is impacted is through assessment. Alternative assessment, which contrasts traditional assessment methods, takes into account how students learn by promoting engagement and construction of knowledge This dissertation explores portfolio-based assessment, a method of alternative assessment, which requires students to compose a purposeful collection of work demonstrating their knowledge in an upper-level biology course. The research objectives include characterizing and contributing to the understanding of portfolio-based assessment in higher education, examining reflection and inquiry portfolio components, determining student knowledge of biological concepts, and investigating student integrative thinking through the transformation of reflections into concept webs One main finding includes the majority of reflections categorized as naive or novice in quality. There was no difference in quality of reflections among biological topic. There was a relatively equal amount of high and low cognitive level questions. Students' knowledge of biological concepts significantly increased from the beginning to end of the course. Student written reflections were transformed into concept webs to allow for examination of student integrative thinking. Concepts, relationships, and interconnections in concept webs showed variation but declined by the end of the semester This study is one of the first examining portfolio-based assessment in an upper-level biology course We do not contend that this method of assessment is the only way to promote student learning but portfolio-based assessment may be a tool that can transform science education but currently the role of portfolio-based assessment in science education remains unclear. Additional research needs to be conducted before we will fully

  18. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in primipara breast milk from Taiwan: estimation of dioxins and furans intake for breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Su, Pen-Hua; Yu, Hui-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Päpke, Olaf

    2005-05-20

    Postnatal exposure to dioxins in breastfed infants occurs mainly during breast-feeding. The exposure to a substantial amount of endocrine disruptors in the early days of life may cause long-term health effects. Test subjects were healthy and primiparous mothers with a mean age of 28 (S.D. = 3.8) in 2001. The PCDD/F congeners were analyzed in the breast milk using gas chromatograph/high resolution mass spectrometry. The mean level of PCDD/Fs was 7.4 pg-WHO-TEQ/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. The total PCDD WHO-TEQ levels in breast milk had a significant positive association with maternal age and a slightly negative association with perinatal BMI (body mass index of the period before and after the delivery). The estimated daily intake of 10.5 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day from individual breast milk was predicted for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age with proper assumption of 8 kg body weight, 854 milk per day of consumption, 95% of dioxin absorption rate, and linear decline of dioxin during lactation. Based on the lower WHO-TEQ levels in the breast milk, breast-feeding should still be encouraged and continued in Taiwan. PMID:15885400

  19. Cadmium in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas from Swedish autopsies. Estimation of biological half time in kidney cortex, considering calorie intake and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lind, B; Kjellström, T; Linnman, L; Friberg, L

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc have been analyzed in tissues from 292 persons autopsied in Stockholm. In kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas the individual cadmium levels are distributed in a lognormal way. In kidney cortex there is a continuous accumulation of cadmium with age up to 50 years, followed by a decrease. Smokers show a higher cadmium accumulation. For nonsmokers, the biological half time of cadmium in kidney cortex is estimated at 30 years, with an average concentration at age 50 of 11 mug/g wet weight. When smokers are included, the average cadmium concentration at age 50 is 22 mug/g wet weight. Based on the more pronounced cadmium accumulation among smokers than nonsmokers, the respiratory absorption rate of cadmium from tobacco smoke is estimated to be approximately 50%. PMID:999342

  20. A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging. Methods To overcome this, we designed and developed a dedicated database system that can serve and solve the vital issues in data management and hereby facilitate data integration, modeling and analysis in systems biology within a sole database. In addition, a yeast data repository was implemented as an integrated database environment which is operated by the database system. Two applications were implemented to demonstrate extensibility and utilization of the system. Both illustrate how the user can access the database via the web query function and implemented scripts. These scripts are specific for two sample cases: 1) Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks; and 2) Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase. Results and conclusion In this study we present the design of database system which offers an extensible environment to efficiently capture the majority of biological entities and relations encountered in systems biology. Critical functions and control processes were designed and implemented to ensure consistent, efficient, secure and reliable transactions. The two sample cases on the yeast integrated data clearly demonstrate the value of a sole database environment for systems biology research. PMID:25053973

  1. Calorie intake and patient outcomes in severe acute kidney injury: findings from The Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current practice in the delivery of caloric intake (DCI) in patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) is unknown. We aimed to describe calorie administration in patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study and to assess the association between DCI and clinical outcomes. Methods We performed a secondary analysis in 1456 patients from the RENAL trial. We measured the dose and evolution of DCI during treatment and analyzed its association with major clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards models, and time adjusted models. Results Overall, mean DCI during treatment in ICU was low at only 10.9 ± 9 Kcal/kg/day for non-survivors and 11 ± 9 Kcal/kg/day for survivors. Among patients with a lower DCI (below the median) 334 of 729 (45.8%) had died at 90-days after randomization compared with 316 of 727 (43.3%) patients with a higher DCI (above the median) (P = 0.34). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, mean DCI carried an odds ratio of 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.00; P = 0.06) per 100 Kcal increase for 90-day mortality. DCI was not associated with significant differences in renal replacement (RRT) free days, mechanical ventilation free days, ICU free days and hospital free days. These findings remained essentially unaltered after time adjusted analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Conclusions In the RENAL study, mean DCI was low. Within the limits of such low caloric intake, greater DCI was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221013 PMID:24629036

  2. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David P.; Huff, Edmund A.; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    1994-05-03

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  3. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David P.; Huff, Edmund A.; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    1994-01-01

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  4. Evaluation of inclusion level of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with and without protease or β-mannanase on performance and water intake of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming a common practice to use higher levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS) in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of level of inclusion of wDDGS with or without enzyme (E-, i.e., wDDGSE-) supplementation on performance and water consumption of turkey hens (0 to 72 d). Two diets (0 or 30% wDDGS) were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Hybrid Converter turkeys. Diets (0 or 30% wDDGS; starter, grower, and finisher) were then blended to obtain a different level of inclusion (15%) of wDDGS. The 30% wDDGS diet was divided into 3 fractions and 2 fractions supplemented with either protease (P+, i.e., wDDGSP+; 0.126 g/kg) or β-mannanase (M+, i.e., wDDGSM+; 0.05 g/kg). All 5 diets were fed ad libitum as mash. The 700 0-d turkey hens were randomly allocated into groups of 35 birds per replicate with 4 replicate floor pens per treatment, in a completely randomized design. Water consumption per pen was recorded beginning at 7 d. There was no effect of dietary treatment on feed intake. BW of turkey hens (52 d; grower) was significantly higher for 30% wDDGSP+ as compared to 0% wDDGSE- or 15% wDDGSE- diets; but was not different from 30% wDDGSE- or 30% wDDGSM+ diets. FCR (P < 0.01; 28 to 52 d), and total FCR (P < 0.05; 0 to 72 d) was significantly improved for birds fed 15 or 30% wDDGS regardless of enzyme treatment compared to 0% wDDGSE-. Water intake (WI, in mL per bird per day) tended to be higher (P = 0.08) between 7 and 28 d for 30% wDDGSP+ diets compared to other treatments. Similarly, WI of birds fed 30% wDDGSP+ was higher (P < 0.05; 28 to 52 and 52 to 72 d) and total WI (P = 0.07; 7 to 72 d) tended to be higher than other treatments. This study is the first to report the impact of wDDGS on WI. As high as 30% wDDGS can be substituted in turkey hen diets. No effect of P+ or M+ at the inclusion level tested was found on performance. PMID:25971948

  5. eQTL Regulating Transcript Levels Associated with Diverse Biological Processes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Aashish; Budke, Jessica M; Rowland, Steven D; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kumar, Ravi; Carriedo, Leonela; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Zumstein, Kristina; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-09-01

    Variation in gene expression, in addition to sequence polymorphisms, is known to influence developmental, physiological, and metabolic traits in plants. Genetic mapping populations have facilitated identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the genetic determinants of variation in gene expression patterns. We used an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted Solanum pennellii and domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to identify the genetic basis of transcript level variation. We established the effect of each introgression on the transcriptome and identified approximately 7,200 eQTL regulating the steady-state transcript levels of 5,300 genes. Barnes-Hut t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding clustering identified 42 modules revealing novel associations between transcript level patterns and biological processes. The results showed a complex genetic architecture of global transcript abundance pattern in tomato. Several genetic hot spots regulating a large number of transcript level patterns relating to diverse biological processes such as plant defense and photosynthesis were identified. Important eQTL regulating transcript level patterns were related to leaf number and complexity as well as hypocotyl length. Genes associated with leaf development showed an inverse correlation with photosynthetic gene expression, but eQTL regulating genes associated with leaf development and photosynthesis were dispersed across the genome. This comprehensive eQTL analysis details the influence of these loci on plant phenotypes and will be a valuable community resource for investigations on the genetic effects of eQTL on phenotypic traits in tomato. PMID:27418589

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in king mackerel caught off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: Occurrence, contaminant profile, biological parameters and human intake.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniele A; Yogui, Gilvan T

    2016-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDTs are ubiquitous worldwide. Their lipophilic nature facilitates accumulation in fish tissues. This study investigated 182 PCB congeners and 14 organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, heptachlor and mirex) in muscle and liver of king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) caught off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Concentration of PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes in muscle averaged 31.5, 4.70 and 0.15ngg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Mean levels of the same contaminants in liver were 145, 18.7 and 1.11ngg(-1) dw, respectively. HCHs, heptachlor and mirex were not detected in the samples. The metabolite p,p'-DDE dominated the composition of DDTs in both muscle and liver. However, a clear shift was observed in the proportions of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD when comparing both tissues, suggesting metabolism in the liver. The PCBs profile revealed a depletion in mono- through tetra-CBs and an enrichment in penta- through deca-CBs. Biological parameters such as sex, maturity stage, age, body weight and total length did not influence contaminant levels in tissues. Dietary risk assessment indicated that S. cavalla from the northeastern coast of Brazil does not pose a health risk for humans. PMID:27392580

  7. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...

  8. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  9. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  10. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Renaud, Paul E; Ambrose, William G; Darnis, Gerald; Last, Kim S; Leu, Eva; Cohen, Jonathan H; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Shunatova, Natalia; Bałazy, Piotr; Morata, Nathalie; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kosobokova, Ksenia; Hoppe, Clara J M; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kukliński, Piotr; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Nikishina, Daria; Cusa, Marine; Kędra, Monika; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Vogedes, Daniel; Camus, Lionel; Tran, Damien; Michaud, Emma; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Granovitch, Andrei; Gonchar, Anya; Krapp, Rupert; Callesen, Trine A

    2015-10-01

    The current understanding of Arctic ecosystems is deeply rooted in the classical view of a bottom-up controlled system with strong physical forcing and seasonality in primary-production regimes. Consequently, the Arctic polar night is commonly disregarded as a time of year when biological activities are reduced to a minimum due to a reduced food supply. Here, based upon a multidisciplinary ecosystem-scale study from the polar night at 79°N, we present an entirely different view. Instead of an ecosystem that has entered a resting state, we document a system with high activity levels and biological interactions across most trophic levels. In some habitats, biological diversity and presence of juvenile stages were elevated in winter months compared to the more productive and sunlit periods. Ultimately, our results suggest a different perspective regarding ecosystem function that will be of importance for future environmental management and decision making, especially at a time when Arctic regions are experiencing accelerated environmental change [1]. PMID:26412132

  11. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  12. The Influence of Manganese and Glutamine Intake on Antioxidants and Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Levels in Rats' Brain.

    PubMed

    Szpetnar, Maria; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the concentration, Mn can exert protective or toxic effect. Potential mechanism for manganese neurotoxicity is manganese-induced oxidative stress. Glutamine supplementation could reduce manganese-induced neurotoxicity and is able to influence the neurotransmission processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long term administration of manganese (alone or in combination with glutamine) in dose and time dependent manner could affect the selected parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, concentrations of vitamin C and malonic dialdehyde) and concentrations of excitatory (Asp, Glu) and inhibitory amino acids (GABA, Gly) in the brain of rats. The experiments were carried out on 2-months-old albino male rats randomly divided into 6 group: Mn300 and Mn500-received solution of MnCl2 to drink (dose 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively), Gln group-solution of glutamine (4 g/L), Mn300-Gln and Mn500-Gln groups-solution of Mn at 300 and 500 mg/L and Gln at 4 g/L dose. The control group (C) received deionized water. Half of the animals were euthanized after three and the other half-after 6 weeks of experiment. The exposure of rats to Mn in drinking water contributes to diminishing of the antioxidant enzymes activity and the increase in level of lipid peroxidation. Glutamine in the diet admittedly increases SOD and GPx activity, but it is unable to restore the intracellular redox balance. The most significant differences in the examined amino acids levels in comparison to both control and Gln group were observed in the group of rats receiving Mn at 500 mg/L dose alone or with Gln. It seems that Gln is amino acid which could improve antioxidant status and affect the concentrations of the neurotransmitters. PMID:27161372

  13. Influence of chronic nicotine intake and acute ethanol challenge on gastric mucus level and blood flow in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Luk, I S; Ho, J; Wong, W M; Yuen, S T; Luk, C T; Cho, C H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of nicotine pretreatment on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and changes of gastric mucosal mucus levels and blood flow (GBF) were studied in anaesthetized rabbits. Nicotine treatment 25 or 50 micrograms/ml drinking water did not affect the volume of water consumption during the 10-day experimental period. It did not produce gastric mucosal lesions or affect the superficial adherent mucus content. The length of mucus-containing cells and the basal GBF were also unaffected. Intragastric administration of absolute ethanol reduced GBF, this effect was not altered by nicotine. However, the alkaloid potentiated the ulcerogenic actions of ethanol both on lesion formation and mucus depletion evoked by graded oral doses of ethanol (50 or 100%, v/v). Ultrastructurally, the mucous cells were more degenerated in the animals co-treated with nicotine and ethanol. It is concluded that reductions of mucus-containing cells and adherent mucus on the gastric mucosa are likely to be the contributory factors involved in the aggravating action of nicotine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rabbits. PMID:7535712

  14. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Methods Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject’s mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. Results In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model

  15. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  16. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

  17. Glaucoma and vitamins A, C, and E supplement intake and serum levels in a population-based sample of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S Y; Singh, K; Lin, S C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential association between glaucoma prevalence and supplemental intake, as well as serum levels of vitamins A, C and E. Methods This cross-sectional study included 2912 participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, age ≥40 years, who self-reported a presence or absence of glaucoma. Participants were interviewed regarding the use of dietary supplements during the preceding 30-day period. Participants also underwent serum measurements of vitamins A, C, and E (both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol). Information on the primary outcome measure, presence or absence of glaucoma, as well as demographic information, comorbidities and health-related behaviors, was assessed via interview. Results Multivariate odds ratios for self-reported glaucoma, comparing the highest quartile of consumption to no consumption, and adjusted for potential confounding variables were 0.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–1.82) for vitamin A, 0.47 (95% CI 0.23–0.97) for vitamin C, and 2.59 (95% CI 0.89–7.56) for vitamin E. Adjusted odds ratios for self-reported glaucoma comparing the highest vs lowest quintiles of vitamin serum levels were 1.44 (95% CI 0.79–2.62) for vitamin A, 0.94 (95% CI 0.42–2.11) for vitamin C, 1.40 (95% CI 0.70–2.81) for alpha-tocopherol, and 0.64 (95% CI 0.24–1.70) for gamma-tocopherol. Conclusion Neither supplementary consumption with nor serum levels of vitamins A and E were found to be associated with glaucoma prevalence. While low- and high-dose supplementary consumption of vitamin C was found to be associated with decreased odds of glaucoma, serum levels of vitamin C did not correlate with glaucoma prevalence. PMID:23429409

  18. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Keyserling, Thomas C.; Johnston, Larry; Smith, Tosha W.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. Methods We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants’ support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants’ residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. Results The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Conclusions Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner

  19. A Biochemical Magic Frequency Based on the Reduction Level of Biological Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    We have calculated the average number of electron pairs required for the chemical reduction of carbon dioxide to biological carbon using (a) estimates of the reducing equivalents (electron pairs) needed to synthesize biomolecules from carbon dioxide, and (b) measurements of the molecular composition of different organisms. These calculations showed that the carbon of the Earth's biosphere is at the reduction level of formaldehyde that requires two electron pairs per carbon atom to be synthesized from carbon dioxide. This was also the reduction level of cellular carbon when fuel stored as lipid was not used in the estimate. Since this chemical characteristic of life is probably universal, it could be the one thing we know about other carbon-based life in the universe, and the one thing that other intelligent life knows about us. We believe that this common knowledge that biological carbon throughout the universe is at the reduction level of formaldehyde could lead to the selection of the 72.83814 GHz line of the 0, 0, 0 yields 1, 1, 1 rotational transition of formaldehyde as a frequency for interstellar communication.

