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Sample records for intake sufficiently effective

  1. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Jeffrey P.; Cassell, Martin D.; Davis, Deborah R.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC. PMID:24965793

  2. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  3. Drug intake is sufficient, but conditioning is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking after extended self-administration.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sietse; Pelloux, Yann; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-06-01

    Compulsive drug seeking, which is characterized by continued instrumental effort despite contingent punishment, has been shown to emerge after extended drug self-administration. Exactly what aspect of drug self-administration drives the appearance of addictive behavior is unclear, but the mechanistic explanations that have been offered differ in one key respect. On one hand, it has been suggested that dysfunctional conditioning during self-administration drives unrealistic reward expectations, ultimately producing resistance to punishment. If this is indeed the pathological process that drives compulsive behavior, then compulsivity should be apparent only in the presence of the pavlovian and instrumental stimuli that underwent frequent pairing with the drug reward. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that extended drug intake produces general changes to reward and decision-making circuits that manifest as compulsive drug seeking. Unfortunately, conditioning history and drug intake are generally intrinsically intertwined. However, here we used an animal model of compulsive cocaine seeking to selectively manipulate drug intake and the degree of conditioning in the test context, to investigate which of the two is more important for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking. The results show that extended drug intake alone is sufficient, but extended conditioning in the test context is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking, resolving a fundamental question in addiction research. PMID:22334124

  4. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  5. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress. PMID:25816622

  6. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  7. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Washburn, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain

  8. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  9. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

    2012-11-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  10. Effect of renin-angiotensin system on sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Water and saline intake was measured in rats depleted of Na by I.P. dialysis. Na intake was prevented 180 min but not 60-90 min after bilateral nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy as well as ureteral ligature had no effect on Na intake. 2. Renin (3u.) injected I.P. re-established the Na appetite abolished by nephrectomy. 3. Angiotensin I (5 ng) or II (5-40 ng) injected into the 3rd ventricle, also restored the Na intake and this effect was dose-dependent. 4. The angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor Sq 20,881 (1 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of AI but not that of AII in restoring Na intake. 5. It is concluded that the kidneys might play a role in the regulation of Na intake through the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:1255521

  11. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  12. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  13. Long-term effects of colostrum intake in piglet mortality and performance.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the long-term effects of colostrum intake on performance and mortality in pigs. A total of 1,455 live-born piglets in 10 commercial herds were followed from birth until 22 wk of age. Pigs were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at onset (intermediate weight), and during the fattening period (finishing weight). Colostrum intake was calculated by the mechanistic model developed by Theil et al. (see text for citation). One linear mixed model was fitted to model the possible associations between colostrum intake and weight at the weaning, intermediate, and finishing periods. In addition to colostrum intake as the main predictor of interest, other predictor variables were also tested, namely birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and the interval between birth and first suckling (t). Colostrum intake and birth weight were positively associated with weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( < 0.001) weights. Furthermore, higher colostrum intake is more beneficial to weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( = 0.02) weights in piglets with low versus high birth weights. Birth order was positively associated with weight at each measurement time ( = 0.01). Sex affected only finishing weight ( < 0.001). Some breeds differed in piglets' weight at onset or during the fattening period. The association between t and weaning weight differed by breed. Three generalized linear mixed models were performed to model the probability of dying during the suckling, the nursery, or the fattening period. Colostrum intake, birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and t were tested. Preweaning mortality was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.004) and positively associated with t ( < 0.001). Mortality during the nursery period was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.002). The negative association between colostrum intake and mortality

  14. Measurement of children's food intake with digital photography and the effects of second servings upon food intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Anton, Stephen D; Allen, H Raymond; Alfonso, Anthony; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany; Sothern, Melinda; Williamson, Donald A

    2007-04-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake with the digital photography method and the effects of second servings upon food intake. Food intake was measured in a school cafeteria for 5 days. Adiposity was assessed with body impedance analysis and body mass index, expressed as percentile rank. Mood and self-esteem were assessed with questionnaires. Estimates of food intake were highly reliable between two registered dietitians who independently estimated food intake. Boys ate more food than girls. A significant association between food intake and adiposity supported convergent validity. Non-significant correlations between food intake and depressed mood and self-esteem supported discriminant validity. When second servings were available, more food was selected and discarded, but mean food intake did not increase. Children who returned for second servings, however, ate more food when second servings were available, and a trend suggested that they also ate more food when second servings were not available. These findings support the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake using digital photography and demonstrate its utility for studies of food intake and body weight. PMID:17336784

  15. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  16. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  17. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  18. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  19. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects. PMID:707387

  20. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline L; Harnack, Lisa J; Levine, Allen S; Pentel, Paul R; Baxter, Judith E; Walsh, Ericka M

    2007-01-01

    Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p < .001). Mean 24-hour energy intake was 278 kcal/day higher in large versus small lunch periods (p < .001). There was no evidence of compensation over time. Average weight change over the month of large and small lunches was 0.64 ± 1.16 kg and 0.06 ± 1.03 kg, respectively, about what would be expected with the observed differences in energy intake. Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time. PMID:17597516

  1. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. PMID:24709485

  2. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in ...

  3. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  4. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental. PMID:26614014

  5. The effects of dietary protein on bone mineral mass in young adults may be modulated by adolescent calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Whiting, Susan J

    2007-12-01

    The effect of dietary protein on bone mass measures at different life stages is controversial. We investigated the influence of protein intake on bone mass measures in young adults, considering the influence of calcium intake through adolescence. Subjects were 133 young adults (59 males, 74 females) who were participating in the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997, 2003-2006). At adulthood, their mean age was 23 y. We assessed dietary intake via serial 24-h recalls carried out at least once yearly. Total body (TB) bone mineral content (BMC) and TB bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed annually using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We determined TB-BMC net gain from the age of peak height velocity (PHV) to early adulthood. We analyzed data from all subjects and subsets based on sex and calcium intake using multiple regression. TB-BMC significantly increased from age at PHV to early adulthood by 41% in males and 37% in females. Height, weight, physical activity, and sex were significant predictors of TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD among all subjects. Protein intake predicted TB-BMC net gain in all subjects (beta = 0.11; P = 0.015). In females at peri-adolescence or early adulthood with adequate calcium intake (>1000 mg/d), protein intake positively predicted TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that when calcium intake is adequate, protein intake has a beneficial effect on the bone mass of young adult females. Protein, in the absence of sufficient calcium, does not confer as much benefit to bone. PMID:18029482

  6. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation. PMID:25495101

  7. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  8. The Effect of Dietary Intake on Inflammation and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cailliau, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Within the Human Health and Performance Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, it is the responsibility of the Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory to determine nutrient requirements and research the role of nutrition as a potential countermeasure to the negative effects of spaceflight on human physiology. As a part of the lab, the goal of my project was to determine if and how diet affects inflammation and immune system function during spaceflight. This project involved analysis of both dietary and biochemical data from 20 participants in a prior bed rest study as well as from 17 subjects' flight data. Specifically, I evaluated how the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a calculated estimate, compared to a set of immune and inflammatory blood and urine biomarkers. Comparing DII score and biomarkers helps to determine how intake of certain diet patterns influences inflammation in the body. My project will evaluate the effectiveness of this tool for use in the spaceflight analog bed rest.

  9. Programs To Enhance the Self-Sufficiency of Welfare Families: Working towards a Model of Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Moore, Kristin; Coiro, Mary Jo; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Although it has been assumed that increasing maternal education or family income will improve children's well-being, considering the impact on child care arrangements and home environment raises the possibility of negative effects. This paper reviews experimental evaluations of seven programs designed to enhance welfare families' self-sufficiency,…

  10. Modelling of food intake in Brazil and Germany: Examining the effects of self-construals.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Kühnen, Ulrich; Hermans, Roel C J; Lippke, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The current research focused on the influence of informational eating norms on people's food intake, and examined whether this influence was moderated by participants' self-construal levels. In two experiments, a two (intake norm manipulation: low vs. high) by two (self-construal manipulation: interdependent versus independent) between-participant factorial design was used. The studies were conducted in Brazil (Experiment 1) and in Germany (Experiment 2) as participants' self-construal levels differ between these countries. In Experiment 1, results indicated that participants exposed to a high-intake norm ate more than participants exposed to a low-intake norm. However, self-construal was not found to moderate the influence of food intake norms on participants' intake. In Experiment 2, replicating the results of Experiment 1, exposure to a high-intake norm increased participants' food intake, but self-construals again did not moderate modelling effects on food intake. Although differences in individuals' self-construal were found between both countries, they did not affect the magnitude of modelling effects on eating. Our studies provide evidence for cross-cultural similarity in the extent to which Brazilian and German female young adults are vulnerable to modelling effects on food intake, independent on their self-construal. PMID:26348265

  11. The Long-Term Effects of Public Housing on Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Harkness, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the effects of living in public housing as a child at some point between 1968-1982 on four young adult outcomes. Results indicated that having lived in public housing increased employment, raised earnings, and reduced welfare use but had no effect on household earnings relative to the…

  12. CADMIUM INTAKE VIA OYSTERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IN NEW ZEALAND: CADMIUM INTAKE, METABOLISM AND EFFECTS IN PEOPLE WITH A HIGH INTAKE OF OYSTERS IN NEW ZEALAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to confirm the high dietary intakes of cadmium and other trace elements from oysters in a population associated with the oystering industry, and to determine (1) the impact of those high intakes on cadmium concentrations in accessible tissues of the stud...

  13. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  14. [Effect of starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake on weight gain and blood biochemical values in rats].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Baba, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We observed the effect of starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake during 67 days, on rats, in terms of the activity of enzymes related to liver function and biochemical values related to weight gain, lipid metabolism and safety. 1. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) did not induce a significant difference of body weight change. 2. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake did not affect organ weight. 3. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake did not affect lipid metabolism, liver function, or protein nutrition in this experiment. PMID:24190291

  15. Effects of individual terpenes and terpene mixtures on intake by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary compounds present in shrubs on rangelands in the western United States are often aversive to livestock. However, effects of many of these compounds on intake have not been individually tested. Four experiments were conducted to examine effects of individual terpenes on alfalfa pellet intak...

  16. Effectiveness of Treatment for Adolescent Substance Use: Is Biological Drug Testing Sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S; Griffin, Beth Ann; Ramchand, Rajeev; Almirall, Daniel; McCaffrey, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three treatment modalities for adolescent substance use: biological drug screening (BDS), Motivational Enhancement Therapy–Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MET/CBT5), and BDS combined with MET/CBT5, relative to no treatment. Method: This study comprised 5,186 adolescents (70% male) enrolled in substance use treatment and tracked through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s database (BDS = 1,110; MET/CBT5 = 784; BDS combined with MET/CBT5 = 2,539; no treatment = 753). Outcomes of interest were substance use frequency and severity of substance use problems at 3, 6, and 12 months, as measured by the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs survey. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for pretreatment covariate imbalances between groups. Weighted generalized linear models were used to estimate the impact of treatment on outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: BDS, alone or in combination with MET/CBT5, was associated with improved substance use and substance problems outcomes. Relative to youth reporting no treatment services, the BDS group reported significantly lower substance use at all visits, with the observed difference increasing over time. BDS alone was associated with significantly fewer substance problems than BDS combined with MET/CBT5 at all visits and significantly lower use at 12 months. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate significant improvement on substance use outcomes associated with BDS and offer preliminary evidence that BDS, particularly standalone BDS, may be an effective form of drug treatment for adolescents. Further work, including randomized studies, should explore the optimal format of administering BDS to adolescents to achieve maximum effectiveness. PMID:24650830

  17. Low levels of DNA ligases III and IV sufficient for effective NHEJ.

    PubMed

    Windhofer, Frank; Wu, Wenqi; Iliakis, George

    2007-11-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes rejoin double strand breaks (DSBs) in their DNA predominantly by a non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway that utilizes the products of DNA-PKcs, Ku, LIG4, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos, Artemis as well as DNA polymerase lambda (termed D-NHEJ). Mutants with defects in these proteins remove a large proportion of DSBs from their genome utilizing an alternative pathway of NHEJ that operates as a backup (B-NHEJ). While D-NHEJ relies exclusively on DNA ligase IV, recent work points to DNA ligase III as a component of B-NHEJ. Here, we use RNA interference (RNAi) to further investigate the activity requirements for DNA ligase III and IV in the pathways of NHEJ. We report that 70-80% knock down of LIG3 expression has no detectable effect on DSB rejoining, either in D-NHEJ proficient cells, or in cells where D-NHEJ has been chemically or genetically compromised. Surprisingly, also LIG4 knock down has no effect on repair proficient cells, but inhibits DSB rejoining in a radiosensitive cell line with a hypomorphic LIG4 mutation that severely compromises its activity. The results suggest that complete coverage for D-NHEJ or B-NHEJ is afforded by very low ligase levels and demonstrate residual end joining by DNA ligase IV in cells of patients with mutations in LIG4. PMID:17492771

  18. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats. PMID:20016707

  19. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Implementation: Is Sufficient Evidence Available?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Sophie; Dixon, Simon; Faria, Rita; Walker, Simon; Palmer, Stephen; Sculpher, Mark; Radford, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely implementation of recommended interventions can provide health benefits to patients and cost savings to the health service provider. Effective approaches to increase the implementation of guidance are needed. Since investment in activities that improve implementation competes for funding against other health generating interventions, it should be assessed in term of its costs and benefits. Objective In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence released a clinical guideline recommending natriuretic peptide (NP) testing in patients with suspected heart failure. However, its implementation in practice was variable across the National Health Service in England. This study demonstrates the use of multi-period analysis together with diffusion curves to estimate the value of investing in implementation activities to increase uptake of NP testing. Methods Diffusion curves were estimated based on historic data to produce predictions of future utilization. The value of an implementation activity (given its expected costs and effectiveness) was estimated. Both a static population and a multi-period analysis were undertaken. Results The value of implementation interventions encouraging the utilization of NP testing is shown to decrease over time as natural diffusion occurs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the value of the implementation activity depends on its efficacy and on the population size. Conclusions Value of implementation can help inform policy decisions of how to invest in implementation activities even in situations in which data are sparse. Multi-period analysis is essential to accurately quantify the time profile of the value of implementation given the natural diffusion of the intervention and the incidence of the disease. PMID:27021746

  20. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  1. EFFECTS OF AGE ON CHILDREN'S INTAKE OF LARGE AND SELF-SELECTED PORTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to intake promoting environmental influences is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected portions. Participants were 75 non-Hispanic white children aged 2-...

  2. Priority areas for research on the intake, composition and health effects of nuts and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from a conference on the health effects of nut consumption, and identifies priority areas for future research. Individuals with higher intakes of nuts generally have higher intakes of many beneficial dietary constituents. More information is needed ...

  3. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  4. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  5. Priority areas for research on the intake, composition, and health effects of tree nuts and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from conference on the health effects of nut consumption and identifies priority areas for future research. Individuals with higher intakes of nuts generally have higher intakes of many beneficial dietary constituents. More information is needed on ...

  6. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  7. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women.

    PubMed

    Lovelady, Cheryl A; Stephenson, Kimberly G; Kuppler, Kerri M; Williams, John P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate dietary changes in women who were participating in a study on the effects of weight loss in overweight lactating women on the growth of their infants. Women were randomly assigned at 4 weeks postpartum to either restrict energy intake by 500 kcal/day (diet and exercise group) or to maintain usual dietary intake (control group) for 10 weeks. The diet and exercise group significantly decreased fats, sweetened drinks, sweets and desserts, snack foods, and energy intake. Micronutrient intake decreased in the diet and exercise group; however, mean intakes were not significantly different from those of the control group except for calcium and vitamin D. Both groups consumed less than 76% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins E and C at the end of the study. Mean intake of all other nutrients was adequate in both groups. These results suggest that overweight lactating women can restrict their energy intake by 500 kcal per day by decreasing consumption of foods high in fat and simple sugars. However, they must be advised to increase their intakes of foods high in calcium and vitamin D. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables should also be recommended to all lactating women, as well as multivitamin and calcium supplements to those who do not consume adequate amounts of these foods. PMID:16720131

  8. Beneficial Physiological Effects With Blackcurrant Intake in Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Myers, Stephen David; Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Cook, Matthew David

    2015-08-01

    Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p < .05. Plasma lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol · La(-1) OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance. PMID:25811286

  9. Effects of Coffee and Caffeine Anhydrous Intake During Creatine Loading.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Roelofs, Erica J; Hirsch, Katie R; Persky, Adam M; Mock, Meredith G

    2016-05-01

    Trexler, ET, Smith-Ryan, AE, Roelofs, EJ, Hirsch, KR, Persky, AM, and Mock, MG. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1438-1446, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 days of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper-body and lower-body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n = 54; mean ± SD; age = 20.1 ± 2.1 years; weight = 78.8 ± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue with 80% 1RM for bench press and leg press, followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10-second sprints separated by 60-second rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hours later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g of CRE monohydrate, 4 times per day; n = 14), CRE + CAF (CRE +300 mg·d of CAF; n = 13), CRE + COF (CRE +8.9 g of COF, yielding 303 mg of CAF; n = 13), or placebo (PLA; n = 14) for 5 days. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured before and after supplementation, and on day 6, participants repeated pretesting procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant time × treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time × sprint interaction was observed (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant interactions among treatment groups. A time × treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p ≤ 0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE + CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone nor in combination with CAF or COF significantly affected performance compared with PLA. PMID:26439785

  10. Food intake and thermic effect of feeding in thyroid-deficient pigs.

    PubMed

    Macari, M

    1984-02-01

    Short and long-term thyroidectomy and Methimazole treatment reduced food intake in young growing pigs. The thermic effect of feeding assessed by the increment in rectal temperature after the beginning of food ingestion was reduced in thyroidectomized animals, but no effect could be observed in Methimazole-treated pigs. Propranolol injection after short-term treatment decreased food intake in sham-operated and treated animals, but reduced the thermic effect of feeding only in thyroidectomized and Methimazole-treated pigs. Long-term treatment inhibited the effect of propranolol in reducing food intake and the thermic effect of feeding. On the basis of these data, it was suggested that the interaction between thyroid hormones and catecholamines (noradrenaline) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and in the thermic effect of feeding in thyroid-deficient pigs. PMID:6718551

  11. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangning

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs. PMID:25019100

  12. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  13. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  14. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  15. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. Objective: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. Design: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20–60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Results: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Conclusions: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options. PMID:24257724

  16. Effect of Zinc Intake on Growth in Infants: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, M; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Fuentes Lugo, D; Henríquez Sánchez, P; Doreste Alonso, J; Peña Quintana, L; Ruano, C; Lowe, N L; Hall Moran, V; Skinner, A L; Warthon-Medina, M; Serra-Majem, L

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on growth in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 19 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on growth was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status, and risk of bias. From each select growth study, final measures of weight, length, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), head circumference, weight for age z-score (WAZ), length for age z-score (LAZ), and weight for length z-score (WLZ) were assessed. Pooled β and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis. Zn intake was not associated with weight, length, MUAC, head circumference, and LAZ in the pooled analyses. However, Zn intake had a positive and statistically effect on WAZ (β = 0.06; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.10) and WLZ (β = 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08). The dose-response relationship between Zn intake and these parameters indicated that a doubling of Zn intake increased WAZ and WLZ by approximately 4%. Substantial heterogeneity was present only in length analyses (I(2) = 45%; p = 0.03). Zn intake was positively associated with length values at short time (four to 20 weeks) (β = 0.01; CI 95% 0 to 0.02) and at medium doses of Zn (4.1 to 8 mg/day) (β = 0.003; CI 95% 0 to 0.01). Nevertheless, the effect magnitude was small. Our results indicate that Zn intake increases growth parameters of infants. Nonetheless, interpretation of these results should be carefully considered. PMID:25365524

  17. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements' effect on total nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Sharma, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy for 17 nutrients based on responses to a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered to MEC participants at baseline in 1993-1996. Although the prevalence of nutrient adequacy from food only was higher for multivitamin supplement users (n = 21,056) than for nonusers (n = 69,715), differences averaged only 2 percentage points. For multivitamin users, the prevalence of adequacy improved by an average of 8 percentage points for both men and women when intake from supplements was included. Users were also more likely to have potentially excessive intakes, particularly for iron, zinc, vitamin A, and niacin. The 26,735 MEC participants in Hawaii who answered an open-ended question about multivitamin use in 1999-2001 reported using 1246 different products. The nutrient profile of these products varied widely, and the composition of products at the 90th percentile was 10-fold greater than the composition at the median for some nutrients. We conclude that analyses of nutrient adequacy and excess for supplement users should be extended to national samples and that composition data on actual supplements used are preferable to assuming a default nutrient profile for multivitamin supplements. Multivitamin products could be better formulated to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy and also to reduce the risk of excessive intakes. PMID:17209210

  18. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  19. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  20. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  1. Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Rodin, J

    1990-03-01

    Using a within-subjects design, we gave over-weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 min after the preload was completed. Blood was drawn throughout and assayed for concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acid. When subjects drank the fructose preload, they subsequently ate fewer overall calories and fewer grams of fat than when they drank any of the other preloads. The aspartame load did not stimulate intake beyond the plain-water control. The effects of the oxidation of fructose as a possible mechanism for the reduction in food intake is discussed. The effects of insulin in stimulating intake are also discussed. PMID:2178391

  2. Effects of naltrexone on food intake and body weight gain in olanzapine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, Daniel B; Currie, Paul J; Simonson, Donald C; Borsook, David; Elman, Igor

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of opioidergic neurotransmission contributes to reduction in body weight. However, how such blockade affects body weight gain (BWG) attributed to second generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs) has not yet been established. Here we examined the effects of an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on food intake and BWG associated with an SGA, olanzapine (OL). Four groups of Wistar Han IGS rats were treated for 28 days with either OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, intraperitoneal (IP)), a combination of OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, IP) + extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, intramuscular (IM)), extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, IM) or vehicle and their food intake and body weight were measured daily for the first nine days and every other day thereafter. Food intake and BWG that were increased by OL were decreased by the added NTX while NTX alone had no significant effects on food intake or on BWG. Plasma leptin concentrations were significantly elevated in the three groups receiving pharmacological agents, but did not differ among each other, suggesting that changes in leptin secretion and/or clearance alone would not explain the food intake and the body weight findings. Our results extend prior reports on anorexigenic effects of opioid antagonists by demonstrating that such effects may generalize to food intake increases and BWG arising in the context of OL pharmacotherapy. PMID:22723540

  3. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  4. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  5. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  6. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS INTAKE IN SAUDI PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa A.; Alhamdan, Adel A.H.; Alorf, Saada; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Alawami, Shatha

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary intake of flavonoids and their effect on serum lipid levels in Saudi patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methodology: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 50 CHD patients and 50 controls. A 24-hour recall method was used to collect data on the dietary intake of macronutrients, flavonoids, and antioxidant vitamins. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect data on habitual consumption during the year preceding the interview. Baseline data collection included medical history, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, and smoking status. Results: CHD patients showed significantly less intake of fruits and vegetables compared to the controls. Serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were found to be significantly higher in CHD patients than in the controls. The main sources of flavonoids in a typical Saudi diet are tea, fruits (apples), vegetables (onions), and chocolate. The intake of flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins was significantly lower in CHD patients compared to the controls. A negative correlation between the dietary intake of different flavonoids and serum LDL was observed in CHD patients. Significant correlation was found between the intake of flavonol and waist to hip ratio Conclusions: The findings of the study support a potential protective effect of dietary flavonoids in relation to CHD. The study showed that consuming more Flavonoids may have positive effect on lowering blood lipids. PMID:23012157

  7. Preserved striate cortex is not sufficient to support the McCollough effect: evidence from two patients with cerebral achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Caitlin R; Démonet, Jean François; Kentridge, Robert W; Heywood, Charles A; Goodale, Melvyn A; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2009-01-01

    The McCollough effect (ME) is a colour aftereffect contingent on pattern orientation. This effect is generally thought to be mediated by primary visual cortex (V1) although this has remained the subject of some debate. To determine whether V1 is in fact sufficient to subserve the ME, we compared McCollough adaptation in controls to adaptation in two patients with damage to ventrotemporal cortex, resulting in achromatopsia, but who have spared V1. Each of these patients has some residual colour abilities of which he is unaware. Participants performed a 2AFC orientation-discrimination task for pairs of oblique and vertical/horizontal gratings both before and after adaptation to red/green oblique induction gratings. Successful ME induction would manifest itself as an improvement in oblique-orientation discrimination owing to the additional colour cue after adaptation. Indeed, in controls oblique grating discrimination improved post-adaptation. Further, a subdivision of our control group demonstrated successful ME induction despite a lack of conscious awareness of the added colour cue, indicating that conscious colour awareness is not required for ME induction. The patients, however, did not show improvement in oblique-orientation discrimination, indicating a lack of ME induction. This suggests that V1 must be connected to higher cortical colour areas to drive ME induction. PMID:20192125

  8. Sufficient utilization of natural fluctuating light intensity is an effective approach of promoting lipid productivity in oleaginous microalgal cultivation outdoors.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Xu, Liangliang; Xia, Ling; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluctuating intensity of solar radiation on biomass and lipid in oleaginous microalgae are important. However, this topic has not been the subject of studies for a long time. In this study, four oleaginous microalgae from semi-arid areas were screened and cultivated outdoors under different fluctuating intensities. Results showed that the highest lipid productivities and neutral lipid (NL) contents occurred under high fluctuating intensity (HFI), in which 13-20% of the increased NL came from glycolipid transformation without phospholipid conversion. Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 obtained from biological soil crusts in desert had the largest biomass (137.13, 106.61mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid yields (35.06, 32.45mgL(-1)d(-1)) under HFI. The highest areal lipid productivities of 9.06 and 8.95gm(-2)d(-1) and better biodiesel quality were observed under HFI. Accordingly, sufficiently adopting fluctuating light intensity outdoors to culture microalgae was an economic and effective approach. PMID:25590422

  9. Effect of sulfite intake on intestinal enzyme activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Vieytes, M; Martinez-Sapiña, J; Taboada Montero, C; Lamas Aneiros, M

    1994-01-01

    Sulfites are usually added to food, beverages and pharmaceuticals as preservative antioxidants, bleaching agents, and dough conditioning agents. Ingestion of foods containing sulfites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, seizures and death. Sulfite can react with cellular components and can cause toxicity. Changes in mucosal disaccharidases and phosphatase alkaline after sodium metabisulfite administration were investigated in the small intestine of rats. Female Wistar rats were given a diet supplemented with 0.25 or 2.5% sodium metabisulfite for 5 weeks. Sucrase, maltase, lactase and alkaline phosphatase were assayed in intestinal homogenates and in brush border membrane fractions. The intake of only 2.5% sulfite induced an increase in the specific activities of sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase compared to control levels (P < 0.05). Lactase levels were affected in a variable manner. The origin of such altered enzyme activities is still unknown. PMID:7958644

  10. When is Testing Sufficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Arthur, James D.; Stapko, Ruth K.; Davani, Darush

    1999-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been investigating how projects can determine when sufficient testing has been completed. For most projects, schedules are underestimated, and the last phase of the software development, testing, must be decreased. Two questions are frequently asked: "To what extent is the software error-free? " and "How much time and effort is required to detect and remove the remaining errors? " Clearly, neither question can be answered with absolute certainty. Nonetheless, the ability to answer these questions with some acceptable level of confidence is highly desirable. First, knowing the extent to which a product is error-free, we can judge when it is time to terminate testing. Secondly, if errors are judged to be present, we can perform a cost/benefit trade-off analysis to estimate when the software will be ready for use and at what cost. This paper explains the efforts of the SATC to help projects determine what is sufficient testing and when is the most cost-effective time to stop testing.