  20. An end-to-end workflow for engineering of biological networks from high-level specifications.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Weiss, Ron; Densmore, Douglas; Adler, Aaron; Appleton, Evan; Babb, Jonathan; Bhatia, Swapnil; Davidsohn, Noah; Haddock, Traci; Loyall, Joseph; Schantz, Richard; Vasilev, Viktor; Yaman, Fusun

    2012-08-17

    We present a workflow for the design and production of biological networks from high-level program specifications. The workflow is based on a sequence of intermediate models that incrementally translate high-level specifications into DNA samples that implement them. We identify algorithms for translating between adjacent models and implement them as a set of software tools, organized into a four-stage toolchain: Specification, Compilation, Part Assignment, and Assembly. The specification stage begins with a Boolean logic computation specified in the Proto programming language. The compilation stage uses a library of network motifs and cellular platforms, also specified in Proto, to transform the program into an optimized Abstract Genetic Regulatory Network (AGRN) that implements the programmed behavior. The part assignment stage assigns DNA parts to the AGRN, drawing the parts from a database for the target cellular platform, to create a DNA sequence implementing the AGRN. Finally, the assembly stage computes an optimized assembly plan to create the DNA sequence from available part samples, yielding a protocol for producing a sample of engineered plasmids with robotics assistance. Our workflow is the first to automate the production of biological networks from a high-level program specification. Furthermore, the workflow's modular design allows the same program to be realized on different cellular platforms simply by swapping workflow configurations. We validated our workflow by specifying a small-molecule sensor-reporter program and verifying the resulting plasmids in both HEK 293 mammalian cells and in E. coli bacterial cells. PMID:23651286

  1. Low-level luminescence as a method of detecting the UV influence on biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Wei-Ping; Popp, Fritz A.

    1995-02-01

    It is well known that low-level luminescence is correlated to many physiological and biological parameters, e.g. cell cycle, temperature, oxidation- and UV-stress. We report some new approaches on low-level luminescence measurements and UV influence on different biological systems. One example concerns yeast cultures, which show an increasing intensity of luminescence after UV-treatment with a maximum after 1.5 h. Investigations on normal human fibroblasts and keratinocytes display different longtime kinetics: The former show no changes of the luminescence in time, the latter an increase that reaches the maximum after 9 h. The time-dependent spectral measurement on xeroderma pigmentosum after UV-treatment displays a time-shift of the action-spectra shifting the maximum from 400 nm to 420 nm in 12 h. Some results on neutrophils reveals spectral UV influence on respiratory burst and the cellular repair system. The results on human skin display spectral changes of low-level luminescence after UV-treatment. These results provide a useful tool of analyzing UV influence on human skin.

  2. Effects of different dietary intake on mRNA levels of MSTN, IGF-I, and IGF-II in the skeletal muscle of Dorper and Hu sheep hybrid F1 rams.

    PubMed

    Xing, H J; Wang, Z Y; Zhong, B S; Ying, S J; Nie, H T; Zhou, Z R; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2014-01-01

    MSTN, IGF-І(insulin-like growth factor-І) and IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II) regulate skeletal muscle growth. This study investigated the effects of different dietary intake levels on skeletal muscles. Sheep was randomly assigned to 3 feeding groups: 1) the maintenance diet (M), 2) 1.4 x the maintenance diet (1.4M), and 3) 2.15 x the maintenance diet (2.15M). Before slaughtering the animals, blood samples were collected to measure plasma urea, growth hormone, and insulin concentrations. After slaughtering, the longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gastrocnemius, soleus, and chest muscle were removed to record various parameters, including the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. The result showed that as dietary intake improved, the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGF-II decreased, whereas IGF-Іexpression increased. The mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs were significantly different in the same skeletal muscle under different dietary intake. The skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area increased with greater dietary intake, as observed for the mRNA expression of IGF-І; however, it contrasted to that observed for the mRNA expression of MSTN and IGF-II. In conclusion, dietary intake levels have a certain influence on MSTN and IGFs mRNA expression levels, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. This study contributes valuable information for enhancing the molecular-based breeding of sheep. PMID:25078581

  3. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  4. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528564

  5. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org. PMID:26528569

  6. Cortical processing of global form, motion and biological motion under low light levels.

    PubMed

    Burton, Eliza; Wattam-Bell, John; Rubin, Gary S; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Nardini, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Advances in potential treatments for rod and cone dystrophies have increased the need to understand the contributions of rods and cones to higher-level cortical vision. We measured form, motion and biological motion coherence thresholds and EEG steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) responses under light conditions ranging from photopic to scotopic. Low light increased thresholds for all three kinds of stimuli; however, global form thresholds were relatively more impaired than those for global motion or biological motion. SSVEP responses to coherent global form and motion were reduced in low light, and motion responses showed a shift in topography from the midline to more lateral locations. Contrast sensitivity measures confirmed that basic visual processing was also affected by low light. However, comparison with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) reductions achieved by optical blur indicated that these were insufficient to explain the pattern of results, although the temporal properties of the rod system may also play a role. Overall, mid-level processing in extra-striate areas is differentially affected by light level, in ways that cannot be explained in terms of low-level spatiotemporal sensitivity. A topographical shift in scotopic motion SSVEP responses may reflect either changes to inhibitory feedback mechanisms between V1 and extra-striate regions or a reduction of input to the visual cortex. These results provide insight into how higher-level cortical vision is normally organised in absence of cone input, and provide a basis for comparison with patients with cone dystrophies, before and after treatments aiming to restore cone function. PMID:26878697

  7. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Valente, Roberto; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  8. Intake of red wine in different meals modulates oxidized LDL level, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy people: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Iacopino, Leonardo; Colica, Carmen; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  9. Trace Level Arsenic Quantification through Cloud Point Extraction: Application to Biological and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Suresh Kumar, Kempahanumakkagari; Pandurangappa, Malingappa

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive solvent-free extraction protocol for the quantification of arsenic at trace level has been described. It is based on the reaction of arsenic (V) with molybdate in acidic medium in presence of antimony (III) and ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to form a blue-colored arsenomolybdenum blue complex. The complex has been extracted into surfactant phase using Triton X-114, and its absorbance was measured at 690 nm. The detection limit, working range, and the relative standard deviation were found to be 1 ng mL−1, 10–200 ng mL−1, and 1.2%, respectively. The effect of common ions was studied, and the method has been applied to determine trace levels of As(III) and As(V) from a variety of samples like environmental, biological, and commercially procured chemicals. PMID:22666159

  10. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of 210Po and identified the need for future research. Methods: Potential linkages between environmental exposure to 210Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. Discussion: 210Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate 210Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for 210Po. 210Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to 210Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. 210Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of 210Po. Conclusions: Much of the important biological and toxicological research on 210Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary. PMID:22538346

  11. Comparison of the biological effects of {sup 18}F at different intracellular levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kashino, Genro; Hayashi, Kazutaka; Douhara, Kazumasa; Kobashigawa, Shinko; Mori, Hiromu

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • We estimated the inductions of DNA DSB in cell treated with {sup 18}F-FDG. • We found that inductions of DNA DSB are dependent on accumulation of {sup 18}F in cell. • Accumulation of {sup 18}F in cell may be indispensable for risk estimation of PET. - Abstract: We herein examined the biological effects of cells treated with {sup 18}F labeled drugs for positron emission tomography (PET). The relationship between the intracellular distribution of {sup 18}F and levels of damaged DNA has yet to be clarified in detail. We used culture cells (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells) treated with two types of {sup 18}F labeled drugs, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorine ion (HF). FDG efficiently accumulated in cells, whereas HF did not. To examine the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), we measured the number of foci for 53BP1 that formed at the site of DNA DSB. The results revealed that although radioactivity levels were the same, the induction of 53BP1 foci was stronger in cells treated with {sup 18}F-FDG than in those treated with {sup 18}F-HF. The clonogenic survival of cells was significantly lower with {sup 18}F-FDG than with {sup 18}F-HF. We concluded that the efficient accumulation of {sup 18}F in cells led to stronger biological effects due to more severe cellular lethality via the induction of DNA DSB.

  12. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-01

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2) within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia. PMID:26445058

  13. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice for men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), −3 (95% confidence interval = −67 to 37), −14 (−82 to 28), and −78 (−202 to −5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P =0.003). Conclusions In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is due to residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect. PMID:24681577

  14. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  15. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  16. Providing vertical coherence in explanations and promoting reasoning across levels of biological organization when teaching evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jördens, Janina; Asshoff, Roman; Kullmann, Harald; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Students' explanations of biological phenomena are frequently characterized by disconnects between levels and confusion of levels. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of a hands-on lab activity that aims at fostering the ability to reason across levels. A total of 197 students (18 years of age) participated in a randomized, pre-post-test design study. Students in the experimental group engaged in a lab activity focused on artificial selection and designed to demonstrate how selection affects both phenotypes and genotypes. In contrast, the lab activity in the comparison group focused on phenotype alone. Data sources for the study included pre-tests of basic concepts in genetics and evolution and two post-test items requiring the students to reproduce and apply their knowledge about artificial selection. The findings indicated that the lab activity which allowed students to explore the interplay between different levels, provided vertical coherence and enhanced students' ability to explain evolutionary change in both reproduction and transfer items. In contrast, the lab activity in the comparison group failed to do so, and most students did not improve their ability to explain evolutionary change. Implications for instruction and recommendations for further research are discussed in light of these findings.

  17. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (P< 0·05), but not in 3-year-old children; (4) Sia intake levels at breakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent. PMID:23915700

  18. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  19. Molecular-level engineering of THz/IR-sensitive materials for future biological sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight; Recine, Gregory; Bykhovski, Alexei; Zhang, Weidong

    2010-08-01

    While the unique spectral information associated with chemical and biological molecules within the terahertz frequency regime (~ 3.0-3.0 millimeters) motivates its use for practical sensing applications, limiting factors at the macroscale (weak spectral absorption, broad line widths and masking geometrical effects introduced by the samples) provides motivation for man-engineered sensing materials that allow for the transduction of the spectral information about target molecules from the nanoscale. This brief letter will overview work being performed by our research group to define molecular-level functionality that will be useful for realizing "THz/IR-sensitive" materials. Here the goal is to define switchable molecular components that when incorporated into larger DNA-based nanoscaffolds lead to THz and/or IR regime electronic and/or photonic material properties that are dictated in a predictable manner by novel functionality paradigms. In particular, theoretical modeling and design studies are being performed to engineer organic and biological switches that can be incorporated into DNA-based architectures that enable the precise extraction of nanoscale information (e.g., composition, dynamics, conformation) through electronic/photonic transformations to the macroscale. Hence, these studies seek to define new spectral-based sensing modalities useful for characterizing bio-molecules

  20. Multiweek cell culture project for use in upper-level biology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Marion, Rebecca E; Gardner, Grant E; Parks, Lisa D

    2012-06-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF, caffeine, epinephrine, heavy metals, and FBS. Students researched primary literature to determine their experimental variables, made their own solutions, and treated their cells over a period of 2 wk. Before this, a sterile technique laboratory was developed to teach students how to work with the cells and minimize contamination. Students designed their experiments, mixed their solutions, seeded their cells, and treated them with their control and experimental media. Students had the choice of manipulating a number of variables, including incubation times, exposure to treatment media, and temperature. At the end of the experiment, students observed the effects of their treatment, harvested and dyed their cells, counted relative cell numbers in control and treatment flasks, and determined the ratio of living to dead cells using a hemocytometer. At the conclusion of the experiment, students presented their findings in a poster presentation. This laboratory can be expanded or adapted to include additional cell lines and treatments. The ability to design and implement their own experiments has been shown to increase student engagement in the biology-related laboratory activities as well as develop the critical thinking skills needed for independent research. PMID:22665431

  1. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  2. Interaction of trace levels of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crans, D.C.; Bunch, R.L.; Theisen, L.A. )

    1989-09-13

    Enzyme kinetics have been used to study interactions of trace-level concentrations of vanadate (V(V)) and vanadyl cation (V(IV)) in biological systems. A quantitative method based on the inhibition of alkaline or acid phosphatase by monomeric vanadate or vanadyl cation has been developed to determine the concentration of free monomeric vanadate or vanadyl cation at 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}7} M vanadium concentrations. Interactions of vanadate and vanadyl cation with potential ligands including buffers, chelating agents, enzyme substrates, cofactors, amino acids, peptides, and proteins were examined. Seven out of 26 commonly used buffers were found to strongly complex vanadate, and an additional 11 buffers were found to complex vanadate to various degrees. The vanadyl cation generally interacts more strongly with these buffers than does vanadate.

  3. Intake of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Longitudinal Association with HbA1c Levels in the General Non-Diabetic Population—Results from the MONICA/KORA S3/F3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Sigrid; Zierer, Astrid; Heier, Margit; Fischer, Beate; Huth, Cornelia; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the association between the use of 11 vitamins and minerals (vitamins E, C, D, B1, folic acid, carotenoids, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium) and change in HbA1c levels over 10 years in non-diabetic individuals drawn from the general population. Methods Baseline data were available from 4447 subjects included in the population-based “Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases” (MONICA) Augsburg S3 survey (1994/95). Follow-up data were derived from 2774 participants in the follow-up survey named “Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg” (KORA) F3 (2004/05). Vitamin/mineral intake from supplements and medications was assessed in a personal interview, where participants were asked to bring product packages of preparations that had been ingested during the last 7 days prior to the examination. Associations between regular vitamin/mineral intake amounts and HbA1c levels measured at baseline and follow-up were investigated using generalized estimating equation models. For carotenoids, analyses were stratified by smoking status. Results None of the investigated nutrients except for carotenoids was significantly associated with changes in HbA1c levels after 10 years. Regular intake of carotenoids from supplements and medications in amounts > 6.8mg/d (upper tertile) was associated with an absolute –0.26% (95% CI: –0.43 to –0.08) lower increase in HbA1c levels compared with no intake of carotenoids. An inverse association was observed in those who never smoked but not in (former) smokers. Conclusion Larger prospective and intervention studies in non-diabetic/non-smoking individuals are needed to confirm the results and to assess whether the observed associations between carotenoid intake and change in

  4. Evolution of epithelial morphogenesis: phenotypic integration across multiple levels of biological organization

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Thorsten; Hilbrant, Maarten; Panfilio, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis involves the dynamic reorganization of cell and tissue shapes to create the three-dimensional body. Intriguingly, different species have evolved different morphogenetic processes to achieve the same general outcomes during embryonic development. How are meaningful comparisons between species made, and where do the differences lie? In this Perspective, we argue that examining the evolution of embryonic morphogenesis requires the simultaneous consideration of different levels of biological organization: (1) genes, (2) cells, (3) tissues, and (4) the entire egg, or other gestational context. To illustrate the importance of integrating these levels, we use the extraembryonic epithelia of insects—a lineage-specific innovation and evolutionary hotspot—as an exemplary case study. We discuss how recent functional data, primarily from RNAi experiments targeting the Hox3/Zen and U-shaped group transcription factors, provide insights into developmental processes at all four levels. Comparisons of these data from several species both challenge and inform our understanding of homology, in assessing how the process of epithelial morphogenesis has itself evolved. PMID:26483835

  5. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach. PMID:26528568

  6. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:25975948

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  8. Blood lead concentration and biological effects in workers exposed to very low lead levels.

    PubMed

    Masci, O; Carelli, G; Vinci, F; Castellino, N

    1998-10-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on two groups of workers engaged in tin/lead alloy welding in the telecommunication sector. The risk of exposure was evaluated by measuring levels of airborne lead (PbA) and the amount of lead absorbed (PbB). The-correlated effects were assessed by determining zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count. We also recorded subjective symptoms reported by workers. One group of welders composed of 365 subjects underwent two monitoring sessions performed in 1991 and 1995, respectively (Group A). A second group of welders (whose number fluctuated between 148 and 247 subjects) underwent yearly testing for 7 consecutive years (1988-1994; Group B). Results indicated a very low risk of lead exposure during microwelding operations (PbA range, 1.5-24 micrograms/m3). In fact, blood concentrations of Pb (range, 5-55, micrograms/dL) among both groups of welders were significantly higher than those in the general population in Rome (PbB range, 5-16 micrograms/dL); nevertheless, they were significantly lower than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limits ZPP determined only in Group B of welders ranged from 5 to 16 micrograms/dL (median, 22 micrograms/dL). No variation was found in the other biological parameters investigated, and no health effects were observed. During the study period, the introduction of some technological innovations led to a further reduction in Pb exposure and, subsequently, to its total elimination. PbB concentrations gradually declined to lower values (6-36 micrograms/dL), and it was interesting to note that ZPP concentrations also decreased to normal levels (range, 2-47 micrograms/dL; median, 11 micrograms/dL), demonstrating that the effect of lead on heme synthesis may occur even at very low levels of Pb exposure. PMID:9800174

  9. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S.; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley’s (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <−2) within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were “Modern” and “High-animal products”. After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the “High-animal products” dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the “High-animal products” dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia. PMID:26445058

  10. Using Mathematics and Engineering to Solve Problems in Secondary Level Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles; Reynolds, Birdy; Schunn, Christian; Schuchardt, Anita

    2016-01-01

    There are strong classroom ties between mathematics and the sciences of physics and chemistry, but those ties seem weaker between mathematics and biology. Practicing biologists realize both that there are interesting mathematics problems in biology, and that viewing classroom biology in the context of another discipline could support students'…

  11. The Effect of Knowledge Linking Levels in Biology Lessons upon Students' Knowledge Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadouh, Julia; Liu, Ning; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge structure is an important aspect for defining students' competency in biology learning, but how knowledge structure is influenced by the teaching process in naturalistic biology classroom settings has scarcely been empirically investigated. In this study, 49 biology lessons in the teaching unit "blood and circulatory…

  12. The effects of supplemental instruction (SI) on student performance in a college-level biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, Brenda Joyce Rowland

    1999-10-01

    This experimental study examined the effects of participation in a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program on student performance in a college level biology course. SI is an academic support program which incorporates study techniques into the framework of an academic course through discussion sessions. According to Blanc, DeBuhr, and Martin (1983) and Kenney (1988), students who experienced Supplemental Instruction had higher course grades, semester grade point averages, and rates of re-enrollment than did non-participants. The present study was conducted within the scheduled discussion sections of a large lecture class of biology for science majors (n = 135). The researcher and another graduate student conducted these discussion sessions in which half of the sections served as the SI treatment group and half of the sections served as the non-SI (traditional) control group. This design eliminated both time on task and motivation as potential contaminating variables. This posttest only, quasi-experimental design study uses a modified nonequivalent control group design. The academic performance of students who participated in SI discussion sessions was compared to the academic performance of students who participated in traditional review-type discussion sessions. Other research questions examined the interactive effect of SI on student performance with respect to SI leader experience, student ability level as measured by total SAT scores, previous academic success as measured by previous college GPA, and different cognitive level of examination questions. t-test and ANOVA statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The results of the t-tests to compare the means of the SI group to the non-SI group (p < .458) do not indicate any significant difference in the semester course scores between the two groups. Thus, the data did not show an overall effect of SI on student performance. The most important results obtained from this study are those with respect to the

  13. Assessment of DDT levels in selected environmental media and biological samples from Mexico and Central America.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo, Antonio; Ruepert, Clemens; Jovel, Reyna del Carmen; Méndez, Mónica Patricia; Ferrari, Mirtha; Saballos-Sobalvarro, Emilio; Alexander, Carlos; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia; Lopez, Dania; Henao, Samuel; Pinto, Emilio R; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the environmental persistence and the toxicity of DDT, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized a surveillance program in Mesoamerica which included the detection of residual DDT in environmental (soil) and biological samples (fish tissue and children's blood). This program was carried out in communities from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. This paper presents the first report of that program. As expected, the results show that the levels for [summation operator] DDT in soil (outdoor or indoor) and fish samples in the majority of the locations studied are below guidelines. However, in some locations, we found children with high concentrations of DDT as in Mexico (mean level 50.2 ng/mL). Furthermore, in some communities and for some matrices, the DDT/DDE quotient is higher than one and this may reflect a recent DDT exposure. Therefore, more efforts are needed to avoid exposure and to prevent the reintroduction of DDT into the region. In this regard it is important to know that under the surveillance of PAHO and with the support of UNEP, a regional program in Mesoamerica for the collection and disposal of DDT and other POPs stockpiles is in progress. PMID:20092871

  14. Visually assessing the level of development and soil surface stability of cyanobacterially dominated biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Witwicki, D.L.; Miller, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an integral part of dryland ecosystems and often included in long-term ecological monitoring programs. Estimating moss and lichen cover is fairly easy and non-destructive, but documenting cyanobacterial level of development (LOD) is more difficult. It requires sample collection for laboratory analysis, which causes soil surface disturbance. Assessing soil surface stability also requires surface disturbance. Here we present a visual technique to assess cyanobacterial LOD and soil surface stability. We define six development levels of cyanobacterially dominated soils based on soil surface darkness. We sampled chlorophyll a concentrations (the most common way of assessing cyanobacterial biomass), exopolysaccharide concentrations, and soil surface aggregate stability from representative areas of each LOD class. We found that, in the laboratory and field, LOD classes were effective at predicting chlorophyll a soil concentrations (R2=68-81%), exopolysaccharide concentrations (R2=71%), and soil aggregate stability (R2=77%). We took representative photos of these classes to construct a field guide. We then tested the ability of field crews to distinguish these classes and found this technique was highly repeatable among observers. We also discuss how to adjust this index for the different types of BSCs found in various dryland regions.

  15. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Flux Balance Constraints.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Brett G; Bergmann, Frank T

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-based modeling is a well established modelling methodology used to analyze and study biological networks on both a medium and genome scale. Due to their large size, genome scale models are typically analysed using constraint-based optimization techniques. One widely used method is Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) which, for example, requires a modelling description to include: the definition of a stoichiometric matrix, an objective function and bounds on the values that fluxes can obtain at steady state. The Flux Balance Constraints (FBC) Package extends SBML Level 3 and provides a standardized format for the encoding, exchange and annotation of constraint-based models. It includes support for modelling concepts such as objective functions, flux bounds and model component annotation that facilitates reaction balancing. The FBC package establishes a base level for the unambiguous exchange of genome-scale, constraint-based models, that can be built upon by the community to meet future needs (e. g. by extending it to cover dynamic FBC models). PMID:26528567

  16. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  17. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of ...

  18. Mangoes are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies assessing mango consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. This study assessed these associations using a nationally representative sample of children 2-18 years old (n=11,974; 50% female) and adults 19+ years (n=17,568; 48.8% femal...

  19. Toxicity of triphenyltin chloride to the rotifer Brachionus koreanus across different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-01-01

    Although triphenyltin (TPT) compounds are ubiquitous pollutants in urbanised coastal environments in Asian regions, their toxicities to marine organisms are still poorly known. This study was designed to investigate the toxicity of triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl) on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus across different levels of biological organisation. Firstly, we concurrently performed a 24 h static-acute toxicity test and a 6-day semi-static multigenerational life-cycle test using the rotifer. Our results demonstrated that the 24-h median lethal concentration of TPTCl for the rotifer was 29.6 μg/L and the 6-day median effect concentration, based on the population growth inhibition, was 3.31 μg/L. Secondly, we examined the expression of 12 heat shock protein (hsp) genes, four glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, one retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene and 13 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the rotifers after exposure to 20 µg/L TPTCl for 24 h. Among these studied genes, hsp90α2, GST-O and CYP3045C1 were the most significantly up-regulated genes with a relative expression level up to 32.9, 4.4 and 62.6 folds, respectively. The expression of these three genes in the rotifers showed an increasing trend in the first few hours of TPTCl exposure, peaked at 3 h (hsp90α2 and GST-O) and 12 h (CYP3045C1) respectively, and then gradually returned to a lower level at 24 h. Such up-regulations of hsp and GST genes probably offer cellular protection against the TPT-mediated oxidative stress while the accelerated induction of CYP genes possibly facilitates the detoxification of this toxicant in the rotifer. PMID:25045140

  20. Digestive development of the early-weaned pig. 2. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning period.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Smyth, J A; McCracken, K J

    1991-03-01

    Gastric intubation was adopted as a means of comparing the effect of two feeding levels, continuous nutrient supply (C) and restricted nutrient supply (R), on the digestive development of pigs weaned at 14 d of age, during the first 5 d post-weaning. The absolute weights of the stomach and the pancreas were significantly greater (P less than 0.001) in C compared with R pigs. The effect was not significant for pancreas weight when expressed per kg body-weight but was significant (P less than 0.05) for stomach weight. The weights of the small intestine (SI), SI mucosa and total mucosal protein were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in C pigs but protein content per g mucosa was similar in the C and R groups. There was no significant effect of treatment on the activity of lactase (beta-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.23) or sucrase (sucrose-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.48) irrespective of the basis of comparison used. The specific activity (mumol/min per g protein) of maltase (alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.20) and of glucoamylase (glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.3) were similar in C and R groups but activities of maltase (mumol/g mucosa) (P less than 0.05), and maltase and glucoamylase (mol/d) (P less than 0.01) were significantly higher in C pigs. Villous height and crypt depth were significantly greater in C pigs (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 respectively). Enteroglucagon was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in C compared with R pigs. Xylose absorption and the digestibility of energy were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and carbohydrate were significantly higher (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01, P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.001 respectively) in R pigs compared with C pigs but the differences were small, ranging from 1.3 to 2.5%. These results demonstrate that (1) nutrient intake in the weaned pig affects the anatomy, morphology and function of the gut, (2) there is

  1. [Effect of course intake of bio-active flavonoids-containing plant preparation Extralife on the level of anxiety and sensorimotor reactivity in rats].

    PubMed

    Krupina, N A; Orlova, I N; Lukyanova, L D

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data evidence the need to search for new substances for treatment and prevention of increased anxiety associated with emotional and neurotic breakdown and worsening clinical prognosis of psychosomatic diseases. Of particular interest are the drugs of plant origin, which are generally well tolerated under prolonged use, and treat- ment is cheaper as compared with modem anxiolytics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of course taking a flavonoid-containing plant preparation Extralife (water-soluble extract Pentaphylloides fruticosa, 40 mg/kg per day for 1 month) in and inbred albino rats sampled in the population using a multi-parameter method for evaluating anxiety-phobic states. This method was also used for evaluating the severity of anxiety (state anxiety) in rats in the dynamics of the survey. Sensorimotor reactivity (emotionality) was assessed by the parameters of the acoustic startle response. Extralife did not prevent the increase in state anxiety in rats and did not change the level of anxiety in the animals. However, the drug reduced the amplitude of the acoustic startle response in the animals and increased startle response latency in both and rats, that is reduced the symptoms of anxiety caused by alarm sound stimuli in terms of sensorimotor reactivity. The data testify to the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Extralife more pronounced in the animals. In a course intake of Extralife rats demonstrated transient decrease in the pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, probably associated with the occurrence of transient disturbances in the psycho-emotional sphere. The findings suggest that Extralife in a course taking may have negative side effects on the emotionality of animals that determines the need to incorporate the features of mental and emotional status of the

  2. Modeling systems-level dynamics: Understanding without mechanistic explanation in integrative systems biology.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Miles; Nersessian, Nancy J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we draw upon rich ethnographic data of two systems biology labs to explore the roles of explanation and understanding in large-scale systems modeling. We illustrate practices that depart from the goal of dynamic mechanistic explanation for the sake of more limited modeling goals. These processes use abstract mathematical formulations of bio-molecular interactions and data fitting techniques which we call top-down abstraction to trade away accurate mechanistic accounts of large-scale systems for specific information about aspects of those systems. We characterize these practices as pragmatic responses to the constraints many modelers of large-scale systems face, which in turn generate more limited pragmatic non-mechanistic forms of understanding of systems. These forms aim at knowledge of how to predict system responses in order to manipulate and control some aspects of them. We propose that this analysis of understanding provides a way to interpret what many systems biologists are aiming for in practice when they talk about the objective of a "systems-level understanding." PMID:25462871

  3. Spectroscopic properties of gold nanoparticles at the single-particle level in biological environments.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Laura C; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Labeling cells and tissues with fluorescent probes, such as organic dyes and quantum dots (Qdots) is a widespread and successful technique for studying molecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. However, those probes usually suffer from undesirable photophysical/photochemical processes, such as blinking and photobleaching, limiting their utilization. The main challenges in fluorescent probe design are to improve their absorption/emission properties, and to provide higher stability against photobleaching. In the last few years, metallic nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes, shapes, and compositions have been used as a new alternative for cellular microscopy. This is in part because-unlike common organic dyes and Qdots-metallic NPs do not bleach or blink upon continuous illumination, are extremely stable, very bright, and their luminescence spans over the visible spectrum. These characteristics make them attractive contrast agents for cell imaging both in vitro and in vivo. For these reasons, the emission of metallic NPs in bulk solutions has already been extensively characterized. In contrast with bulk experiments, where billions of molecules are measured simultaneously, single-particle techniques allow the observation of characteristics and dynamical processes otherwise hidden in the measured average. A full understanding of the photophysical properties of the NPs is critical when they are used for single-molecule applications. Photophysical processes can be a source of artifacts if they are not interpreted accordingly, and thus a careful characterization of these labels at the single-particle level became crucial for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. Herein, we study some of their unique optical properties at the single-particle level and show examples that illustrate their intrinsic heterogeneity when used in biological environments. PMID:22298327

  4. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used. PMID:26528565

  5. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  6. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of urolithins for their determination in biological samples after the intake of foods containing ellagitannins and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    Ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) are metabolized by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that could be responsible for the health effects attributed to ellagitannin-containing food products. Several urolithin aglycones could be present in fecal samples while glucuronide and sulphate conjugates are mainly found in plasma and urine. So far, the lack of available standards has made difficult their correct identification and quantification. In the present study, UV and MS spectra characteristics of urolithins and their phase II metabolites have been determined using different systems based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with diode-array or mass spectrometer detectors with different analyzers (triple quadrupole (QqQ) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Poroshell C18 column (3×100mm, 2.7μm). Elution order, characteristic UV spectra, and relative response factors (RRFs) with respect to their parental compound (EA) and the most common metabolite urolithin A (Uro-A) were determined. This contribution, along with the most important mass spectra characteristics (MRM transitions, qualifier/quantifier ratio, accurate mass and fragmentation pattern) will allow the determination of urolithin metabolites in different biological samples and their quantification even if not all metabolites are commercially available. The methods developed in the three systems have been fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, recovery, matrix effect, selectivity and stability. After that, they were successfully applied to complex biological matrices (urine, feces and plasma) from two human studies in which volunteers consumed ellagitannin-containing foods, such as walnuts and pomegranate extracts. PMID:26341594

  7. [THE INCONSISTENCIES OF REGULATION OF METABOLISM IN PHYLOGENESIS AT THREE LEVELS OF "RELATIVE BIOLOGICAL PERFECTION": ETIOLOGY OF METABOLIC PANDEMICS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The regulation of metabolism in vivo can be comprehended by considering stages of becoming inphylogenesis of humoral, hormonal, vegetative regulators separately: at the level of cells; in paracrin-regulated cenosises of cells; organs and systems under open blood circulation and closed system of blood flow. The levels of regulations formed at different stages of phylogenesis. Their completion occurred at achievement of "relative biological perfection". Only this way need of cells in functional, structural interaction and forming of multicellular developed. The development of organs and systems of organs also completed at the level of "relative biological perfection". From the same level the third stage of becoming of regulation of metabolism at the level of organism started. When three conditions of "relative biological perfection" achieved consequently at level in vivo are considered in species Homo sapiens using system approach it is detected that "relative biological perfection" in vivo is accompanied by different inconsistencies of regulation of metabolism. They are etiologic factors of "metabolic pandemics ". The inconsistencies (etiological factors) are consider as exemplified by local (at the level of paracrin-regulated cenosises of cells) and system (at the level of organism) regulation of biological reaction metabolism-microcirculation that results in dysfunction of target organs and development of pathogenesis of essential metabolic arterial hypertension. The article describes phylogenetic difference between visceral fatty cells and adpocytes, regulation of metabolism by phylogenetically late insulin, reaction of albumin at increasing of content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma, difference of function of resident macrophage and monocytes-macrophages in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, obesity, under diabetes mellitus and essential metabolic arterial hypertension. PMID:26999858

  8. The Design of Biology Laboratories for Asian Second Level Schools. Study No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, S. S.; Vickery, D. J.

    The planning of biology facilities in Asian schools is discussed in the light of present laboratory activities, curriculums, and experimenting functions. Emphasis is placed on laboratory classrooms which are described as greatly influencing biology teaching and learning. Information is given on--(1) equipment, (2) teaching methods, (3) examples of…

  9. Science Seeker: A New Model for Teaching Information Literacy to Entry-Level Biology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzold, Jacquelyn; Winterman, Brian; Montooth, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    In order to integrate library instruction seamlessly into an introductory biology course, two librarians collaborated with a biology faculty member to create a three-part series of instruction sessions known as the Science Seeker. The Science Seeker taught students about the structure of scientific information by tracing the path that discoveries…

  10. Student Views of Concept Mapping Use in Introductory Tertiary Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntting, Cathy; Coll, Richard Kevin; Campbell, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Introductory tertiary level science classes (i.e., at the university or post-compulsory school level) including those for biology face increasing diversity in intake. Previous research has indicated university level teachers assume a certain level of prior knowledge which may or may not be possessed by such students. This report focuses on the use…

  11. Effects of level of nutrient intake and age on mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 gene network expression in skeletal muscle of young Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Drackley, J K; Stamey-Lanier, J A; Keisler, D; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which level of nutrient intake enhances skeletal muscle growth in young ruminants are not fully understood. We examined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene network expression in semitendinosus muscle tissue of young male Holstein calves fed a conventional milk replacer plus conventional starter (CON) or an enhanced milk replacer plus high-protein starter (ENH) for 5 wk followed by a conventional starter or a high-protein starter until 10 wk of age. Feeding ENH led to greater concentration of plasma IGF-1 and leptin and greater carcass protein and fat mass throughout the study. Despite the greater plasma IGF-1 and protein mass at wk 5, calves fed ENH had lower expression of IGF1R, INSR, and RPS6KB1 but greater expression of IRS1 and PDPK1 in muscle tissue. Except for IGF1R expression, which did not differ at wk 10, these differences persisted at wk 10, suggesting a long-term effect of greater nutrient intake on physiological and molecular mechanisms. Components of mTOR complex (mTORC)1 and mTORC2 (RICTOR and RPTOR) and FOXO1 expression decreased by wk 10 regardless of diet. Overall, the present data revealed that greater nutrient intake throughout the milk-fed and early postweaning phase alters body mass composition partly by altering hormonal and molecular profiles of genes associated with glucose and amino acid signaling. Those networks may play a crucial role in coordinating neonatal muscle growth and metabolism in response to level of nutrient intake. PMID:24210480

  12. The effects of a CD-ROM textbook on student achievement and cognition-level attainment of undergraduate biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludrick, Brad Burton

    Purpose of the study. This study was designed to measure the effects of CD-ROM textbook integration on student achievement and student cognition-level-attainment for undergraduate general biology students. Four sections of general biology were selected as the study group. Two sections served as the experimental group receiving CD-ROM textbook integration. The remaining two sections served as the control group, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Procedure. This study employed a pre-experimental research design, static group comparison (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1996: 331), to determine if a CD-ROM textbook had significant effects on student cognition-level-attainment and content achievement of undergraduate biology students. The study was conducted during the 2001 spring semester at Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The duration of the treatment was approximately sixteen weeks. Four sections of general biology (N = 101) were selected as the study group. Two of the four sections of general biology (n = 48) were randomly selected by the researcher via coin toss to serve as the experimental group, Group A, and were taught biological content utilizing a CD-ROM Textbook. The remaining two sections of general biology (n = 53) served as the control group, Group B, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Various statistical tests were used in analysis of the data. The ten null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 9.0 (SPSS, 1999), was used to process the data. Results. The results determined by this study were the overall effects of the CD-ROM textbook did not significantly differ from the effects of the traditional textbook on student content achievement and cognition-level-attainment. Conclusions. The utilization of CD-ROM textbook instruction is not superior at improving student achievement of biology content, as

  13. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  14. BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION FOR THE NITRIFICATION OF EXCESSIVE LEVELS OF FREE AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia in source waters can cause water treatment and distribution system problems. Research on the presence of ammonia in drinking water distribution systems for example has suggested some correlation between excess ammonia and increased biological activity (Servais, 1995; Wilc...