  11. Antioxidant intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in Utah: an effect modified by smoking status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Munger, Ronald G; West, Nancy A; Cutler, D Richard; Wengreen, Heidi J; Corcoran, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    The role of antioxidant intake in osteoporotic hip fracture risk is uncertain and may be modified by smoking. In the Utah Study of Nutrition and Bone Health, a statewide, population-based case-control study, the authors investigated whether antioxidant intake was associated with risk of osteoporotic hip fracture and whether this association was modified by smoking status. The analyses included data on 1,215 male and female cases aged > or = 50 years who incurred a hip fracture during 1997-2001 and 1,349 age- and sex-matched controls. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Among ever smokers, participants in the highest quintile of vitamin E intake (vs. the lowest) had a lower risk of hip fracture after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.52; p-trend < 0.0001). The corresponding odds ratio for beta-carotene intake was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.68; p-trend = 0.0004), and for selenium intake it was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.58; p-trend = 0.0003). Vitamin C intake did not have a significant graded association with hip fracture risk among ever smokers. Similar findings were obtained when an overall antioxidant intake score was used (odds ratio = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.37; p-trend < 0.0001). No similar associations were found in never smokers. Antioxidant intake was associated with reduced risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in these elderly subjects, and the effect was strongly modified by smoking status. PMID:16306312

  12. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking. PMID:8660033

  13. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well. PMID:26420605

  14. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  15. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  16. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and flunitrazepam on ethanol intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stuart T; Gerak, Lisa R; Gurkovskaya, Olga; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M; Winsauer, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Both gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and flunitrazepam are often used illicitly in combination with ethanol. Nevertheless, the effects that these and other drugs of abuse have on the reinforcing effects of ethanol remain inconclusive. To test the effects of GHB and flunitrazepam on contingent ethanol intake, twelve male Long-Evans rats were trained to orally consume ethanol using a saccharin-fading procedure. After training, all animals preferentially consumed ethanol instead of water at each of five ethanol concentrations (0-32%) when tested with a two-bottle preference test in the homecage. Animals then received a noncontingent dose of ethanol (0.32, 0.56, 1, and 1.33 g/kg), flunitrazepam (0.032, 0.1, and 0.32 mg/kg), or GHB (100, 180, 320, and 560 mg/kg) prior to each subject's daily access to ethanol (18% v/v). Noncontingent doses of ethanol decreased ethanol intake, however, the subjects consumed enough ethanol to maintain a consistent total ethanol dose in g/kg. Flunitrazepam did not affect ethanol intake at any dose tested, whereas GHB only affected intake at the highest dose (560 mg/kg), a dose that also produced sedation. These data suggest that there are perceptible or qualitative differences between GHB, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in terms of their capacity for modulating oral ethanol intake in outbred rats. PMID:17208286

  17. Effects of dietary salt intake on plasma arginine.

    PubMed

    Kitiyakara, C; Chabrashvili, T; Jose, P; Welch, W J; Wilcox, C S

    2001-04-01

    Because L-arginine is degraded by hepatic arginase to ornithine and urea and is transported by the regulated 2A cationic amino acid y(+) transporter (CAT2A), hepatic transport may regulate plasma arginine concentration. Groups of rats (n = 6) were fed a diet of either low salt (LS) or high salt (HS) for 7 days to test the hypothesis that dietary salt intake regulates plasma arginine concentration and renal nitric oxide (NO) generation by measuring plasma arginine and ornithine concentrations, renal NO excretion, and expression of hepatic CAT2A, and arginase. LS rats had lower excretion of NO metabolites and cGMP, lower plasma arginine concentration (LS: 83 +/- 7 vs. HS: 165 +/- 10 micromol/l, P < 0.001), but higher plasma ornithine concentration (LS: 82 +/- 6 vs. HS: 66 +/- 4 micromol/l, P < 0.05) and urea excretion. However, neither the in vitro hepatic arginase activity nor the mRNA for hepatic arginase I was different between groups. In contrast, LS rats had twice the abundance of mRNA for hepatic CAT2A (LS: 3.4 +/- 0.4 vs. HS: 1.6 +/- 0.5, P < 0.05). The reduced plasma arginine concentration with increased plasma ornithine concentration and urea excretion during LS indicates increased arginine metabolism by arginase. This cannot be ascribed to changes in hepatic arginase expression but may be a consequence of increased hepatic arginine uptake via CAT2A. PMID:11247829

  18. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  19. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  20. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  1. Effects of Yohimbine and Tolazoline on Isoproterenol and Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and tolazoline, at doses up to 1000 micro-g/kg, had no effect on water intake of female rats. However, when these compounds were administered SC in combination with either the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol (10 to 25 micro-g/kg, SC), or with angiotensin 2 (200 micro-g/kg, SC). water intake was enhanced. In contrast, intraventricular administration of either tolazoline (10 and 20 micro-g/kg) or yohimbine (300 micro-g/kg) failed to augment the dipsogenic response to angiotensin 2 (150 micro-g/kg, SC). Thus, the enhancing effect of these alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists on isoproterenol- and angiotensin 2-induced water intakes appears to be manifested peripherally, rather than centrally. In view of the fact that clonidine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit water intake induced by both isoproterenol and angiotensin 2, the results suggest that the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor may play a role in modulating water intake induced by these two dipsogenic agents.

  2. Nutrient intake in the GEICO multicenter trial: the effects of a multicomponent worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S; Barnard, N D; Gonzales, J; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Levin, S

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. Subjects/methods: Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one participants completed baseline diet recalls, and 183 participants completed dietary recalls at 18 weeks. Sites were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five sites) or to a control group (five sites) for 18 weeks. At intervention sites, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings. At control sites, participants continued their usual diets. At baseline and 18 weeks, participants completed 2-day diet recalls. Between-group differences in changes in nutrient intake were assessed using an analysis of covariance. Results: Compared with those in the control group, intervention-group participants significantly reduced the reported intake of total fat (P=0.02), saturated (P=0.006) and monounsaturated fats (P=0.01), cholesterol (P=0.009), protein (P=0.03) and calcium (P=0.02), and increased the intake of carbohydrate (P=0.006), fiber (P=0.002), β-carotene (P=0.01), vitamin C (P=0.003), magnesium (P=0.04) and potassium (P=0.002). Conclusions: An 18-week intervention program in a corporate setting reduces intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and increases the intake of protective nutrients, particularly fiber, β-carotene, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The reduction in calcium intake indicates the need for planning for this nutrient. PMID:23942177

  3. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  4. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  5. Effect of food intake on left and right ventricular systolic tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieden, Anna; Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal. Three measurements were taken in each projection, and a mean value was calculated for each. s' increased significantly (P<0·05) from fasting to 30 min after food intake in every measured site except in the left inferolateral wall (P = 0·15, NS). Several, but not all, variables returned to base value 110 min after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects the tissue Doppler variables used to evaluate systolic heart function. Further studies are needed in older healthy subjects and older subjects with various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25976703

  6. The portion size effect on food intake is robust to contextual size information.

    PubMed

    Reily, Natalie M; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2016-10-01

    Larger portion sizes have consistently been shown to lead to greater food intake. However, studies of the portion size effect typically provided participants with a single portion of food at a time without any objective information about the size of the portion, and hence failed to consider the potential significance of contextual size information. In order to investigate whether contextual size information moderates the portion size effect, participants were served small or large portions of pasta for lunch in the presence or absence of contextual size information. Study 1 found that the portion size effect on food intake was robust to contextual size information. Study 2 replicated this finding in an online paradigm, showing that contextual size information also had no influence on prospective intake, even when participants chose the portion size they preferred. Both studies also showed that participants' perceptions of how much was appropriate to eat mediated the effect of portion size on intake. A practical implication of our findings is that modifying consumption norms may be an effective way to promote healthier consumer food decisions. PMID:27311378

  7. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gustavo R; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. PMID:26447210

  8. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bunney, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine's effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine's appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking. PMID

  9. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd; John, Swen; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Lindeberg, Staffan; Cordain, Loren

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  10. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  11. 'Finish your soup': counterproductive effects of pressuring children to eat on intake and affect.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Amy T; Fiorito, Laura M; Francis, Lori A; Birch, Leann L

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined whether pressuring preschoolers to eat would affect food intake and preferences, using a repeated-measures experimental design. In the experimental condition, children were pressured to eat by a request to finish their food. We collected intake data, heights and weights, child-feeding practices data, and children's comments about the food. Children consumed significantly more food when they were not pressured to eat and they made overwhelmingly fewer negative comments. Children who were pressured to eat at home had lower body mass index percentile scores and were less affected by the pressure in the lab setting than children who were not pressured at home. These data provide experimental evidence supporting previous correlational research indicating that pressure can have negative effects on children's affective responses to and intake of healthy foods. PMID:16626838

  12. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  13. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  14. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  15. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  16. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  17. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  18. Effects of transportation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on body weight and feed intake of crossbred heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of transportation and LPS challenge on feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of calves. Brahman x British heifers (n=44) from Raymond, MS, were weaned and acclimated to a high roughage diet fed in GrowSafe® bunks for 25 d. Heifers were blocked by BW...

  19. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  20. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  1. Inflow rates and interrupted flow effects on concentrated flow erosion and intake rate in two soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation is the most widely used irrigation practice world wide, but its water use efficiency is low. Interrupted supply of water to furrows may reduce intake rate (IR) upstream and improve irrigation efficiency in many soils, but has an insignificant effect in others. Similarly, intermitt...

  2. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  3. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term. PMID:26996228

  4. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams. Body weight gain, ADG, FS, DMI, and RFI were not significant (P > 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P < 0.01) for BW gain, ADG, FS, and DMI. Among RFI classifications, beginning and end BW, BW gain, ADG, and FS were not different (P > 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared

  5. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  6. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2014-11-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  7. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are... of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient...

  8. How Important Are 'Entry Effects' in Financial Incentive Programs for Welfare Recipients? Experimental Evidence from the Self-Sufficiency Project. SRDC Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David; Robins, Philip K.; Lin, Winston

    The Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) entry effect experiment was designed to measure the effect of the future availability of an earnings supplement on the behavior of newly enrolled income assistance (IA) recipients. It used a classical randomized design. From a sample of 3,315 single parents who recently started a new period of IA, one-half were…

  9. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  10. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: Effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, M.E.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, G.-Q.; Algava, D.B.; Leibowitz, S.F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period of time to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically-relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. PMID:25257106

  11. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029 PMID:21294869

  12. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  13. Effects of increased iodine intake on thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  14. Effects of Metformin on Energy Intake and Satiety in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Mopelola A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Calis, Karim A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Metformin’s ability to promote weight loss is believed to be at least partly attributable to decreased energy consumption. There are few data regarding the effects of metformin on energy intake in children. We therefore investigated metformin’s effects on appetite and energy intake in obese hyperinsulinemic children. Materials and Methods We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of metformin 1000mg BID on body weight and energy balance in 100 obese hyperinsulinemic children aged 6–12y. Subjects ate ad libitum from standardized food arrays on two separate occasions before, and then again after, 6 months of study medication. The first test meal was consumed after an overnight fast. The second was preceded by a pre-meal load. For each test meal, energy intake was recorded, and subjects completed scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat. Results Data from the meal studies at baseline and after treatment with study medication were available for 84 children (45 metformin-treated and 39 placebo-treated). Compared with placebo, metformin treatment elicited significant reductions from baseline in adjusted mean energy intake after the pre-meal load (metformin: −104.7±83.8 kcal vs. placebo: +144.2±96.9 kcal; p=0.034) independent of changes in body composition. Metformin also significantly decreased ratings of hunger (−1.5±5.6 vs. +18.6±6.3; p=0.013) and increased ratings of fullness (+10.1±6.2 vs. −12.8±7.0; p=0.01) following the pre-meal load. Conclusions These data suggest that decreased perceived hunger resulting in diminished food intake are among the mechanisms by which metformin treatment reduces body weight in overweight, hyperinsulinemic children. PMID:25483291

  15. Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Weinberg, Laura; James, Sarah

    2005-11-15

    The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented in bland and palatable forms. Mass consumed varied as an interaction of palatability and ED, with subjects eating least of the bland/HED version, suggesting some un-learned satiating effects. No such compensation for ED was seen in the palatable/HED condition, and overall energy intake increased with ED. Palatability had the expected stimulatory effect on appetite, but rated hunger decreased more rapidly as a function of energy consumed in the HED conditions. Experiment 2 introduced novel distinctive flavours to examine whether repeated experience of palatable HED and LED versions resulted in learned satiety. Participants ate the same mass of LED and HED versions on first exposure, but after two training days with each food, where they consumed a fixed amount, they subsequently ate a greater mass of the LED version, consistent with learned satiety. Increased intake was accompanied by a slower rate of decline in hunger in the LED condition. Despite these changes, energy intake remained higher with the HED version. Liking for the LED version was greater than the HED version at the end, possibly due to mild aversive qualities of eating a fixed portion of the HED food during training. Together these data suggest that energy density is the major determinant of short-term energy intake in the absence of orosensory cues predictive of energy differences, but that learning of flavour-energy associations can, to some extent, allow short-term energy consumption to be regulated. PMID:16165170

  16. Effect of Sidewall Configurations on Hypersonic Intake Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seihwan; Park, Ji Hyun; Jeung, In-Seuck; Lee, Hyoung Jin

    For reusable space launchers and hypersonic flight vehicles, use of an air-breathing propulsion system with supersonic combustion is the most promising option in terms of cost effectiveness. At this point, only the scramjet propulsion system provides a real alternative to expensive rocket driven systems, which currently are the only way to reach a hypersonics speeds.

  17. No effect of food intake on clobazam absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Cenraud, B; Guyot, M; Levy, R H; Brachet-Liermain, A; Morselli, P L; Moreland, T A; Loiseau, P

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of clobazam taken 3 h before, during, and 3 h after a standard hospital meal were studied in six healthy volunteers. Peak plasma levels were significantly lower when the drug was taken with or after meals suggesting that the rate of absorption was reduced by food. The mean area under the concentration vs time curve was not affected by the time of drug administration indicating that the meal had no effect upon the extent of absorption. PMID:6661360

  18. Necessary, but also Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Cell biologists are equipped with a plethora of techniques and approaches to unravel the fascinating inner working of the cell. Among these, biochemistry has the ability to define the machinery that is both necessary and sufficient for a given process and, therefore, to define its core mechanism. PMID:27142894

  19. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease. PMID:21138816

  20. Delay discounting moderates the effect of food reinforcement on energy intake among non-obese women☆

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y.; Dearing, Kelly K.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to food intake hypothesize that eating represents a balance between reward-driven motivation to eat versus inhibitory executive function processes, however this hypothesis remains to be tested. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the motivation to eat, operationalized by the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, and inhibitory processes, assessed by delay discounting (DD), interact to influence energy intake in an ad libitum eating task. Female subjects (n = 24) completed a DD of money procedure, RRV task, and an ad libitum eating task in counterbalanced sessions. RRV of food predicted total energy intake, however the effect of the RRV of food on energy intake was moderated by DD. Women higher in DD and RRV of food consumed greater total energy, whereas women higher in RRV of food but lower in DD consumed less total energy. Our findings support the hypothesis that reinforcing value and executive function mediated processes interactively influence food consumption. PMID:20678532

  1. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  2. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  3. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Caloric Intake and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Andrew D.; Carter, Rickey E.; Adachi, Taro; G. Macedo, Paula; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E.; Levine, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Methods: We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Results: Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P = .006) and decreased in the control group by −118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P = .51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P = .014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P = .62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P = .27) or ghrelin (P = .21). Conclusions: Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23392199

  4. Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine N M; Newson, Lisa

    2006-07-30

    Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers. PMID:16757007

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  6. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  7. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  8. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  9. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  10. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  11. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE's effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE's vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  12. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal and urinary Cd excretions were remarkably increased in Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Thus, cadmium retention ratio and absorption rate were decreased in the Cd exposed chlorella groups. Urinary and serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were not changed in experimental animals. In addition, metallothionein (MT) synthesis in tissues was increased by Cd administration. The Cd-exposed chlorella groups indicated lower MT concentration compared to the Cd-exposed groups. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not changed by dietary chlorella and Cd administration. According to the results above, this study could suggest that Cd toxicity can be alleviated by increasing Cd excretion through feces. Therefore, when exposed to Cd, chlorella is an appropriate source which counteracts heavy metal poisoning, to decrease the damage of tissues by decreasing cadmium absorption. PMID:20016697

  13. Effect of maternal ethanol intake on fetal rabbit gastrointestinal development.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Gregg, J P; Fonkalsrud, E W

    1994-08-01

    Maternal ingestion of alcohol is believed to be one factor that greatly influences the development of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal growth failure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether maternally ingested alcohol adversely affects fetal growth and intestinal mucosal function. Five time-mated New Zealand white rabbit does were given ethanol intravenously (ETH group) (30% vol/vol; 1.0 g/kg/d) on gestational days (GD) 15 through 29 (term, 31 days). Two other rabbits received the same dose of ethanol. Maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid alcohol levels were measured on GD 24. Four control rabbits (SH group) received normal saline (25 mL, intravenously). At term, the animals were delivered by cesarean section and killed. Seventeen of the 42 ETH fetuses survived the study period (43%); all 24 SH fetuses survived. On GD 24, within 60 minutes after maternal ethanol infusion, the fetal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) increased to 153 +/- 1.97 mg/dL (v maternal, 179 +/- 1.75 mg/dL); the amniotic ethanol level increased to 46 +/- 1.32 mg/dL. Birth weight was lower in the ETH group (46.88 +/- 2.21 g) than in the SH group (55.78 +/- 1.80 g) (P < .01). Disaccharidase activity, an indicator of intestinal mucosal function, showed that lactase activity (per milligram of protein) was significantly lower in ETH fetuses (2.60 x 10(-2) +/- 0.22 UE/mg) than in SH fetuses (3.50 x 10(-2) +/- 0.25 UE/mg) (P = .01); maltase activity and protein content were not affected significantly. This report provides the first description of the adverse effects of maternal alcohol ingestion on the small intestinal mucosal function of the fetal rabbit. PMID:7965501

  14. Effects of Dietary Phosphate and Calcium Intake on Fibroblast Growth Factor-23

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, Frans J.; Büttler, Rahel M.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Little is known about the influence of dietary phosphate intake on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its subsequent effects on vitamin D levels. This study addresses changes in intact FGF23 (iFGF23) and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23), phosphaturia, and levels of vitamin D on high and low phosphate and calcium intake. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Ten healthy subjects adhered to a diet low or high in phosphate and calcium content for 36 hours each with a 1-week interval during which subjects adhered to their usual diet. Serum phosphate, calcium, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 levels (cFGF23 and iFGF23) were measured several times a day. Phosphate, calcium, and creatinine excretion was measured in 24-hour urine on all study days. Results Serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate increased during high dietary phosphate intake (from 1.11 to 1.32 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 and 21.6 to 28.8 mmol/d, P = 0.0005, respectively). FGF23 serum levels increased during high dietary phosphate/calcium intake (cFGF23 from 60 to 72 RU/ml, P < 0.001; iFGF23 from 33 to 37 ng/L, P = 0.003), whereas PTH declined. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) showed an inverse relation with FGF23. Conclusions Variation in dietary phosphate and calcium intake induces changes in FGF23 (on top of a circadian rhythm) and 1,25D blood levels as well as in urinary phosphate excretion. These changes are detectable the day after the change in the phosphate content of meals. Higher FGF23 levels are associated with phosphaturia and a decline in 1,25D levels. PMID:21030580

  15. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  16. Effect of natural and synthetic polyamines on ethanol intake in UChB drinker rats.

    PubMed

    Bilbeny, Norberto; Contreras, Selfa; Font, María; Paeile, Carlos; García, Hernán

    2005-07-01

    Because of the important glutamatergic mediation of the behavioral effects of ethanol, glutamatergic agents have attracted attention for the treatment of ethanol abuse and dependence in preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pharmacological doses of the natural polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine and the synthetic polyamine N,N'-bis-(3-aminopropyl)cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (DCD) on alcohol consumption in a free-choice paradigm carried out in genetically high-ethanol-consumer UChB rats. Short 3-day treatment with either polyamine, administered p.o., significantly reduced ethanol intake without modifying water and food intakes. Neither polyamine was able to increase markedly blood acetaldehyde in rats submitted to a standard challenge dose of ethanol, to rule out a disulfiram-like effect. Besides, blood ethanol disappearance after a test dose of ethanol was not affected by the synthetic polyamine DCD. Long-term treatment with DCD dose-dependently reduced ethanol intake in UChB rats without producing any observable effect on overt behavior, food consumption, and total fluid intake. The present results indicate that pharmacological doses of polyamines can reduce ethanol consumption in genetically drinking rats without producing significant side effects, suggesting that modulation of brain N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by polyamines could represent a suitable strategy to reduce appetite for ethanol. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting the results because polyamines can also affect neuronal excitability by acting at other receptor targets, such as AMPA and kainate receptors, as well as at some voltage-dependent ion channels. PMID:16377458

  17. Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josée; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: −0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: −0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels. PMID:21810599

  18. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations. PMID:21373186

  19. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Helgason, Lisa Bjørnsdatter; Arukwe, Augustine; Wolkers, Hans; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Berg, Vidar; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs. PMID:23060285

  20. Effects of fludrocortisone on water and sodium intake of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about steroidal control of thirst- and salt-appetite behaviors of mice. The current study investigates effects of fludrocortisone acetate (FCA), a steroid with potent glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects, on thirst- and salt-appetite responses of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FCA produced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) increases in both magnitude and duration of water and sodium intake. Chronic elevation of water and saline intake was achieved with daily injections of FCA. Daily injection of FCA, when only 0.9% saline was available, produced a remarkably rapid increase in saline intake. A single injection of FCA stimulated brisk diuresis and natriuresis in fluid-restricted animals. This work is the first to demonstrate copious water drinking by mice in response to FCA. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the renal effects of FCA promote increases in water and sodium turnover and thereby, increases in water and sodium ingestion. PMID:26017491

  1. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism. PMID:27267303

  2. The effect of glutamine intake on complications of colorectal and colon cancer treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jolfaie, Nahid Ramezani; Mirzaie, Safiye; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvement in complications of antitumor agents and surgery is important to enhance life quality and survival among patients with colon and colorectal cancer. It has been reported that some dietary components such as glutamine (Gln) have beneficial effects on these complications of cancer therapies. However, the results of studies are inconsistent in this area. We performed a review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Gln intake on complications related to therapeutic strategies of the colon and colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and SID databases to find the relevant literature, published before July 2015. Results: Nine RCTs of 217 screened articles were included in this systematic review. The results of the present review suggested that Gln intake among colon and colorectal cancer patients could reduce some complications induced by chemotherapy such as gut mucositis and diarrhea and improve nitrogen balance, immune system and wound healing after surgery, whereas benefits role of Gln on radiochemotherapy side effects were not provided. Conclusion: The role of Gln intake on some improvement of complications induced by cancer therapeutic methods and shorten the length of hospital stay may be promising and one that is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26759580

  3. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  4. Central histaminergic system interplay with suppressive effects of immune challenge on food intake in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, M; Baghbanzadeh, A; Aghelkohan, P; Hassanpour, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the interaction of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histaminergic systems on appetite regulation in broilers. Effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, histidine decarboxylase inhibitor), chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), famotidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist) and thioperamide (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) on LPS-induced hypophagia in broilers were studied. A total of 128 broilers were randomly allocated into 4 experiments (4 groups and 8 replications in each experiment). A cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle. In Experiment 1, broilers were ICV injected with LPS (20 ng) prior to α-FMH (250 nmol). In Experiment 2, chickens were ICV injected with LPS followed by chlorpheniramine (300 nmol). In Experiment 3, broilers were ICV injected with famotidine (82 nmol) after LPS (20 ng). In Experiment 4, ICV injection of LPS was followed by thioperamide (300 nmol). Then, cumulative food intake was recorded until 4 h post-injection. According to the results, LPS significantly decreased food intake. Chlorpheniramine significantly amplified food intake, and LPS-induced hypophagia was lessened by injection of chlorpheniramine. α-FMH, famotidine and thioperamide had no effect on LPS-induced hypophagia. These results suggest that there is an interaction between central LPS and the histaminergic system where LPS-induced hypophagia is mediated by H1 histamine receptors in 3 h food-deprived broilers. PMID:26924422

  5. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Zendedel, Abolfazl; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghanadi, Kourosh; Bachari, Elham Ceneicel; Azargon, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D intake on COPD exacerbation and FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. Methods: This double blind placebo control randomized clinical trial study was done in the Ashayer university hospital in Khorramabad in 2012. Eighty eight patients with severe and very severe COPD were randomly selected from those who recoursed to the internal medicine clinic of Ashayer hospital. They were randomly allocated to case and placebo group. The patients received routine treatment for COPD. Along with the routine treatment, placebo group received 100,000 IU of oral vitamin D per month, for 6 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software, paired t-test, independent t-test, non parametric t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: In each group, there were 44 patients. After the intervention, there were significant differences in FEV1 and the number of COPD exacerbation between the case and control group patients. Also, after the study, in the case group, FEV1 was increased and the number of COPD exacerbation was decreased significantly. Conclusion: Vitamin D intake decreased COPD exacerbation and improved FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. It is suggested that baseline serum vitamin D levels will recorded in similar studies and the effect of vitamin D intake will evaluated regarding the baseline serum vitamin D levels. PMID:25946929

  6. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  7. Methodological considerations regarding response bias effect in substance use research: is correlation between the measured variables sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Efforts for drug free sport include developing a better understanding of the behavioural determinants that underline doping with an increased interest in developing anti-doping prevention and intervention programmes. Empirical testing of both is dominated by self-report questionnaires, which is the most widely used method in psychological assessments and sociology polls. Disturbingly, the potential distorting effect of socially desirable responding (SD) is seldom considered in doping research, or dismissed based on weak correlation between some SD measure and the variables of interest. The aim of this report is to draw attention to i) the potential distorting effect of SD and ii) the limitation of using correlation analysis between a SD measure and the individual measures. Models of doping opinion as a potentially contentious issue was tested using structural equation modeling technique (SEM) with and without the SD variable, on a dataset of 278 athletes, assessing the SD effect both at the i) indicator and ii) construct levels, as well as iii) testing SD as an independent variable affecting expressed doping opinion. Participants were categorised by their SD score into high- and low SD groups. Based on low correlation coefficients (<|0.22|) observed in the overall sample, SD effect on the indicator variables could be disregarded. Regression weights between predictors and the outcome variable varied between groups with high and low SD but despite the practically non-existing relationship between SD and predictors (<|0.11|) in the low SD group, both groups showed improved model fit with SD, independently. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the presence of SD effect and the inadequacy of the commonly used pairwise correlation to assess social desirability at model level. In the absence of direct observation of the target behaviour (i.e. doping use), evaluation of the effectiveness of future anti-doping campaign, along with empirical testing of refined

  8. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  9. Reducing effect of a Phaseolus vulgaris dry extract on food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Noemi; Cabras, Claudia; Lobina, Carla; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Donzelli, Fabio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Carai, Mauro A M

    2009-10-14

    Extracts of kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) are known to reduce food intake and glycemia in rodents and humans. This study evaluated the effect of a novel extract of P. vulgaris on food (regular food pellets, starch-enriched diet, and chocolate-flavored beverage) intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats. The effect of the combination of the colecistokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, lorglumide, and P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake was also investigated. Administration of doses of P. vulgaris dry extract devoid of any behavioral toxicity dose-dependently decreased food intake (irrespective of the diet), body weight gain, and glycemia. Pretreatment with lorglumide blocked the reducing effect of P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake. The capacity of this P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats may be due to (a) inhibition of alpha-amylase, (b) stimulation of CCK release from the intestinal brush border cells, and/or (c) interference with the central mechanism(s) regulating appetite, food intake, and food palatability. PMID:19731962

  10. Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1989-06-01

    A comparison was made of the effects on hunger and food intake of consuming preloads varying in sweetness and energy content. The preloads were a plain (unsweetened) yogurt, and the same yogurt sweetened to equal intensity with saccharin or glucose, or supplemented with starch. This balanced design made it possible to assess the consequences of adding sweetness to food as well as the consequences of substituting a nonnutritive sweetener for a caloric sweetener. Subjects (N = 24, repeated measures design) ate the preload at midday and returned one hour later for a sandwich lunch. Food intake in this meal was measured directly, and intake during the remaining part of the day was monitored using home recording in diaries. Hunger was assessed using subjective ratings of motivation to eat. Food intake at lunchtime was significantly greater following the saccharin compared with the plain preload, and parallel effects were revealed by the motivational ratings. Saccharin also stimulated further increases in intake after lunch. Food intake was lowest following the high-energy preloads, with the starch supplemented yogurt producing somewhat the largest suppression of intake. The results confirm and extend previous findings showing that intense sweeteners do not possess the same satiating capacity as glucose and sucrose. The stimulation of appetite by saccharin may be due to its sweet taste and also to effects on postingestive mechanisms. PMID:2813533

  11. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  12. Decelerated and linear eaters: effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergh, Cecilia; Brodin, Ulf; Södersten, Per

    2009-02-16

    Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an increased rate, but ate the same amount of food when eating at a decreased rate as during the control condition. Linear eaters ate more food when eating at an increased rate, but less food when eating at a decreased rate. Decelerated eaters estimated their level of satiety lower when eating at an increased rate but similar to the control condition when eating at a decreased rate. Linear eaters estimated their level of satiety similar to the control level despite eating more food at an increased rate and higher despite eating less food at a decreased rate. The cumulative satiety curve was fitted to a sigmoid curve both in decelerated and linear eater under all conditions. Linear eaters rated their desire to eat and estimated their prospective intake lower than decelerated eaters and scored higher on a scale for restrained eating. It is suggested that linear eaters have difficulty maintaining their intake when eating rate is dissociated from its baseline level and that this puts them at risk of developing disordered eating. It is also suggested that feedback on eating rate can be used as an intervention to treat eating disorders. PMID:18992760

  13. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on lactating mothers' energy intake and BMI, and infants' growth.