  15. PREDICTING LEVELS OF STRESS FROM BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DATA: EMPIRICAL MODELS FROM THE EASTERN CORN BELT PLAINS, OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest is increasing in using biological community data to provide information on the specific types of anthropogenic influences impacting streams. We built empirical models that predict the level of six different types of stress with fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data as...

  16. The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Modularized, Student-Centered General Biology Curriculum at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasscer, John Clarence

    This study traces the development and testing of a particular modular curriculum design that was set up where curriculum planners produced one single-level course offering for both college biology majors and non-majors. In this design, major units of study are broken into units. In each there is a basic module completed by all students in which a…

  17. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  18. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  19. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  20. Co-culture systems and technologies: taking synthetic biology to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Goers, Lisa; Freemont, Paul; Polizzi, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Co-culture techniques find myriad applications in biology for studying natural or synthetic interactions between cell populations. Such techniques are of great importance in synthetic biology, as multi-species cell consortia and other natural or synthetic ecology systems are widely seen to hold enormous potential for foundational research as well as novel industrial, medical and environmental applications with many proof-of-principle studies in recent years. What is needed for co-cultures to fulfil their potential? Cell–cell interactions in co-cultures are strongly influenced by the extracellular environment, which is determined by the experimental set-up, which therefore needs to be given careful consideration. An overview of existing experimental and theoretical co-culture set-ups in synthetic biology and adjacent fields is given here, and challenges and opportunities involved in such experiments are discussed. Greater focus on foundational technology developments for co-cultures is needed for many synthetic biology systems to realize their potential in both applications and answering biological questions. PMID:24829281

  1. Co-culture systems and technologies: taking synthetic biology to the next level.

    PubMed

    Goers, Lisa; Freemont, Paul; Polizzi, Karen M

    2014-07-01

    Co-culture techniques find myriad applications in biology for studying natural or synthetic interactions between cell populations. Such techniques are of great importance in synthetic biology, as multi-species cell consortia and other natural or synthetic ecology systems are widely seen to hold enormous potential for foundational research as well as novel industrial, medical and environmental applications with many proof-of-principle studies in recent years. What is needed for co-cultures to fulfil their potential? Cell-cell interactions in co-cultures are strongly influenced by the extracellular environment, which is determined by the experimental set-up, which therefore needs to be given careful consideration. An overview of existing experimental and theoretical co-culture set-ups in synthetic biology and adjacent fields is given here, and challenges and opportunities involved in such experiments are discussed. Greater focus on foundational technology developments for co-cultures is needed for many synthetic biology systems to realize their potential in both applications and answering biological questions. PMID:24829281

  2. TGF-β receptor levels regulate the specificity of signaling pathway activation and biological effects of TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Andres; Padidam, Malla; Cress, Dean; Grady, William M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β is a pluripotent cytokine that mediates its effects through a receptor composed of TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2) and type I (TGFBR1). The TGF-β receptor can regulate Smad and nonSmad signaling pathways, which then ultimately dictate TGF-β's biological effects. We postulated that control of the level of TGFBR2 is a mechanism for regulating the specificity of TGF-β signaling pathway activation and TGF-β's biological effects. We used a precisely regulatable TGFBR2 expression system to assess the effects of TGFBR2 expression levels on signaling and TGF-β mediated apoptosis. We found Smad signaling and MAPK-ERK signaling activation levels correlate directly with TGFBR2 expression levels. Furthermore, p21 levels and TGF-β induced apoptosis appear to depend on relatively high TGFBR2 expression and on the activation of the MAPK-ERK and SMAD pathways. Thus, control of TGFBR2 expression and the differential activation of TGF-β signaling pathways appears to be a mechanism for regulating the specificity of the biological effects of TGF-β. PMID:19339207

  3. Species-level Analysis of Biological Literature for Storage and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shervis, L. J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in entomology which could also be used for other biological literature. With the examples of coding information into the system, a user might get some idea of how to search and what kind of information might be found. No cost analysis for running the program is included. (PS)

  4. Measurement of the laser exposure levels for burn threshold in biological tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Laufer, G.; Joachims, H.Z.; Eliachar, I.; Mordechovitz, D.

    1984-08-01

    Experiments for the evaluation of the laser energy density required to induce burn threshold in biological tissue are presented. The results are compared with a theoretical model. The values obtained for soft tissue are higher than the pain threshold and the safety standards for the maximum permissible exposure. This is due to the different nature of injury associated with the surgical process.

  5. A Task-Centered Approach to Freshman-Level General Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Greg; Bybee, David; Wolfersberger, Mark; Mendenhall, Anne; Merrill, M. David

    2009-01-01

    Many new instructional theories advocate centering instruction around a set of authentic tasks to improve application and transfer of knowledge and help students take more responsibility for their own learning. At BYU-Hawaii, a general education biology course was redesigned to follow this task-centered approach and then taught to two groups of…

  6. ATP: A Coherent View for School Advanced Level Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how instruction of biological concepts as ATP cellular energetics is related to fundamental physical science understandings. Reviews areas of common misconceptions and confusions. Summarizes results of a study which investigated students' knowledge and perception of difficulty associated with the topic of energy and ATP. (ML)

  7. An Evaluation of Web Enhanced Instruction in College Level Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keasar, Tamar; Baruch, Rachel; Grobgeld-Dahan, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Websites that accompany science courses typically aim to provide easy access to learning materials, and to facilitate student-instructor communication. We tested whether these aims were achieved in two web enhanced, lower division undergraduate biology courses in an Israeli college. We collected data on the students' attitudes through pre- and…

  8. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students†

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Dale L.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  9. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  10. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc in biological samples of paralysed steel mill workers with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif G; Shah, Faheem; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Naveed

    2011-12-01

    The determination of essential trace and toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible effects of environmental exposure on paralysed male workers (n = 75) belonging to the production and quality control departments of a steel mill. In this investigation, the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of exposed paralysis and non-paralysed steel mill workers. For comparative purposes, unexposed healthy subjects of same age group were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). The possible connection of these elements with the aetiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements of workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:21547399

  11. Biological costs of economic transition: Stress levels during the transition from communism to capitalism in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lipowicz, Anna; Szklarska, Alicja; Mitas, Andrzej W

    2016-05-01

    At the end of the 1980s, Poland began the transformation from an essentially one-party communist system to a politically pluralistic democratic system. These political and economic changes had major social consequences, among others unemployment and a sharp decrease in real personal income. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship between stress in adult men, measured by the Allostatic Load, and the socio-economic deterioration during the first part of the economic transition. The Allostatic Load included eleven markers assessing adverse nutritional intake, cardiovascular activity, inflammatory processes, and lung, hepatic and renal functions. The results indicate a significantly higher risk of metabolic dysregulation in men examined after 1990, compared to men from previous years. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables and lifestyle variables, men examined in 1991 had a 31% greater risk of higher Allostatic Load compared with men examined in 1985 (OR=1.31; p=0.0541), in 1992, this risk was 50% greater (OR=1.50; p<0.01), and in 1993, the risk was 66% greater (OR=1.66; p<0.05). The conclusion is drawn that significantly more stressogenic factors for men were those directly connected with the financial situation of their families, than a sudden but short increase of prices for goods and services. PMID:26799229

  12. Rate of sea level rise as a control on physical versus biological sedimentation: examples from Holocene of south Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.W.

    1987-05-01

    Decelerating late Holocene sea level rise over the south Florida platform has been accompanied by changes in sediment composition which reflect a transition from physically emplaced (allochthonous) sediment to biologically emplaced (autochthonous) sediment. This interpretation is based on a south Florida submergence curve which suggests that the rate of sea level rise has decreased from 26 cm/100 years, prior to 3200 y.B.P., to 3.5 cm/100 years thereafter. These compositional changes are recognizable within both mixed siliciclastic/carbonate and pure carbonate depositional systems. For example, mangrove islands located in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwest Florida are overlain by a Holocene sediment sequence which consists of (in ascending order) (1) thin basal mangrove peat, (2) thin oyster zone, (3) shelly quartz packstone, (4) oyster or vermetid packstone to boundstone, and (5) mangrove peat. The lower sequence (units 1 through 3) reflects an early deepening phase which accompanied a rapid rise in sea level. Biological sediment production was not rapid enough to keep up with rising sea level and, as such, the mangrove-fringed shoreline was overstepped. The overlying subtidal shelly quartz packstones reflect local reworking of Pleistocene quartz sands and, later, the introduction of quartz sand by suspension from offshore. As sea level rise slowed, biological sediment production and accumulation began to exceed rates of sea level rise and subsequently deposits built up to and kept pace with rising sea level (units 4 and 5). Carbon-14 dates confirm this interpretation as the thin basal peats date at 4000 y.B.P. (rapid rise) and oysters at the base of unit 4 date at 1000 y.B.P. (slow rise).

  13. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  14. The biological functions of glutathione revisited in arabidopsis transgenic plants with altered glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Xiang, C; Werner, B L; Christensen, E M; Oliver, D J

    2001-06-01

    A functional analysis of the role of glutathione in protecting plants from environmental stress was undertaken by studying Arabidopsis that had been genetically modified to have altered glutathione levels. The steady-state glutathione concentration in Arabidopsis plants was modified by expressing the cDNA for gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (GSH1) in both the sense and antisense orientation. The resulting plants had glutathione levels that ranged between 3% and 200% of the level in wild-type plants. Arabidopsis plants with low glutathione levels were hypersensitive to Cd due to the limited capacity of these plants to make phytochelatins. Plants with the lowest levels of reduced glutathione (10% of wild type) were sensitive to as little as 5 microM Cd, whereas those with 50% wild-type levels required higher Cd concentrations to inhibit growth. Elevating glutathione levels did not increase metal resistance. It is interesting that the plants with low glutathione levels were also less able to accumulate anthocyanins supporting a role for glutathione S-transferases for anthocyanin formation or for the vacuolar localization and therefore accumulation of these compounds. Plants with less than 5% of wild-type glutathione levels were smaller and more sensitive to environmental stress but otherwise grew normally. PMID:11402187

  15. Imaging of biological tissues with pixel-level analysis of second-order susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Ghazaryan, Ara; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Chen, Shean-Jen; Chen, Yang-Fang; Kim, Chang-Seok; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the recent advances in the development and applications of second-order susceptibility as a contrast mechanism in optical microscopy for biological tissues. We review nonlinear optical methods and approaches for differentiation of tissue structures and discrimination of normal and pathological skin tissues, which have been demonstrated for the potential use in clinical diagnosis. In addition, the potential of second-order susceptibility imaging, encompassing applications in differentiating various types of collagen molecules for clinical diagnosis, is demonstrated. Finally, we discuss future development and application of this technique.

  16. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  17. High School and College Biology: A Multi-Level Model of the Effects of High School Courses on Introductory Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehr, John F.; Almarode, John T.; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    In a climate where increasing numbers of students are encouraged to pursue post-secondary education, the level of preparedness students have for college-level coursework is not far from the minds of all educators, especially high school teachers. Specifically within the biological sciences, introductory biology classes often serve as the…

  18. Sea-level Rise Impacts on Oregon Estuaries: Biology and Hydrology - for posting on website

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries are transitional ecosystems located at the margin of the land and ocean and as a result they are particularly sensitive to sea level rise and other climate drivers. In this presentation, we summarize the potential impacts of sea level rise on key estuarine habitats incl...

  19. Sea-level Rise Impacts on Oregon Estuaries: Biology and Hydrology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries are transitional ecosystems located at the margin of the land and ocean and as a result they are particularly sensitive to sea level rise and other climate drivers. In this presentation, we summarize the potential impacts of sea level rise on key estuarine habitats inc...

  20. Students' Levels of Understanding Models and Modelling in Biology: Global or Aspect-Dependent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that knowledge about models is an important part of a profound understanding of Nature of Science. Consequently, researchers have developed different "levels of understanding" to analyse students', teachers', or experts' comprehension of this topic. In some approaches, "global" levels of…

  1. An efficient technique for adjusting and maintaining specific hydration levels in soft biological tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Hsieh, Adam H

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating how mechanics is affected by hydration in soft biological tissues is critical for understanding the potential effects of diseases where tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered. The ability to control ECM water content is necessary for studying hydration-dependent tissue mechanics and for minimizing confounding effects caused by differences in tissue water content among specimens. In this paper, we describe an approach to adjust and maintain water content using a two-stage hydration technique, in order to overcome unique challenges faced in mechanical testing of biological tissues. Bovine aortic tissue was selected to demonstrate the approach. A liquid phase approach using PEG solutions allowed for efficient initial adjustment of tissue hydration. This was followed by a vapor phase approach using a humidity chamber for maintaining stable water content for a defined test duration of 45 min. Incubation in PEG solution brought bovine aortic tissue samples to equilibrium water content in approximately 6 h, much more efficiently than using a humidity chamber alone. Characteristic relationships between tissue water content and PEG concentration as well as relative humidity were obtained. It was found that PEG concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% had an inverse relationship with tissue water content ranging from 80 to 380%, which corresponded to relative humidities between 53 and 99%. PMID:20678998

  2. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  3. Control of nitratation in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification rotating biological contactor through disc immersion level variation.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Berckmoes, Karla; Mosquera, Mariela; Seuntjens, Dries; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2014-03-01

    With oxygen supply playing a crucial role in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor (RBC), its controlling factors were investigated in this study. Disc rotation speeds (1.8 and 3.6rpm) showed no influence on the process performance of a lab-scale RBC, although abiotic experiments showed a significant effect on the oxygenation capacity. Estimations of the biological oxygen uptake rate revealed that 85-89% of the oxygen was absorbed by the microorganisms during the air exposure of the discs. Indeed, increasing the disc immersion (50 to 75-80%) could significantly suppress undesired nitratation, on the short and long term. The presented results demonstrated that nitratation could be controlled by the immersion level and revealed that oxygen control in an OLAND RBC should be predominantly based on the atmospheric exposure percentage of the discs. PMID:24457304

  4. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of Fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Crane, J M; Gibson, D M; Vaughan, R H; Bergstrom, G C

    2013-02-01

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of action of TrigoCor control, we quantified levels of a key family of antifungal metabolites, iturins, as well as monitored Bacillus populations on wheat spikes over 14 days post-application in both the greenhouse and the field. We found that initial iturin levels on spikes in the greenhouse were three times greater than on spikes in the field, but that by 3 days post-application, iturin levels were equivalent and very low in both settings. We also determined that iturins declined rapidly over a 3-day post-application period on wheat spikes in both environments, despite the presence of significant Bacillus populations. Greenhouse trials and antibiosis tests indicated that the lower iturin levels on wheat spikes in the field could be a major factor limiting disease control in field settings. Future efforts to improve Bacillus disease control on wheat spikes and in the phyllosphere of various plants should focus on maintaining higher levels of iturins over critical infection periods. PMID:23075168

  5. Students' Levels of Understanding Models and Modelling in Biology: Global or Aspect-Dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, Moritz; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    It is argued that knowledge about models is an important part of a profound understanding of Nature of Science. Consequently, researchers have developed different `levels of understanding' to analyse students', teachers', or experts' comprehension of this topic. In some approaches, global levels of understanding have been developed which mirror the idea of an understanding of models and modelling as a whole. Opposed to this, some authors have developed levels of understanding for distinct aspects concerning models and modelling in science (i.e. aspect-dependent levels). This points to an important issue for science education research since global conceptualisations might lead to less differentiated assessments and interventions than aspect-dependent ones. To contribute to this issue, the article summarises conceptualisations of both global and aspect-dependent levels of understanding models and modelling that have been developed in science education. Further, students' understanding of the aspects nature of models, multiple models, purpose of models, testing models, and changing models has been assessed ( N = 1,180; 11 to 19 years old; secondary schools; Berlin, Germany). It is discussed to what extent the data support the notion of global or aspect-dependent levels of understanding models and modelling in science. The results suggest that students seem to have a complex and at least partly inconsistent pattern of understanding models. Furthermore, students with high nonverbal intelligence and good marks seem to have a comparatively more consistent and more elaborated understanding of models and modelling than weaker students. Recommendations for assessment in science education research and teaching practice are made.

  6. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal. PMID:27010349

  7. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  8. Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Susanne L.

    Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

  9. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  10. APPROACHES TO EXTRAPOLATING EFFECTS OF EDCS ACROSS BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in ecological risk assessments is to obtain, in a resource-effective manner, information that provides insight both into chemical mode/mechanism of action (MOA) and adverse effects in individual animals, which are indicative of potential population-level responses. T...

  11. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  12. Probing Solvation Dynamics around Aromatic and Biological Molecules at the Single-Molecular Level.

    PubMed

    Dopfer, Otto; Fujii, Masaaki

    2016-05-11

    Solvation processes play a crucial role in chemical reactions and biomolecular recognition phenomena. Although solvation dynamics of interfacial or biological water has been studied extensively in aqueous solution, the results are generally averaged over several solvation layers and the motion of individual solvent molecules is difficult to capture. This review describes the development and application of a new experimental approach, namely, picosecond time-resolved pump-probe infrared spectroscopy of size- and isomer-selected aromatic clusters, in which for the first time the dynamics of a single individual solvent molecule can be followed in real time. The intermolecular isomerization reaction is triggered by resonant photoionization (pump), and infrared photodissociation (probe) at variable delay generates the spectroscopic signature of salient properties of the reaction, including rates, yields, pathways, branching ratios of competing reactions, existence of reaction intermediates, occurrence of back reactions, and time scales of energy relaxation processes. It is shown that this relevant information can reliably be decoded from the experimental spectra by sophisticated molecular dynamics simulations. This review covers a description of the experimental strategies and spectroscopic methods along with all applications to date, which range from aromatic clusters with nonpolar solvent molecules to aromatic monohydrated biomolecules. PMID:27054835

  13. Elevated Blood Ammonia Level Is a Potential Biological Risk Factor of Behavioral Disorders in Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yunfeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Liang, Shan; Jin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothion (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) can be toxic for the human central nervous system and cause psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. In order to evaluate the association between the two potential toxicants and mental health, in this study, we compare a male prisoner and control population. Forty-nine male prisoners and 52 control volunteers took part in the study. An aggressive behavior assessment, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to characterize the participants' mental health status. Venous blood was collected for detection of H2S and NH3. The results indicated that blood NH3 was significantly higher in male prisoners than in controls. However, blood H2S was significantly lower. Blood NH3 was also significantly and positively correlated with prisoners. In the multivariate adjusted models, after controlling for age, education, marital status, and BMI, we found a positive association between NH3 and prisoners, but not blood H2S. While the functions of the two toxicants were quite different, blood NH3 may be a potential biological risk factor for behavioral disorders and blood H2S showed neuroprotection. Additionally, the impact of other factors such as diet and gut bacteria should be considered when evaluating risk for behavioral disorders. PMID:26457003

  14. Elevated Blood Ammonia Level Is a Potential Biological Risk Factor of Behavioral Disorders in Prisoners.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunfeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Liang, Shan; Jin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothion (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) can be toxic for the human central nervous system and cause psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. In order to evaluate the association between the two potential toxicants and mental health, in this study, we compare a male prisoner and control population. Forty-nine male prisoners and 52 control volunteers took part in the study. An aggressive behavior assessment, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to characterize the participants' mental health status. Venous blood was collected for detection of H2S and NH3. The results indicated that blood NH3 was significantly higher in male prisoners than in controls. However, blood H2S was significantly lower. Blood NH3 was also significantly and positively correlated with prisoners. In the multivariate adjusted models, after controlling for age, education, marital status, and BMI, we found a positive association between NH3 and prisoners, but not blood H2S. While the functions of the two toxicants were quite different, blood NH3 may be a potential biological risk factor for behavioral disorders and blood H2S showed neuroprotection. Additionally, the impact of other factors such as diet and gut bacteria should be considered when evaluating risk for behavioral disorders. PMID:26457003

  15. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, C.; Yates, C. A.; Giles, M. B.; Baker, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, "Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics," SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146-179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of τ. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where τ is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the

  16. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, C. Giles, M. B.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2015-01-14

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, “Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics,” SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146–179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of τ. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where τ is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the

  17. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: -20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: -0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: -21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  18. SYMBIOSIS: development, implementation, and assessment of a model curriculum across biology and mathematics at the introductory level.

    PubMed

    Depelteau, Audrey M; Joplin, Karl H; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A; Seier, Edith

    2010-01-01

    "It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power." Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum. PMID:20810967

  19. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity.

    PubMed

    Ren, L; Robertson, W D; Reimer, R; Heinze, C; Schneider, C; Eggert, D; Truschow, P; Hansen, N-O; Kroetz, P; Zou, J; Miller, R J D

    2015-07-17

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics. PMID:26111866

  20. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Reimer, R.; Heinze, C.; Schneider, C.; Eggert, D.; Truschow, P.; Hansen, N.-O.; Kroetz, P.; Zou, J.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics.

  1. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    PubMed

    Sulmon, Cécile; van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. PMID:25813422

  2. Thermal conductivity of biological cells at cellular level and correlation with disease state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Woo, Yunho; Jeong, Dayeong; Park, Jaesung; Choi, Tae-Youl; Simmons, Denise Perry; Ha, Jeonghong; Kim, Dongsik

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the thermal conductivity k of matched pair cell lines: two pairs of a normal and a cancer cell, one pair of a primary and metastatic cell. The 3ω method with a nanoscale thermal sensor was used to measure k at the single-cell level. To observe the difference in k between normal and cancer cells, the measurements were conducted for Hs 578Bst/Hs 578 T (human breast cells) and TE 353.Sk/TE 354.T (human skin cells). Then k of WM-115/WM-266-4, a primary and metastatic pair of human skin cell, was measured to find the effect of disease progression on k. The measured k data for normal and disease cell samples show statistically meaningful differences. In all cases, k decreased as the disease progressed. This work shows that thermal-analysis schemes, such as the 3ω method, have a potential to detect diseases at the cell level.

  3. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Weichao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhuying

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm2 and 12 J/cm2, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  4. Potential health impacts of excessive flavonoid intake.

    PubMed

    Skibola, C F; Smith, M T

    2000-08-01

    Plant flavonoids are common dietary components that have many potent biological properties. Early studies of these compounds investigated their mutagenic and genotoxic activity in a number of in vitro assays. Recently, a renewed interest in flavonoids has been fueled by the antioxidant and estrogenic effects ascribed to them. This has led to their proposed use as anticarcinogens and cardioprotective agents, prompting a dramatic increase in their consumption as dietary supplements. Unfortunately, the potentially toxic effects of excessive flavonoid intake are largely ignored. At higher doses, flavonoids may act as mutagens, pro-oxidants that generate free radicals, and as inhibitors of key enzymes involved in hormone metabolism. Thus, in high doses, the adverse effects of flavonoids may outweigh their beneficial ones, and caution should be exercised in ingesting them at levels above that which would be obtained from a typical vegetarian diet. The unborn fetus may be especially at risk, since flavonoids readily cross the placenta. More research on the toxicological properties of flavonoids is warranted given their increasing levels of consumption. PMID:11035267

  5. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: −20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: −0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: −21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  6. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  7. Predicting levels of stress from biological assessment data: empirical models from the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Norton, Susan B; Cormier, Susan M; Smith, Marc; Jones, R Christian; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary

    2002-06-01

    Interest is increasing in using biological community data to provide information on the specific types of anthropogenic influences impacting streams. We built empirical models that predict the level of six different types of stress with fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data as explanatory variables. Significant models were found for six stressor factors: stream corridor structure; siltation; total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and iron (Fe); chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD; zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb); and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) and phosphorus (P). Model R2 values were lowest for the siltation factor and highest for TSS, BOD, and Fe. Model R2 values increased when spatial relationships were incorporated into the model. The models generally performed well when applied to a random subset of the data. Performance was more mixed when models were applied to data collected from a previous time period, perhaps because of a change in the spatial structure of these systems. These models may provide a useful indication of the levels of different stresses impacting stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion of Ohio, USA. More generally, the models provide additional evidence that biological communities can serve as useful indicators of the types of anthropogenic stress impacting aquatic systems. PMID:12069299

  8. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  9. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, G.J.; Passmore, M.E.; Borsuk, F.A.; Reynolds, L.; Rose, C.J.

    2008-09-15

    Surface coal mining with valley fills has impaired the aquatic life in numerous streams in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We characterized macroinvertebrate communities from riffles in 37 small West Virginia streams (10 unmined and 27 mined sites with valley fills) sampled in the spring index period (March-May) and compared the assessment results using family- and genus-level taxonomic data. Specific conductance was used to categorize levels of mining disturbance in mined watersheds as low (<500 {mu} S/cm), medium (500-1000 {mu} S/cm), or high (>1000 {mu} S/cm). Four lines of evidence indicate that mining activities impair biological condition of streams: shift in species assemblages, loss of Epherneroptera taxa, changes in individual metrics and indices, and differences in water chemistry. Results were consistent whether family- or genus-level data were used. In both family- and genus-level nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations, mined sites were significantly separated from unmined sites, indicating that shifts in community structure were caused by mining. Several Epherneroptera genera (e.g., Ephemerella, Epeorus, Drunella) and their families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae) were correlated most strongly with the primary NMS axis. These same Ephemeroptera were absent and, thus, eliminated from most of the mined sites. Total Ephemeroptera richness and relative abundance both declined with increasing mining disturbance. Several other metrics, such as richness, composition, tolerance, and diversity, clearly discriminated unmined vs mined sites. The results show that mining activity has had subtle to severe impacts on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and that the biological condition most strongly correlates with a gradient of ionic strength.

  10. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B₁ levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-08-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B₁ (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  11. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  12. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  13. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  14. RNA around the clock – regulation at the RNA level in biological timing

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Christine; Staiger, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    The circadian timing system in plants synchronizes their physiological functions with the environment. This is achieved by a global control of gene expression programs with a considerable part of the transcriptome undergoing 24-h oscillations in steady-state abundance. These circadian oscillations are driven by a set of core clock proteins that generate their own 24-h rhythm through periodic feedback on their own transcription. Additionally, post-transcriptional events are instrumental for oscillations of core clock genes and genes in clock output. Here we provide an update on molecular events at the RNA level that contribute to the 24-h rhythm of the core clock proteins and shape the circadian transcriptome. We focus on the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also discuss selected regulatory principles in other organisms. PMID:25999975

  15. Biologically Motivated Novel Localization Paradigm by High-Level Multiple Object Recognition in Panoramic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Shim, Min-Sheob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel paradigm of a global localization method motivated by human visual systems (HVSs). HVSs actively use the information of the object recognition results for self-position localization and for viewing direction. The proposed localization paradigm consisted of three parts: panoramic image acquisition, multiple object recognition, and grid-based localization. Multiple object recognition information from panoramic images is utilized in the localization part. High-level object information was useful not only for global localization, but also for robot-object interactions. The metric global localization (position, viewing direction) was conducted based on the bearing information of recognized objects from just one panoramic image. The feasibility of the novel localization paradigm was validated experimentally. PMID:26457323

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…

  17. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden. PMID:22299424

  18. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events. PMID:26745353

  19. Anticipatory and consummatory effects of (hedonic) chocolate intake are associated with increased circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and endocannabinoids in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Antonello E.; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Aveta, Teresa; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Bini, Silvia; Cella, Silvano G.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown. Methods To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners) in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), anandamide (AEA), 2-AG, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in 10 satiated severely obese subjects after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same bromatologic composition. Evaluation of hunger and satiety was also performed by visual analogic scale. Results The anticipatory phase and the consumption of food for pleasure were associated with increased circulating levels of ghrelin, AEA, 2-AG, and OEA. In contrast, the levels of GLP-1, PYY, and PEA did not differ before and after the exposure/ingestion of either chocolate or non-palatable foods. Hunger and satiety were higher and lower, respectively, in the hedonic session than in the non-palatable one. Conclusions When motivation to eat is generated by exposure to, and consumption of, chocolate a peripheral activation of specific endogenous rewarding chemical signals, including ghrelin, AEA, and 2-AG, is observed in obese subjects. Although preliminary, these findings predict the effectiveness of ghrelin and endocannabinoid antagonists in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26546790

  20. The effect of Momordica charantia intake on the estrogen receptors ESRα/ESRβ gene levels and apoptosis on uterine tissue in ovariectomy rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ozge; Akpinar, Hikmet; Oba, Rabia; Cilingir, Ozlem Tugce; Ozdemir, Zarife Nigar; Cetinel, Sule; Yoldemir, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen or combinational hormone therapy can protect to menopausal symptoms but exogenous estrogen therapy has some potential risks which in turns lead to the appearance of various diseases. In recent years plants with high phytoestrogen content are recommended as therapeutic agents for postmenopausal hormonal treatment. In this research, we investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) on the estrogen production and E2 as well as anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic role on the ovariectomy rat model. The rats were ovariectomized and fed on 2 g/kg of fruit extra of MC for 30 days by gavage. 17-β estradiol (E2) and 8-OHdG levels in serum, markers of oxidative damage of ROS and ESRα, ESRβ and NF-kB gene levels were measured in uterus horn tissue. Caspase-3, caspase-9, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, Bcl-2 and Nf-kB proteins expression were assessed by western blotting. Structural changes in tissue were examined with H&E staining. MC administration also stimulated the E2 production and ESRα/ESRβ gene levels and the inhibited oxidative damage. Furthermore, MC treatment enhanced anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory process and tissue regeneration. Data herein support that MC directly regulates uterine estrogen response and may serve as a new phytoestrogenic substance for the treatment of post-menopausal symptoms. PMID:25253099

  1. Effects of different levels of supplementation of a 50:50 mixture of molasses:crude glycerol on performance, Bermuda grass hay intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ciriaco, F M; Henry, D D; Mercadante, V R G; Schulmeister, T; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of supplementation with a 50:50 (as-fed) mixture of molasses:crude glycerol on animal performance, total tract digestibility of nutrients, and ruminal in situ degradability of nutrients in beef heifers and steers consuming Tifton 85 Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp.) hay. For Exp. 1, 24 Angus crossbred heifers (380 ± 31 kg BW) were used in a generalized randomized block design. For Exp. 2, 8 ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (323 ± 42 kg BW) were used in a 4 × 4 duplicated Latin square design. For both experiments, animals were housed in individual pens at the University of Florida Feed Efficiency Facility, had ad libitum access to Tifton 85 Bermuda grass hay, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) CTRL, no supplementation; 2) SUP1, 0.45 kg/d (as fed) of 50:50 mixture; 3) SUP3, 1.36 kg/d (as fed) of 50:50 mixture; and 4) SUP5, 2.27 kg/d (as fed) of a 50:50 mixture. Individual feed intake was recorded. Total DMI increased linearly (P = 0.005) as the level of supplementation increased. Hay intake ranged from 1.36 (CTRL) to 1.23% (SUP5) of BW, and was not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by liquid supplementation. Final BW was not affected by liquid supplementation ( ≥ 0.10). There was a linear increase (P = 0.027) in ADG as the liquid supplementation amounts increased. Liquid supplementation did not affect G:F (P ≥ 0.10). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased linearly (P < 0.001), while CP total tract digestibility decreased linearly (P = 0.002) as the level of supplementation increased. Ruminal pH was decreased linearly (P = 0.012) as the level of supplementation increased. No effect (P ≥ 0.10) of liquid supplementation was detected on lag time for NDF and ADF content of bermudagrass hay; however, rate of degradation (Kd) of NDF tended (P = 0.076) to be affected cubically by liquid supplementation. In addition, liquid supplementation linearly

  2. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  3. Comparison of ochratoxin A levels in edible pig tissues and in biological fluids after exposure to a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kudumija, Nina; Kovačević, Dragan; Scortichini, Giampiero; Milone, Salvatore; Kmetič, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in pig tissues and biological fluids after animal exposure to contaminated diet (250 μg OTA/kg of feed) during 4 weeks of fattening. OTA concentrations were quantified using a validated immunoassay method (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The highest mean OTA concentration in pig tissues was determined in kidneys of exposed animals (13.87 ± 1.41 μg/kg), followed by lungs (10.47 ± 1.97 μg/kg), liver (7.28 ± 1.75 μg/kg), spleen (4.81 ± 0.99 μg/kg), muscle tissue (4.72 ± 0.86 μg/kg), fat tissue (4.11 ± 0.88 μg/kg), heart (3.71 ± 1.09 μg/kg), and brain (3.01 ± 0.25 μg/kg). Furthermore, on the last day of exposure (day 28), significantly higher mean OTA levels were determined in urine (16.06 ± 3.09 μg/L) in comparison to serum (4.77 ± 1.57 μg/L) showing that OTA urine analysis could be a good marker to identify elevated levels of this contaminant in porcine tissues used for human consumption. This study gave guidelines for the most efficient OTA control in pig-derived biological materials that can be exercised at slaughterhouses. PMID:27056395

  4. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  5. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  6. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    NAGINO, Takayuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; MASUOKA, Norie; KAGA, Chiaki; ANBE, Michitoshi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; KAMACHI, Keiko; ISOZAKI, Mariko; SUZUKI, Chigusa; KASUGA, Chikako; TANAKA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  7. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Nagino, Takayuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Masuoka, Norie; Kaga, Chiaki; Anbe, Michitoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Kamachi, Keiko; Isozaki, Mariko; Suzuki, Chigusa; Kasuga, Chikako; Tanaka, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  8. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410. PMID:27364113