    PubMed

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive daily supplement of synbiotic (n = 40) or a placebo (n = 40) for 30 days. Information on dietary intake was collected and anthropometric measurements were taken using standard calibrated instruments. Data analysis was carried out using nutritionist IV, SPSS and Epi Info software. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a slight increase in mean energy intake while, in the placebo group, maternal energy intake decreased significantly (p < 0.023). Although maternal weight and BMI increased slightly in the supplemented group, these two parameters decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Also, infants' weight gain in the synbiotic group was significantly higher than the placebo group after the intervention (p < 0.044). Synbiotics may prevent weight loss in lactating mothers and result in weight gain in infants. Further experiments are required to study these effects in undernourished lactating mothers and their infants. PMID:23480276

  14. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:27396207

  15. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake. PMID:20362022

  16. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures. PMID:26523589

  17. The role of expectations in the effect of food cue exposure on intake.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Herman, C Peter; Hollitt, Sarah; Polivy, Janet; Prichard, Ivanka; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, participants were explicitly told to expect that they would be tasting and rating either grapes or chocolate-chip cookies. Participants subsequently completed an ostensible taste test, in which they tasted and rated either grapes or cookies, such that half were given the food that they had been led to expect and the other half were given the other food. Participants' restraint status (restrained versus unrestrained) was based on their scores on the Revised Restraint Scale (Herman & Polivy, 1980). A significant interaction between expected food and restraint status was found. When participants were led to expect that they would be tasting grapes, restrained and unrestrained eaters did not differ in their subsequent consumption (of either grapes or cookies). However, when participants were led to expect that they would be tasting cookies, restrained eaters ate significantly less (of both grapes and cookies) than did unrestrained eaters, even though craving ratings were similarly elevated for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. The findings are consistent with counteractive control theory in that restrained eaters who expected to eat a high caloric food may have been able to activate their dieting goal, thereby limiting their food intake. The findings further point to an important role for expectations in the understanding and regulation of food intake in restrained eaters. PMID:27120095

  18. Effects of learned flavor cues on single meal and daily food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S E; Tepper, B J

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the effects of learned flavor cues on lunch-meal and daily food intake in 39, normal-weight, free-living adults. Subjects were fed distinctly flavored high-calorie (HC) and low-calorie (LC) milkshake preloads. Following the repeated flavor-calorie pairings, the flavors of the milkshakes were covertly switched. Twenty-three percent of the participants were classified as sensory responders. That is, their lunch intake reflected the anticipated caloric content of the preloads based on the sensory properties rather than the true energy value. Short-term sensory learning did not reliably alter 24-h energy intake in these subjects. The remaining subjects (i.e., sensory nonresponders) ignored the flavor cues and consumed the same size lunches across all phases of the study. Compensation for the preloads was examined during the training period (i.e., before the flavors were switched). Sensory responders accurately adjusted lunch intakes on the first day of exposure to both preloads, demonstrating unlearned compensation for energy density. Compensation continued to be accurate across training days for the HC (85%) but not the LC preload (65%). Sensory nonresponders did not compensate accurately for either of the preloads. Thus, sensory responders were initially more responsive to the caloric density of the preloads and continued to make accurate adjustments when the flavor cue matched the caloric load (i.e., during training) but were misled by the flavor cue when it did not match the caloric consequence (i.e., when the flavors were switched). Sensory nonresponders ignored the sensory cues and ate the same size lunches regardless of the caloric value of the preload.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047588

  19. Effect of dietary intake of trimethylamine on human metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine.

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, T; Akesson, B; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to study the effect of trimethylamine (TMA) on the metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine (DMEA) to ascertain whether biological monitoring of industrial exposure to DMEA is compromised and excretion of the malodorous DMEA in sweat and urine is increased by dietary intake of TMA. METHODS--DMEA (0/25 mg) and TMA (0/300/600 mg) were given simultaneously once weekly for six weeks to five healthy volunteers. Plasma was collected before and one hour after the doses, and urine 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, and 8-24 hours after the doses. Specimens were analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen sensitive detector. RESULTS--Both amines were readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and excreted in urine within 24 hours (DMEA 80%; TMA 86%). Oral intake of TMA increased the DMEA content of plasma and urine dose dependently, although there were large individual differences. Plasma and urinary TMA concentrations also increased, but not dose dependently. Moreover, the findings suggested the formation of endogenous TMA, little dealkylation of DMEA and TMA, and considerable first-pass metabolism. CONCLUSIONS--Although intake of TMA reduced N-oxygenation of DMEA and TMA, total urinary DMEA values (aggregate of DMEA and its oxide DMEAO excretion) were unaffected. Thus, monitoring occupational exposure to DMEA by analysis of biological specimens is not confounded by dietary intake of TMA, provided that total urinary DMEA is monitored. Although the increased urinary and hidrotic excretion of DMEA may contribute to body odour problems, they were primarily due to TMA excretion, which is much the greater. PMID:7670623

  20. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  1. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  2. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22705323

  4. Effect of prefeeding lipid on food intake and satiety in man.

    PubMed

    Sepple, C P; Read, N W

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were carried out in normal volunteers to investigate whether preingestion of lipid reduces food intake. In the first set of experiments, 300 ml beef consomme soup with or without 60 g margarine was fed to each of six volunteers, followed 20 minutes later by either a low fat solid meal or a preselected appetising meal. Subjects were allowed to eat as much of the meal as they wished. Preingestion of the high fat soup had no significant effect on the consumption of either of the solid meals and did not influence sensations of hunger or fullness. As we have previously shown that prefeeding a fatty soup delays gastric emptying of a subsequent meal, this suggests that gastric distension may play a relatively minor role in regulating food intake. In the second set of experiments, we studied the effect of ingesting either a high fat breakfast (65 g fat, 927 kcal) or a similar low fat breakfast (8-1 g fat, 418 kcal) on the consumption of a preselected appetising lunch in six healthy volunteers. The high fat breakfast significantly reduced the amount of the meal eaten at lunchtime (p less than 0.02), the total energy intake from the meal (p less than 0.05) and the rate of eating (p less than 0.05) compared with the low fat breakfast. When the subjects were presented with their lunchtime meal they felt significantly less hungry after the high fat breakfast (p less than 0.05). Only a small proportion of either meal (15% of the high fat meal v 12% of the low fat meal) remained in the stomach and plasma glucose concentrations had returned to fasting levels. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were much higher at lunchtime after ingestion of the high fat breakfast (p<0.001). The energy intake from the breakfast and lunch combined was not significantly different on the high fat breakfast day, indicating that the energy consumption at lunch compensates for the amount eaten at breakfast. These results are compatible with the concept that the interaction of nutrients with

  5. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  6. Dietary intake in patients with small cell lung cancer: the effect of aggressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, L; Hannibal, J; Allingstrup, L

    1992-07-01

    Energy and protein intake in 32 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer was examined at initiation of cyclical chemotherapy and after 1 and 3 months. With each cycle intakes decreased in the first 2 days following chemotherapy, but were back to pretreatment levels on the third day. Eleven of the patients lost weight in the study period. Their energy and protein intakes were lower following chemotherapy compared to pretreatment intakes and to post-therapy intakes in weight-stable patients. Pretreatment intakes did not decrease over time, either in weight-losing or in weight-stable patients. PMID:1320568

  7. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saïda; Ermak, Natalia; Benzaria, Amal; Vicca, Stéphanie; Dubois, Madeleine; Némoz, Georges; Laville, Martine; Lacour, Bernard; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However most human studies examined the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600mg) in a triacylglycerol form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for two weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400mg DHA/day. The TPA plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400mg DHA/day, with a maximum after 800mg intake, and was positively correlated (P<0.003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxLDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. OxLDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400mg DHA/day and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18710607

  8. The Effects of Hempseed Meal Intake and Linoleic Acid on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Jung; Park, Seung Hwan; Han, Ju Hua; Hong, Yoon Ki; Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Darae; Han, Seung Yeop; Kim, Eun Soo; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2011-01-01

    Hempseed is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which have potential as therapeutic compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular dis-ease. However, the effect of hempseed meal (HSM) intake on the animal models of these diseases has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of the intake of HSM and PUFAs on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and neurological phenotypes, and cholesterol uptake, using Drosophila models. HSM intake was shown to reduce H2O2 toxicity markedly, indicating that HSM exerts a profound antioxidant effect. Meanwhile, intake of HSM, as well as linoleic or linolenic acids (major PUFA components of HSM) was shown to ameliorate Aβ42-induced eye degeneration, thus suggesting that these compounds exert a protective effect against Aβ42 cytotoxicity. On the contrary, locomotion and longevity in the Parkinson’s disease model andeye degeneration in the Huntington’s disease model were unaffected by HSM feeding. Additionally, intake of HSM or linoleic acid was shown to reduce cholesterol uptake significantly. Moreover, linoleic acid intake has been shown to delay pupariation, and cholesterol feeding rescued the linoleic acid-induced larval growth delay, thereby indicating that linoleic acid acts antagonistically with cholesterol during larval growth. In conclusion, our results indicate that HSM and linoleic acid exert inhibitory effects on both Aβ42 cytotoxicity and cholesterol uptake, and are potential candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovasculardisease. PMID:21331775

  9. The Effect of Digestive Capacity on the Intake Rate of Toxic and Non-Toxic Prey in an Ecological Context

    PubMed Central

    Oudman, Thomas; Hin, Vincent; Dekinga, Anne; van Gils, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager’s intake rate, a constraint that potentially cannot be alleviated by enlarging digestive capacity. Hence, physiological flexibility may have a differential effect on intake of different prey types, and consequently on dietary preferences. We tested this effect in red knots (Calidris canutus canutus), medium-sized migratory shorebirds that feed on hard-shelled, usually mollusc, prey. Because they ingest their prey whole and crush the shell in their gizzard, the intake rate of red knots is generally constrained by digestive capacity. However, one of their main prey, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis, imposes a toxin constraint due to its symbiosis with sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. We manipulated gizzard sizes of red knots through prolonged exposure to hard-shelled or soft foods. We then measured maximum intake rates of toxic Loripes versus a non-toxic bivalve, Dosinia isocardia. We found that intake of Dosinia exponentially increased with gizzard mass, confirming earlier results with non-toxic prey, whereas intake of Loripes was independent of gizzard mass. Using linear programming, we show that this leads to markedly different expected diet preferences in red knots that try to maximize energy intake rate with a small versus a large gizzard. Intra- and inter-individual variation in digestive capacity is found in many animal species. Hence, the here proposed functional link with individual differences in foraging decisions may be general. We emphasize the potential relevance of individual variation in physiology when studying trophic interactions. PMID:26287951

  10. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:21978882

  11. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  12. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  13. Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2012-09-01

    Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ≥10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not

  14. Effect of thermal environment and caloric intake on head growth of low birthweight infants during late neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, L; Lala, R V; Jaiswal, V; Nigam, S K

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of ambient thermal conditions on postnatal head growth in low birth weight infants, 42 asymtomatic neonates were reared under 4 combinations of caloric intake and thermal environment after the first week of life. Exposure to a subthermoneutral temperature (abdominal skin temperature of 35 degrees C), together with a relatively low caloric intake (120 cal/kg per day), was associated with significant retardation of head growth over a 2-week study period. PMID:1167073

  15. Cost-effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the Pacific Islands: protocol for a before and after intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is broad consensus that diets high in salt are bad for health and that reducing salt intake is a cost-effective strategy for preventing chronic diseases. The World Health Organization has been supporting the development of salt reduction strategies in the Pacific Islands where salt intakes are thought to be high. However, there are no accurate measures of salt intake in these countries. The aims of this project are to establish baseline levels of salt intake in two Pacific Island countries, implement multi-pronged, cross-sectoral salt reduction programs in both, and determine the effects and cost-effectiveness of the intervention strategies. Methods/Design Intervention effectiveness will be assessed from cross-sectional surveys before and after population-based salt reduction interventions in Fiji and Samoa. Baseline surveys began in July 2012 and follow-up surveys will be completed by July 2015 after a 2-year intervention period. A three-stage stratified cluster random sampling strategy will be used for the population surveys, building on existing government surveys in each country. Data on salt intake, salt levels in foods and sources of dietary salt measured at baseline will be combined with an in-depth qualitative analysis of stakeholder views to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce salt intake. Discussion Salt reduction is a global priority and all Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed on a target to reduce salt intake by 30% by 2025, as part of the global action plan to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. The study described by this protocol will be the first to provide a robust assessment of salt intake and the impact of salt reduction interventions in the Pacific Islands. As such, it will inform the development of strategies for other Pacific Island countries and comparable low and middle-income settings around the world. PMID:24495646

  16. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Schrama, J W; den Hartog, L A; Everts, H; Beynen, A C

    2002-06-01

    To assess the effects of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 16 litters (149 piglets) were fed a commercial creep feed (3,040 kcal NE/kg, 15.2 g lysine/kg) supplemented with 1% chromic oxide. Another five litters (48 piglets) were not given access to creep feed (no-feed). Piglets were weaned at 28 d after birth. On d 18, 22, and 27 of age, fecal samples from all the piglets were taken using fecal loops. A green color of the feces indicated that the piglet had eaten creep feed. Piglets that had green-colored feces three times were considered as eaters. Piglets that never showed green-colored feces were considered as non-eaters. At weaning 22 piglets of each type (no-feed, non-eaters, and eaters) were selected based on BW, litter origin, and sex. These 66 pigs were assigned to six pens equipped with computerized feeding stations. Eaters, non-eaters, and no-feed pigs were equally divided over all six pens. After weaning a prestarter (d 0 to 13) and a starter diet (d 14 to 34) were offered for ad libitum consumption. The individual feed intake characteristics of latency time (interval between weaning and first feed intake) and initial feed intake (intake during the first 24 h following first feed intake) and performance traits were determined for all piglets. The pigs that were designated as eaters needed less time between weaning and first feed intake than the pigs that were designated as non-eaters and no-feed pigs (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06, respectively). Initial feed intake was not affected (P > 0.1) by feed intake prior to weaning. However, during d 0 to 8 the eaters had more visits per day during which feed was consumed than both the non-eaters and no-feed pigs. Averaged over the first 8 d after weaning, the ADFI and ADG of the eaters were higher than that of the non-eaters and no-feed pigs (P < 0.05). Averaged over the total 34-d period the effect of creep feed intake on postweaning ADFI was

  17. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53

  18. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  19. Effects of neutral detergent fiber and roughage source on dry matter intake and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Briceno, J V; Van Horn, H H; Harris, B; Wilcox, C J

    1987-02-01

    Data were from 20 experiments that utilized early to midlactation Holstein cows fed complete mixed diets or fed at constant forage:concentrate ratios. Within-cow diet comparisons (1688 cow-periods) were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance; mathematical model included experiment, cow in experiment, period, body weight, and source of roughage. Objectives were to determine relationships between neutral detergent fiber content of diet and milk yield and dry matter intake. Roughages and number of cow-periods were: sugarcane bagasse/silage (507), cottonseed hulls (504), corn silage (268), ground corrugated boxes (170), alfalfa/peanut hay (132), and others (107). Dry matter intake and estimated net energy intake had linear effects on milk yield and explained 21.6 and 24.0% of its residual variation; milk yield had curvilinear (quadratic) effect and explained 22.4% of dry matter intake residual variation. Interaction between neutral detergent fiber and source of roughage on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, and dry matter intake resulted in reductions of 5.6, 5.6, and 13% in residual variations. Results suggest neutral detergent (% of dry matter) has greater effect on dry matter intake than on milk yield and its use in formulating diets for dairy cows will be within roughage source. PMID:3033038

  20. Editorial: The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial makes the point that there is now strong evidence that increasing vitamin D intake will lower risk of falling and lower fracture risk in older men and women. There is also strong evidence that higher vitamin D intakes are safe. Currently recommended intakes of vitamin D are insuffici...

  1. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  2. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria.

    PubMed

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-06-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material. PMID:21617296

  3. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E

    2014-02-01

    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles <2 mm) from 23/31 h (hay1/2) on the ad libitum to 38/48 h on DMI30. Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids. PMID:23402587

  4. Short-term changes in eating patterns explain the effects of condensed tannins on feed intake in heifers.

    PubMed

    Landau; Silanikove; Nitsan; Barkai; Baram; Provenza; Perevolotsky

    2000-10-01

    Ingestion of condensed tannins decreases feed intake in ruminants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) forms high-affinity complexes with tannins. In two experiments carried out on Holstein heifers, quebracho (Q) from the Aspidosperma quebracho served as source of condensed tannins. The aims of the study were (i) to quantify the effect of Q on feed intake and eating behaviour in cattle fed complete mixed diets (CMDs); (ii) to clarify if changes induced in ingestive behaviour and feed intake by Q in cattle can be reversed by feeding PEG; and (iii) to clarify if the decrease in feed intake is associated with short-term (astringency, post-ingestive malaise) or longer-term effects. In experiment 1, 500 g/day of Q was found to be the minimal dose that decreased feed intake in heifers. A ratio of PEG:Q equal to 1:12.5 did not fully restore feed intake. In experiment 2, four heifers received a random sequence of four rations in a Latin-square design with feeding cycles of ca. 7 days: CMD containing no supplements (C), or supplemented with 625 g/day of Q without PEG (Q), with 625 g/day of Q and 250 g/day of PEG (Q-PEG), or with 250 g/day of PEG without Q (PEG). Individual rations were continuously weighed in the trough and the behaviour of heifers was observed for 180 min after distribution of CMD. Overall, feeding Q was associated with lowered feed intake and shorter duration of eating bouts, mainly of the first eating bout, immediately after distribution of the diet. A larger portion of the diet was consumed subsequent to 180 min after distribution in Q-fed heifers. Eating rate and the water to food ratio were not affected by Q. The effects of Q on feed intake were attenuated by feeding PEG. Heifers adapted effectively to condensed tannins by increasing the number of eating bouts and the portion of diet consumed subsequent to 180 min after distribution, so that no differences in feed intake were noted on the last day of each feeding cycle. Data are interpreted to show that: (i

  5. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  6. Effect of adaptation strategies when feeding fresh cassava foliage on intake and physiological responses of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Van, Do Thi Thanh; Spörndly, Eva; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19.6 kg at 5.5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1.5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5.1 to 5.4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements. PMID:22081316

  7. The effects of social contact on cocaine intake under extended-access conditions in male rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Magee, Charlotte P; Smith, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Social learning theories of drug use propose that drug use is influenced by the behavior of peers. We previously reported that cocaine self-administration under limited-access conditions can be either facilitated or inhibited by social contact, depending on the behavior of a peer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social contact influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that are more representative of problematic patterns of drug use. Male rats were assigned to either isolated or pair-housed conditions in which a social partner either had access to cocaine or did not have access to cocaine. Pair-housed rats were tested in custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed both rats to be tested simultaneously in the same chamber. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for 14 consecutive days during daily 6-hr test sessions. In Experiment 2, different doses of cocaine were tested in 23-hr test sessions conducted every 3 days. All groups of rats escalated their cocaine intake in Experiment 1; however, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of intake throughout the 14 days of testing. In Experiment 2, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of cocaine intake than did rats with a partner with access to cocaine, and this effect was observed at all doses of cocaine tested. These data indicate that the behavior of a social partner (i.e., whether or not that partner is also self-administering cocaine) influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that model problematic patterns of drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454676

  8. Effects of learning and food form on energy intake and appetitive responses

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua B.; Mattes, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-yielding beverages reportedly contribute to positive energy balance uniquely. They are highly consumed and evoke weaker satiety signaling and dietary energy compensation than solid foods of the same energy content. This study measured the contribution of learning to appetitive sensations and adjustments of energy intake for preloads varying in energy content and food form in lean and obese adults. One-hundred seven participants received four preload trials before and after a dietary intervention in this randomized cross-over trial with the stipulation that lean and obese individuals were evenly assigned to each intervention. The study entailed monitoring appetitive sensations and daily energy intake after consumption of low and high energy beverage and solid food loads on weekly visit days. Preload testing was conducted at baseline, followed by daily ingestion of one load for 14 days and then retesting responses to the four treatments. Lean individuals compensated precisely for the high energy beverage and solid loads from the onset of the study, whereas the obese did not alter eating patterns after consuming the higher energy beverage load. The learning intervention did not have an effect on the responses to the preloads, as responses in both lean and obese participants did not differ from baseline values. Responses to personality and eating behavior questionnaires revealed differences between the lean and obese groups and weakly, but significantly, predicted challenge meal and total daily energy intake. These data suggest that lean and obese individuals respond to energy in beverage form differently, and this is not altered by purposeful daily exposure to loads varying in physical form and energy content for two weeks. PMID:24955495

  9. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  10. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  11. Opposite effects of oxytocin on water intake induced by hypertonic NaCl or polyethylene glycol administration.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Mediavilla, Cristina; Puerto, Amadeo

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone, has been related to natriuretic and diuretic effects and also to water intake and sodium appetite. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of subcutaneous OT administration on water intake and urine-related measures induced by the administration of hypertonic NaCl (experiment 1) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) (experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that OT administration increases the urine volume, urinary sodium concentration, and natriuresis and reduces the water intake, water and sodium balances, and estimated plasma sodium concentration induced by hypertonic NaCl administration. Conversely, experiment 2 showed that OT administration increases the water intake and the antidiuretic response induced by PEG administration. These results show that the opposite effects of OT on the water intake induced by hypertonic NaCl or PEG administration are accompanied by differential regulatory effects, enhancing a natriuretic response in the first experiment and generating an antidiuretic reaction in the second experiment. This study suggests a differential regulatory effect of OT during states of intra- and extracellular thirst. PMID:25617595

  12. Effect of salt intake on bioavailability of mizoribine in healthy Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuya; Fukao, Miki; Watanabe, Hitomi; Taguchi, Masato; Miyawaki, Toshio; Matsukura, Hiroyoshi; Uemura, Osamu; Zhang, Zufei; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability of mizoribine in subjects with the concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1, SLC28A1) 565-A/A allele is significantly lower than that in subjects with the SLC28A1 565-G/G allele. The aims of the present study were to investigate the cellular uptake of mizoribine in CNT1- and CNT2-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney type II (MDCKII) cells, and to evaluate the effect of salt intake on bioavailability of mizoribine in healthy Japanese volunteers with SLC28A1 565-A/A and -G/A alleles. Eight healthy males participated in the present study, and took 150 mg mizoribine concomitantly with/without 300 mg salt. Bioavailability of mizoribine was estimated by total cumulative urinary excretion of the drug. Mizoribine was taken up Na(+)-dependently into not only CNT1-expressing but also CNT2-expressing MDCKII cells, indicating that mizoribine is a substrate for both CNT1 and CNT2. Mean bioavailability of mizoribine taken with salt (83.8%) was significantly higher than that taken without salt (73.0%). These findings suggest that the salt intake is expected to improve the bioavailability of mizoribine in patients with insufficient intestinal absorption. PMID:22813716

  13. Oral intake of a toluene-containing thinner. Effects and headspace gas chromatographic analytical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zahlsen, K; Rygnestad, T; Nilsen, O G

    1985-01-01

    After an accidental oral intake of a paint thinner, the constituents were identified in stomach content using headspace gas chromatography. The composition indicated ingestion of a commonly used thinner containing 60-70% toluene, 20-25% n-butylacetate and 10-15% of ethanol. A toluene concentration of 22.0 mg/kg was measured in serum in contrast to n-butylacetate which was not detected. Ethanol concentration was 1.85 g/kg, most of this was due to ethanol ingestion before the intake of thinner. The half life of toluene in serum was 8.5 h initially, which increased to 14 h after 19 h. An effect on liver function was demonstrated by increased activity of serum transaminases. Compared with the upper normal limits ASAT and ALAT were increased by 6 and 2.5 times, respectively. For both parameters the highest activity was seen 40 hours after admission and normal levels were achieved after 7 days. It is concluded that toluene is readily absorbed by ingestion of toluene-containing thinners, and that the function of the human liver is transiently affected. For screening purposes gas chromatography proved to be a useful method for the analytical diagnosis in cases of organic solvent intoxication. The use of the headspace technique further improved the speed of analysis and eliminated contamination of the gas chromatographic system. PMID:3868371

  14. Soil carbon dynamics: the effects of nitrogen input, intake demand and off-take by animals.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A J; Thornley, J H M; Newton, P C D; Rasmussen, S; Rowarth, J S

    2013-11-01

    Elucidation of the drivers of soil carbon (C) change is required to enable decisions to be made on how to achieve soil C sequestration. Interactions between different components in the ecosystem in combination with feedback mechanisms mean that identifying drivers through conventional experimental approaches or by retro-fitting models to data are unlikely to result in the insights needed for the future. This paper explains soil C dynamics by using a process-based model. Drivers considered in the model include nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs, intake demand, and off-take of animal products. The effect of the grazing animal in uncoupling the C and N cycles is explained, plus the implications of the farming system ('drystock' versus milk). The model enables depiction of the dynamic equilibrium achieved with time when a proposed change in the drivers is sustained. The results show that soil C loss under lactating cows is a result of N, rather than C, being removed in milk. Counter-intuitively, at the same intake demand, N loss under 'milk' is less than under 'dry-stock', as is C loss in animal respiration. Possibilities for changing the longevity of C in the soil are discussed, and the compromise between food production, N loss and C sequestration is considered. PMID:23465429

  15. Effect on intake valve deposits of ethanol and additives common to the available ethanol supply

    SciTech Connect

    Shibolm, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    With the widespread introduction of the third generation additives to modern gasolines, the author's company chose to further define the effects of gasoline/ethanol blends (gasohol) on intake system deposits (ISD). The third generation additives referred to here are those that provide protection against ISD. This paper presents detailed results of the investigation in this area. During evaluation of various ISD additives, it was found that additive levels capable of controlling ISD with normal gasolines were unable to do so with fuels containing neat ethanol. Most fuel grade ethanol available in the marketplace is pretreated with additives intended to control accumulation of port fuel injector (PFI) deposits. These currently accepted PFI additives proved to be even more of a problem to intake valves than neat ethanol in gasoline. Some, however, contributed more to valve deposits than others. Data for this investigation was generated via the Modified IVD Test in BMW vehicles at an independent laboratory. Results identify that proper gasoline and ethanol additive combinations and treatment levels can provide satisfactory ISD protection in gasoline engines.

  16. Effect of elevated selenium intakes on mammary cell proliferation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salbe, A.D.; Albanes, D.; Winick, M.; Taylor, P.R.; Levander, O.A. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Elevated selenium (Se) intakes and calorie restriction (CR) inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate cell proliferation in the mammary tissue gland. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, 40% CR, 4 or 6 ppm Se in water as selenate. Control rats and Se rats were fed a control diet ad lib. CR rats were pair-fed 40% less than controls with a diet providing equal nutrients except carbohydrate calories. After 3 weeks, rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and killed 1 hr later. Se at 4 ppm significantly decreased only the number of ducts, whereas 6 ppm Se decreased both the number of ducts as well as the number and percent of labeled cells. CR had no effect on mammary cell proliferation. These results suggest that elevated Se intakes may protect against mammary tumorigenesis by decreasing cell proliferation, a mechanism which may affect the dose-response of the genotoxic chemicals frequently used as initiating agents in animal experiments.

  17. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

    PubMed

    Olthof, M R; Verhoef, P

    2005-02-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in homocysteine remethylation, but effects on homocysteine have been less thoroughly investigated. Betaine in high doses (6 g/d and higher) is used as homocysteine-lowering therapy for people with hyperhomocysteinemia due to inborn errors in the homocysteine metabolism. Betaine intake from foods is estimated at 0.5-2 g/d. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor choline. Studies in healthy volunteers with plasma homocysteine concentrations in the normal range show that betaine supplementation lowers plasma fasting homocysteine dose-dependently to up to 20% for a dose of 6 g/d of betaine. Moreover, betaine acutely reduces the increase in homocysteine after methionine loading by up to 50%, whereas folic acid has no effect. Betaine doses in the range of dietary intake also lower homocysteine. This implies that betaine can be an important food component that attenuates homocysteine rises after meals. If homocysteine plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a diet rich in betaine or choline might benefit cardiovascular health through its homocysteine-lowering effects. However betaine and choline may adversely affect serum lipid concentrations, which can of course increase risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the potential beneficial health effects of betaine and choline outweigh the possible adverse effects on serum lipids is as yet unclear. PMID:15720203

  18. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    PubMed

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort. PMID:16157416

  19. Necessary but Not Sufficient...

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of mobilizing knowledge to improve patient care, population health and ensure effective use of resources is an enduring one in healthcare systems across the world. This commentary reflects on an earlier paper by Ferlie and colleagues that proposes the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm as a useful theoretical lens through which to study knowledge mobilization in healthcare. Specifically, the commentary considers 3 areas that need to be addressed in relation to the proposed application of RBV: the definition of competitive advantage in healthcare; the contribution of macro level theory to understanding knowledge mobilization in healthcare; and the need to embrace and align multiple theories at the micro, meso, and macro levels of implementation. PMID:26673476

  20. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.