  9. Effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Maleki, Bibi; Shahriari, Mohsen; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a stressful event with several functional, physical, psychological, social, and economic problems that affect individuals’ different living balances. With coping strategies, patients try to control these problems and return to their natural life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial in which 50 patients, affected by brain stroke and being admitted in the neurology ward of Kashani and Alzahra hospitals, were randomly assigned to control and study groups in Isfahan in 2013. Roy adaptation model care plan was administered in biological dimension in the form of four sessions and phone call follow-ups for 1 month. The forms related to Roy adaptation model were completed before and after intervention in the two groups. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data through SPSS 18. Results: There was a significant difference in mean score of adaptation in physiological dimension in the study group after intervention (P < 0.001) compared to before intervention. Comparison of the mean scores of changes of adaptation in the patients affected by brain stroke in the study and control groups showed a significant increase in physiological dimension in the study group by 47.30 after intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of study showed that Roy adaptation model biological dimension care plan can result in an increase in adaptation in patients with stroke in physiological dimension. Nurses can use this model for increasing patients’ adaptation. PMID:25878708

  10. Circadian rhythm of dihydrouracil/uracil ratios in biological fluids: a potential biomarker for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase levels

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Lu, Jing; Ji, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    In many cancer patients, 5-fluorouracil (5-FUra) treatment is toxic and even causes death. Nevertheless, all patients are subjected to a standard therapy regimen because there is no reliable way to identify beforehand those patients who are predisposed to 5-FUra-induced toxicity. In this study, we identified the dihydrouracil/uracil (UH2/Ura) ratio in plasma or urine as a potential biomarker reflecting the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-FUra metabolism. UH2/Ura ratios were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in both healthy subjects (n=55) and in patients (n=20) diagnosed with grade I/II gestational trophoblastic tumours. In addition, rats (n=18) were used as an animal model to verify a correlation between UH2/Ura ratios and DPD levels in the liver. A significant circadian rhythm was observed in UH2/Ura ratios in healthy subjects, whereas a disrupted rhythm occurred in cancer patients who were continuously infused with a high dose of 5-FUra. In rats, UH2/Ura ratios, liver DPD levels and PBMC DPD levels showed a definite circadian rhythm. Significant linear correlations with liver DPD levels were demonstrated for plasma UH2/Ura ratios (r=0.883, P<0.01), urine UH2/Ura ratios (r=0.832, P<0.01) and PBMC DPD levels (r=0.859, P<0.01). The UH2/Ura ratio in biological fluid was significantly correlated with liver DPD levels; hence, this ratio could be a potential biomarker to identify patients with a deficiency in DPD. PMID:14744810

  11. Final Report: Biological and Synthetic Nanostructures Controlled at the Atomistic Level

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A; van Buuren, T

    2007-02-21

    Nanotechnology holds great promise for many application fields, ranging from the semiconductor industry to medical research and national security. Novel, nanostructured materials are the fundamental building blocks upon which all these future nanotechnologies will be based. In this Strategic Initiative (SI) we conducted a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the modeling, synthesis, characterization, and design techniques which are required to fabricate semiconducting and metallic nanostructures with enhanced properties. We focused on developing capabilities that have broad applicability to a wide range of materials and can be applied both to nanomaterials that are currently being developed for nanotechnology applications and also to new, yet to be discovered, nanomaterials. During this 3 year SI project we have made excellent scientific progress in each of the components of this project. We have developed first-principles techniques for modeling the structural, electronic, optical, and transport properties of materials at the nanoscale. For the first time, we have simulated nanomaterials both in vacuum and in aqueous solution. These simulation capabilities harness the worldleading computational resources available at LLNL to model, at the quantum mechanical level, systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons. Significant advances in the density functional and quantum Monte Carlo techniques employed in this project were developed to enable these techniques to scale up to simulating realistic size nanostructured materials. We have developed the first successful techniques for chemically synthesizing crystalline silicon and germanium nanoparticles and nanowires. We grew the first macroscopic, faceted superlattice crystals from these nanoparticles. We have also advanced our capabilities to synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles using physical vapor deposition techniques so that we are now able to control of the size, shape and

  12. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to

  14. The effect of dietary L-arginine intake on the level of antibody titer, the relative organ weight and colon motility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, T; Ozdemir, V; Bulbul, A; Ulutas, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) levels in diet at the starter, grower and finisher phases on immune response, organ development, nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and colon motility in broilers. A total of 500 one-day-old Ross-308 broiler chickens of mixed sex were separated into one Arg-deficient group and four experimental groups. Each group was then divided into five subgroups of 20 birds each. Arginine deficient group for all phases was fed a basal diet which contained 10% less L-Arg than optimum Arg requirement recommended by the breeder. Experimental groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with L-Arg which was progressively 10% increased in groups. Thus, the diet contained 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130% of optimum Arg requirement for each phases in groups, respectively. The highest serum infectious bursal disease antibody titer (IBD) was observed in the experimental group which was fed the diet containing 110% L-Arg at grower phase (P < 0.05), whereas Newcastle disease antibody titer did not differ between groups. The relative weight of spleen increased in groups which were fed the diet containing 120 and 130% L-Arg at starter phase as compared to Arg-deficient group (P < 0.05). The group which was fed the diet containing 110% L-Arg showed highest relative weight of bursa Fabricii at grower (P < 0.05) and finisher (P < 0.01) phases. It was observed that serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration decreased in Arg-deficient group (P < 0.05). The amplitude of spontaneous colon contractility did not differ between groups at the end of all three phases. However, the frequency of spontaneous colon contractility in the Arg deficient group was higher at starter (P<0.05), grower (P < 0.01) and finisher (P < 0.05) phases. These results suggest that the supplementation of L-Arg at higher level than optimum Arg requirement in broiler diet has minimal effect on parameters investigated in the study. However, L-Arg-deficiency may negatively

  15. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  16. Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ≥ 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

  17. Glucose and lipid metabolism in the pancreas of rainbow trout is regulated at the molecular level by nutritional status and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Seiliez, Iban; Soengas, Jose Luis; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-05-01

    Glucose and lipid metabolism in pancreatic islet organs is poorly characterized. In the present study, using as a model the carnivorous rainbow trout, a glucose-intolerant fish, we assessed mRNA expression levels of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (including ATP-citrate lyase; carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 isoforms, CPT; the mitochondrial isoform of the phosphoenolpyrutave carboxykinase, mPEPCK and pyruvate kinase, PK) and glucosensing (glucose transporter type 2, Glut2; glucokinase, GK and the potassium channel, K(ATP)) in Brockmann bodies. We evaluated the response of these parameters to changes in feeding status (food deprived vs. fed fish) as well as to changes in the amount of carbohydrate (dextrin) in the diet. A general inhibition of the glycolytic (including the glucosensing marker GK) and β-oxidation pathways was found when comparing fed versus food-deprived fish. When comparing fish feeding on either low- or high-carbohydrate diets, we found that some genes related to lipid metabolism were more controlled by the feeding status than by the carbohydrate content (fatty acid synthase, CPTs). Findings are discussed in the context of pancreatic regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fish, and show that while trout pancreatic metabolism can partially adapt to a high-carbohydrate diet, some of the molecular actors studied seem to be poorly regulated (K(ATP)) and may contribute to the glucose intolerance observed in this species when fed high-carbohydrate diets. PMID:22203338

  18. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice.

    PubMed

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Borkowska, Alison G; Bernhard, Annette; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Lock, Erik-Jan; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Torstensen, Bente E; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct spillover effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed, reflected in the salmon, and hence also in the mice diets, led to a selectively increased abundance of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool in the livers of the mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of hepatic ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduced abundance of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the observed marked metabolic differences between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming. PMID:25776459

  19. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  20. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  1. Long-term effect of partial nephrectomy on biological parameters, kidney histology, and guanidino compound levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Al Banchaabouchi, M; Marescau, B; Van Marck, E; D'hooge, R; De Deyn, P P

    2001-12-01

    The long-term adverse consequences of early renal mass reduction in mice have not yet been investigated. The effects of partial surgical nephrectomy (NX) in 2-month-old mice on some biological parameters, on histopathologic and morphometric features of the kidney, and on urea and guanidino compound (GC) levels in plasma, urine, and brain were examined at 10 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 12 months postsurgery. Body weight, urinary volume, and plasma urea were most affected at 10 days and 12 months post-NX. NX-induced changes in the remaining renal tissue (including hypertrophy, glomerular mesangial expansion, and presence of protein casts) increased with age. As in human renal insufficiency, NX mice showed significantly higher plasma guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) and creatinine (CTN) levels at all studied periods. The same tendency could be seen for most other plasma GCs examined, except for arginine (Arg), guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), and homoarginine (HA). As seen in human pathobiochemistry, the latter 2 compounds tended to be lower in NX mice in our follow-up study. Remarkably, and also similar to humans, NX mice excreted less GAA and more GSA than controls during the entire follow-up study. During the follow-up, excretion levels of GAA were unchanged in NX and sham-operated mice. In brain, GAA and gamma-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) levels were always higher in NX mice with a tendency to respectively increase or decrease over time in NX as well as sham-operated mice. Although urea and GC metabolism were influenced by time post-NX and aging, the model was confirmed to display a mild stable chronic impairment of renal function. Histopathologic and morphometric changes of the kidney increased with age. PMID:11735086

  2. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  3. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  4. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  5. Towards a System Level Understanding of Non-Model Organisms Sampled from the Environment: A Network Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tim D.; Turan, Nil; Diab, Amer M.; Wu, Huifeng; Mackenzie, Carolynn; Bartie, Katie L.; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Lyons, Brett P.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Herbert, John M.; Abraham, Joseph K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leaver, Michael J.; Taggart, John B.; George, Stephen G.; Viant, Mark R.; Chipman, Kevin J.; Falciani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations. PMID:21901081

  6. Biological Consequences and Health Risks Of Low-Level Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: Commentary on the Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Brooks, Antone L.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides an integration and discussion of the information presented at the workshop held from May 2 to 5, 2010, in Richland, WA, adjacent to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Consequently, this is commentary and not necessarily a consensus document. This workshop was in honor of Dr. Victor P. Bond in celebration of his numerous contributions to the radiation sciences. Internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment were invited to discuss all issues of low-dose risk. This included the physics of track structure and its consequences to dosimetry, primary and secondary responses at the molecular, cellular, and tissue biology levels, epidemiology, definitions of risk, and the practical and regulatory applications of these issues including their biomedical and social consequences. Of major concern was the present state of knowledge about cancer risk and other risks in humans following intentional or accidental exposures to low doses and low dose-rates of ionizing radiation (below about 100 mSv accumulated dose). This includes low dose exposures which occur during radiation therapy in tissues located outside of the irradiated volume. The interdisciplinary approach of this workshop featured discussions rather than formal presentations in ten separate consecutive sessions. Each session was led by chairpersons, listed in the opening of the workshop, which introduced topics, facts and posed relevant questions. The content of each session is given by a brief summary followed by the abstracts from the primary discussants in the session as has been presented in the previous section. This manuscript provides additional review and discussion of the sessions and tracks the topics and issues discussed as follows: • Energy deposition through particle tracks in tissues. • Energy deposition and primary effects in tissues. • Consequences of experimental advances in radiobiology • Non

  7. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  8. 9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS BRIDGE FROM WATER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  10. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  11. Intake of small-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids is associated with peripheral leukocyte telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Song, Yiqing; Kang, Mo K; Hou, Lifang; Wallace, Robert; Eaton, Charles B; Tinker, Lesley F; Liu, Simin

    2013-06-01

    Dietary factors, including dietary fat, may affect the biological aging process, as reflected by the shortening of telomere length (TL), by affecting levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the direct relations of total and types of dietary fats and fat-rich foods to peripheral leukocyte TL. In 4029 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative, intakes of total fat, individual fatty acids, and fat-rich foods were assessed by a questionnaire. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intake of short-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SMSFAs; aliphatic tails of ≤ 12 carbons) was inversely associated with TL. Compared with participants in other quartiles of SMSFA intake, women who were in the highest quartile (median: 1.29% of energy) had shorter TLs [mean: 4.00 kb (95% CI: 3.89, 4.11 kb)], whereas women in the lowest quartile of intake (median: 0.29% of energy) had longer TLs [mean: 4.13 kb (95% CI: 4.03, 4.24 kb); P-trend = 0.046]. Except for lauric acid, all other individual SMSFAs were inversely associated with TL (P < 0.05). In isoenergetic substitution models, the substitution of 1% of energy from SMSFAs with any other energy source was associated with 119 bp longer TLs (95% CI: 21, 216 bp). Intakes of nonskim milk, butter, and whole-milk cheese (major sources of SMSFAs) were all inversely associated with TL. No significant associations were found with long-chain saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, we found that higher intakes of SMSFAs and SMSFA-rich foods were associated with shorter peripheral leukocyte TL among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest the potential roles of SMSFAs in the rate of biological aging. PMID:23616516

  12. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  13. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  14. Biological effects of short, high-level exposure to gases: ammonia. Phase report, May 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Legters, L.J.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents an analysis and synthesis of the available literature concerned with possible health and performance effects of exposures to ammonia. The US Army's concern is with short, high-level exposures that may exceed present threshold limit values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (25 ppm or 17 mg/cum as a TWA and a ceiling of 35 ppm or 24 mg/cum for 15 minutes). The organs primarily affected by exposure to ammonia gas are the respiratory tract and the eyes. During brief exposures to concentrations of 500 ppm (348 mg/cum) or less, the biologic responses are immediate, reversible, and mainly irritant. Below 50 ppm (35 mg/cum), there are no significant effects except that the odor of ammonia is detectable. Between 50-100 ppm (35-70 mg/cum), most people experience some degree of irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. There is some evidence indicating that personnel may become acclimated to the irritant effects after only 1 or 2 weeks of inhalation.

  15. Cell-cell channels, viruses, and evolution: via infection, parasitism, and symbiosis toward higher levels of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Baluska, Frantisek

    2009-10-01

    Between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells there is dramatic difference in complexity which represents a problem for the current version of the cell theory, as well as for the current version of evolution theory. In the past few decades, the serial endosymbiotic theory of Lynn Margulis has been confirmed. This results in a radical departure from our understanding of living systems: the eukaryotic cell represents de facto"cells-within-cell." Higher order "cells-within-cell" situations are obvious at the eukaryotic cell level in the form of secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis, or in the male and female gametophytes of higher plants. The next challenge of the current version of the cell theory is represented by the fact that the multicellular fungi and plants are, in fact, supracellular assemblies as their cells are not physically separated from each other. Moreover, there are also examples of alliances and mergings between multicellular organisms. Infection, especially the viral one, but also bacterial and fungal infections, followed by symbiosis, is proposed to act as the major force that drives the biological evolution toward higher complexity. PMID:19845631

  16. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?

    PubMed

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O; Muir, Derek C G; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-15

    Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of six CHBs (Parlar-26, -40/-41, -44, -50, and -62) among the five seal species. Seal species could be separated into three groups based on their respective sigmaCHB mean concentrations (+/-standard error): gray (49+/-3.9 ng/g lipid weight) and harbor (80+/-20 ng/g lipid weight) seals were more contaminated than ringed seals (18+/-7.6 ng/g lipid weight) but less contaminated than harp (370+/-87 ng/g lipid weight) and hooded (680+/-310 ng/g lipid weight) seals. These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly contaminated via atmospheric transportfrom the southeastern part of the United States. Thus, biological factors such as sex, age, nutritive condition, metabolism capacity, and diet of the animals collected were considered. Results reported in this study indicated that the diet is likely the main factor accounting for interspecies variations in toxaphene contamination in seals from eastern Canada. PMID:15819196

  17. Systems Biology Investigation of cAMP Modulation to Increase SMN Levels for the Treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Sean G.; Cook, Daniel J.; Dhurjati, Prasad; Butchbach, Matthew E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant death worldwide, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1), which encodes the protein SMN. The loss of SMN1 causes a deficiency in SMN protein levels leading to motor neuron cell death in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMN2, however, can also produce some functional SMN to partially compensate for loss of SMN1 in SMA suggesting increasing transcription of SMN2 as a potential therapy to treat patients with SMA. A cAMP response element was identified on the SMN2 promoter, implicating cAMP activation as a step in the transcription of SMN2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modulating the cAMP signaling cascade on SMN production in vitro and in silico. SMA patient fibroblasts were treated with the cAMP signaling modulators rolipram, salbutamol, dbcAMP, epinephrine and forskolin. All of the modulators tested were able to increase gem formation, a marker for SMN protein in the nucleus, in a dose-dependent manner. We then derived two possible mathematical models simulating the regulation of SMN2 expression by cAMP signaling. Both models fit well with our experimental data. In silico treatment of SMA fibroblasts simultaneously with two different cAMP modulators resulted in an additive increase in gem formation. This study shows how a systems biology approach can be used to develop potential therapeutic targets for treating SMA. PMID:25514431

  18. A Comparison of Two Low-Stakes Methods for Administering a Program-Level Biology Concept Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Brian A.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Concept assessments are used commonly in undergraduate science courses to assess student learning and diagnose areas of student difficulty. While most concept assessments align with the content of individual courses or course topics, some concept assessments have been developed for use at the programmatic level to gauge student progress and achievement over a series of courses or an entire major. The broad scope of a program-level assessment, which exceeds the content of any single course, creates several test administration issues, including finding a suitable time for students to take the assessment and adequately incentivizing student participation. These logistical considerations must also be weighed against test security and the ability of students to use unauthorized resources that could compromise test validity. To understand how potential administration methods affect student outcomes, we administered the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to three pairs of matched upper-division courses in two ways: an online assessment taken by students outside of class and a paper-based assessment taken during class. We found that overall test scores were not significantly different and that individual item difficulties were highly correlated between these two administration methods. However, in-class administration resulted in reduced completion rates of items at the end of the assessment. Taken together, these results suggest that an online, outside-of-class administration produces scores that are comparable to a paper-based, in-class format and has the added advantages that instructors do not have to dedicate class time and students are more likely to complete the entire assessment. PMID:26753025