    PubMed

    Maloiy, G M O; Kanui, T I; Towett, P K; Wambugu, S N; Miaron, J O; Wanyoike, M M

    2008-10-01

    Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 h at 22 degrees C and 12 h at 40 degrees C) compared to 22 degrees C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 degrees C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart. PMID:18644247

  1. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys☆

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carla J.; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E.; Johnson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. PMID:23207191

  2. Regulation of heart rate and rumen temperature in red deer: effects of season and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Mang, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Red deer, Cervus elaphus, like other temperate-zone animals, show a large seasonal fluctuation in energy intake and expenditure. Many seasonal phenotypic adjustments are coordinated by endogenous signals entrained to the photoperiod. The cues determining variation in the resting metabolism of ungulates remain equivocal, however, largely because of the confounding effects of food intake and thus the heat increment of feeding. To distinguish endogenous seasonal and environmental effects on metabolism, we subjected 15 female red deer to two feeding treatments, 80% food restriction and low/high protein content, over two winter seasons in a cross-over design experiment. We used rumen-located transmitters to measure heart rate and rumen temperature, which provided indices of metabolism and core body temperature, respectively. Our mixed model (R2=0.85) indicated a residual seasonal effect on mean daily heart rate that was unexplained by the pellet food treatments, activity, body mass or air temperature. In addition to an apparently endogenous down-regulation of heart rate in winter, the deer further reduced heart rate over about 8 days in response to food restriction. We found a strong correlation between rumen temperature and seasonal or periodic variation in heart rate. An effect of lowered rumen (and hence core body) temperature was enhanced during winter, perhaps owing to peripheral cooling, which is known to accompany bouts of hypometabolism. Our experimental results therefore support the hypothesis that a reduction in body temperature is a physiological mechanism employed even by large mammals, like red deer, to reduce their energy expenditure during periods of negative energy balance. PMID:21346124

  3. Intake of fermented beverages protect against acute myocardial injury: target organ cardiac effects and vasculoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Guerra, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2012-09-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced risk of morbi/mortality from coronary artery disease. However, whether beer intake affords cardioprotection remains unclear. We investigated whether beer intake (alcohol-containing and alcohol-free brew) provides cardioprotection in a pig model of myocardial infarction (MI). Pigs were randomly assigned to: (1) be fed for 10 days a high-cholesterol diet (HC); (2) HC + low-dose beer (LB; 12.5 g alcohol/day); (3) HC + moderate-dose beer (MB; 25 g alcohol/day); or IV) HC + alcohol-free-MB (0.0 g alcohol/day) before MI induction and kept 21 days with the same regime. Scar size, echocardiography, biochemical and oxidative parameters were assessed. Myocardial tissue was obtained for molecular analysis and histology. All beer-fed animals were less prone to arrhythmogenesis during ischemia. At sacrifice, beer intake was associated with lower oxidative stress and higher HDL-antioxidant capacity. Within the ischemic myocardium beer-fed animals showed higher Akt/eNOS and AMPK activation and reduced sirtuin1-related apoptosis. Compared to controls beer intake was associated with lower lipid infiltration, higher TGFβ-related collagen fibril formation and diminished MMP9 activity in the fibrous tissue limiting scar size (HC + LB and HC + MB P < 0.05 and HC + alcohol-free-MB P = 0.068 vs. HC). Systolic-related parameters were similarly worsen post-MI in all groups and further deteriorated in control animals (P ≤ 0.05 vs. post-MI). At sacrifice, all animals showed a worsening in diastolic-related parameters but overall cardiac performance was improved in beer-fed animals regardless of the dose or alcohol content (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, beer intake reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis, activates RISK components and favors reparative fibrosis improving global cardiac performance. PMID:22878829

  4. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  5. Effects of obesity and caloric intake on biliary lipid metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, L J; Grundy, S M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of obesity and caloric intake on biliary lipid metabolism were investigated in a series of related studies. The degree of saturation of gallbladder bile with cholesterol was found to be significantly higher in a group of 23 obese healthy subjects than in a group of 23 nonobese controls matched for age, sex, and race. Bile was also significantly more saturated in 11 obese subjects before than after weight reduction. To determine whether supersaturated bile in obesity is due to excessive secretion of cholesterol or to deficient secretion of bile acids and phospholipids, the hepatic outputs of these three lipids were measured during constant duodenal infusion of formula in the same 11 subjects before and after weight reduction. Weight reduction resulted in significant reduction of cholesterol output but not of bile acid or phospholipid output. Moreover, very obese subjects were found to have cholesterol secretion rates markedly higher than less obese subjects previously studied by the same method. In obese subjects, bile was supersaturated with cholesterol despite increased bile acid pool sizes and increased secretion rates of bile acids and phospholipids. Supersaturated bile in the obese could therefore be attributed to a single defect in lipid secretion, namely, an excessive output of cholesterol. To determine whether the rate of caloric intake can account for the effects of obesity on biliary lipid composition and secretion, nine obese white men were studied on a weight maintenance diet and then during weight reduction on a 1,000 cal diet. As compared to weight maintenance, chronic caloric restriction resulted in reduced outputs of cholesterol, bile acids, and phospholipids, reduced bile acid pool size, and reduced synthesis and fecal excretion of cholesterol. Saturation of bile with cholesterol did not decrease during weight reduction, evidently because of the mobilization of cholesterol from adipose stores and the marked reduction in bile acid and

  6. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  7. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  8. Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Manipulation of attention during eating has been reported to affect later consumption via changes in meal memory. The aim of the present studies was to examine the robustness of these effects and investigate moderating factors. Across three studies, attention to eating was manipulated via distraction (via a computer game or TV watching) or focusing of attention to eating, and effects on subsequent snack consumption and meal memory were assessed. The participants were predominantly lean, young women students and the designs were between-subjects. Distraction increased later snack intake and this effect was larger when participants were more motivated to engage with the distracter and were offset when the distractor included food-related cues. Attention to eating reduced later snacking and this effect was larger when participants imagined eating from their own perspective than when they imagined eating from a third person perspective. Meal memory was impaired after distraction but focusing on eating did not affect later meal memory, possibly explained by ceiling effects for the memory measure. The pattern of results suggests that attention manipulations during eating have robust effects on later eating and the effect sizes are medium to large. The data are consistent with previous reports and add to the literature by suggesting that type of attention manipulation is important in determining effects on later eating. The results further suggest that attentive eating may be a useful target in interventions to help with appetite control. PMID:26032197

  9. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  10. Higher dietary anthocyanin and flavonol intakes are associated with anti-inflammatory effects in a population of US adults1

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Lin, Honghuang; Jacques, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    in overall IS, higher intakes of flavan-3-ols and their polymers were associated with a significant reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence to suggest that an anti-inflammatory effect may be a key component underlying the reduction in risk of certain chronic diseases associated with higher intakes of anthocyanins and flavonols. The Framingham Offspring Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study). PMID:26016863

  11. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L

    2013-12-01

    Management strategies for horses with respiratory disease include soaking hay before feeding. Hay steaming is an alternative to this practice; however, little is known about its impact on forage nutritive values or intake. The objective was to determine the effect of steaming on forage nutritive value and intake by horses. Two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) mixed hays were evaluated: a low moldy (NM) and moderately moldy (MM) hay. Six mature horses were used in a 10 d crossover design. Three horses were assigned to each hay type and treatments were switched on d 6. Each day, one bale of each hay was sampled (pre- and poststeaming) and steamed for 90 min using a commercial hay steamer. Two flakes of steamed or unsteamed NM or MM hay were weighed and offered simultaneously to each horse in individual hay nets. Horses were allowed access to hay for 2 h, orts were collected, and 2 h DMI was calculated. Six additional bales of NM and MM were used to evaluate the effect of steaming on total suspended particulate (TSP). Flakes of unsteamed or steamed hay were agitated in an electric cement mixer, and TSP were recorded every min for 30 min using a tapered element oscillating microbalance sampler. Paired t tests and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) were used to compare steamed and unsteamed hay nutritive values, mold concentration, TSP, and 2 h DMI. Steaming increased hay moisture and therefore reduced DM to 77 and 81% for NM and MM, respectively (P < 0.001). In NM and MM hay, steaming reduced P content by 16 and 17%, respectively (P ≤ 0.007). Steaming reduced water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) by 13% (P = 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.003), respectively, for MM but had no effect on NM (P > 0.05). Steaming reduced mold concentrations in both hays by ≥ 91% (P < 0.001). Total suspended particulate of MM hay was reduced by 55% (P = 0.043), but TSP in NM hay was not affected by steaming (P = 0

  12. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  13. Lithium clearance in man: effects of dietary salt intake, acute changes in extracellular fluid volume, amiloride and frusemide.

    PubMed

    Atherton, J C; Green, R; Hughes, S; McFall, V; Sharples, J A; Solomon, L R; Wilson, L

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of amiloride and frusemide on lithium clearance were studied during changes in dietary sodium chloride intake and during infusion of 0.9% NaCl in normal human volunteers. 2. Lithium and fractional lithium clearances were less on the low than on the high salt diet. Values for the medium salt diet were intermediate. Acute extracellular fluid volume expansion with 0.9% NaCl infusion and extracellular fluid volume contraction 3-4 h after intravenous frusemide caused lithium and fractional lithium clearances to increase and decrease respectively. 3. Amiloride caused small changes in lithium and fractional lithium clearances on a low salt diet, but was without effect when salt intake was medium or high. 4. Increases in lithium clearance occurred immediately after frusemide irrespective of dietary salt intake and in subjects infused with 0.9% NaCl. Only in salt-depleted subjects did frusemide cause a substantial increase in fractional lithium clearance. Changes induced under other circumstances were small. 5. It is concluded that the lithium clearance method for assessment of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption can be used with some degree of confidence in certain circumstances (medium and high salt intake as well as in acute volume expansion) but may not be reliable when dietary salt intake is low. PMID:3690979

  14. Effect of fungal biomass in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion in growing beef calves.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, C V; Wittenberg, K M; Crow, G H

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of fungal biomass (FB), as determined by glucosamine analysis, in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion when fed to growing beef calves. Mycotoxins were not detected in hays used for these experiments. A feedlot trial using 40 weaned Angus calves (270.2 +/- 9.7 kg) showed that DM intake was not affected (P > .05) by FB content of the hay diets. No adaptation response was observed when animals with no previous exposure to molded feed were introduced to hay containing various levels of FB. Hematocrit and plasma cortisol levels were not affected (P > .05) by the presence of FB in the hay. Eight steers were used, in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, for intake and total tract digestibility determinations of two alfalfa hays having similar nutrient profiles but differ in FB concentrations. Hays were fed in long or chopped form. Level of FB did not affect (P > .05) DM intake or total tract DM digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber and ADF digestibilities were 5.4 and 3.7 percentage units higher (P < .05), respectively, for hay with a high vs low FB concentration. Forage chopping reduced (P < .05) DM, NDF, ADF, and CP digestibilities; the effect being similar for the two hay types tested. Results suggest that FB concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 5.5 mg/g of DM do not affect DM intake, however, nutrient digestion can be influenced by molding during field wilting or storage. PMID:8791206

  15. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults. PMID:24453901

  16. CRC pilot program to investigate the effect on driveability of intake valve deposits and variations in fuel volatility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC) program to select an engine to replace the BMW 318i as the industry standard intake valve deposit test engine, an opportunity was identified to compare the driveability performance of the engines evaluated with and without intake valve deposits. A pilot program was thus conducted by the CRC Volatility Group at Southwest Research Institute during late 1 991 and early 1 992 to investigate the relationship between intake valve deposits and cold-start and warmup driveability. Eight vehicles were tested using three fuels with varying T50 levels. Duplicate ratings were made using both the BMW Driveability Test Procedure and a modification of the CRC Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability Procedure. None of the three candidate engines were as good as the BMW 318i reference engine in discriminating valve deposit effects on driveability. Rater differences obscured other possible effects.

  17. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; Prinz, J F

    2008-10-20

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-solid, matched for energy density. In the first study, subjects consumed 47% more from the liquid than from the semi-solid to reach the same degree of satiation, with larger bite sizes for the liquid throughout the 15 minute period (8.7+/-0.45 g) compared to the semi-solid (5.8+/-0.3 g, p<0.01). In the second study bite effort was eliminated by using a peristaltic pump to present the products every 20 s. Oral processing time before swallowing was set at 5 s (both products) or 8 s (semi-solid). With the elimination of bite effort and a standardized oral processing time, subjects consumed as much from the semi-solid as from the liquid to reach the same degree of satiation. Bite size for liquids started relatively small and grew gradually over successive bites, whereas the bite size for the semi-solid food started relatively large and became gradually smaller. The latter effect was even more pronounced when the oral processing time was increased from 5 to 8 s. In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated. PMID:18721823

  18. Effects of nutritional supplementation on the appetite and energy intake responses to IV cholecystokinin in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kamilia; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Wishart, Judith M; Chapman, Ian M

    2010-12-01

    Human aging is associated with a reduction in appetite and food intake. Increased activity of the satiety hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), may be partly responsible. This study aimed to determine whether an increase in fat and energy intake modifies the suppressive effects of CCK-8 on appetite and energy intake. Fourteen healthy older adults completed three separate dietary periods, a 14-day and a 7-day normal diet (ND; 8272 ± 480 kJ/day; 35% fat), and a 14-day high-fat diet (HFD; 11,642 ± 414 kJ/day; 43% fat), in randomised order. Immediately following each diet, subjects received, in single-blinded fashion, a 30-min intravenous infusion of either CCK-8 (1.5 ng/kg/min) (ND-CCK, HFD-CCK) or 0.9% saline (ND-SAL), the latter following only ND. Plasma CCK concentrations, appetite responses and energy intake at a buffet meal were determined. Energy intake at the buffet meal was higher on the ND-SAL study day (3349 ± 224 kJ), when compared with either ND-CCK (3023 ± 317 kJ) or HFD-CCK (2905 ± 316 kJ). The suppression of energy intake by CCK-8 infusion did not differ between the two diets. We conclude that suppression of energy intake by exogenous CCK-8 does not appear to be attenuated by incorporation of supplemental high-energy, high-fat drinks in the diet of healthy older adults. PMID:20800632

  19. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  20. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  1. Effects of anorectic drugs on food intake under progressive-ratio and free-access conditions in rats.

    PubMed Central

    LeSage, Mark G; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses required to decrease intake under free-access conditions were higher than those required to reduce intake under the PR condition. Intermediate doses of phentermine sometimes increased breaking points, and higher doses decreased them. Phentermine decreased food intake at the same doses under both access conditions. Thus the potency of dexfenfluramine, but not phentermine, to decrease food-maintained behavior depended upon the food-access condition. Experiment 2 used a novel mixed progressive-ratio schedule of food delivery to study the duration of drug effects. Sessions consisted of five components separated by 3-hr timeouts. The ratio requirement reset at the beginning of each component and a new breaking point was obtained. Both dexfenfluramine and phentermine dose-dependently decreased breaking points early in the session. In some rats, compensatory increases in breaking point were observed. That is, breaking points later in the session increased over control levels, resulting in no change in the total number of food pellets earned for the session compared to control. The present findings suggest that the effects of some anorectic drugs depend upon the access conditions for food; increasing the effort to obtain food may enhance their ability to decrease food-maintained behavior. PMID:15693523

  2. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  3. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  4. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  5. Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Short-Term Food Intake and Weight Loss12

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. PMID:25979503

  6. The effects of sleep restriction and altered sleep timing on energy intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Doucet, Éric; Brunet, Jean-François; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Chaumont, Isabelle; Langlois, Émilie; Maitland, Riley; Riopel, Alexandre; Forest, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that sleep restriction increases energy intake (EI) and may alter energy expenditure (EE). However, it is unknown whether the timing of a sleep restriction period impacts EI and EE the following day. Hence, we examined the effects of sleep restriction with an advanced wake-time or delayed bedtime on next day EI and EE. Twelve men and 6 women (age: 23±4years, body fat: 18.8±10.1%) participated in 3 randomized crossover sessions: control (habitual bed- and wake-times), 50% sleep restriction with an advanced wake-time and 50% sleep restriction with a delayed bedtime. Outcome variables included sleep architecture (polysomnography), EI (food menu), total EE and activity times (accelerometry). Carbohydrate intake was greater on day 2 in the delayed bedtime vs. control session (1386±513 vs. 1579±571kcal; P=0.03). Relative moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) time was greater in the delayed bedtime session vs. control and advanced wake-time sessions on day 1 (26.6±19.9 vs. 16.1±10.6 and 17.5±11.8%; P=0.01), whereas vigorous-intensity PA time was greater following advanced wake-time vs. delayed bedtime on day 1 (2.7±3.0 vs. 1.3±2.4%; P=0.004). Greater stage 1 sleep (β=110kcal, 95% CI for β=42 to 177kcal; P=0.004), and a trend for lower REM sleep (β=-20kcal, 95% CI for β=-41 to 2kcal; P=0.07), durations were associated with greater EI between sleep restriction sessions. These findings suggest that the timing of a sleep restriction period impacts energy balance parameters. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings, given the increasing prevalence of shift workers and incidences of sleep disorders and voluntary sleep restriction. PMID:27260515

  7. Phytoestrogens in soy-based infant foods: concentrations, daily intake, and possible biological effects.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-03-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially available soy-based infant formulas, infant cereals, dinners, and rusks. We also assayed phytoestrogens in dairy-based formulas and in breast milk from omnivorous or vegetarian mothers. In most cases, the glucoside forms of the phytoestrogens were hydrolyzed before separation by HPLC. Mean (+/-SEM) total genistein and daidzein contents in four soy infant formulas were 87+/-3 and 49+/-2 microg/g, respectively. The phytoestrogen content of cereals varied with brand, with genistein ranging from 3-287 microg/g and daidzein from 2-276 microg/g. By contrast, no phytoestrogens were detected in dairy-based infant formulas or in human breast milk, irrespective of the mother's diet (detection limit = 0.05 microg/ml). When fed according to the manufacturer's instruction, soy formulas provide the infant with a daily dose rate of total isoflavones (i.e., genistein + daidzein) of approximately 3 mg/kg body weight, which is maintained at a fairly constant level between 0-4 months of age. Supplementing the diet of 4-month-old infants with a single daily serving of cereal can increase their isoflavone intake by over 25%, depending on the brand chosen. This rate of isoflavone intake is much greater than that shown in adult humans to alter reproductive hormones. Since the available evidence suggests that infants can digest and absorb dietary phytoestrogens in active forms and since neonates are generally more susceptible than adults to perturbations of the sex steroid milieu, we suggest that it would be highly desirable to study the effects of soy isoflavones on steroid-dependent developmental processes in human babies. PMID

  8. The effects of restricted energy and fluid intake on simulated amateur boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Hamilton, M; Kelly, J; Wellington, P

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 +/- 3.2 years; height 175 +/- 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 +/- 8.3 kg [Mean +/- SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care. PMID:11426438

  9. Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31 ± 1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0 ± 2.2%) or normal (20 ± 2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1 ± 4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P < 0.01), feed intake (P < 0.01), laying rate (P < 0.05), average egg mass (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), shell thickness (P < 0.01), and feed efficiency (P < 0.05). High ambient temperature decreased plasma uric acid (P < 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (P < 0.05) and decreased mRNA levels of cholecystokinin (P < 0.05) in the hypothalamus. Heat stress significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ghrelin in the glandular stomach and jejunum but significantly decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of cholecystokinin in the duodenum and jejunum. In conclusion, heat stress plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and cholecystokinin), which might participate in the regulation of feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature. PMID:22619495

  10. Effect of Heat Exposure on Gene Expression of Feed Intake Regulatory Peptides in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31 ± 1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0 ± 2.2%) or normal (20 ± 2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1 ± 4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P < 0.01), feed intake (P < 0.01), laying rate (P < 0.05), average egg mass (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), shell thickness (P < 0.01), and feed efficiency (P < 0.05). High ambient temperature decreased plasma uric acid (P < 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (P < 0.05) and decreased mRNA levels of cholecystokinin (P < 0.05) in the hypothalamus. Heat stress significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ghrelin in the glandular stomach and jejunum but significantly decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of cholecystokinin in the duodenum and jejunum. In conclusion, heat stress plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and cholecystokinin), which might participate in the regulation of feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature. PMID:22619495

  11. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  12. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  13. Dietary intake of folate by adolescents and the potential effect of flour fortification with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, P J; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Butler, T J; Adamson, A J

    2001-10-01

    The UK Department of Health recently recommended that flour be fortified with folic acid, at 2400 microg/kg. The objectives of the present paper were: to determine the consequence of this on folic acid intake of adolescents; to determine the level of fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in adolescent girls (the amount recommended periconceptionally); to estimate the consequence of fortification on folic acid intake of high flour consumers; and to report on folate intake of adolescents. Dietary intake of folate and flour were determined by analysis of an existing database of the diets of 379 English adolescents. The folic acid intake that would result from white flour fortification with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg was determined and the level of folic acid fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in girls from this source was also calculated. Without flour fortification, 6.9 % of girls failed to reach the UK lower reference nutrient intake for total folate. Fortification of white flour with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg would result in an additional folic acid intake of 191(sem 6) microg/d in girls. To ensure 97 % of girls received 400 microg/d from white flour, white flour would need to be fortified at a level of 10 430 microg/kg, resulting in intakes of 1260 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) female white flour consumers and 1422 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) male white flour consumers. PMID:11591241

  14. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  15. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  16. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal. PMID:27238898

  17. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects. PMID:27442225

  18. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  19. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  20. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  1. Effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization by Alpine dairy goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six lactating Alpine does were used to determine effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization. Twelve does were assigned to measurement periods in early, mid-, and late lactation (wk 5, 13, and 27, respectively). For six does of each group, after ad libitum c...

  2. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field. PMID:22565861

  3. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  4. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of the rate of food intake on growth and adipogenesis in three-week old, male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN-93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) presented in either powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were randomly as...

  5. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  6. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  7. Effects of Carbohydrate Intake Before and During An Ice Hockey Game on Blood and Muscle Energy Substrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Clermont; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the effect of a supplemental carbohydrate intake for seven elite ice hockey players before and during a game demonstrated that the supplement could result in less glycogen usage per distance skated, which had important implications for athletes who may participate in more than one game a day. (Author/CB)

  8. EFFECT OF INITIAL BODY CONDITION OF BOER X SPANISH YEARLING WETHERS AND LEVEL OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON BODY COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...

  9. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect. PMID:23458739

  10. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  11. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure, and appetite in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D; Arentoft, Johanne L; Ritz, Christian; Schwartz, Thue W; Holst, Jens Juul; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin, and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy male subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, four-arm crossover study (BMI 29 ± 3 kg/m(2), age 33 ± 9 yr). On separate days they received a 150-min intravenous infusion of 1) 0.8 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) PYY3-36, 2) 1.0 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) GLP-1, 3) GLP-1 + PYY3-36, or 4) placebo. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed during the final 30 min. Measurements of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs, and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2 ± 4.8%, P = 0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0 ± 4.5%, P = 0.9). However, the coinfusion reduced energy intake compared with placebo (-30.4 ± 6.5%, P < 0.0001) and more than the sum of the monoinfusions (P < 0.001), demonstrating a synergistic effect. Coinfusion slightly increased sensation of nausea (P < 0.05), but this effect could not explain the effect on energy intake. A decrease in plasma ghrelin was found after all treatments compared with placebo (all P < 0.05); however, infusions of GLP-1 + PYY3-36 resulted in an additional decrease compared with the monoinfusions (both P < 0.01). We conclude that coinfusion of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 exerted a synergistic effect on energy intake. The satiating effect of the meal was enhanced by GLP-1 and PYY3-36 in combination compared with placebo. Coinfusion was accompanied by slightly increased nausea and a decrease in plasma ghrelin, but neither of these factors could explain the reduction in energy intake. PMID:24735885

  12. Effects of oral phytoextract intake on phenolic concentration and redox homeostasis in murine encephalic regions.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, M C; Canalis, A M; Albrecht, C; Soria, E A

    2015-10-01

    Vegetable infusions (VI) are one of the main phenolic sources for humans. They may act as antioxidants in the central nervous system, but data about their effect are insufficient. The main objective of the study was to determinate the effects of oral VI of Argentinean plants on phenolic concentration and redox homeostasis in different murine encephalic regions. Redox changes (peroxides -HP-, anion superoxide -SO- and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity) and tissue phenolics were assessed in Balb/c mice of both sexes treated with the following VI extracts: Lantana grisebachii Seckt. var. grisebachii (Verbenaceae) (LG), Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. (Apocynaceae) (AQB), and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) (IP). Brain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellum were studied (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). A redox homeostasis depending on an appropriate phenolic balance was detected after marker analysis. Under situations without exogenous challenges, the excessive or deficient levels were deleterious on each region. This finding was confirmed independently of the utilized phytoextracts. LG and AQB caused such phenolic imbalance and triggered oxidative stress. IP group showed region-specific differential redox effects. Overall, the last extract exhibited the best redox profile when the complete encephalon was analyzed. Since this plant has sanitary impact due to its high human intake, new studies about it are warranted. PMID:24840738

  13. Type D personality and dietary intake: The mediating effects of coping style.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lorna; Williams, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Type D and dietary intake and to determine whether this relationship is mediated by coping. In a cross-sectional study, 187 healthy participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring Type D personality, dietary intake and coping. Results showed that Type D was associated with maladaptive coping and significantly less healthy food intake, including more consumption of fat and sugar, and significantly less consumption of fruit and vegetables. Regression analyses showed that this relationship was partially mediated by coping. The results suggest that Type D personality may represent a risk factor for unhealthy eating. PMID:26032807

  14. Effects of different lipid sources on intake, digestibility and purine derivatives in hair lambs.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E S; Pereira, M W F; Arruda, P C L; Cabral, L S; Oliveira, R L; Mizubuti, I Y; Pinto, A P; Campos, A C N; Gadelha, C R F; Carneiro, M S S

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lipid sources on the nutrient intake, digestibility and purine derivative excretion of lambs. Thirty-five 60-day-old, male, non-castrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight (BW) of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with seven blocks and five treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet without supplemental lipids and four test diets with different lipid supplements, selected according to the degree of ruminal protection from hydrogenation: supplementation, being supplementation with whole cottonseed (WC), supplementation with cashew nut meal (CNM), supplementation with both cottonseed and cashew nut meal (WC-CNM) and supplementation with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA). The lambs were slaughtered after reaching 28 kg average BW for each treatment. The ether extract intake (EEI) was higher (p < 0.01) for the lipid supplemented compared to control diet lambs. Supplementation with WC decreased the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and total carbohydrate (TC) (p < 0.01), whereas supplementation with CNM, WC-CNM and Ca-LCFA reduced non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility (p < 0.01). The ether extract (EE) digestibility coefficient was higher with CNM, followed by Ca-LCFA and WC, when compared to WC-CNM and control diets. Nitrogen balance (NB) was not influenced (p > 0.05) by the different lipid sources. A lower purine derivative (PD) excretion and thus lower microbial protein supply (MPS) was observed for animals supplemented with Ca-LCFA (p < 0.01) compared to the WC-CNM and control diets. In conclusion, WC, CNM and WC-CNM supplementation did not have negative effects on MPS, although negative effects have been observed on nutrient digestibility. PMID:26854276

  15. Genetic variation in FADS1 has little effect on the association between dietary PUFA intake and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Sophie; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2014-09-01

    The unclear link between intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) could depend on genetic differences between individuals. Minor alleles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ∆5 fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 gene were associated with lower blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 (n-3) and ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs, indicating an associated loss of function effect. We examined whether the SNP rs174546 in FADS1 modifies the association between PUFA intakes and CVD risk. We included 24,032 participants (62% women, aged 44-74 y) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort without prevalent CVD and diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 14 y, 2648 CVD cases were identified. Diet was assessed by a modified diet history method. A borderline interaction was observed between the α-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3n-3)-to-linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) intake ratio and FADS1 genotype on CVD incidence (P = 0.06). The ALA-to-LA intake ratio was inversely associated with CVD risk only among participants homozygous for the minor T-allele (HR for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.04; P-trend = 0.049). When excluding participants reporting unstable food habits in the past (35%), the interaction between the ALA-to-LA intake ratio and FADS1 genotype on CVD incidence was strengthened and statistically significant (P = 0.04). Additionally, we observed a significant interaction between ALA and FADS1 genotype on ischemic stroke incidence (P = 0.03). ALA was inversely associated with ischemic stroke only among TT genotype carriers (HR for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.94; P-trend = 0.02). In this large cohort, we found some weak, but not convincing, evidence of effect modification by genetic variation in FADS1 on the associations between PUFA intakes and CVD risk. For the 11% of the population homozygous for the minor T-allele of rs174546 that associates with lower ∆5 FADS activity, high ALA intake and ALA

  16. Stopping to food can reduce intake. Effects of stimulus-specificity and individual differences in dietary restraint☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; Verbruggen, Frederick; Morrison, Sinead; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Overeating in our food-rich environment is a key contributor to obesity. Computerised response-inhibition training could improve self-control in individuals who overeat. Evidence suggests that training people to inhibit motor responses to specific food pictures can reduce the subsequent choice and consumption of those foods. Here we undertook three experiments using the stop-signal task to examine the effects of food and non-food related stop-training on immediate snack food consumption. The experiments examined whether training effects were stimulus-specific, whether they were influenced by the comparator (control) group, and whether they were moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. Experiment 1 revealed lower intake of one food following stop- vs. double- (two key-presses) response training to food pictures. Experiment 2 offered two foods, one of which was not associated with stopping, to enable within- and between-subjects comparisons of intake. A second control condition required participants to ignore signals and respond with one key-press to all pictures. There was no overall effect of training on intake in Experiment 2, but there was a marginally significant moderation by dietary restraint: Restrained eaters ate significantly less signal-food following stop- relative to double-response training. Experiment 3 revealed that stop- vs. double-response training to non-food pictures had no effect on food intake. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest some stimulus-specific effects of stop-training on food intake that may be moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. PMID:25447023

  17. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  18. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life. PMID:19251115

  19. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  20. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, < 0.001). Furthermore, the magnitude of BW gain response to increased energy intake was greater ( < 0.001) for sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( < 0.004) compared with those fed low energy, but no evidence for differences was found in gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g

  1. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Charlotte A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Etchells, Katie A.; Houstoun, Katie V. E.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N = 60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered. PMID:24025548

  2. The Effects of Social Contact on Drug Use: Behavioral Mechanisms Controlling Drug Intake

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in determining the likelihood that an individual will use drugs or will develop a drug use disorder. Recent evidence obtained from preclinical studies reveals that proximal social factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug exposure) exert a particularly strong influence on both drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. These studies are advancing our understanding of the role of the social environment in drug use by showing that the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs depend on (1) whether other individuals are immediately present and (2) whether those individuals are also using drugs. Furthermore, the preclinical literature examining the role of social learning in behavior maintained by nondrug reinforcers reveals a number of behavioral mechanisms by which social contact may influence drug use, as well as potential ways the social environment may be modified to prevent or reduce drug use. Additional research is needed to determine potential age and sex differences in the effects of social contact on drug use, to determine the generality of the current findings across different pharmacological classes of drugs, and to determine the role of social contact on drug intake during different transitional stages of drug use disorders; however, enough evidence now exists to begin implementing social interventions in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:24188170

  3. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  4. [Dietetic determinants on food intake and effects in body weight regulation].