  19. Increase in cruciferous vegetable intake in women previously treated for breast cancer participating in a dietary intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L; Caan, Bette J; Flatt, Shirley W; Al-Delaimy, Wael A; Newman, Vicky A; Hajek, Richard A; Chilton, Janice A; Pierce, John P

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk mechanistically and in population-based studies, although evidence has been inconsistent. This inconsistency may be related to limitations in quantifying and qualifying cruciferous vegetable exposure using standard instruments for dietary assessment (for example, food-frequency questionnaires, FFQs) or due to low levels of intake demonstrated among U.S. population samples. Cruciferous vegetable intake data are presented from a longitudinal study of a high-vegetable dietary intervention to reduce breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors (n=1,156; 536 intervention and 620 comparison group subjects). Intake was assessed using repeat administration of an FFQ and cross-sectional administration of a cruciferous vegetable-specific FFQ (CVFFQ). Mean intake in the intervention group assessed using the standard FFQ was 37.7 g/day at baseline and increased to 57.1 g/day at 12 mo (P=0.0001) and was sustained through 48 mo. Broccoli and cabbage were the most commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables, regardless of the instrument used to assess intake. Differences in intake by group assignment were shown for raw cruciferous vegetables (30.2 g/day vs. 24.6 g/day, assessed using the CVFFQ), suggesting increased exposure to biologically active, cancer-preventive food constituents. These data suggest that this study population will be the first U.S. population sample to provide ample quantity and variety in cruciferous intake to examine whether these vegetables are protective against breast cancer recurrence. PMID:17516858

  20. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  1. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dane, Adrie D; Strassburg, Katrin; Vreeken, Rob J; Newman, John W; Salem, Norman; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n = 8 per group) from days 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained incremental ARA or incremental DHA levels as follows (% fatty acid, ARA/DHA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D1) 0.66/0.33; and (D2) 0.67/0.62, resulting in incremental intake (g/kg BW/day) of ARA: 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.03, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.82 ± 0.05 at constant DHA intake (0.82 ± 0.05), or incremental intake of DHA: 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.03, and 0.81 ± 0.05 at constant ARA intake (0.54 ± 0.04). Plasma oxylipin concentrations and free plasma PUFA levels were determined at day 28 using LC-MS/MS. Incremental dietary ARA intake dose-dependently increased plasma ARA levels. In parallel, ARA intake dose-dependently increased ARA-derived diols 5,6- and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) and linoleic acid-derived 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (DiHOME), downstream metabolites of cytochrome P450 expoxygenase (CYP). The ARA epoxide products from CYP are important in vascular homeostatic maintenance. Incremental DHA intake increased plasma DHA and most markedly raised the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) metabolite 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DiHETE) and the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (DiHDPE). In conclusion, increasing ARA and DHA intake dose-dependently influenced endogenous n-6 and n-3 oxylipin plasma concentrations in growing piglets, although the biological relevance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:23543770

  2. SYMBIOSIS: Development, Implementation, and Assessment of a Model Curriculum across Biology and Mathematics at the Introductory Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depelteau, Audrey M.; Joplin, Karl H.; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A., III; Seier, Edith

    2010-01-01

    With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18…

  3. Visual Literacy Skills of Students in College-Level Biology: Learning Outcomes Following Digital or Hand-Drawing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Justine C.

    2014-01-01

    To test the claim that digital learning tools enhance the acquisition of visual literacy in this generation of biology students, a learning intervention was carried out with 33 students enrolled in an introductory college biology course. This study compared learning outcomes following two types of learning tools: a traditional drawing activity, or…

  4. Analyzing Change in Students' Gene-to-Evolution Models in College-Level Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauer, Joseph T.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Speth, Elena Bray; Makohon-Moore, Sasha C.; Long, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Research in contemporary biology has become increasingly complex and organized around understanding biological processes in the context of systems. To better reflect the ways of thinking required for learning about systems, we developed and implemented a pedagogical approach using box-and-arrow models (similar to concept maps) as a foundational…

  5. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  6. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  7. Dietary intake in patients with small cell lung cancer: the effect of aggressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, L; Hannibal, J; Allingstrup, L

    1992-07-01

    Energy and protein intake in 32 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer was examined at initiation of cyclical chemotherapy and after 1 and 3 months. With each cycle intakes decreased in the first 2 days following chemotherapy, but were back to pretreatment levels on the third day. Eleven of the patients lost weight in the study period. Their energy and protein intakes were lower following chemotherapy compared to pretreatment intakes and to post-therapy intakes in weight-stable patients. Pretreatment intakes did not decrease over time, either in weight-losing or in weight-stable patients. PMID:1320568

  8. BioMOL: a computer-assisted biological modeling tool for complex chemical mixtures and biological processes at the molecular level.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael T; Hou, Gang; Quann, Richard J; Wei, Wei; Liao, Kai H; Yang, Raymond S H; Campain, Julie A; Mazurek, Monica A; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A chemical engineering approach for the rigorous construction, solution, and optimization of detailed kinetic models for biological processes is described. This modeling capability addresses the required technical components of detailed kinetic modeling, namely, the modeling of reactant structure and composition, the building of the reaction network, the organization of model parameters, the solution of the kinetic model, and the optimization of the model. Even though this modeling approach has enjoyed successful application in the petroleum industry, its application to biomedical research has just begun. We propose to expand the horizons on classic pharmacokinetics and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK), where human or animal bodies were often described by a few compartments, by integrating PBPK with reaction network modeling described in this article. If one draws a parallel between an oil refinery, where the application of this modeling approach has been very successful, and a human body, the individual processing units in the oil refinery may be considered equivalent to the vital organs of the human body. Even though the cell or organ may be much more complicated, the complex biochemical reaction networks in each organ may be similarly modeled and linked in much the same way as the modeling of the entire oil refinery through linkage of the individual processing units. The integrated chemical engineering software package described in this article, BioMOL, denotes the biological application of molecular-oriented lumping. BioMOL can build a detailed model in 1-1,000 CPU sec using standard desktop hardware. The models solve and optimize using standard and widely available hardware and software and can be presented in the context of a user-friendly interface. We believe this is an engineering tool with great promise in its application to complex biological reaction networks. PMID:12634134

  9. Variability of projected terrestrial biosphere responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 due to uncertainty in biological nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerholt, Johannes; Zaehle, Sönke; Smith, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    Including a terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle in Earth system models has led to substantial attenuation of predicted biosphere-climate feedbacks. However, the magnitude of this attenuation remains uncertain. A particularly important but highly uncertain process is biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which is the largest natural input of N to land ecosystems globally. In order to quantify this uncertainty and estimate likely effects on terrestrial biosphere dynamics, we applied six alternative formulations of BNF spanning the range of process formulations in current state-of-the-art biosphere models within a common framework, the O-CN model: a global map of static BNF rates, two empirical relationships between BNF and other ecosystem variables (net primary productivity and evapotranspiration), two process-oriented formulations based on plant N status, and an optimality-based approach. We examined the resulting differences in model predictions under ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and found that the predicted global BNF rates and their spatial distribution for contemporary conditions were broadly comparable, ranging from 108 to 148 Tg N yr-1 (median: 128 Tg N yr-1), despite distinct regional patterns associated with the assumptions of each approach. Notwithstanding, model responses in BNF rates to elevated levels of atmospheric [CO2] (+200 ppm) ranged between -4 Tg N yr-1 (-3 %) and 56 Tg N yr-1 (+42 %) (median: 7 Tg N yr-1 (+8 %)). As a consequence, future projections of global ecosystem carbon (C) storage (+281 to +353 Pg C, or +13 to +16 %) as well as N2O emission (-1.6 to +0.5 Tg N yr-1, or -19 to +7 %) differed significantly across the different model formulations. Our results emphasize the importance of better understanding the nature and magnitude of BNF responses to change-induced perturbations, particularly through new empirical perturbation experiments and improved model representation.

  10. Variability of projected terrestrial biosphere responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 due to uncertainty in biological nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerholt, J.; Zaehle, S.; Smith, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Including a terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle in Earth system models has led to substantial attenuation of predicted biosphere-climate feedbacks. However, the magnitude of this attenuation remains uncertain. A particularly important, but highly uncertain process is biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which is the largest natural input of N to land ecosystems globally. In order to quantify this uncertainty, and estimate likely effects on terrestrial biosphere dynamics, we applied six alternative formulations of BNF spanning the range of process formulations in current state-of-the-art biosphere models within a common framework, the O-CN model: a global map of static BNF rates, two empirical relationships between BNF and other ecosystem variables (net primary productivity (NPP) and evapotranspiration), two process-oriented formulations based on plant N status, and an optimality-based approach. We examined the resulting differences in model predictions under ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and found that the predicted global BNF rates and their spatial distribution for contemporary conditions were broadly comparable, ranging from 95 to 134 Tg N yr-1 (median 119 Tg N yr-1), despite distinct regional patterns associated with the assumptions of each approach. Notwithstanding, model responses in BNF rates to elevated levels of atmospheric [CO2] (+200 ppm) ranged between -4 Tg N yr-1 (-3 %) and 56 Tg N yr-1 (+42 %) (median 7 Tg N yr-1 (+8 %)). As a consequence, future projections of global ecosystem carbon storage (+281 to +353 Pg C, or +13 to +16 %), as well as N2O emission (-1.6 to +0.5 Tg N yr-1, or -19 to +7 %) differed significantly across the different model formulations. Our results emphasize the importance of better understanding the nature and magnitude of BNF responses to change-induced perturbations, particularly through new empirical perturbation experiments and improved model representation.

  11. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  12. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish1234

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. Objective: We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). Results: A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue). Conclusions: Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:22932281

  13. Retail food commodity intakes: Mean amounts of retail commodities per individual, 1994-1998

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates of the amounts of retail-level commodities per person estimated from day 1 dietary intake data of 19,017 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1998 and Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Da...

  14. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  15. Web-Based Learning Enhancements: Video Lectures through Voice-Over PowerPoint in a Majors-Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lents, Nathan H.; Cifuentes, Oscar E.

    2009-01-01

    This study is an experimental introduction of web-based lecture delivery into a majors-level introductory biology course. Web-based delivery, achieved through the use of prerecorded Voice-Over PowerPoint video lectures, was introduced on a limited basis to an experimental section while a control group, with the same instructor, received standard…

  16. Effects of Two Teaching Methods on the Achievement in and Attitude to Biology of Students of Different Levels of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagbo, Chinwe

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the relative efficacy of the guided inquiry and the expository teaching methods on the achievement in and attitude to biology of students of different levels of scientific literacy. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively, to guide the work. It was hypothesized…

  17. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  18. Sodium Intake and Osteoporosis. Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura; Johnson, Karen C; Huang, Ying; Pettinger, Mary; Thomas, Fridjtof; Cauley, Jane; Crandall, Carolyn; Tinker, Lesley; LeBoff, Meryl Susan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Bethel, Monique; Li, Wenjun; Prentice, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this large, prospective, observational cohort study of postmenopausal women in the WHI, Cox proportional hazard regression models showed that sodium intake at or near recommended levels is not likely to impact bone metabolism. PMID:26863423

  19. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  20. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention. PMID:10604182

  1. High Water Intake and Progression of Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Impact of water intake on the courses of chronic kidney and urinary tract diseases, such as urolithiasis, urinary tract infections, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases and bladder cancer, has recently been studied. It still remains controversial whether increased water intake slows the progression of CKD or not. However, high water intake suppresses plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is expected to be beneficial for the preservation of the kidney function. Previous studies suggest that water intake suppresses plasma levels of AVP, and high levels of AVP have been suggested to play deleterious roles in animal models of kidney disease. Moreover, recent epidemic of CKD of unknown origin, which was supposed to be related to the insufficient water intake and chronic volume depletion, has been reported in Central America, further suggesting that the suppression of AVP by sustained water intake might be beneficial in this CKD population. Indeed, the data from recent studies were consistent with the view that high water intake is associated with slower progression of CKD. However, contradictory findings also exist. The intriguing effects of increased urine volume in preserving the glomerular filtration rate in human patients with CKD require more large and well-designed randomized prospective clinical trials. PMID:26848303

  2. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population. PMID:24189158

  3. On extracting design principles from biology: I. Method-General answers to high-level design questions for bioinspired robots.

    PubMed

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    When millions of years of evolution suggest a particular design solution, we may be tempted to abandon traditional design methods and copy the biological example. However, biological solutions do not often translate directly into the engineering domain, and even when they do, copying eliminates the opportunity to improve. A better approach is to extract design principles relevant to the task of interest, incorporate them in engineering designs, and vet these candidates against others. This paper presents the first general framework for determining whether biologically inspired relationships between design input variables and output objectives and constraints are applicable to a variety of engineering systems. Using optimization and statistics to generalize the results beyond a particular system, the framework overcomes shortcomings observed of ad hoc methods, particularly those used in the challenging study of legged locomotion. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of the relative running efficiency of rotary-kneed and telescoping-legged robots. PMID:25643176

  4. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  5. High levels of molecular orientation of surface azo chromophores can be optically induced even in a wet biological environment.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Miloslav; Fernández, Raquel; Lu, Xiaoyu; Barrett, Christopher J

    2013-12-14

    We have developed polyelectrolyte multilayer bio-films containing azobenzene chromophores that enhance reversible photo-orientation upon irradiation with linearly polarized light, to effect surface photo-switching of adjacent biological systems. When conditions of film preparation and irradiation were optimized, we could observe the highest measured birefringence to date in amorphous systems (Δn > 0.2). This birefringence change to probe orientation was also for the first time measured and determined to be stable completely underwater, permitting optimization for in situ applications immersed in biological conditions. PMID:24153236

  6. The Value of Mechanistic Biophysical Information for Systems-Level Understanding of Complex Biological Processes Such as Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    This review illustrates the value of quantitative information including concentrations, kinetic constants and equilibrium constants in modeling and simulating complex biological processes. Although much has been learned about some biological systems without these parameter values, they greatly strengthen mechanistic accounts of dynamical systems. The analysis of muscle contraction is a classic example of the value of combining an inventory of the molecules, atomic structures of the molecules, kinetic constants for the reactions, reconstitutions with purified proteins and theoretical modeling to account for the contraction of whole muscles. A similar strategy is now being used to understand the mechanism of cytokinesis using fission yeast as a favorable model system. PMID:25468329

  7. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes. PMID:24394311

  8. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, P; Shipton, E; Stanwix, A; Joffe, B; Ramokgadi, J

    2000-01-01

    CONCLUSION—The results suggest that weight reduction associated with a change in proportional macronutrient intake, as recently recommended in IR, is beneficial, reducing the SU levels and dyslipidaemia in gout. Current dietary recommendations for gout may need re-evaluation.

 PMID:10873964

  9. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Emma L.; Collins, Carmel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were <37 weeks gestation at birth, and protein intakes were intentionally or statistically different between study groups. Trials reporting weight, length, and head circumference gains in infants fed formula, human milk, or fortified human milk were included. Data Extraction. Studies were categorized by feeding-type and relevant data were extracted into summary tables by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second. Data Synthesis. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to extensive variability among studies; thus, results were synthesized graphically and narratively. Twenty-four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in a narrative synthesis and 19 in a graphical synthesis of study results. Conclusions. There was extensive variability in study design, participant characteristics, and study quality. Nonetheless, results are fairly consistent that higher protein intake results in increased growth with graphical representation indicating a potentially linear relationship. Additionally, intakes as high as 4.5 g/kg/day were shown to be safe in infants weighing >1000 g. PMID:27335914

  10. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  11. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  12. How Important Is the Assessment of Practical Work? An Opinion Piece on the New Biology A-Level from BERG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…

  13. Raising Levels of Student Interest in Less Popular Areas of the Biology Curriculum: Can Teacher CPD Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodger, Bev

    2013-01-01

    An opportunity for teachers to join 80 outstanding biological sciences undergraduates in a series of practical sessions and lectures at the 2010 Gatsby Plant Science Summer School has inspired the development of teaching and learning resources for use in schools. Plant scientists have a crucial role to play in society and it is hoped that the…

  14. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  15. School children's salt intake is correlated with salty taste preference assessed by their mothers.

    PubMed

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo

    2008-05-01

    Salt intake in childhood is a risk factor for developing hypertension later in life. As health education for children to decrease salt intake, it is important for them to know the relationship between salty taste preference and salt intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between children's salty taste preference and their salt intake. We employed a cross-sectional study design, and the subjects were 199 elementary school children (5th or 6th grade) and their mothers. The amount of salt intake was estimated by the amount of urinary sodium excretion. Children's salty taste preference was assessed 1) by asking children about their own salty taste preference as well as measuring their threshold level of salty taste, and 2) by their mothers' observation of their salt intake behavior using a questionnaire. The salt intake and salt taste threshold of children who liked a salty taste were similar to those in children who disliked it. No association was found between the threshold level of salty taste and sodium intake. Regarding the relationship between children's salt intake and their salt intake behavior score, assessed by their mothers using a questionnaire, the high score group had a higher estimated salt intake than the low score group. In conclusion, children's salt intake may be accurately assessed by their mother's observation rather than children's own salty taste preference. This study suggests the importance of a mother's role in salt restriction education for children. PMID:18509237

  16. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  17. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  18. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  19. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  20. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  1. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  2. The effect of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on food intake, body composition, and carcass energy levels in virgin female BALB/c mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Keith, Robert E.; Strahan, Susan; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a mammary-tumor carcinogen, on food intake, energy consumption, body weight, and body composition in virgin female BALB/c mice are investigated. Diet, exercise, and DMBA all had pronounced effects on energy consumption, which in turn affected body composition. These treatments may influence manifestations of breast cancer via their effects on body composition.