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Monteiro, Josefina Bressan

    2003-09-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial pathology currently considered one of the main public health problems. Its prevalence is increasing dramatically in the last decades, reaching huge rates in Brazil and many other countries. Regardless of the factors associated with genetic predisposition, this pathology is often associated with abnormal food intake, and also with high consumption of caloric foods and sedentary habits. Thus, obesity is the result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. One of the greatest research interests in nutrition has currently been the dietetic determinants that may exert an influence on the process of food intake, as well as the role of foods on physiological, physical and chemical factors most related to the processes of satiation and satiety. Based on these aspects, this paper analyzes several research works to gain a better insight of the dietetic factors affecting food intake and body weight regulation. PMID:14694806

  5. Temporal pattern of cocaine intake determines tolerance vs sensitization of cocaine effects at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Roberts, David C S; Jones, Sara R

    2013-11-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for terminating dopamine (DA) signaling and is the primary site of cocaine's reinforcing actions. Cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to result in changes in cocaine potency at the DAT. To determine whether the DAT changes associated with self-administration are due to differences in intake levels or temporal patterns of cocaine-induced DAT inhibition, we manipulated cocaine access to produce either continuous or intermittent elevations in cocaine brain levels. Long-access (LgA, 6 h) and short-access (ShA, 2 h) continuous self-administration produced similar temporal profiles of cocaine intake that were sustained throughout the session; however, LgA had greater intake. ShA and intermittent-access (IntA, 6 h) produced the same intake, but different temporal profiles, with 'spiking' brain levels in IntA compared with constant levels in ShA. IntA consisted of 5-min access periods alternating with 25-min timeouts, which resulted in bursts of high responding followed by periods of no responding. DA release and uptake, as well as the potency of cocaine for DAT inhibition, were assessed by voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens slices following control, IntA, ShA, and LgA self-administration. Continuous-access protocols (LgA and ShA) did not change DA parameters, but the 'spiking' protocol (IntA) increased both release and uptake of DA. In addition, high continuous intake (LgA) produced tolerance to cocaine, while 'spiking' (IntA) produced sensitization, relative to ShA and naive controls. Thus, intake and pattern can both influence cocaine potency, and tolerance seems to be produced by high intake, while sensitization is produced by intermittent temporal patterns of intake. PMID:23719505

  6. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  7. Teaching self-management skills to cystic fibrosis patients and its effect on their caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Luder, E; Gilbride, J A

    1989-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether cystic fibrosis patients who received nutrition counseling based on self-management skills had an increased caloric intake and enhanced body mass index (kg/m2) values. Thirty-seven patients, aged 4 to 29 years, were placed on a nonrestricted nutrition program for a study period of 4 years. Bandura's self-management principles were applied in counseling patients to meet their nutrition needs. The results showed significant increases in energy intake and body mass index values (p less than .001). The mean energy intake increased from 93.6 +/- 16.9% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance to 125.8 +/- 24.1% of the RDA, and mean body mass index value increased from 16.9 +/- 2.3 to 18.8 +/- 2.5. Pulmonary functions remained unchanged during the counseling period. Four to six counseling sessions were required before the mean caloric intake of the patients increased to the desired goal of 115% of the RDA. During the remainder of the study period, the mean caloric intake rose to 125% of the RDA. The results of this study suggest that cystic fibrosis patients are able to increase their caloric intake significantly with counseling. PMID:2921442

  8. Effects of feed intake and protein degradability on ruminal characteristics and site of digestion in steers.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Berger, L L; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C; Nelson, D R

    1986-08-01

    Four multiple-fistulated Hereford steers were used in a 4 X 4 Latin square design with a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments [two intakes (9.1 and 6.1 kg dry matter/d) and two protein sources differing in ruminal degradability (dry distillers grains and dry corn gluten feed)]. Steers fed at the high intake had faster fluid dilution rates (7.63 versus 6.52%/h), higher ruminal fluid outflows (120.2 versus 91.7 L/d), lower apparent ruminal digestibilities of organic matter (41.3 versus 44.3%) and neutral detergent fiber (56.0 versus 60.2%), and lower total tract digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber (64.3 versus 68.7%) than when they were fed at the low intake. Steers fed dry corn gluten feed had higher apparent ruminal digestibilities of organic matter (45.5 versus 40.1%) and neutral detergent fiber (60.2 versus 56.0%) and lower duodenal flows of nonammonia-nonbacterial N (40.1 versus 52.2% of N intake) than when they were fed dry distillers grains. Efficiency of ruminal bacterial growth was higher when steers were fed at the high versus low intakes. Efficiency of ruminal bacterial growth and site and extent of fiber digestion, especially hemicellulose, but not ruminal escape of protein, can be readily altered by manipulation of feed intake of moderately high forage diets. PMID:3020102

  9. Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Meunier, Nathalie; Papet, Isabelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-01

    Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  10. Increased fruit and vegetable intake has no discernible effect on weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Shikany, James M; Mattes, Richard D; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    Background: A common dietary recommendation for weight loss, especially in lay public outlets, is to eat more fruit and vegetables (F/Vs). Without a compensatory reduction in total energy intake, significant weight loss would be unlikely. Objective: We aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of the general recommendation to eat more F/Vs for weight loss or the prevention of weight gain. Design: We searched multiple databases for human randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of increased F/V intake on body weight. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥15 subjects/ treatment arm, ≥8-wk intervention, a stated primary or secondary outcome of body weight, the stated goal of the intervention was weight or fat loss or the prevention of weight or fat gain, and food intake provided or prescribed was of a variety of F/Vs that remained minimally processed. Results: Two studies met all criteria; 5 other studies met all criteria but one. The primary analysis indicated an effect size of weight change (outcome of interest) from baseline [standardized mean difference (SMD) for studies that met all criteria] of −0.16 (95% CI: −0.78, 0.46) (P = 0.60). The SMD for 7 studies that met all or most criteria was 0.04 (95% CI: −0.10, 0.17) (P = 0.62). Conclusions: Studies to date do not support the proposition that recommendations to increase F/V intake or the home delivery or provision of F/Vs will cause weight loss. On the basis of the current evidence, recommending increased F/V consumption to treat or prevent obesity without explicitly combining this approach with efforts to reduce intake of other energy sources is unwarranted. This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42013004688 PMID:24965308

  11. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d), normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d), and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d). The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI) by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN) neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45) of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy), iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P < 0.05, all) On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A) level than the NI controls on PN7 (P < 0.05). NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05). Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and

  12. The effect of increased dietary intake on superovulatory response to FSH in heifers.

    PubMed

    Gong, J G; Armstrong, D G; Baxter, G; Hogg, C O; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2002-04-01

    We have previously shown that the number of ovarian follicles <4 mm in diameter can be increased by enhanced dietary intake in heifers. This study investigated the effect of the same dietary treatment on superovulatory response. The estrous cycles of 24 mature Hereford x Friesian heifers were synchronized by a standard progesterone plus prostaglandin protocol. The animals were fed with either 100% (group M, n = 12) or 200% (group 2M, n = 12) maintenance requirements for a 3-week period. Starting from day 4 of the synchronized estrous cycle, all the animals were superovulated using a standard 4-day FSH regime followed by an injection of GnRH analogue (GnRHa) to induce ovulation. Rectal ultrasound scanning was carried out to assess ovarian follicular populations at the start of FSH treatment and on the day of GnRHa injection, and to determine the number of corpora lutea 5 days after GnRHa injection. The body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded weekly and plasma samples were collected throughout the experimental period. There were no differences in either BW or BCS between two groups at the start of the experiment. The BW and BCS were maintained during the experiment in the group M, whilst animals in the group 2M showed a non-significant (P > 0.05) increase in BW and BCS. Circulating concentrations of insulin were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in heifers from the group 2M throughout the controlled feeding period. The group 2M had significantly (P < 0.05) more follicles 2-4 mm in diameter at the start of FSH treatment and more (P < 0.01) follicles >9 mm in diameter on the day of GnRHa injection, when compared with the group M. Similarly, 5 days after GnRHa injection there were significantly (P < 0.01) more corpora lutea in the group 2M (18.1+/-2.2) than in the group M (10.6+/-3.0). In addition, plasma progesterone concentrations following GnRHa injection were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in heifers from the group 2M. In conclusion, these

  13. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1), respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; n= 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; n = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares (n = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares (n = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; P < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; P < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES × DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; P < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; P < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM∙kg BW∙(-1)d(-1) and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d (-1)with increasing DHA (P < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements

  14. [The effect of dietotherapy and supplementary calcium intake on phosphorus-calcium homeostasis in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Gladkevich, A V; Samsonov, M A; Spirichev, V B

    1990-01-01

    A total of 25 patients with essential hypertension received a hyponatrium, hypocaloric antisclerotic diet providing 800 mg Ca and 1100 mg P/day, during 18-20 days. As a result of the dietotherapy, Ca concentration in the patients' blood serum rose from 9.9 +/- 0.2 to 10.4 +/- 0.1 mg/100 ml (p = 0.02), total cholesterol level was lowered from 6.58 +/- 0.43 to 5.42 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (p less than 0.05), Na+ and K+ distribution between the blood plasma and red blood cells was improved, and the arterial blood pressure was normalized in all the patients investigated. It dropped from 162 +/- 3.8/102 +/- 1.8 mm Hg before the treatment to 129 +/- 2.1/83.4 +/- 2.2 mm Hg after the treatment. Additional intake of 850 mg Ca/day, as CaCO3, decreased parathormone level in the blood serum from 0.40 +/- 0.03 to 0.23 ng/ml (p less than 0.01), intensified the hypolipidemic effect of the ration, and did not influence the degree of arterial blood pressure reduction under the action of this ration. Optimization of Ca consumption plays an important role in the combined dietotherapy of essential hypertension. PMID:2378097

  15. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake. PMID:25218720

  16. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity. PMID:17617461

  17. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour. PMID:26456412

  18. Caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community dwellers living in a rural Ecuadorian village (The Atahualpa Project)

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R.

    2016-01-01

    More information is needed to better understand the effect of caffeine on sleep quality at the community level. In a population-based, cross-sectional study design, we aimed to assess the effect of caffeine intake on sleep quality by the use of a multivariate exposure-effect model, adjusted for relevant confounders. All Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a structured instrument designed to estimate the daily amount of caffeine intake. An exposure-effect model was built using augmented inverse probability weighting taking into account variables that were associated with exposure (using a probit model) and variables that were associated with outcome (in a linear model). Out of 779 eligible individuals, 716 (92%) were included. Consumption of <100 mg/day of caffeine was recorded in 320 (45%) participants, from 100 to 200 mg/day in 299 (42%), and >200 mg/day in 97 (13%). Mean score in the PSQI was 4.5±2.2 points, with 203 (28%) individuals classified as poor sleepers (≥6 points). The exposure-effect model, adjusted for variables associated with the exposure (symptoms of depression, total cholesterol blood levels and smoking) and the outcome (age, symptoms of depression, physical activity and fasting glucose levels), revealed no effect of caffeine intake in sleep quality (average exposure effect: 0.027, 95% C.I.: −0.284 to 0.338, p=0.866). This population-based study shows that caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community-dwelling adults living in a rural village of Ecuador. PMID:27217907

  19. [Effects of sub-lethal dosages abamectin on food intake and digestive enzyme activities of silkworm Bombyx mori L].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiu-sheng; Wang, Jing; Gao, Hai-yan; Qin, Shu; Qiao, Xiong-wu; Han, Ju-cai

    2008-11-01

    Mulberry leaves treated with sub-lethal dosages (LC5, LC10 and LC20) abameetin were fed to the 5th instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.), and the food intake and digestive enzyme activities of the larvae were studied by using gravimetric method and measuring enzyme activities. The results showed that sub-lethal dosages abameetin significantly inhibited the growth and food intake of the larvae, with their body mass and its increase rate as well as their relative growth rate being significantly lower than the control, and accompanied with the decreases of food intake, its relative consumption rate, and feces amount. The efficiency of the conversion of ingested food (ECI) and that of the conversion of digested food (EDI) also reduced, but the approximate digestibility (AD) increased significantly. The amylase and sucrase activities in the midgut of the larvae treated with abameetin decreased significantly for a longer time at the beginning, and then recovered to the same as or a higher level than the control, whereas the trehalase activity decreased significantly for a shorter time at the beginning, then increased significantly, and finally recovered to the normal. It was suggested that sub-lethal dosages abameetin had definite toxicity to the silkworm, and the toxic effect was increased with increasing dosage, which could result in the turbulence of silkworm's digestive system, and further, affect its food intake and its growth and development. PMID:19238858

  20. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving. PMID:23262270

  1. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. PMID:26690472

  2. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio and intake level on utilization of early vegetative alfalfa silage by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Lamas, G; Combs, D K

    1991-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure the effects of intake and forage: grain ratio on utilization of early maturity alfalfa silage in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, diets with three forage: concentrate ratios (percentage of silage, percentage NDF): low (56, 28.3), medium (71, 31.0), or high (86, 33.4) were fed ad libitum to six lactating, ruminally cannulated cows in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. The same diets were then fed at 1.3 x maintenance intake to six gestating dry cows. Dairy milk yield and percentage and yield of milk protein and casein were higher for cows fed the low silage diet than for cows receiving other treatments. Fat percentage and yield were not different among diets. Lactating cows consumed more DM on low silage (23.0 kg/d) than on medium or high silage diets (21.4 kg), but NDF intake as percentage of BW was higher for the high silage diet. Digestibility of DM in the lactating (70.7, 69.9, and 67.5% for low, medium, and high) and dry cows (76.7, 73.5, and 69.0%, respectively) decreased as the level of silage increased. Depression in digestibility was greater as dietary concentrate increased. Cows fed the high silage diet had a faster fractional passage rate of solids and higher rumen fill. Digestion of concentrate cell walls appeared to be depressed more than alfalfa cell walls as intake increased. PMID:1646242

  3. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  4. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  5. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, -0.42%; 95% CI, -0.61% to -0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, -0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, -0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. PMID:26690472

  6. Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay or corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, S R; Goetsch, A L; Nejad, H H; Murphy, G; Jones, A L; Mashburn, S; Beers, K W; Johnson, Z B; Piper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay (BG) or ground corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue (I) were studied. In Exp. 1, a Latin square study, five growing Holstein steers (158.1 kg) consumed I ad libitum and were offered 0, .3, .6, .9 or 1.2% body weight (BW) of BG daily. Total dry matter (DM) intake rose linearly (P less than .05) with increasing BG, although intake was numerically similar with .6, .9 and 1.2% BW of BG. Digestibility was constant with diet (P greater than .10). Six growing Holstein steers used in Exp. 2, a Latin square with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ingested I or noninfected (NI) fescue hay ad libitum with 0, .5 or 1.0% BW of ground corn. Total DM intake increased linearly as the level of corn rose (P less than .05). Total intake with I increased more with the first than with the second addition of corn, and the opposite occurred with NI (interaction between fescue infection and the quadratic effect of corn level, P less than .10). Organic matter digested (g/d) was greater for NI than for I and rose linearly with increasing corn ingestion (P less than .05). Ninety-six crossbred beef heifers and steers (184.2 kg avg initial live weight) were used in a 77-d fall grazing experiment (Exp. 3) with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Cattle grazed I or NI paddocks and were given no supplement or .34% BW of BG or .65% BW of ground corn on a daily basis (DM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3366707

  7. Effects of the Menopausal Transition on Dietary Intake and Appetite. A MONET Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Karine, Duval; Denis, Prud’homme; Rémi, Rabasa-Lhoret; Irene, Strychar; Martin, Brochu; Jean-Marc, Lavoie; Éric, Doucet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in dietary intake and appetite across the menopausal transition. Methods This was a 5-year observational, longitudinal study on the menopausal transition. The study included 94 premenopausal women at baseline (age: 49.9 ± 1.9 yrs; BMI: 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Body composition (DXA), appetite (visual analogue scale), eating frequency, energy intake (EI) and macronutrient composition (7-day food diary and buffet-type meal) were measured annually. Results Repeated-measures analyses revealed that total EI and carbohydrate intake from food diary decreased significantly over time in women who became postmenopausal by year 5 (P > 0.05) compared to women in the menopausal transition. In women who became postmenopausal by year 5, fat and protein intakes decreased across the menopausal transition (0.05 > P < 0.01). Although a decrease in % fat intake was observed during the menopausal transition (P < 0.05), this variable was significantly increased in the postmenopausal years (P < 0.05). Spontaneous EI and protein intake also declined over time and were higher in the years preceding menopause onset (P < 0.05). Desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption increased during the menopausal transition and remained at this higher level in the postmenopausal years (0.05 > P< 0.001). Fasting fullness decreased across the menopausal transition (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that menopausal transition is accompanied with a decrease in food intake and an increase in appetite. PMID:24065065

  8. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  9. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    PubMed

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods. PMID:20163465

  10. Short-term high dietary fructose intake had no effects on insulin sensitivity and secretion or glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy, obese adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is virtually no information on the metabolic impact of dietary fructose intake in adolescents despite their high fructose consumption, particularly via sweetened beverages. To determine the short-term metabolic effects of dietary fructose intake in obese adolescents, six volunteers (3 M/3 F; 1...

  11. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  12. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables. PMID:20488643

  13. Effect of dam factors on milk intake and performance of Belgian Blue suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Campeneere, S; De Brabander, D L

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake data were collected at 4-week intervals from Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) suckling calves up to 16 weeks after birth. Dams were fed at 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements during a 140-day indoor period from the beginning of December to the end of April (restriction period). Afterwards, cows were turned out on pasture (re-alimentation period). Mean calving date was 3 June, but parturitions were spread over the year. A total of 521 individual milk intake (IMI) and 120 average daily milk intake (AMI, mean of IMI) records were collected. IMI amounted to 7.0 ± 2.2 kg/day and was not affected by energy level during the indoor period. It was highest in May and June. Calves born out of multiparous cows consumed more milk than those born out of primiparous cows (7.4 v. 6.2 kg per day; P = 0.001), while intake tended to be higher in female than in male calves (7.2 v. 6.8 kg per day; P = 0.044). Dam age at calving, parity, post partum weight and body condition were only weakly correlated with AMI (r 0.4). AMI was correlated with pre-weaning live-weight gain (r = 0.807) and weaning weight (r = 0.783), with a slightly higher correlation for male than for female calves. Daily live-weight gain during the suckling period was increased by 79 g per extra kg daily milk intake on average, and by 86 and 74 g, respectively, for male and female calves. Calf solid feed intake was low, even when milk intake was low. In terms of net energy intake, milk was only substituted for solid feed by 29%. It can be concluded from the calf intake that milk production in BBDM cows is comparable with that of cows from other beef breeds, but its variation is considerable, complicating an accurate estimation. PMID:22444972

  14. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  15. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N.; Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. Methods: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. Results: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p<0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p<0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. Conclusion: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo. PMID:25935179

  16. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.

    PubMed

    Figlewicz, D P; Ioannou, G; Bennett Jay, J; Kittleson, S; Savard, C; Roth, C L

    2009-12-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5-15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

  17. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  18. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation. PMID:21779093

  19. Morphine-induced suppression of conditioned stimulus intake: Effects of stimulus type and insular cortex lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Intake of an unconditionally preferred taste stimulus (e.g., saccharin) is reduced by contingent administration of a drug of abuse (e.g., morphine). We examined the influence of insular cortex (IC) lesions on morphine-induced suppression of an olfactory cue and two taste stimuli with different levels of perceived innate reward value. Two major findings emerged from this study. First, morphine suppressed intake of an aqueous odor as well as each taste stimulus in neurologically intact rats. Second, IC lesions disrupted morphine-induced suppression of the taste stimuli but not the aqueous odor cue. These results indicate that the perceived innate reward value of the CS is not a factor that governs drug-induced intake suppression. PMID:19631620

  20. Effects of high selenomethionine (L-SeMet) intakes on female long-tailed macaques and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, W.C.; Craig, K.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Willhite, C.C. Letterman Army Inst. of Research, San Francisco, CA Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA )

    1991-03-11

    Pregnant females were treated daily for 30 days with 0, 25, 150 or 300 {mu}g Se as L-SeMet per kg body weight. Maternal Se toxicity was evident in the 150 and 300 {mu}g/kg-d groups. There were no effects of L-SeMet on pregnancy outcome, fetal morphology or neonatal development. Erythrocyte (RBC) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), RBC Se, plasma (PL) Se, PL GPx, hair (HR) Se, fecal Se and daily urinary Se excretion (UR Se) in dams were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake. HR Se and UR Se showed the greatest responses to L-SeMet intake. RBC GPx increased 2.5-fold in the 150 {mu}g/kg-d group, casting doubt on use of RBC GPx saturation as a criterion of nutritional adequacy. Neonatal RBC and PL and fetal RBC, PL, liver, kidney, muscle and placental Se were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake and maternal Se status, but GPx was not. There was no effect of L-SeMet on milk Se or milk GPx, showing the dominant effect of intrauterine exposure on neonatal Se status. PL Se was 3-fold higher in dams than in fetuses, suggesting a role of the placenta in regulating fetal Se. In control RBC and PL, fetal GPx {gt} neonatal GPx {gt} maternal GPx, suggesting an effect of development on GPx.

  1. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  2. Effect of intracerebroventricular deuterium oxide on water intake and AVP release induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hjelmqvist, H; Rundgren, M

    1990-02-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion (0.02 ml min-1) of deuterium oxide (D2O), with NaCl added to isotonicity, on the water intake and arginine vasopressin (AVP) release caused by intravenous (i.v.) infusion of angiotensin II (AII) (4.8 nmol min-1) was studied in euhydrated sheep. The i.c.v. infusion of D2O, which started 80 min before commencement of the AII infusion, induced a water diuresis in four out of six animals and a measurable decrease in plasma AVP concentration. The i.v. infusion of AII effectively stimulated the AVP release and the response was unaffected by prior and simultaneous i.c.v. administration of D2O. However, the water intake measured 2 min after cessation of the AII administration was reduced by 50% when D2O was infused i.c.v. compared to that seen after simply the AII infusion. The inhibitory effect of D2O on AII-induced drinking disappeared rapidly after discontinuation of D2O administration. Compensatory increased drinking was seen during the first post-infusion hour, resulting in an equivalent cumulative intake of water at 60 min post-infusion in the two types of experiments. The present results support the idea that at least some of the cerebral effects of circulating AII on fluid balance are medicated via targets which are simultaneously accessible to influences from the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:2156405

  3. Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects.

    PubMed

    Calvez, J; Fromentin, G; Nadkarni, N; Darcel, N; Even, P; Tomé, D; Ballet, N; Chaumontet, C

    2011-10-24

    Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand which behavioral and central mechanisms are responsible for it. Two different stressors, restraint stress (RS) and forced swimming stress (FSS), were applied acutely to male Wistar rats. We first measured corticosterone and ACTH in plasma samples collected immediately after acute RS and FSS in order to validate our stress models. We measured food intake after RS and FSS and determined meal patterns and behavioral satiety sequences. The expressions of CRF, NPY and POMC in the hypothalamus were also determined immediately after acute RS and FSS. The rise in corticosterone and ACTH levels after both acute RS and FSS validated our models. Furthermore, we showed that acute stress induced a reduction in cumulative food intake which lasted the whole day for RS but only for the first hour after FSS. For both stressors, this stress-induced food intake inhibition was explained by a decrease in meal size and duration, but there was no difference in ingestion speed. The behavioral satiety sequence was preserved after RS and FSS but grooming was markedly increased, which thus competed with, and could reduce, other behaviors, including eating. Lastly, we showed that RS induced an increase in hypothalamic POMC expression. These results suggest that acute stress may affect ingestive behavior by increasing satiation and to some extent by enhancing grooming, and this may be due to stimulation of the hypothalamic POMC neurons. PMID:21787797

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Dietary Salt Intake in Aged Healthy Cats: A 2-Year Prospective Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  5. The effect of green tea intake on risk of liver disease: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xueru; Yang, Jiqiao; Li, Tony; Song, Liyan; Han, Tinglu; Yang, Mei; Liao, Huihua; He, Jianjun; Zhong, Xiaozhu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: There have been many reports on the reduction of liver disease with green tea consumption. This study aims to evaluate the body of evidence related to green tea consumption on the risk of liver disease and determine the effectiveness. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and Weipu databases. Statistical analysis was performed using the software Revman 5.2 and Stata 12.0. Results: Meta-analysis revealed that among green tea drinkers, there was a significant reduction in the risk of liver disease (RR=0.68, 95% CI=0.56-0.82, P=0.000). This trend extends to a broad spectrum of liver conditions including hepatocellular carcinoma (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.56-0.97, P=0.027), liver steatosis (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.44-0.98, P=0.039), hepatitis (RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.45-0.73, P=0.000), liver cirrhosis (RR=0.56, 95% CI=0.31-1.01, P=0.053) and chronic liver disease (RR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.82, P=0.007). This trend is also observed regardless of the race of the individual concerned where the Asian, American and European subgroups all demonstrated a reduced risk of liver disease. Conclusions: Green tea intake reduces the risk of liver disease. However, more long term randomized clinical trials are needed to comprehensively evaluate the health benefits of green tea. PMID:26309486

  6. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations. PMID:25110535

  7. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  8. Repetition counts: repeated exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in UK pre-school children compared to flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-06-01

    Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783

  9. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N. PMID:26641195

  10. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  11. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M. )

    1987-12-01

    Rates of synthesis, from ({sup 14}C)glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}day{sup {minus}1} on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased {approximately}80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis.

  12. Magnesium kinetics in adolescent girls determined using stable isotopes: effects of high and low calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Sojka, J; Wastney, M; Abrams, S; Lewis, S F; Martin, B; Weaver, C; Peacock, M

    1997-08-01

    Magnesium kinetics were measured in five adolescent girls who were participating in a calcium balance study. Two calcium levels were fed in a randomized crossover design. After an acclimation period, 26Mg was consumed orally and 25Mg was given intravenously, and then blood, urine, and feces were collected for 14 days. Total magnesium and percent enrichment were determined, and data were fitted to a eight-compartment model. There was no significant difference between high and low calcium intakes for any of the parameters examined. Mean values for control (800 mg/day) and high (1,800 mg/day) calcium intake were as follows: Mg intake, 305 +/- 30 and 286 +/- 9 mg/day; absorption (percent), 44 +/- 7 and 39 +/- 9; absorption (mg/day), 134 +/- 35 and 110 +/- 28; urinary excretion, 96 +/- 22 and 101 +/- 31 mg/day; fecal excretion, 175 +/- 32 and 200 +/- 11 mg/day; and magnesium balance, 13 +/- 35 and -34 +/- 48 mg/day, respectively. In conclusion, high calcium intake did not alter magnesium kinetics or balance in adolescent girls. PMID:9277559

  13. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based Incentives: Interaction with Intake Stimulant Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q.; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant…

  14. Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We present an updated method for identifying physiologically implausible dietary reports by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) with predicted energy requirements (pER), and we examine the impact of excluding these reports. Research Methods and Procedures: Adult data from the Continu...

  15. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...

  16. Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large portions of energy-dense foods are one feature of obesity-promoting dietary environments. Entrée portion size has been shown to influence energy intake at meals by young children. The role of energy density (ED) in children’s response to portion size, however, is unknown. We aimed to test th...

  17. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  18. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  19. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  20. Effect of snacking frequency on adolescents' dietary intakes and meeting national recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how snacking frequency impacts intake of nutrients and food groups and contributes to meeting recommendations outlined in USDA's MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from 4,357 adolescents 12-19 years of age participating in ...

  1. Effects of Voluntary Fluid Intake Deprivation on Mental and Psychomotor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Nadan M.; Dropulić, Nataša; Kardum, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess if there is deterioration in mental and psychomotor performance during 24-hour voluntary fluid intake deprivation. Methods A battery of computer generated psychological tests (Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac) was applied to 10 subjects to test light signal position discrimination, short-term memory, simple visual orientation, simple arithmetic, and complex motor coordination. We measured total test solving time, minimum (best) single task solving time, total ballast time, and total number of errors. Mood self-estimate scales of depression, working energy, anxiety, and self-confidence were used to determine the emotional status of subjects. During the first day of the experiment, subjects had free access to drinks. After a 48-hour interval, subjects voluntarily abstained from fluid intake for 24 hours. During that period, the testing was performed 7 times a day, at 3-hour intervals, except during the night. Z-transformation of the results enabled the comparison of 50 dependent measurements on the same subjects. Results During dehydration, there was significant deterioration in total test solving time, minimum single task solving time, and total ballast time. No significant deterioration was found by mood self-estimate scales, except on the scale of energy at 23:00 hours. Conclusion Voluntary 24-hour fluid intake deprivation led to deterioration in objective parameters of psychological processing, but not in subjective parameters. The results suggest that the duration of fluid intake deprivation can be a useful indicator of mental and psychomotor deterioration level. PMID:17167858

  2. Effect of intake pipe on the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capetti, Antonio

    1929-01-01

    The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging.

  3. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abundance proteins and analyzed using Two-Dimensional Differential in Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI MS/MS for protein identification in order to investigate low abundance proteins with immune function in newborn lambs. Results The results showed that four proteins were increased in the blood plasma of lambs due to colostrum intake. These proteins have not been previously described as increased in blood plasma of newborn ruminants by colostrum intake. Moreover, these proteins have been described as having an immune function in other species, some of which were previously identified in colostrum and milk. Conclusions In conclusion, colostrum intake modified the low abundance proteome profile of blood plasma from newborn lambs, increasing the concentration of apolipoprotein A-IV, plasminogen, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen, demonstrating that colostrum is essential, not only for the provision of immunoglobulins, but also because of increases in several low abundance proteins with immune function. PMID:24708841

  4. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    24 (P=0.02) in HF than LF sows (at T0: 8.6±1.1 vs. 11.9±1.1 mg/mL; at T24: 2.5±0.7 vs. 4.8±0.7 mg/mL). In conclusion, dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis. PMID:23989876

  5. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating1234

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Paul; Daley, Amanda; Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes such as attention and memory may influence food intake, but the degree to which they do is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine whether such cognitive processes influence the amount of food eaten either immediately or in subsequent meals. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that examined experimentally the effect that manipulating memory, distraction, awareness, or attention has on food intake. We combined studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between experimental and control groups and assessing heterogeneity with the I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Evidence indicated that eating when distracted produced a moderate increase in immediate intake (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.53) but increased later intake to a greater extent (SMD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.07). The effect of distraction on immediate intake appeared to be independent of dietary restraint. Enhancing memory of food consumed reduced later intake (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.68), but this effect may depend on the degree of the participants’ tendencies toward disinhibited eating. Removing visual information about the amount of food eaten during a meal increased immediate intake (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Enhancing awareness of food being eaten may not affect immediate intake (SMD: 0.09; 95% CI: −0.42, 0.35). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting. PMID:23446890

  6. Working toward Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan

    1985-01-01

    Upon arrival in the United States, the Southeast Asian "Boat People" faced a multitude of problems that would seem to have hindered their achieving economic self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, by the time of a 1982 research study which interviewed nearly 1,400 refugee households, 25 percent of all the households in the sample had achieved economic…

  7. Effect of High Sugar Intake on Glucose Transporter and Weight Regulating Hormones in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; D’Haese, Jan G.; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sugar consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades in Western societies. Especially the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seems to be a major risk for the development of obesity. Thus, we compared liquid versus solid high-sugar diets with regard to dietary intake, intestinal uptake and metabolic parameters in mice and partly in humans. Methods Five iso-caloric diets, enriched with liquid (in water 30% vol/vol) or solid (in diet 65% g/g) fructose or sucrose or a control diet were fed for eight weeks to C57bl/6 mice. Sugar, liquid and caloric intake, small intestinal sugar transporters (GLUT2/5) and weight regulating hormone mRNA expression, as well as hepatic fat accumulation were measured. In obese versus lean humans that underwent either bariatric surgery or small bowel resection, we analyzed small intestinal GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression. Results In mice, the liquid high-sucrose diet caused an enhancement of total caloric intake compared to the solid high-sucrose diet and the control diet. In addition, the liquid high-sucrose diet increased expression of GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression in the ileum (P<0.001). Enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation was observed in mice being fed the liquid high-sucrose or -fructose, and the solid high-sucrose diet compared to controls. In obese, GLUT2 and GLUT5 mRNA expression was enhanced in comparison to lean individuals. Conclusions We show that the form of sugar intake (liquid versus solid) is presumably more important than the type of sugar, with regard to feeding behavior, intestinal sugar uptake and liver fat accumulation in mice. Interestingly, in obese individuals, an intestinal sugar transporter modulation also occurred when compared to lean individuals. PMID:25010715

  8. The effect of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake among Croatian university students.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Kendel Jovanović, Gordana; Pavicić Zezel, Sandra; Cvijanović, Olga; Ivezić, Goran

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes among university students. The students (264 males and 741 females) were asked to answer a validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and to fulfil a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Gender, university status (freshmen, juniors, seniors) and eating arrangements (home, restaurants, self-cooking) were used as predictors of the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. The findings indicated that women (p = 0.008), senior students (p < 0.001) and those who prepare food for themselves (p = 0.038) have higher nutrition knowledge scores. The assessment of nutrition knowledge had parallels in dietary intake, and adherence to the dietary recommendations was significantly associated with nutrition knowledge scores (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed differences in daily intakes of grains (p < 0.001), meat and beans group (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), fruits (p = 0.002) and oils (p < 0.001) in relation to all predictors. However nutrition knowledge acted as a modifier of the influence of eating arrangements. Logistic regression has shown that students with the highest nutrition knowledge are twelve times more likely to have a diet in accordance to recommendations compared to students with the lowest level of knowledge ([OR] = 12.03, 95% [CI] = 6.64-21.79, p < 0.001). The results support the value of including nutrition knowledge in health education campaigns targeting the student population with the aim of improving their dietary intake. PMID:20102047

  9. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  10. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women. PMID:25138661

  11. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. Methods: The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Results: Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion: This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference. PMID:22301859

  12. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement. PMID:25451582

  13. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  14. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  15. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

  16. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax™) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax™) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0–30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30–180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0–30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30–180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Results Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax™ enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy

  17. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  18. Review of the effects of dilution of dietary energy with olestra on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2012-03-20

    The non-absorbable substitute for dietary triacylglycerol, olestra, has been marketed in the United States for fifteen years. Olestra is comprised of sucrose with six to eight of its hydroxyl groups forming ester links with long-chain fatty acids. Because olestra is not hydrolyzed by fat-splitting enzymes in the small intestine, it is not absorbed from the small intestine into blood and tissues, and therefore provides no energy that can be utilized by the body. The hedonic properties of olestra with a specific fatty acid composition are similar to those of a triacylglycerol with the same fatty acid composition. Its use by consumers has been restricted by federal regulation to the commercial preparation of savory snack food items, principally as a frying medium for potato chips. An important question about the substitution of olestra for absorbable fat in the diet is whether the consumer will sense that a smaller amount of energy has been ingested. If it is sensed, thereby providing no satiation, then consuming additional energy in later meals will compensate for the removal of absorbable energy from the diet. If it is not sensed at all, then there is no compensation, and the person reduces caloric intake. This review first summarizes studies with olestra that have focused on its effect on the physiology of appetite. In general these studies have demonstrated that olestra does not influence signals of satiation including cholecystokinin and stomach emptying. The review then discusses studies of food consumption in experimental animals in which olestra was substituted for fat in the diet. Rodents have been repeatedly observed to compensate completely for the substitution of olestra for normal fat by eating more total diet. Most studies of the effect of olestra on human satiation have found incomplete or no compensation through additional energy consumption when olestra was substituted for dietary fat. In two clinical studies, however, complete compensation was

  19. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Effect of Television Advertising on Food Intake in Children: Why Such a Sensitive Topic is Lacking Top-Level Evidence?

    PubMed

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Foltran, Francesca; Berchialla, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at assessing the effect of television advertising on food intake in children from 4 to 12 years old. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed database and included if they assessed the effect of direct exposure to television food advertising over the actual energy intake of children. Seven studies out of 2166 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association between television advertising and energy intake is based on a very limited set of randomized researches lacking a solid ground of first-level evidence. PMID:25105865

  20. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Andrew R.; Leibowitz, Joshua L.; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak T.; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzannea; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3-) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3- intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n=12; age=22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3-. After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P<0.001; effect size=1.19) after dietary NO3- intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P<0.01; effect size=0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90±0.59 vs. 7.44±0.53 W/kg; P<0.05; effect size=0.63) after dietary NO3- intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5±0.9 vs. 13.1±0.8 rad/s; P<0.05; effect size=0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3- intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. PMID:25199856

  1. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. PMID:25199856

  2. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H.; Yde, Christian C.; Clausen, Morten R.; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study. PMID:26907339

  3. The potential of peer social norms to shape food intake in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of effects and moderators.

    PubMed

    Stok, F Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the role that peer social norms play in shaping young people's food intake, focusing on the important questions of for whom and when peer social norms are related to how much young people eat. Thirty-three eligible studies were reviewed (17 correlational, 16 experimental). All but one correlational studies found significant associations between norms and food intake. All experimental studies found effects of norm manipulations on food intake, and some evidence was found of behavioural spillover effects of norms. Four moderators were distilled from our literature synthesis that stipulate for whom and when peer social norms are related to food intake: identification with the norm referent group and eating-related habit strength were found to moderate the effects of social norms on food intake; forceful injunctive norms were found not to be related to food intake; and the influence of norms seemed restricted to types of foods typically consumed in the presence of peers. The findings from this literature synthesis have important implications for research, and moderators are discussed in light of psychological theory. Where applicable, potential implications for the development of social norm-based interventions to improve young people's food intake are also highlighted. PMID:26878931

  4. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  5. Divergent effects of ERα and ERβ on fluid intake by female rats are not dependent on concomitant changes in AT1R expression or body weight.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Marshall, Anikó; Curtis, Kathleen S; Speth, Robert C; Clark, Stewart D; Daniels, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases both water and saline intakes by female rats. The ERα and ERβ subtypes are expressed in areas of the brain that control fluid intake; however, the role that these receptors play in E2's antidipsogenic and antinatriorexigenic effects have not been examined. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of ERα and ERβ decreases water and saline intakes by female rats. We found a divergence in E2's inhibitory effect on intake: activation of ERα decreased water intake, whereas activation of ERβ decreased saline intake. E2 decreases expression of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a receptor with known relevance to water and salt intakes, in multiple areas of the brain where ERα and ERβ are differentially expressed. Therefore, we tested for agonist-induced changes in AT1R mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by analyzing receptor binding to test the hypothesis that the divergent effects of these ER subtypes are mediated by region-specific changes in AT1R expression. Although we found no changes in AT1R mRNA or binding in areas of the brain known to control fluid intake associated with agonist treatment, the experimental results replicate and extend previous findings that body weight changes mediate alterations in AT1R expression in distinct brain regions. Together, the results reveal selective effects of ER subtypes on ingestive behaviors, advancing our understanding of E2's inhibitory role in the controls of fluid intake by female rats. PMID:27122368

  6. Repulsive Casimir force: Sufficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Luigi; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper the Casimir energy of two parallel plates made by materials of different penetration depth and no medium in between is derived. We study the Casimir force density and derive analytical constraints on the two penetration depths which are sufficient conditions to ensure repulsion. Compared to other methods our approach needs no specific model for dielectric or magnetic material properties and constitutes a complementary analysis.

  7. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. A total of 52 primiparous sows (Large White) were randomly divided into four treatments (n = 13) and received 6 g/kg sodium butyrate (SB), fruit-milk (FM) flavor and fruit-milk-anise (FMA) flavor with pair feeding to the mothers receiving the control diet. The feeding trial lasted for 29 days, including 21 days of nursing and 8 days of post-weaning period, respectively. The nursing and weaning piglets received creep diets with the same flavor or SB supplement as their mother. The results showed that FMA flavor increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows (P < 0.01), as well as improved litter weight gain (P = 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) of nursing pigs among treatments. Indeed, greater ADFI and average daily gain of weaning piglets for the initial 8 days after weaning was observed in the FMA group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that adding FMA flavor was superior to SB for increasing feed intake of lactating sows and improving growth performance of piglets. PMID:24773759

  8. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  9. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  10. Sex differences in the effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on energy intake in young adults.

    PubMed

    Pérusse-Lachance, Emilie; Brassard, Patrice; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Teasdale, Normand; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli. PMID:24967260

  11. Sex Differences in the Effects of Mental Work and Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity on Energy Intake in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Vicky; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli. PMID:24967260

  12. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  13. Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Beth H; Quann, Erin E; Miller, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrient intake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ≥9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrient intakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23550782

  14. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  15. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  16. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    PubMed Central

    Wijlens, Anne G. M.; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  17. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  18. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Green, Benjamin P.; James, Lewis J.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H2O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H2O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  19. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  20. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  1. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake. PMID:17907862

  2. Effect of protein intake on bone and muscle mass in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Genaro, Patrícia de Souza; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is frequently characterized by an involuntary loss of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis) mass. Both chronic diseases are associated with decreased metabolic rate, increased risk of falls/fracture, and, as a result, increased morbidity and loss of independence in the elderly. The quality and quantity of protein intake affects bone and muscle mass in several ways and there is evidence that increased essential amino acid or protein availability can enhance muscle protein synthesis and anabolism, as well as improve bone homeostasis in older subjects. A thorough evaluation of renal function is important, since renal function decreases with age. Finally, protein and calcium intake should be considered in the prevention or treatment of the chronic diseases osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:20883419

  3. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (−100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981

  4. Dietary intake of vegetables and fruits and the modification effects of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Kamat, Ashish; Gu, Jian; Chen, Meng; Dinney, Colin P; Forman, Michele R; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed the association between intakes of vegetables and fruits as defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture pyramid food groups and bladder cancer risk using data collected in a large case-control study. The study included 884 histologically confirmed bladder cancer cases and 878 healthy controls matched to cases by age (+/-5 years), gender, and ethnicity. Significant inverse associations were observed for intakes of total vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, orange vegetables, dark green vegetables, and bladder cancer risk. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of total vegetable intake, the odds ratios for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of total vegetable intake were 0.84 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.64-1.10], 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.95), and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.50-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.004). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of cruciferous vegetable intake had an odds ratio of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P for trend = 0.001) and those in the highest quartile of orange vegetable intake had an odds ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.52-0.91; P for trend = 0.006). Furthermore, the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables was more evident in subjects carrying GSTM1-null (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.73 for the 4th quartile of intake) and NAT2-slow genotypes (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.97 for the 4th quartile of intake). No association was observed for intakes of total fruits or citrus fruits. Our data strongly support that high vegetable consumption, especially cruciferous vegetable intake, may protect against bladder cancer and that genetic variants of GSTM1 and NAT2 may modify the association. PMID:19549811

  5. Effect of a cage divider permitting social stimuli on stress and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Cavigelli, S A; Dorsey, J R; Kelley, C E P; Ragan, C M; Chandler-Laney, P C

    2008-09-01

    The need to obtain data from individual laboratory animals has forced many researchers to singly-house small animals. This is costly to the researcher and isolation can adversely affect animal physiology and behavior which in turn may threaten the validity and generalization of experiment results to humans. We assessed the practical use of a housing device - dubbed "Buddy Barrier" (BB) - that allows social stimulation in a paired-housing situation while at the same time permitting the collection of individual measures that traditionally require individual-housing. To assess stress responses to the BB, adult male rats were single or pair-housed for several days with and without a BB in the cage. Fecal corticosterone metabolites (fCORT), food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Plasma CORT and adrenal catecholamine levels were assessed at the end of the housing manipulation. Stress hormone measures did not differ in paired vs. singly-housed rats and paired rats quickly habituated to introduction and removal of the BB. Barring a trend for paired rats to eat more in the first 4 h of the dark, there was no difference in 24 h intakes or body weight gain between singly and paired-housed rats. While the BB attenuated 24 h intakes in both groups, intakes normalized to non-BB conditions by the third BB reintroduction. A device such as the BB can enhance the welfare of animals by providing social enrichment without compromising the integrity of experimental protocols traditionally requiring single-housing. In times of lagging research funding it can also substantially reduce housing costs. PMID:18565550

  6. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  7. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Claeys, W; Baert, K; Mestdagh, F; Vercammen, J; Daenens, P; De Meulenaer, B; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Huyghebaert, A

    2010-09-01

    The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) (P97.5 = 1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), the main contributors to the average intake being chips (23%), coffee (19%), biscuits (13%), and bread (12%). Additionally, the impact of a number of AA mitigation scenarios was evaluated (German minimization concept, scenarios for mitigation from the literature, signal values), which is an important issue for public health as well as for policy-makers. Specific actions in cooperation with the food industry to reduce the AA content of foods seems to be a more efficient strategy than mere implementation of signal values. Considering that an important share of the AA intake is due to prepared meals, the catering industry as well as consumers need to be better informed on the various possibilities for keeping the AA content of meals as low as possible. PMID:20589545

  8. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  9. Effect of a moderate exercise on the regulatory hormones of food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebal, Edmond; Cavalie, Hélian; Michaux, Odile; Lac, Gérard

    2007-09-01

    Strategies used to counteract overweight include generally endurance exercise. Force-resistance exercise has not been tested yet with this objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of the main regulatory hormones of food intake (insulin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin) and corticosterone, to a short force resistance exercise. Two groups of 16 rats, 65 days old, weighing 330g, were constituted. A standard diet (containing glucid: 72.2, lipid: 7.7, protid: 20% calories) was given "ad libitum". One group served as control, the second group was submitted to exercise training during 5 weeks. Training reduced the rats body weight by 6.4% and the total food intake during the 5 weeks by 11%. Training lowered the insulin and ghrelin levels, while corticosterone level was increased. Insulin, ghrelin and corticosterone only reached the significant threshold p<0.05. Thus, it seems that exercise, even of low intensity and duration, induces changes on hormones that regulate food intake and limit overweight. PMID:17462789

  10. Improving adaptation to weaning: effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics.

    PubMed

    Berkeveld, M; Langendijk, P; Soede, N M; Kemp, B; Taverne, M A M; Verheijden, J H M; Kuijken, N; Koets, A P

    2009-10-01

    Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period contribute to postweaning adaptation through effects on feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7. Litters were subjected to conventional weaning (CW) or to 1 of 3 IS regimens. In CW, litters (n = 29) had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 26, d 0 = farrowing). During IS, litters had access to the sow between 1600 and 0600 h. Litters in the IS treatments were subjected to IS 1) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 26 (IS19-7D, n = 33), 2) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS19-14D, n = 28), or 3) from d 26 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS26-7D, n = 33). The IS19-7D regimen resulted in a relative growth check within the first 2 d after weaning similar to CW litters (72 +/- 13 and 90 +/- 7%, respectively), but in a greater piglet growth (P = 0.014) and feed intake (P = 0.001) between d 2 and 7 postweaning. Moreover, IS19-7D was not associated with a (further) reduction in villus height as observed at d 2 postweaning in CW litters. In IS piglets weaned after an extended lactation (d 33), a markedly smaller weaning-associated relative growth check was observed shortly postweaning (11 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 19% for IS19-14D and IS26-7D litters, respectively). In these litters, feed intake and growth within the first 2 d after weaning were slightly greater when piglets were subjected to IS for 2 wk (IS19-14D) rather than for 1 wk (IS26-7D; P = 0.032 and P = 0.037 for feed intake and growth, respectively). Irrespective of duration of IS, weaning at d 33 with IS was not associated with a reduction in villus height. Irrespective of treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations were reduced at d 2 and 8 postweaning compared

  11. Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Tecimer, Sandy N; Shah, Deepa; Zafar, Tasleem A

    2004-11-01

    The objective of these 4 studies was to describe the effects of protein source, time of consumption, quantity, and composition of protein preloads on food intake in young men. Young men were fed isolates of whey, soy protein, or egg albumen in sweet and flavored beverages (400 mL) and provided a pizza meal 1-2 h later. Compared with the water control, preloads (45-50 g) of whey and soy protein, but not egg albumen, suppressed food intake at a pizza meal consumed 1 h later. Meal energy intake after egg albumen and soy, but not after control or whey treatments, was greater when the treatments were given in the late morning (1100 h) compared with earlier (0830-0910 h). Suppression of food intake after whey protein, consumed as either the intact protein or as peptides, extended to 2 h. Altering the composition of the soy preload (50 g) by reducing the soy protein content to 25 g and by adding 25 g of either glucose or amylose led to a loss in suppression of food intake by the preload. Egg albumen, in contrast to whey and soy preloads, increased cumulative energy intake (sum of the energy content of the preload plus that in the test meal) relative to the control. We conclude that protein source, time of consumption, quantity, and composition are all factors determining the effect of protein preloads on short-term food intake in young men. PMID:15514267

  12. TrkB receptor signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediates the food intake-suppressive effects of hindbrain BDNF and leptin

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB receptor signaling contribute to the central nervous system (CNS) control of energy balance. The role of hindbrain BDNF/TrkB receptor signaling in energy balance regulation is examined here. Hindbrain ventricular BDNF suppressed body weight through reductions in overall food intake and meal size and by increasing core temperature. To localize the neurons mediating the energy balance effects of hindbrain ventricle-delivered BDNF, ventricle subthreshold doses were delivered directly to medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS). mNTS BDNF administration reduced food intake significantly, and this effect was blocked by preadministration of a highly selective TrkB receptor antagonist {[N2–2-2-Oxoazepan-3-yl amino]carbonyl phenyl benzo (b)thiophene-2-carboxamide (ANA-12)}, suggesting that TrkB receptor activation mediates hindbrain BDNF's effect on food intake. Because both BDNF and leptin interact with melanocortin signaling to reduce food intake, we also examined whether the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain leptin involve hindbrain-specific BDNF/TrkB activation. BDNF protein content within the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain was increased significantly by hindbrain leptin delivery. To assess if BDNF/TrkB receptor signaling acts downstream of leptin signaling in the control of energy balance, leptin and ANA-12 were coadministered into the mNTS. Administration of the TrkB receptor antagonist attenuated the intake-suppressive effects of leptin, suggesting that mNTS TrkB receptor activation contributes to the mediation of the anorexigenic effects of hindbrain leptin. Collectively, these results indicate that TrkB-mediated signaling in the mNTS negatively regulates food intake and, in part, the intake inhibitory effects of leptin administered into the NTS. PMID:22374757

  13. Intraduodenal Administration of Intact Pea Protein Effectively Reduces Food Intake in Both Lean and Obese Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.; Troost, Freddy J.; Munsters, Marjet J. M.; Stegen, Jos H. C. H.; de Ridder, Rogier J.; Conchillo, Jose M.; Kruimel, Joanna W.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. Methods Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m2) and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m2) healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water) or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water), either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. Results CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02) and 20(p<0.01) minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA), in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA)(p<0.04). GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02) to 120(p<0.01) minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01) and −298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01), respectively), compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (−132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01), compared to OPA. Conclusions Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity. PMID:21931864

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  15. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  16. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  17. Effects of exogenous enzymes and application method on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Pelibuey lambs.

    PubMed

    López-Aguirre, Daniel; Hernández-Meléndez, Javier; Rojo, Rolando; Sánchez-Dávila, Fernando; López-Villalobos, Nicolás; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M; Martínez-González, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Ruíz, Salomón

    2016-01-01

    Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE. PMID:27610318

  18. A Pilot Study of the Effects of a Tailored Web-Based Intervention on Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Alia, Kassandra A.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The current study examined the effects of a Web-based tailored parenting intervention on increasing fruit and vegetable intake in African American families. Methods: Forty-seven African American parents (mean age, 41.32±7.30; 93.6% female) with an adolescent (mean age, 13.32±1.46; 59.6% female) participated in a Web-based autonomy-support parenting tailored intervention session to increase both parent and youth fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. The session lasted 45–60 minutes and included three phases: a feedback phase; a Web-based information phase, and a goal-setting and action plan phase. Self-reported measures of parenting skills [based on autonomy (choice), support, and communication] and F&V intake (assessed as average daily intake) were assessed at baseline and at a 1-week follow-up session. Results: There was a significant increase in parents' self-reports of daily fruit intake from pretest to the 1-week follow-up. Parent and adolescent combined F&V intake also significantly increased from pretest to 1-week follow-up. Overall, parents reported that the program was easy to navigate and that they enjoyed participating in the Web-based online program. Conclusions: Current findings provide preliminary support for an autonomy-support parent tailored Web-based program for improving dietary intake in African American families. PMID:24299118

  19. High intake of dietary tyramine does not deteriorate glucose handling and does not cause adverse cardiovascular effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Carpéné, Christian; Schaak, Stéphane; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mercader, Josep; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne

    2016-09-01

    Tyramine is naturally occurring in food and induces pressor responses. Low-tyramine diets are recommended for patients treated with MAO inhibitors to avoid the fatal hypertensive crisis sadly known as "cheese effect". Hence, tyramine intake is suspected to have toxicological consequences in humans, while its administration to type 1 diabetic rodents has been reported to improve glucose tolerance. We investigated in mice whether prolonged tyramine ingestion could alter glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue physiology or cardiovascular functions. Tyramine was added at 0.04 or 0.14 % in the drinking water since this was estimated to increase by 10- to 40-fold the spontaneous tyramine intake of control mice fed a standard diet. Ten to 12 weeks of such tyramine supplementation did not influence body weight gain, adiposity or food consumption. Both doses (reaching approx. 300 and 1100 μmol tyramine/kg bw/day) decreased nonfasting blood glucose but did not modify glucose tolerance or fasting levels of glucose, insulin or circulating lipids. Blood pressure was not increased in tyramine-drinking mice, while only the higher tested dose moderately increased heart rate without change in its variability. Markers of cardiac tissue injury or oxidative stress remained unaltered, except an increased hydrogen peroxide production in heart preparations. In isolated adipocytes, tyramine inhibited lipolysis similarly in treated and control groups, as did insulin. The lack of serious adverse cardiovascular effects of prolonged tyramine supplementation in normoglycemic mice together with the somewhat insulin-like effects found on adipose cells should lead to reconsider favourably the risk/benefit ratio of the intake of this dietary amine. PMID:26634369

  20. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic American youth

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nazrat M.; Klein, Catherine J.; Palmer, Matilde G.; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Ludwig, David S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. No systematic studies of the effects of LGL diets have been conducted in obese US Hispanic children even though Hispanic children have a particularly high prevalence of obesity and thus stand to benefit from successful interventions. Objective To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. Methods 88 obese Hispanic youth ages 7-15y were randomly assigned to consume meals designed to be either LGL (n=45) or HGL (n=43). Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale and provided samples for analysis of serum insulin and plasma glucose. Participants were then fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. Energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated for each meal. Results Subjects in the HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p=0.0005) and glucose (p=0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared to the LGL group. However, there were no significant between-group differences in the total energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p=0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p=0.3), fullness (p=0.5) or satiety (p=0.3) between the two groups. Conclusions Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. PMID:21309658

  1. A study on the effects of the intake port configurations on the swirl flow generated in a small D.I. diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yungjin; Han, Yongtaek; Lee, Kihyung

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intake port configuration on the swirl that is generated within a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The in-cylinder flow characteristics are known to have significant effects on fuel-air mixing, combustion, and emissions. To clarify how to intensify the swirl flow, a swirl control valve (SCV) and a bypass were selected as design parameters for enhancing the swirl flow. The optimal intake port shape was also chosen as a parameter needed to efficiently generate a high swirl ratio. The results revealed that a key factor in generating a high swirl ratio was to control the intake airflow direction passing through the intake valve seat. Further, the swirl intensity was influenced by changing the distance between the helical and tangential ports, and the swirl flow was changed by the presence of a bypass near the intake valve seat. Additionally, the effect of intake port geometry on the in-cylinder flow field was investigated by using a laser sheet visualization method. The experimental results showed a correlation of swirl ratio and mass flow rate. In addition, we found that employing the bypass was an effective method to increase swirl ratio without sacrificing mass flow rate.