  3. The effects of different podcasting strategies on student achievement in a large, college level inquiry biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Tarren John

    The search for instructional tools that help engage students with the concepts taught in introductory biology courses has led to the untested adoption of many technological solutions. Podcasting can be used as an instructional technology that allows students access to course information at a time and place of the students' choosing. Because students choose when to use podcasts, students should be more receptive to the information. While several cognitive theories support the proposed benefits of podcasting as an instructional tool, to date no studies have examined the effect of podcast use on student performance in a naturalistic, semester-long, class setting. This study examined whether students who used course-related podcasts had a greater understanding of biological concepts as measured by higher percent gain scores on exams, compared to percent gain scores from students who had not used podcasts. Current research in cognitive theory was used when developing the four podcast types for this study: complete audio, complete video, segmented audio, and conversational audio. Students enrolled in a mixed-majors biology course were tracked with a computer program that recorded student podcast subscription, exam responses, and information regarding student study habits and attitudes toward podcasting. Although different podcasting strategies were used, none were found to have had a significant effect on student percent gain scores when compared to a control group. However, student attitude toward podcasting remained very positive and significant findings regarding the study habits of podcast users were reported. Future research in the area of podcast use was recommended.

  4. How is Science Learning Assessed at the Postsecondary Level? Assessment and Grading Practices in College Biology, Chemistry and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubeaud, Karleen

    2010-06-01

    The role of assessment in higher education is gaining importance as accountability requirements intensify and as assessments are increasingly recognized as having potential to improve teaching and learning. During the last two decades, educators have begun implementing a wider variety of assessment types including alternative and student-centered assessment practices. However, few research studies have examined the extent that college science faculty use such practices. This large-scale descriptive study utilized a nationally representative sample of higher education faculty from the US Department of Education to examine the assessment and grading practices of college science faculty from 2 and 4-year higher education institutions. When data was disaggregated by science discipline, statistically significant differences were found among physics, chemistry and biology faculty's assessment and grading practices. Biology faculty used a larger repertoire of assessment types overall, and used assessments that have potential to enhance the learning process more than chemistry and physics faculty. Physics and chemistry faculty graded on a curve more often and used competency-grading practices less often than biology faculty. Assessment practices that could be considered formative with potential to promote student learning appear to be underutilized by all science faculty.

  5. Inflammatory cytokine levels, disease activity, and function of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with combined conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or biologics.

    PubMed

    Osiri, Manathip; Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Sattayasomboon, Youwanuch; Thammacharoenrach, Niramol

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of treatment by combined conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) or biologics on cytokines, disease activity, and function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sera from a cohort of 81 patients with long-standing RA treated with combined cDMARDs or biologics were measured for 12 cytokines. Comparisons of serum cytokine concentrations with treatment types (combination 2, 3 cDMARDs or biologics), serologic status (positivity for RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP Ab)), DAS28-ESR, and function were performed. Spearman correlation coefficients between individual cytokines and clinical parameters were explored. Approximately half of the patients were prescribed two cDMARDs. Mean duration of current treatment was 42 months. More than 70 % had moderate disease activity or normal function/slight disability. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-23, IL-33, interferon (IFN)-γ, granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and TNF-α in patients taking combined cDMARDs did not significantly differ from those on biologics. Seventy-nine serum samples (97.5 %) had undetectable levels of 1 to 10 cytokines. Concentrations of several cytokines were significantly higher in patients with moderate to high disease activity, seropositive or poor functional status. Weak correlations between cytokine levels and RA disease activity or function were demonstrated. The highest correlation coefficients were observed with IL-33, IL-8, and IL-6. Long-term treatment with cDMARDs did not differ from biologics with respect to cytokine concentrations, disease activity, and function. The cytokine profiles in established RA were mainly those produced from effector cells, especially IL-6, IL-8, and IL-33. Both IL-8 and IL-33 may be potential biomarkers and/or treatment targets in patients with late RA. PMID:27188857

  6. Comparison of Intake and Systemic Relative Effect Potencies of Dioxin-like Compounds in Female Mice after a Single Oral Dose

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patrik L.; Gaisch, Konrad P.J.; van den Berg, Martin; van Duursen, Majorie B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Risk assessment for mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is performed using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. These TEF values are derived mainly from relative effect potencies (REPs) linking an administered dose to an in vivo toxic or biological effect, resulting in “intake” TEFs. At present, there is insufficient data available to conclude that intake TEFs are also applicable for systemic concentrations (e.g., blood and tissues). Objective: We compared intake and systemic REPs of 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzodioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), 3,3´,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), 2,3´,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118), and 2,3,3´,4,4´,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) in female C57BL/6 mice 3 days after a single oral dose. Methods: We calculated intake REPs and systemic REPs based on administered dose and liver, adipose, or plasma concentrations relative to TCDD. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1–associated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and gene expression of Cyp1a1, 1a2 and 1b1 in the liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were used as biological end points. Results: We observed up to one order of magnitude difference between intake REPs and systemic REPs. Two different patterns were discerned. Compared with intake REPs, systemic REPs based on plasma or adipose levels were higher for PeCDD, 4-PeCDF, and PCB-126 but lower for the mono-ortho PCBs 118 and 156. Conclusions: Based on these mouse data, the comparison between intake REPs and systemic REPs reveals significant congener-specific differences that warrants the development of systemic TEFs to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blood and body tissues. PMID:23674508

  7. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro. PMID:15331342

  8. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  9. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  10. Flavonol Intake and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin; Ravine, Erin; Harper, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The change in each score over 6 years was calculated, and a combined standardized change score was calculated. Generalized linear models controlled for age, ethnicity, gender, education level, energy intake, current smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake. Total flavonols across quintiles of intake were positively associated with preserved combined cognitive function (P<.001). This pattern with preserved combined cognitive function was consistent for the three major individual flavonols in the diet, myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin (each P<.001). The positive association with total flavonols was strongest for the digit symbol subtest (P<.001). In this cohort, flavonol intake was correlated with protected cognitive function over time. PMID:26325006

  11. Oxytocin Reduces Reward-Driven Food Intake in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Volker; Finlayson, Graham; Lehnert, Hendrik; Heitmann, Birte; Heinrichs, Markus; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in animals suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin acts as an anorexigenic signal in the central nervous control of food intake. In humans, however, research has almost exclusively focused on the involvement of oxytocin in the regulation of social behavior. We investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on ingestion and metabolic function in healthy men. Food intake in the fasted state was examined 45 min after neuropeptide administration, followed by the assessment of olfaction and reward-driven snack intake in the absence of hunger. Energy expenditure was registered by indirect calorimetry, and blood was repeatedly sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced snack consumption, restraining, in particular, the intake of chocolate cookies by 25%. Oxytocin, moreover, attenuated basal and postprandial levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol and curbed the meal-related rise in plasma glucose. Energy expenditure and hunger-driven food intake as well as olfactory function were not affected. Our results indicate that oxytocin, beyond its role in social bonding, regulates nonhomeostatic, reward-related energy intake, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and the glucoregulatory response to food intake in humans. These effects can be assumed to converge with the psychosocial function of oxytocin and imply possible applications in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:23835346

  12. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  13. Protein intake and obesity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of protein and its functional diversity in living systems makes it essential for virtually all life processes. Dietary protein and amino acid requirements are affected by age, body size, body composition, physiological state, and the level of energy output. The requirement for dietary protein is based on the indispensable amino acids under all conditions and under specific physiological and pathological conditions as well as the synthesis of dispensable amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Previous findings have shown the influence of early intake of proteins on the development of overweight in healthy children. The present review focused on the possible association (if any) between protein intake and later development of obesity. The aim is to benefit physicians, dieticians as well as parents to understand future consequences of incorrect dietary habits in young adolescents and encourage healthy dietary habits to avoid obesity. PMID:27168771

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  15. The control of food intake of free-living humans: putting the pieces back together.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2010-07-14

    The control of food intake has been studied using reductionism; by separately investigating environmental, physiological, and genetic variables. The general model of intake regulation attempts to reassemble the pieces into an organized whole. It postulates that intake is influenced by sets of both physiological factors which have negative feedback loops to intake and environmental factors which do not. Data and behavioral genetic analysis on a number of environmental, psychological, dietary, and social variables demonstrate that they have large impacts on the intake of free-living humans in their everyday environments and their magnitude and impact on intake are influenced by heredity. Recent evidence of built environment influences on activity and intake further indicate the profound influence of environmental circumstances on both intake and expenditure. A computer simulation of the general model of intake regulation demonstrates that the model predicts different maintained levels of intake and body weight depending upon the external environment and that change in the environment can produce new sustained levels. It is suggested that eating is influenced by a myriad of physiological and non-physiological factors and that total intake results from the integral of their influences. It is concluded that recombining the components broken down in the reductionistic process results in a functional whole that can well describe human behavior in natural environments. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20450867

  16. Whole grain intake and its association with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-28

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain consumption and the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers. A recent analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (NDNS-RP) has shown lower intake of whole grain in the UK. It is important to understand whether the health benefits associated with whole grain intake are present at low levels of consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the association of whole grain intake with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health (anthropometric and blood measures) in the NDNS-RP 2008-11, a representative dietary survey of UK households. A 4-d diet diary was completed by 3073 individuals. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure levels, and blood and urine samples were collected after diary completion. Individual whole grain intake was calculated with consumers categorised into tertiles of intake. Higher intake of whole grain was associated with significantly decreased leucocyte counts. Significantly higher concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in adults in the lowest tertile of whole grain intake. No associations with the remaining health markers were seen, after adjustments for sex and age. Over 70% of this population did not consume the minimum recommend intake associated with disease risk reduction, which may explain small variation across health markers. Nutrient intakes in consumers compared with non-consumers were closer to dietary reference values, such as higher intakes of fibre, Mg and Fe, and lower intakes of Na, suggesting that higher intake of whole grain is associated with improved diet quality. PMID:25893512

  17. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  18. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  19. A Personalized Approach to Biological Therapy Using Prediction of Clinical Response Based on MRP8/14 Serum Complex Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S. C.; Welsing, P. M. J.; Choi, I. Y. K.; Roth, J.; Holzinger, D.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; van Laar, J. M.; Gerlag, D. M.; Lafeber, F. P. J. G.; Tak, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of MRP8/14 serum levels has shown potential in predicting clinical response to different biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to develop a treatment algorithm based on a prediction score using MRP8/14 measurements and clinical parameters predictive for response to different biological agents. Methods Baseline serum levels of MRP8/14 were measured in 170 patients starting treatment with infliximab, adalimumab or rituximab. We used logistic regression analysis to develop a predictive score for clinical response at 16 weeks. MRP8/14 levels along with clinical variables at baseline were investigated. We also investigated how the predictive effect of MRP8/14 was modified by drug type. A treatment algorithm was developed based on categorizing the expected response per drug type as high, intermediate or low for each patient and optimal treatment was defined. Finally, we present the utility of using this treatment algorithm in clinical practice. Results The probability of response increased with higher baseline MRP8/14 complex levels (OR = 1.39), differentially between the TNF-blockers and rituximab (OR of interaction term = 0.78), and also increased with higher DAS28 at baseline (OR = 1.28). Rheumatoid factor positivity, functional disability (a higher HAQ), and previous use of a TNF-inhibitor decreased the probability of response. Based on the treatment algorithm 80 patients would have been recommended for anti-TNF treatment, 8 for rituximab, 13 for another biological treatment (other than TNFi or rituximab) and for 69 no recommendation was made. The predicted response rates matched the observed response in the cohort well. On group level the predicted response based on the algorithm resulted in a modest 10% higher response rate in our cohort with much higher differences in response probability in individual patients treated contrary to treatment recommendation. Conclusions Prediction of response using MRP8/14 levels along with

  20. Stairway to Heaven: Evaluating Levels of Biological Organization Correlated with the Successful Ascent of Natural Waterfalls in the Hawaiian Stream Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N.; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Blob, Richard W.; Schoenfuss, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing. PMID:24386424

  1. Stairway to heaven: evaluating levels of biological organization correlated with the successful ascent of natural waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Tonya C

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing. PMID:24386424

  2. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  3. Relation between the longitudinal development of lipoprotein levels and biological parameters during adolescence and young adulthood in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, J W; Kemper, H C; Mellenbergh, G J; van Mechelen, W

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relation between the longitudinal development of total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and the TC/ HDL ratio and the longitudinal development of the biological parameters body fatness (SSF), lean body mass (LBM), and cardiopulmonary fitness (VO2-max). The relations were analysed with generalised estimating equations (GEE). SETTING: The relations were investigated with data from the Amsterdam growth and health study, a longitudinal study in which six measurements were carried out within a period of 15 years. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether 98 females and 84 males aged 13 years at the start of the study. MAIN RESULTS: Adjusted for lifestyle and other biological parameters, the longitudinal development of TC was inversely related to the development of LBM (standardised regression coefficient beta = -0.27; p < or = 0.01) and positively to SSF (beta males = 0.32; p < or = 0.01 and beta females = 0.15; p < or = 0.01). HDL was inversely related to LBM (beta = -0.26; p < or = 0.01) and positively to VO2-max (beta = 0.08; p < or = 0.05). The TC/HDL ratio was positively related to SSF (beta males = 0.39; p < or = 0.01 and beta females = 0.13; p < or = 0.01) and inversely to VO2-max (beta = -0.09; p < or = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The longitudinal analyses showed that body fatness was related to a high risk profile with respect to hypercholesterolaemia, and cardiopulmonary fitness to a low risk profile. Furthermore, it was shown that using body mass index as an indicator of body fatness in relation to lipoprotein values, has some important drawbacks. PMID:8944855

  4. Biological quality control for extracorporeal photochemotherapy: Assessing mononuclear cell apoptosis levels in ECP bags of chronic GvHD patients.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Francesca; Coluccia, Paola; Arienti, Flavio; Birolini, Annalisa; Terranova, Laura; Mazzocchi, Arabella; Rini, Francesca; Mariani, Luigi; Melani, Cecilia; Ravagnani, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is a treatment approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and it is currently used off-label for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and other conditions. In agreement with good practices for the therapeutic use of human cells, quality control has to be performed to validate the ECP procedure with the off-line technique. Since no gold-standard biological test is available, we assessed the apoptosis generated in the ECP bag using a flow cytometric analysis. Thirty-one ECP procedures performed on 13 patients with chronic GvHD were studied by monitoring the induction of mononuclear cell (MNC) apoptosis using annexin V/propidium iodide double staining; residual lymphocyte proliferation to standard mitogens was also measured in 17 of the procedures. The kinetics of apoptosis was analyzed at different times in MNCs untreated or treated with 8-methoxy-psoralen plus ultraviolet A; the variation (ΔAPOPTOSIS ) after 24 h revealed the efficacy of the treatment. In 88.6% of the 31 ECP procedures, ΔAPOPTOSIS was >15% (the "alerting" threshold for ΔAPOPTOSIS was set at 15% on the basis of our data); in the remainder (19.4%), the increment in apoptosis was lower. In four procedures, the proliferation assay was useful for assessing the effect of ECP on the apheretic bag. In conclusion, both flow cytometric assays enabled a biologically significant result to be obtained. In our opinion, the apoptosis test-being faster and easier than the proliferation test-could be a reliable way to validate ECP procedures. PMID:25220858

  5. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  6. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status. PMID:26877843

  7. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  8. The association between motivation and fruit and vegetable intake: The moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    McSpadden, Kate E; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Yaroch, Amy L; Dwyer, Laura A; Nebeling, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowing that fruit and vegetable (FV) intake promotes health and well-being, few U.S. adults meet current guidelines. Thus, understanding people's motivation for FV intake is important for predicting dietary behavior. Applying self-determination theory, the goal of this study was to examine the role of social support as a potential moderator of the link between autonomous and controlled motivations and FV intake. Cross-sectional data from 2959 adults in the United States were analyzed. Autonomous motivation and perceived social support were positively associated with FV intake, while controlled motivation was negatively associated with FV intake. Additionally, there was evidence that the negative association between controlled motivation and FV intake was attenuated by higher levels of perceived social support. Findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the role of motivation in health behaviors like FV intake and the potential roles played by friends and family in these motivational processes. PMID:26321416

  9. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  10. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  11. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  12. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  13. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  14. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  15. Combined effects of temperature changes and metal contamination at different levels of biological organization in yellow perch.

    PubMed

    Grasset, Julie; Ollivier, Élodie; Bougas, Bérénice; Yannic, Glenn; Campbell, Peter G C; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we measured the effects of temperature (9°C, 20°C, and 28°C), metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) and their interaction on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using liver enzymatic and transcriptomic endpoints and biometric indices. Kidney metal concentrations increased with a rise of temperature. The biometric indices analysed (Fulton condition factor, pyloric cæca, hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices) generally decreased with an increase of temperature but not with metal contamination. At the enzymatic level, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in antioxidant response, was affected