  2. Effect of nitrogen intake on nitrogen recycling and urea transporter abundance in lambs.

    PubMed

    Marini, J C; Klein, J D; Sands, J M; Van Amburgh, M E

    2004-04-01

    Urea recycling in ruminants has been studied extensively in the past, but the mechanisms regulating the amount of urea recycled or excreted remain obscure. To elucidate the role of urea transporters (UT) in N recycling, nine Dorset-Finn ewe lambs (20.8 +/- 0.8 kg) were fed diets containing 15.5, 28.4, and 41.3 g of N/kg of DM for 25 d. Nitrogen balance and urea N kinetics were measured during the last 3 d of the period. Animals were then slaughtered and mucosa samples from the rumen, duodenum, ileum, and cecum, as well as kidney medulla and liver, were collected. Increasing N intake tended to increase N balance quadratically (1.5, 5.1, and 4.4 +/- 0.86 g of N/d, P < 0.09), and linearly increased urinary N excretion (2.4, 10, and 16.5 +/- 0.86 g N/d, P < 0.001) and plasma urea N concentration (4.3, 20.3, and 28.4 +/- 2.62 mg of urea N/dL, P < 0.001), but did not affect fecal N excretion (5.0 +/- 0.5 g of N/d; P < 0.94). Urea N production (2.4, 11.8, and 19.2 +/- 0.83 g of N/d; P < 0.001) and urinary urea N excretion (0.7, 7.0, and 13.4 +/- 0.73 g N/d; P < 0.001) increased linearly with N intake, as well as with the urea N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract (1.8, 4.8, and 5.8 +/- 0.40 g of N/d, P < 0.001). No changes due to N intake were observed for creatinine excretion (518 +/- 82.4 mg/d; P < 0.69) and clearance (46 +/- 10.7 mL/min; P < 0.56), but urea N clearance increased linearly with N intake (14.9, 24.4, and 34.9 +/- 5.9 mL/min; P < 0.04). Urea N reabsorption by the kidney tended to decrease (66.3, 38.5, 29.1 +/- 12.6%; P < 0.06) with increasing N content of the diet. Increasing the level of N intake increased linearly the weight of the liver as a proportion of BW (1.73, 1.88, and 2.22 +/- 0.15%, P < 0.03) but only tended to increase the weight of the kidneys (0.36, 0.37, and 0.50 +/- 0.05%, P < 0.08). Urea transporter B was present in all the tissues analyzed, but UT-A was detected only in kidney medulla, liver, and duodenum. Among animals on the three

  3. Long-term Effects of Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Visual Function in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Caroline; Levy, Emile; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) intake during gestation on visual development. Study design We examined the long-term effects in 136 school-age Inuit children exposed to high levels of n-3 PUFAs during gestation using visual evoked potentials (VEPs). VEP protocols using color and motion stimuli were used to assess parvo- and magnocellular responses. Concentrations of the two major n-3 PUFAs (DHA and EPA) were measured in umbilical cord and child plasma phospholipids, reflecting pre- and postnatal exposure, respectively. Results After adjustment for confounders, cord plasma DHA was associated with shorter latencies of the N1 and P1 components of the color VEPs. No effects were found for current n-3 PUFA body burden or motion-onset VEPs. Conclusion This study demonstrates beneficial effects of DHA intake during gestation on visual system function at school age. DHA is particularly important for the early development and long-term function of the visual parvocellular pathway. PMID:20797725

  4. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste. PMID:21776221

  5. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Domellöf, Magnus; Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorstensen, Ketil

    2013-01-01

    Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C). An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1), probable (grade 2), suggestive (grade 3), and inconclusive (grade 4). Results There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries. An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day) given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g) prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that ID and IDA in

  6. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative

  7. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  8. Profound reduction in sensitivity to the aversive effects of methamphetamine in mice bred for high methamphetamine intake

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Shkelzen; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced sensitivity to aversive effects of methamphetamine (MA) may increase risk for MA abuse. Studies in two replicate sets of mouse lines that were selectively bred for high and low levels of MA intake support this view. Current studies examined the extent of insensitivity to aversive MA effects of mice bred for high levels of MA drinking. Conditioning procedures in which drugs are delivered shortly after cue exposure have been used to detect aversive drug effects and, in some cases, are more sensitive to such effects. Aversive effects induced by MA injected immediately after exposure to cues from two different sensory modalities were examined. In addition, effects of higher MA doses than those used previously were examined. MA-associated place conditioning utilized tactile cues, whereas MA-induced taste conditioning utilized a novel tastant. Second replicate, MA high drinking (MAHDR-2) and low drinking (MALDR-2) mice were treated with doses of MA up to 4 mg/kg. MAHDR-2 mice were insensitive to aversive effects of MA, except after place conditioning with the 4 mg/kg dose; MALDR-2 mice exhibited sensitivity to aversive effects of MA at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. These studies show that the expression of aversion is dependent upon procedure and MA dose, and that MAHDR-2 mice have markedly reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of MA. The current and previous results support a strong genetic relationship between level of MA intake and level of sensitivity to aversive effects of MA, a factor that could impact risk for MA use in humans. PMID:22118879

  9. Caffeine intake inverts the effect of adenosine on myocardial perfusion during stress as measured by T1 mapping.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Prakken, Niek H; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Dijkman, Paul R M; van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine intake before adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging may cause false negative findings. We hypothesized that the antagonistic effect of caffeine can be measured by T1 relaxation times in rest and adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as T1 mapping techniques are sensitive to changes in myocardial blood volume. We prospectively analyzed 105 consecutive patients with adenosine stress perfusion CMR on a 1.5-T MRI system. Rest and stress T1 mapping was performed using Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery. T1 reactivity was defined as difference in T1rest and T1stress (∆T1). Fifteen patients drank coffee within 4 h of CMR (<4H caffeine group), and 10 patients had coffee the day before (>8H caffeine group). Comparison was made to patients without self-reported coffee intake: 50 with normal CMR (control group), 18 with myocardial ischemia, and 12 with myocardial infarction. The national review board approved the study; all patients gave written informed consent. The <4H caffeine group showed inverted ∆T1 of -7.8 % (T1rest 975 ± 42 ms, T1stress 898 ± 51 ms, p < 0.0005). The >8H caffeine group showed reduced T1 reactivity (1.8 %; T1rest 979 ms, T1stress 997 ms) compared to the controls (4.3 %; T1rest 977 ± 40 ms, T1stress 1018 ± 40 ms), p < 0.0005. Ischemic and infarcted myocardium showed minimal T1 reactivity (0.2 and 0.3 %, respectively). Caffeine intake inverts the adenosine effect during stress perfusion CMR as measured by T1 mapping. T1 reactivity can assess the adequacy of adenosine-induced stress in perfusion CMR. PMID:27473274

  10. Effects of calcium and phosphorus intake and excretion on bone density in postmenopausal women in Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez, R O; Gómez, M A; López, A M; González, H; Wyatt, C J

    2002-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is important in bone formation and as aging progresses, bone loss gradually occurs. With the onset of menopause, reduced estrogen levels and insufficient Ca in the diet often create serious problems with fractures. Since little is known about the diet and other factors related to risk factors in postmenopausal women in northern Mexico, it was the objective of this study to determine the effects of dietary Ca and phosphorus (P) and their excretion, anthropometric measurements, and blood serum estradiol on bone density in women aged 45-63 years. No studies are available on the dietary intake of Ca and P and the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in northern Mexico, so this study reports some of the first data on this population. Women with an average age of 55 years showed a positive relation of Ca intake and Ca excretion, however, dietary intake of Ca and P had no relation to bone density. Age, urinary Ca, Ca/creatinine and years of postmenopause had the highest negative correlation. Weight and body mass index had a positive correlation with BMD in the forearm and heel. Only 15% of the women met the recommendation of 1,500 mg/day of Ca. A high Ca/creatinine ratio has been proposed to indicate excess Ca excretion and subsequent bone density loss. Thirty-five percent of the women exceed the Ca/creatinine indicator of >0.16. In this study, 1% of the subjects were classified as osteoporotic and 37% as osteopenic. PMID:12464724

  11. Effect of dietary combinations on plaque pH recovery after the intake of pediatric liquid analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Shaam; Bshara, Nada; Trak, Juliana; Mahmoud, Ghiath

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of water, halloumi cheese and sugar-free (SF) chewing gum on plaque pH recovery after the intake of sweetened PLAs. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 17 children (10 females, 7 males) aged 11–12 years with DFT/dft of more than 3. Materials and Methods: Each volunteer tested paracetamol and ibuprofen suspension alone or followed with water, halloumi cheese or SF gum, as well as 10% sucrose and 10% sorbitol as controls. Plaque pH was measured using the sampling method before and after 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 min of ingestion. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance followed by least significant difference test to assess minimum pH (min pH), maximum pH drop (ΔpH), and the area under baseline pH, and P value was set as 0.05. Results: Both ibuprofen and paracetamol were not significantly different from 10% sucrose in terms of min pH, ΔpH, and area under baseline pH except for min pH of ibuprofen (P = 0.034). Water and halloumi cheese did not have a significant effect on plaque pH recovery after the intake of both analgesics as min pH, ΔpH, and area under baseline pH were similar to 10% sucrose except for min pH of ibuprofen + water (P = 0.048). However, plaque pH variables after chewing SF gum for 20 min were similar to 10% sorbitol. Conclusion: Chewing SF gum immediately after the intake of sweetened PLAs for 20 min restores plaque pH and could be recommended as a complementary aid in caries prevention. PMID:26430360

  12. Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vittori Gouveia, Luciana de Almeida; Cardoso, Carolina Alves; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes; Rosa, Glorimar; Moreira, Annie Seixas Bello

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the scientific evidence on the effect of the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives on oxidative stress of individuals with systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review was conducted in seven databases (Lilacs, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Trip Database, and Scielo) from September 2013 to January 2014. Clinical trials on the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives assessing the outcomes related to oxidative stress were retrieved. The risk of bias in the results of the studies selected was assessed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. This review included seven clinical trials showing that the intake of sesame resulted in the increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as in a reduction in oxidative stress markers. This was mainly observed with the use of sesame oil for hypertensive individuals during 2 months and black sesame meal capsules for prehypertensive individuals during four weeks. Most studies involved a small number of participants, sample size being considered a limiting factor for this review. In addition, a significant heterogeneity was observed in the type of population studied and the type of sesame and derivatives used, as well as their amount. The follow-up time was considered a limiting factor, because it varied in the different studies. The high risk of randomization and blinding biases found in the studies assessed determines lower scientific evidence of the results. Despite the limitations and biases identified in this systematic review, sesame showed relevant effects on oxidative stress, suggesting it could increase the antioxidant capacity. PMID:27074618

  13. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  14. Protective effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) intake on experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; Sivieri, Kátia; Urbano, Luis H; Cabello, Claudio; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a tuberous root native to the Andean region of South America, contains high concentration of fructans with potential for colon cancer prevention. This study investigated the potential beneficial of yacon intake on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats. After 4 weeks of DMH-initiation, groups were fed basal diet (G1 and G6) or basal diet containing dried extract of yacon root at 0.5% (G2), 1.0% (G3 and G5) or a synbiotic formulation (G4) (1.0% yacon plus Lactobacillus casei at 2.5 × 10(10)CFU per g diet) for 13 weeks. At week 20, a significant reduction in number and multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and in number of invasive adenocarcinomas was observed in the groups orally treated with 1.0% yacon (G3) or the synbiotic formulation (G4) (0.05intake may reduce the development of chemically-induced colon cancer. PMID:22595329

  15. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

  16. Screening for beneficial effects of oral intake of sweet corn by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Akiyama, Kyoko; Yunoki, Keita; Kinoshita, Mikio; Sasaki, Keiko; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Wada, Masahiro; Ohnishi, Masao

    2009-09-01

    To identify novel functions of the oral intake of sweet corn, we performed DNA microarray analysis of the livers of sweet corn-fed mice. Functional annotation clustering 1600 genes with expression levels that were affected (more than 1.5-fold change) by dietary sweet corn indicated that both cell proliferation and programmed cell death were modulated by sweet corn intake. In the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation, the levels of Jun and beta-catenin expression were downregulated by dietary sweet corn. The mRNA levels of Rb and p53, negative regulators of the cell cycle, were increased in mice fed with sweet corn. Dietary corn upregulated expression levels of genes that regulate apoptosis positively (for example, BOK, BID, CASP4). These results suggested that sweet corn is a valuable food for suppressing cancer. Oral administration of sweet corn inhibited tumor growth (36.6% reduce in tumor weight, P < 0.05) in mice inoculated with Ehrlich tumor cells. PMID:19895470

  17. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

  18. Effect of Diet on Preference and Intake of Sucrose in Obese Prone and Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duca, Frank A.; Swartz, Timothy D.; Covasa, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Increased orosensory stimulation from palatable diets and decreased feedback from gut signals have been proposed as contributing factors to obesity development. Whether altered taste functions associated with obesity are common traits or acquired deficits to environmental factors, such as a high-energy (HE)-diet, however, is not clear. To address this, we examined preference and sensitivity of increasing concentrations of sucrose solutions in rats prone (OP) and resistant (OR) to obesity during chow and HE feeding and measured lingual gene expression of the sweet taste receptor T1R3. When chow-fed, OP rats exhibited reduced preference and acceptance of dilute sucrose solutions, sham-fed less sucrose compared to OR rats, and had reduced lingual T1R3 gene expression. HE-feeding abrogated differences in sucrose preference and intake and lingual T1R3 expression between phenotypes. Despite similar sucrose intakes however, OP rats consumed significantly more total calories during 48-h two-bottle testing compared to OR rats. The results demonstrate that OP rats have an innate deficit for sweet taste detection, as illustrated by a reduction in sensitivity to sweets and reduced T1R3 gene expression; however their hyperphagia and subsequent obesity during HE-feeding is most likely not due to altered consumption of sweets. PMID:25329959

  19. Acute and chronic ethanol intake: effects on spatial and non-spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Luis M; Cimadevilla, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    Abusive alcohol consumption produces neuronal damage and biochemical alterations in the mammal brain followed by cognitive disturbances. In this work rats receiving chronic and acute alcohol intake were evaluated in a spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample/position test. Chronic alcohol-treated rats had free access to an aqueous ethanol solution as the only available liquid source from the postnatal day 21 to the end of experiment (postnatal day 90). Acute alcoholic animals received an injection of 2 g/kg ethanol solution once per week. Subjects were evaluated in two tests (object recognition and spatial recognition) based on the spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample or to position paradigm using delays of 1 min, 15 min and 60 min. Results showed that chronic and acute alcohol intake impairs the rats' performance in both tests. Moreover, chronic alcohol-treated rats were more altered than acute treated animals in both tasks. Our results support the idea that chronic and acute alcohol administration during postnatal development caused widespread brain damage resulting in behavioral disturbances and learning disabilities. PMID:22944615

  20. Long-Term Fructose Intake Increases Adipogenic Potential: Evidence of Direct Effects of Fructose on Adipocyte Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Alzamendi, Ana; Moreno, Griselda; Rey, María Amanda; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We have previously addressed that fructose rich diet (FRD) intake for three weeks increases the adipogenic potential of stromal vascular fraction cells from the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). We have now evaluated the effect of prolonged FRD intake (eight weeks) on metabolic parameters, number of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) and in vitro adipogenic potential from control (CTR) and FRD adult male rats. Additionally, we have examined the direct fructose effects on the adipogenic capacity of normal APCs. FRD fed rats had increased plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride and leptin, and RPAT mass and adipocyte size. FACS studies showed higher APCs number and adipogenic potential in FRD RPAT pads; data is supported by high mRNA levels of competency markers: PPARγ2 and Zfp423. Complementary in vitro experiments indicate that fructose-exposed normal APCs displayed an overall increased adipogenic capacity. We conclude that the RPAT mass expansion observed in eight week-FRD fed rats depends on combined accelerated adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, partially due to a direct effect of fructose on APCs. PMID:27049396

  1. Long-Term Fructose Intake Increases Adipogenic Potential: Evidence of Direct Effects of Fructose on Adipocyte Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Alzamendi, Ana; Moreno, Griselda; Rey, María Amanda; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We have previously addressed that fructose rich diet (FRD) intake for three weeks increases the adipogenic potential of stromal vascular fraction cells from the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). We have now evaluated the effect of prolonged FRD intake (eight weeks) on metabolic parameters, number of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) and in vitro adipogenic potential from control (CTR) and FRD adult male rats. Additionally, we have examined the direct fructose effects on the adipogenic capacity of normal APCs. FRD fed rats had increased plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride and leptin, and RPAT mass and adipocyte size. FACS studies showed higher APCs number and adipogenic potential in FRD RPAT pads; data is supported by high mRNA levels of competency markers: PPARγ2 and Zfp423. Complementary in vitro experiments indicate that fructose-exposed normal APCs displayed an overall increased adipogenic capacity. We conclude that the RPAT mass expansion observed in eight week-FRD fed rats depends on combined accelerated adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, partially due to a direct effect of fructose on APCs. PMID:27049396

  2. Effects of pregnane glycosides on food intake depend on stimulation of the melanocortin pathway and BDNF in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Komarnytsky, Slavko; Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-27

    Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits; however, the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here, we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extracts from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25-100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1 ± 8.5% less than controls) and body weight gain in rats (10% for males and 9% for females, respectively) by activating melanocortin signaling and inhibiting gastric emptying. The major milkweed pregnane glycoside, ikemagenin, exerted its appetite-regulating effect by decreasing levels of agouti-related protein (0.6-fold) but not NPY satiety peptides. Ikemagenin treatment also increased secretion of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) downstream of melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (1.4-fold) and in the C6 rat glioma cell culture in vitro (up to 6-fold). These results support the multimodal effects of pregnane glycosides on feeding regulation, which depends on the activity of the melanocortin signaling pathway and BDNF. PMID:23308358

  3. Effects of Pregnane Glycosides on Food Intake Depend on Stimulation of the Melanocortin Pathway and BDNF in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Komarnytsky, Slavko; Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits; however, the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here, we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extracts from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25–100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1 ± 8.5% less than controls) and body weight gain in rats (10% for males and 9% for females, respectively) by activating melanocortin signaling and inhibiting gastric emptying. The major milkweed pregnane glycoside, ikemagenin, exerted its appetite-regulating effect by decreasing levels of agouti-related protein (0.6-fold) but not NPY satiety peptides. Ikemagenin treatment also increased secretion of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) downstream of melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (1.4-fold) and in the C6 rat glioma cell culture in vitro (up to 6-fold). These results support the multimodal effects of pregnane glycosides on feeding regulation, which depends on the activity of the melanocortin signaling pathway and BDNF. PMID:23308358

  4. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    PubMed

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h). PMID:25970669

  5. CRF neurons in the ventral tegmental area control the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote escalation of nicotine intake

    PubMed Central

    Grieder, Taryn E.; Herman, Melissa A.; Contet, Candice; Tan, Laura A.; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Cohen, Ami; Chwalek, Michal; Maal-Bared, Geith; Freiling, John; Schlosburg, Joel E; Clarke, Laura; Crawford, Elena; Koebel, Pascale; Canonigo, Vez; Sanna, Pietro; Tapper, Andrew; Roberto, Marisa; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Koob, George F.; van der Kooy, Derek; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are well known for their role in mediating the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we identify in rodents and humans a population of VTA dopamine neurons co-expressing corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). We provide further evidence in rodents that chronic nicotine exposure upregulates CRF mRNA in dopaminergic neurons of the posterior VTA, activates local CRF1 receptors, and blocks nicotine-induced activation of transient GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons. Local downregulation of CRF mRNA and specific pharmacological blockade of CRF1 receptors in the VTA reversed the effect of nicotine on GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons, prevented the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal, and limited the escalation of nicotine intake. These results link the brain reward and stress systems within the same brain region in signaling the negative motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:25402857

  6. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  7. Mealtime exposure to food advertisements while watching television increases food intake in overweight and obese girls but has a paradoxical effect in boys.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Patel, Barkha; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Bellissimo, Nick; Mollard, Rebecca C

    2015-02-01

    Food advertisements (ads) in TV programs influence food choice and have been associated with higher energy intake from snacks in children; however, their effects at mealtime have not been reported. Therefore, we measured energy intake at a pizza meal consumed by normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children (aged 9-14 years) while they watched a TV program with or without food ads and following pre-meal consumption of a sweetened beverage with or without calories. NW and OW/OB boys (experiment 1, n = 27) and girls (experiment 2, n = 23) were randomly assigned to consume equally sweetened drinks containing glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (control). Food intake was measured 30 min later while children watched a program containing food or nonfood ads. Appetite was measured before (0-30 min) and after (60 min) the meal. Both boys and girls reduced energy intake at the meal in compensation for energy in the glucose beverage (p < 0.05). Food ads resulted in further compensation (51%) in boys but not in girls. Food ads increased energy intake at the meal (9%; p = 0.03) in OW/OB girls only. In conclusion, the effects of TV programs with food ads on mealtime energy intake and response to pre-meal energy consumption in children differ by sex and body mass index. PMID:25610952

  8. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    PubMed Central

    Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694. PMID:19458018

  9. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  10. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers. PMID:16162531

  11. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  12. Effect of anorexic drugs on food intake and the micro-structure of eating in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1979-11-01

    Human volunteer subjects of normal weight received oral doses of (+)amphetamine (10 mg) or (+/-)fenfluramine (30 mg and 60 mg) together with a placebo control according to a within-subjects design. The effects of these treatments were monitored by measuring food intake in a test meal, subjective ratings of hunger motivation and the micro-structure of eating behaviour abstracted from videotaped recordings of the test meal. Various measures of the rate of feeding were computed from these recordings. Amphetamine and fenfluramine (60 mg) showed generally similar effects on food intake and on the subjective experience of hunger, but displayed differing actions on the fine structure of eating. Amphetamine increased latency to initiation of eating and increased the rate of food ingestion, whilst fenfluramine slowed the local rate of eating and eliminated the characteristic decline in the rate of feeding across the course of a meal. These findings display certain resemblance to the results of animal experiments involving similar pharmacological manipulations and emphasise the importance of measuring rate of feeding in animal and human studies. The results of this study suggest that the micro-analysis of feeding behaviour not only provides a tool for understanding systems involved in the modulation of food consumption but also reveals information which may be helpful for the use of drugs in the treatment of obesity. PMID:119258

  13. Effects of caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Härtter, Sebastian; Nordmark, Anna; Rose, Dirk-Matthias; Bertilsson, Leif; Tybring, Gunnel; Laine, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the influence of concomitant caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of oral melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects, six smokers and six nonsmokers, were given melatonin (6 mg) either alone or in combination with caffeine (3 × 200 mg). Blood samples for the analysis of melatonin or caffeine and paraxanthine were taken from 1 h before until 6 h after intake of melatonin. Subjects were genotyped with respect to the CYP1A2*1F (C734A) polymorphism. Results When caffeine was coadministered the Cmax and AUC of melatonin were increased on average by 142% (P = 0.001, confidence interval on the difference 44, 80%) and 120% (P < 0.001, confidence interval on the difference 63, 178%), respectively. The inhibitory effect of caffeine was more pronounced in nonsmokers and in individuals with the *1F/*1F genotype. Conclusion The results of this study revealed a pronounced effect of caffeine on the bioavailability of orally given melatonin, most probably due to inhibition of CYP1A2 activity. PMID:14616429

  14. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  16. [Effect of diurnal distribution of food intake on 24-h profiles of plasma lipoproteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tauber, H

    1981-02-16

    The lipid infiltration theory of atherogenesis accepted, 24 h lipoprotein profiles may be more relevant than preprandial morning samples. Such profiles were performed in 12 metabolically healthy volunteers during two dietetic regimes identical in total food content but differing in the distribution over the day: form A meant an evening meal of 15% of total caloric intake, form B of 40%. After one week of each form, 24 h lipoprotein profiles differed significantly in the time course of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and in the mean values over 24 h in VLDL and LDL phospholipids and HDL cholesterol. These findings are cautiously interpreted as possible signs of differences in the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, remnants and intermediate lipoproteins. The difference in HDL cholesterol which was higher in form A is discussed in the context of recent epidemiologic evidence. PMID:7194945

  17. Effect of dietary intake of freeze dried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Platel, K; Srinivasan, K

    1995-01-01

    Consumption of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) by diabetic patients is a common practice in India, with the belief that it has an useful hypoglycemic potential. In the absence of conclusive information on the hypoglycemic influence of continuous intake of bitter gourd, in the present investigation, we have examined the hypoglycemic potency of dietary bitter gourd in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) were maintained on a semi-synthetic diet containing freeze dried bitter gourd powder at 0.5% level for 6 weeks. The excretion of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine was monitored during the experimental period. Plasma glucose, albumin, urea and cholesterol were analysed at the end of the experimental regime. Dietary bitter gourd did not show any beneficial hypoglycemic influence as evidenced by the blood glucose levels as well as the excretion of diabetes related metabolites. PMID:7477242

  18. Effects of vaccination against respiratory pathogens on feed intake, metabolic, and inflammatory responses in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M C; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Cappellozza, B I; Arispe, S A; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses in beef heifers vaccinated against pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Eighteen weaned Angus heifers (initial BW 257 ± 3 kg; initial age 245 ± 2 d) were ranked by BW and allocated to 2 groups, which were assigned to 2 experiments of 7 d and the following treatments on d 1 of each experiment: 1) revaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea Types 1 and 2 viruses, and (VAC; 2 mL [s.c.]) and 2) receiving a 2-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% sterile saline (CON). The group receiving VAC in Exp. 1 was assigned to CON in Exp. 2 and vice versa. Heifers were weaned 21 d before Exp. 1, when they all received the first dose of the aforementioned vaccine. Heifers were maintained in individual pens and offered free-choice mixed alfalfa-grass hay and 3.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a corn-based supplement throughout the study. During Exp. 1, hay and concentrate intake were evaluated daily. During Exp. 2, blood samples were collected before (-2 and 0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after treatment administration. In Exp. 1, treatment × day interactions were detected ( < 0.01) for forage intake and total DMI; these parameters were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers on d 1 and 2 by an average of 1.7 and 0.8 kg (DM basis), respectively. In Exp. 2, mean serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentration was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers and treatment × hour interactions were detected for all plasma variables ( ≤ 0.02), whereas a similar tendency was detected ( = 0.09) for blood α mRNA expression. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 16 to 120 h. Blood α mRNA expression was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with

  19. The effect of school district nutrition policies on dietary intake and overweight: a synthetic control approach.

    PubMed

    Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    School nutrition policies aim to eliminate ubiquitous unhealthy foods and beverages from schools to improve adolescent dietary behavior and reduce childhood obesity. This paper evaluates the impact of an early nutrition policy, Los Angeles Unified School District's food-and-beverage standards of 2004, using two large datasets on food intake and physical measures. I implement cohort and cross-section estimators using "synthetic" control groups, combinations of unaffected districts that are reweighted to closely resemble the treatment unit in the pre-intervention period. The results indicate that the policy was mostly ineffective at reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity 8-15 months after the intervention but significantly decreased consumption of two key targets, soda and fried foods. The policy's impact on physical outcomes appears to be mitigated by substitution toward foods that are still (or newly) available in the schools. PMID:23891422

  20. Effect of grass hay intake on fiber digestion and digesta retention time in the hindgut of horses.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Ueda, K; Hata, H; Kondo, S

    2014-04-01

    Eight Thoroughbred horses were used to examine the effects of grass hay intake on the fiber digestion and the retention time of digesta in the total gastrointestinal tract and the hindgut segments. The horses were randomly assigned to 2 groups and offered 2.0 (high intake [HI]) or 1.3 kg DM/(100 kg BW • d; low intake [LI]) of timothy hay in equal amounts every 3 h for 17 d. The digestibility and total tract mean retention time of digesta (tMRT) in the total gastrointestinal tract were measured from d 11 to d 15. To measure the mean retention time of digesta in each hindgut segment (sMRT), the horses were euthanized on d 17, after being fed a series of hay markers that were labeled with different rare earth elements. The digesta were collected from the ileum, cecum, right ventral colon (RVC), left ventral colon (LVC), left dorsal colon, right dorsal colon (RDC), and small colon (SC) to measure fiber digestibility, sMRT, VFA concentration, and fibrolytic activities. The digestibility of NDF and ADF in the total gastrointestinal tract was lower (P < 0.01) for HI than for LI. The cumulative disappearance of NDF and ADF from the ileum to the LVC attained 90% of total tract digestion regardless of hay intake. Values did not differ according to treatments in the ileum and the cecum but were lower (P < 0.01) for HI than for LI in the postcecal segments. This was caused by the smaller increase in the cumulative NDF and ADF disappearance from the cecum to the RVC for HI than for LI. The solid phase tMRT was shorter (P = 0.04) for HI than for LI. Although sMRT in the RDC and SC were shorter (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01, respectively) for HI than for LI, no differences were observed in the other hindgut segments. There was no difference between treatments in the total VFA concentration, VFA proportions, or the specific activity of carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase in each hindgut segment. The fibrolytic activity for the cecum and RVC were greatest and decreased beyond the LVC

  1. The effect of green leafy and cruciferous vegetable intake on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which investigated the relationship between the incidences of total cardiovascular disease with the intake of green leafy vegetables. The overall effect size (random effect model) was: RR = 0.842 (95% CI = 0.753 to 0.941), p = 0.002, which indicates a significant 15.8% reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27540481

  2. The effect of green leafy and cruciferous vegetable intake on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Richard Lee

    2016-01-01

    Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which investigated the relationship between the incidences of total cardiovascular disease with the intake of green leafy vegetables. The overall effect size (random effect model) was: RR = 0.842 (95% CI = 0.753 to 0.941), p = 0.002, which indicates a significant 15.8% reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27540481

  3. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2009-09-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie, interrupted by two commercial breaks. The commercial breaks contained real commercials using either less thin (n=32) or thin models (n=39), or neutral commercials (n=39). During watching television, participants could freely eat snack food. Further, their mood and body focused anxiety was assessed. ANOVAs revealed no effects on body focused anxiety, but women reported a more negative mood and ate less after exposure to commercials using less thin models than after exposure to commercials using thin models. These results imply that using less thin models in commercials explicitly referring to the thin ideal does not make women feel better. PMID:19699160

  4. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  5. Effect of timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise alters the post-exercise response of anabolic and catabolic hormones. A previous study indicated that the turnover of muscle protein in trained individuals is reduced due to alterations in endocrine factors caused by resistance training, and that muscle protein accumulation varies between trained and untrained individuals due to differences in the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake. We investigated the effect of the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men. Methods Subjects were 10 trained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 173.8 ± 3.1 cm; weight, 72.3 ± 4.3 kg) and 10 untrained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 1 years; height, 171.8 ± 5.0 cm; weight, 64.5 ± 5.0 kg). All subjects performed four sets of 8 to 10 repetitions of a resistance exercise (comprising bench press, shoulder press, triceps pushdown, leg extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, rowing, and biceps curl) at 80% one-repetition maximum. After each resistance exercise session, subjects were randomly divided into two groups with respect to intake of protein (0.3 g/kg body weight) and carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg body weight) immediately after (P0) or 6 h (P6) after the session. All subjects were on an experimental diet that met their individual total energy requirement. We assessed whole-body protein metabolism by measuring nitrogen balance at P0 and P6 on the last 3 days of exercise training. Results The nitrogen balance was significantly lower in the trained men than in the untrained men at both P0 (P <0.05) and P6 (P <0.01). The nitrogen balance in trained men was significantly higher at P0 than at P6 (P <0.01), whereas that in the untrained men was not significantly different between the two periods. Conclusion The timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise influences nitrogen balance differently in trained and

  6. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  7. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution. PMID:20163602

  8. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  9. The effects of moderate exercise on secretory IgA production in mice depends on dietary carbohydrate intake

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Takumi; Kaburagi, Tomoko; Nagai, Ryoji; Oshiro, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is produced from intestinal mucosa and is essential in preventing infection. We analyzed the influence of moderate exercise on intestinal sIgA production and antioxidative function under different carbohydrate nutritional conditions. Thirty-six mice were fed an experimental diet for 10 weeks—a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet, a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet, or a control (C) diet. After 1 week on the experimental diets, mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (n = 6/group), where the exercise consisted of treadmill running for 30 min/day at 11 m/min for 6 days/week in 9 consecutive weeks. Intestinal sIgA levels in the exercise groups fed C or LC diets were significantly lower compared with the parallel sedentary groups, or exercise-group mice fed HC diet. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine was significantly higher in the exercise group fed a HC diet. Superoxide dismutase activity in the small intestine was higher in the exercise group than in the sedentary group, with no effects resulting from intake carbohydrate levels. Our results indicated that moderate exercise reduced the levels of intestinal sIgA depending on decreasing of carbohydrate intake, which is connected with the expression of pIgR. PMID:26236100

  10. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26339173

  11. Effects of increase in fish oil intake on intestinal eicosanoids and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases affecting about 1% of western populations. New eating behaviors might contribute to the global emergence of IBD. Although the immunoregulatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been well characterized in vitro, their role in IBD is controversial. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the impact of increased fish oil intake on colonic gene expression, eicosanoid metabolism and development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. Rag-2 deficient mice were fed fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids i.e. EPA and DHA or control diet for 4 weeks before colitis induction by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells and maintained in the same diet for 4 additional weeks. Onset of colitis was monitored by colonoscopy and further confirmed by immunological examinations. Whole genome expression profiling was made and eicosanoids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS in colonic samples. Results A significant reduction of colonic proinflammatory eicosanoids in FO fed mice compared to control was observed. However, neither alteration of colonic gene expression signature nor reduction in IBD scores was observed under FO diet. Conclusion Thus, increased intake of dietary FO did not prevent experimental colitis. PMID:23725086

  12. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  13. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  14. Design and Conduct of the CALERIE Study: Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Holloszy, John O.; Racette, Susan B.; Roberts, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Romashkan, Sergei; Galan, Katherine M.; Hadley, Evan C.; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In a robust and consistent manner, sustained caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to retard the aging process in a variety of animal species. Nonhuman primate studies suggest that CR may have similar effects in longer-lived species. The CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) research program is the first systematic investigation of CR in nonobese human beings. In the phase 2 study, it is hypothesized that 2 years of sustained CR, involving a 25% reduction of ad libitum energy intake, results in beneficial effects similar to those observed in animal studies. This article presents the design and implementation of this study. Methods. The study is a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. A sample of 225 participants (22.0 ≤ body mass index [BMI] < 28.0 kg/m2) is being enrolled with 2:1 allocation to CR. Results. An intensive dietary and behavioral intervention was developed to achieve 25% CR and sustain it over the 2 years. Adherence is monitored using a doubly labeled water technique. Primary outcomes are resting metabolic rate and core temperature, and are assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals. Secondary outcomes address oxyradical formation, cardiovascular risk markers, insulin sensitivity and secretion, immune function, neuroendocrine function, quality of life and cognitive function. Biologic materials are stored in a central repository. Conclusions. An intricate protocol has been developed to conduct this study. Procedures have been implemented to safeguard the integrity of the data and the conclusions drawn. The results will provide insight into the detrimental changes associated with the human aging process and how CR mitigates these effects. PMID:20923909

  15. Effects of short-term alcohol on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system (HMO) in rats receiving nutrition sufficient to promote normal' weight gains

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, T.; Ronis, M.; Lumpkin, C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Shahare, M.; Mercado, C.; Huang, J.; Irby, D.; Crouch, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two clinically relevant diets on HMO and to determine if ethanol has demonstrable effects in the presence of dietary sources that promote normal growth rates. A model in which ethanol was infused directly into the stomach as part of a total enteral nutrition system (TEN) was used in the current study. The effects of the two liquid diets alone or of TEN where 35% of the total calories in the diets were replaced by ethanol for 8 days were examined on HMO of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. HMO activities were determined using standard enzyme assays with specific substrates and cytochrome P450 apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. The results of these studies suggest: that short-term dietary ethanol can induce CYP 2E1 in well nourished animals but that the level of induction is smaller than that previously reported using Lieber-DeCarli pair feeding regimens; that diet alone has a significant influence on constitutive levels of P450 isozymes including CYP 2E1; that diet influences the effects of ethanol on HMO; and that the TEN system is a useful model for the study of diet/drug interactions.

  16. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  17. Effect of refined soy oil or whole soybeans on intake, methane output, and performance of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jordan, E; Kenny, D; Hawkins, M; Malone, R; Lovett, D K; O'Mara, F P

    2006-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effects of feeding refined soy oil (RSO) or whole soybeans (WSB) containing soy oil on DMI, animal performance, and enteric methane (CH4) emissions in young bulls. Thirty-six Charolais and Limousin cross-bred, young beef bulls (338 +/- 27 kg of BW, 218 +/- 17 d of age at the beginning of the experiment) were blocked by BW, age, and breed before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12). The experimental period lasted for 103 d, with enteric CH4 output recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days on d 37 to 41 and d 79 to 83. The 3 dietary treatments consisted of a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g/d of RSO; oil from WSB as 6% of DMI (WSB treatment); and oil from RSO as 6% of DMI (RSO treatment). Each diet had a 10:90 forage:concentrate ratio, using barley straw as the forage source. Diet affected DMI (P < or = 0.001) and GE intake (P < 0.05 during the CH4 measurement periods), with the WSB treatment producing the lowest values. The addition of WSB decreased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the RSO treatment. The WSB treatment also decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain (ADCG). Both the RSO and WSB concentrates decreased (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of ADCG. Diet had no effect (P = 0.557) on ruminal protozoal numbers. The reductions in enteric CH4 were achieved at relatively high oil inclusion levels. Such oil levels have previously been reported to decrease DMI of high-forage diets, although no effect on DMI was noted with the low-forage diets fed in this experiment. This impact on DMI of high-forage diets may limit the range of diets for which this CH4 reduction strategy may be applicable. The inclusion level of WSB in the current experiment (27%) was beyond the palatability threshold

  18. Hippocampal VEGF is necessary for antidepressant-like behaviors but not sufficient for antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Chang, Ho Lee; Son, Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of ketamine on both the temporal and spatial profiles of neural precursor cells located in the hippocampus, and on antidepressant-like behaviors in rats. A single dose of ketamine resulted in a significant increase in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive (BrdU(+)) cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rats at 24h, but not at 28days, after treatment completion. Ketamine caused antidepressant-like behaviors in the forced swim test (FST) and novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT). Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced depressive-like behaviors in the FST and NSFT, which were partially recovered by ketamine to the level observed in the control group. The behavioral effects of VEGF knock down were accompanied by a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis, which was also partially recovered by ketamine. Our results suggest that basal hippocampal VEGF expression is necessary for ketamine-induced antidepressant-like behaviors in rats, but ketamine-induced VEGF expression only partially contributes to hippocampal neurogenesis and the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. PMID:27063455

  19. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25938914

  20. Effect of restricted maternal zinc intake on zinc absorption in infant rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Golub, M.; Gershwin, M.E.; Hurley, L.s.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    One compensatory mechanism for marginal Zn intake may be enhanced absorption of Zn. While there is some experimental evidence to support this hypothesis from rodent models, there are few data from higher mammalian species. Such a compensatory mechanism of enhanced Zn absorption could be of value to the neonate, as poor Zn nutriture during early life has severe consequences on growth and development. The authors have investigated the absorption of Zn by infant Rhesus monkeys born to control and Zn-restricted mothers. Fasted infant monkeys (100 d) from mothers fed a 100 or 4 ppm Zn diet were intubated with an infant formula containing Zn-65. Whole body radioactivity was counted immediately after intubation and on days 10 and 17 post-intubation. Day 10 data were used to calculate apparent absorption values. Regardless of dietary group, apparent Zn absorption as high, ranging from 30-60% of the dose fed. While there was not a marked difference between the two groups in the groups in the dose absorbed, an inverse correlation was noted between infant body weight and Zn absorption. An inverse correlation was found for plasma Zn concentration and apparent Zn absorption. These results suggest that body weight and plasma Zn level, as related to Zn status and growth rate, may be predictors of Zn absorption.

  1. Effects of dietary protein and ethanol intake on pregnant beagles fed purified diets.

    PubMed

    Switzer, B R; Anderson, J J; Pick, J R

    1986-04-01

    Maternal weight gain of beagles was approximately 50% lower when ethanol was given twice daily at a dose of 1.8 g/kg body weight with either control protein (17% energy from protein) or low protein (8.5%) diet as compared to isocalorically sucrose-treated animals. Similarly, pup birth weights were about 27% lower from beagles given ethanol with either diet when compared to those from sucrose-treated bitches. Two weeks after beginning ethanol treatment, pregnant bitches fed either diet had higher hematocrit values and lower plasma concentrations of albumin and calcium as compared to sucrose-treated animals. Low dietary protein treatment, rather than ethanol, lowered maternal concentrations of red blood cell folate during pregnancy. As compared to sucrose-treated bitches, ethanol prevented folate levels in red blood cells from returning to the normal range by the 9th wk of pregnancy in animals fed low dietary protein. These data show that ethanol consumption and low dietary protein intake, independently of each other, significantly depress maternal weight gain, pup birth weight and some nutritionally related parameters of the mother. PMID:3958813

  2. Effects of short photoperiod on energy intake, thermogenesis, and reproduction in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhao, Zhijun; Vasilieva, Nina; Khrushchova, Anastasia; Wang, Dehua

    2015-03-01

    Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) are the least known species in the genus Phodopus with respect to ecology and physiology, and deserve scientific attention, particularly because of their small body size. Here, the responses of energy metabolism and reproductive function to short photoperiods in desert hamsters were investigated. Male and female desert hamsters were acclimated to either long day (LD) (L:D 16:8 h) or short day (SD) photoperiods (L:D 8:16 h) for three months, and then the females were transferred back to an LD photoperiod for a further five months, while at the end of the SD acclimation the males were killed and measurements were taken for serum leptin as well as molecular markers for thermogenesis. We found that like the other two species from the genus Phodopus, the desert hamsters under SD decreased body mass, increased adaptive thermogenesis as indicated by elevated mitochondrial protein content and uncoupling protein-1 content in brown adipose tissue, and suppressed reproduction compared to those under LD. However, different from the other two species, desert hamsters did not show any differences in energy intake or serum leptin concentration between LD and SD. These data suggest that different species from the same genus respond in different ways to the environmental signals, and the desert adapted species are not as sensitive to change in photoperiod as the other two species. PMID:25311843

  3. Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, L. G. C. E.

    1970-01-01

    1. The relation of V̇O2 and speed was measured on seven athletes running on a cinder track and an all-weather track. The results were compared with similar observations on four athletes running on a treadmill. 2. In treadmill running the relation was linear and the zero intercept coincided with resting V̇O2. 3. In track running the relation was curvilinear, but was adequately represented by a linear regression over a range of speeds extending from 8·0 km/hr (2·2 m/sec) to 21·5 km/hr (6·0 m/sec). The slope of this line was substantially steeper than the regression line slope for treadmill running. 4. The influence of air resistance in running was estimated from measurements of V̇O2 on a subject running on a treadmill at constant speed against wind of varying velocity. 5. The extra O2 intake (ΔV̇O2) associated with wind increased as the square of wind velocity. If wind velocity and running velocity are equal, as in running on a track in calm air, ΔV̇O2 will increase as the cube of velocity. 6. It was estimated that the energy cost of overcoming air resistance in track running is about 8% of total energy cost at 21·5 km/hr (5000 m races) and 16% for sprinting 100 m in 10·0 sec. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:5532903

  4. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance. PMID:25994135

  5. Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Paris, A; Gonnet, N; Chaussard, C; Belon, P; Rocourt, F; Saragaglia, D; Cracowski, J L

    2008-01-01

    Aims The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH, Hypericum perforatum 5 CH and Ruta graveolens 3 DH) on cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA over 24 h after knee ligament reconstruction. Methods This was an add-on randomized controlled study with three parallel groups: a double-blind homeopathic or placebo arm and an open-label noninterventional control arm. Eligible patients were 18–60 years old candidates for surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment was administered the evening before surgery and continued for 3 days. The primary end-point was cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA during the first 24 h inferior or superior/equal to 10 mg day−1. Results One hundred and fifty-eight patients were randomized (66 in the placebo arm, 67 in the homeopathic arm and 25 in the noninterventional group). There was no difference between the treated and the placebo group for primary end-point (mean (95% CI) 48% (35.8, 56.3), and 56% (43.7, 68.3), required less than 10 mg day−1 of morphine in each group, respectively). The homeopathy treatment had no effect on morphine intake between 24 and 72 h or on the visual analogue pain scale, or on quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire. In addition, these parameters were not different in patients enrolled in the open-label noninterventional control arm. Conclusions The complex of homeopathy tested in this study was not superior to placebo in reducing 24 h morphine consumption after knee ligament reconstruction. What is already known about this subject The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate and a recent meta-analysis recommended further randomized double-blind clinical trials to identify any clinical situation in which homeopathy might be effective. What this study adds The complex of homeopathy tested in this study (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH

  6. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  7. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  8. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  9. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Jin, Bai; Xia, Jun; Tao, Xincheng; Huang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lu; Yuan, Qingxin

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24–28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membrane, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal diseases were observed in two groups. Results. Of all women, 11.54% had a PPT. The prevalence of PPT was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (42.31% versus 7.14%, P < 0.001), with 45.46% and 53.85% of PPT happening at 6 weeks postpartum in TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. The incidence of polyhydramnios was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (15.38% versus 2.74%, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Pregnant women with TPOAb-positive had increased risk of PPT, predominantly happening at 6 weeks postpartum. TPOAb was associated with increased incidence of polyhydramnios and the underlying mechanisms required further investigation. Earlier screening of thyroid function during pregnancy and postpartum was warranted in our region. PMID:26884759

  10. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Jin, Bai; Xia, Jun; Tao, Xincheng; Huang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lu; Yuan, Qingxin

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24-28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membrane, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal diseases were observed in two groups. Results. Of all women, 11.54% had a PPT. The prevalence of PPT was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (42.31% versus 7.14%, P < 0.001), with 45.46% and 53.85% of PPT happening at 6 weeks postpartum in TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. The incidence of polyhydramnios was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (15.38% versus 2.74%, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Pregnant women with TPOAb-positive had increased risk of PPT, predominantly happening at 6 weeks postpartum. TPOAb was associated with increased incidence of polyhydramnios and the underlying mechanisms required further investigation. Earlier screening of thyroid function during pregnancy and postpartum was warranted in our region. PMID:26884759

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of novel lipidated neuromedin U analogs with increased stability and effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; van Witteloostuijn, Søren B; Rasmussen, Jakob E; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Jensen, Knud J; Holst, Birgitte; Vrang, Niels; Jelsing, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a 25 amino acid peptide expressed and secreted in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Data have shown that peripheral administration of human NMU decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance in mice, suggesting that NMU receptors constitute a possible anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drug target. However, the clinical use of native NMU is hampered by a poor pharmacokinetic profile. In the current study, we report in vitro and in vivo data from a series of novel lipidated NMU analogs. In vitro plasma stability studies of native NMU were performed to investigate the proteolytic stability and cleavage sites using LC-MS. Native NMU was found to be rapidly cleaved at the C-terminus between Arg(24) and Asn(25) , followed by cleavage between Arg(16) and Gly(17) . Lipidated NMU analogs were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis, and in vitro potency was investigated using a human embryonic kidney 293-based inositol phosphate accumulation assay. All lipidated analogs had preserved in vitro activity on both NMU receptors with potency improving as the lipidation site was moved away from the receptor-interacting C-terminal octapeptide segment. In vivo efficacy was assessed in lean mice as reduction in food intake after acute subcutaneous administration of 1, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.03 µmol/kg. These lipidated NMU analogs prolonged the anorectic effect of NMU in a dose-dependent manner. This was likely an effect of improved pharmacokinetic properties because of improved vitro plasma stability. Accordingly, the data demonstrate that lipidated NMU analogs may represent drug candidates for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25521062

  12. Effect of Black Tea Intake on Blood Cholesterol Concentrations in Individuals with Mild Hypercholesterolemia: A Diet-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H.; Raatz, Susan K.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R.; Key, Nigel S.; Morawski, Bozena M.; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J.; Gross, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors, e.g. diet. This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dl (4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L)). A double blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN from April 2002 through April 2004, wherein key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo over two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences (95% CI) in mg/dl among those treated with tea versus placebo were 3.43 (−7.08, 13.94) for total cholesterol, −1.02 (−11.34, 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 0.58 (−2.98, 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 15.22 (−40.91, 71.35) for triglycerides, and −0.39 (−11.16, 10.38) for LDL plus HDL cholesterol fraction. The LCL-C/HDL-C ratio decreased by −0.1 units (95% CI −0.41, 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. Thus, the intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not significantly alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects. PMID:25266246

  13. A Single Target Is Sufficient To Account for the Biological Effects of the A-Factor Receptor Protein of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Jun-ya; Miyahisa, Ikuo; Mashiko, Mari; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-01-01

    In the model of the A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone) regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus, A-factor binds ArpA, the A-factor receptor protein, that has bound to the adpA promoter and dissociates it from the DNA, thus inducing the transcription of adpA. AdpA switches on the transcription of a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. Consistent with this model, arpA null mutants produced streptomycin and a yellow pigment in larger amounts and formed aerial hyphae from an earlier growth stage than the wild-type strain. On the other hand, mutant MK2, expressing a mutant ArpA (Trp119Ala), neither produced secondary metabolites nor formed aerial hyphae, because this A-factor-insensitive mutant ArpA always bound to and repressed the adpA promoter due to the amino acid replacement of Trp-119 with Ala. Introduction of adpA under the control of a foreign promoter into mutant MK2 restored all of the phenotypes that we could observe, which suggests that the only significant target of ArpA is adpA. In contrast to other γ-butyrolactone regulatory systems, disruption of arpA had no effect on A-factor production, indicating that ArpA does not regulate A-factor biosynthesis. Instead, A-factor production was found to be repressed by AdpA in a two-step regulatory feedback loop. PMID:15028707

  14. Effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kohashi, Chieko; Kakumoto, Keiji; Kohda, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    White rice is a dominant grain-based food in Japan, but excess intake of polished rice may cause obesity. Barley is a grain-based food, similar to white rice, but it has the potential to control appetite and reduce energy intake. We investigated the effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake. The study was conducted as a randomized crossover design with twenty-one healthy Japanese women [mean ± standard deviation body mass index (BMI) 23.3 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)]. Subjects consumed a breakfast of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley (BAR) or white rice (WR), followed by an ad libitum lunch and dinner. Energy intake was measured at the lunch and the dinner using plate waste. Subjects' perception scores on hunger, fullness, satiety, and prospective food consumption were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, lunch and dinner. BAR significantly reduced the VAS scores of hunger and prospective food consumption, and increased fullness before lunch compared to WR (P = 0.032, 0.019 and 0.038, respectively). Energy intake at lunch and the cumulative energy intake (lunch + dinner) subsequent to BAR consumption were significantly lower than WR (P = 0.035 and 0.021, respectively). BAR was able to modulate appetite and reduce energy intake. The combination of white rice with high β-glucan barley could play a beneficial role in preventing and treating obesity and other obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:25139426

  15. Cohabitational effect of grandparents on dietary intake among young Japanese women and their mothers living together. A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Asakura, Keiko; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    We examined the cohabitational effect of the grandparents on dietary intakes among young Japanese women and their mothers, using data from a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 35 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Among a total of 2032 three-generation families, 1336 female dietetic students (18-20 years), 1336 of their mothers (36-59 years), and 1560 of their paternal or maternal grandmothers (59-94 years) were included. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed with self-administered diet history questionnaires. The prevalence of students and their mothers living with the grandparents (GP) was 36%. Students living with GP had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, total dietary fiber, β-carotene, vitamin C and potassium and lower intake of meats than those living without GP. For mothers, fish and shellfish and vitamin C intakes were higher and meat intake was lower among participants living with GP. The median correlation coefficients of food and nutrient intakes in the students-grandmothers living together was higher than in those living apart for both paternal grandmothers (PGM) and maternal grandmothers (MGM) (all P <0.01). The median values of mothers-PGM living together were also significantly higher than in those living apart (P <0.01). However, the values of mothers-MGM did not significantly differ between those living with and without MGM. These results may suggest that family members who live together tend to share similar dietary habits. Further, the mother's dietary habits might affect those of their children even after they live apart. PMID:25916625

  16. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Tatár, P; Angyal, R; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M; Jánosová, H

    1987-05-01

    The effect of sauna on thyroid function parameters and its modification by glucose was studied in young euthyroid male volunteers. A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment. Plasma rT3 also increased in sauna, this response was, however, blunted by the higher glycemia. TSH response to sauna was definitely present in young men (aged 20 to 25) and absent in middle-aged ones (50 to 55). To explore the mechanism of the effect of increased glycemia, TRH tests were performed and dopamine infusions were administered with and without glucose pretreatment. Increased glycemia did not affect TSH and T3 response to TRH in young volunteers; however, 90 minutes after the administration, plasma rT3 levels were significantly lower in glucose pretreated subjects than in those receiving TRH injections after water pretreatment. Simultaneous infusion of glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of dopamine infusion on plasma TSH. It was concluded that glucose directly modulates the effect of sauna on plasma TSH at a suprapituitary level, while the inhibiting effect of glucose on plasma rT3 response to sauna and TRH is probably mediated by the insulin effect on thyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:3106755

  17. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  18. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  19. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  20. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  1. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  2. Effects of Pre-portioned and Family-style Food Service on Preschool Children's Food Intake and Waste at Snacktime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branen, Laurel; Fletcher, Janice; Myers, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Studied differences in food intake, waste, and time required for eating when young children are served by preportioned or family-style food service. Found intake of children fed family style was significantly greater, and no significant differences were found in the mean portions of waste or in the time required to eat. (Author)

  3. Calorie Anticipation Alters Food Intake After Low-Caloric but Not High-Caloric Preloads

    PubMed Central

    Hogenkamp, PS; Cedernaes, J; Chapman, CD; Vogel, H; Hjorth, OC; Zarei, S; Lundberg, LS; Brooks, SJ; Dickson, SL; Benedict, C; Schiöth, HB

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. Design and Methods During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 180 kcal/300 g) or high caloric (HC: 530 kcal/300 g) and was provided with either consistent or inconsistent calorie information (i.e., stating the caloric content of the preload was low or high). Appetite ratings and hormone and glucose levels were measured at baseline (t = 0), after providing the calorie information about the preload (t = 20), after consumption of the preload (t = 40), and just before ad libitum intake (t = 60). Results Ad libitum intake was lower after HC preloads (as compared to LC preloads; P < 0.01). Intake after LC preloads was higher when provided with (consistent) LC information (467±254 kcal) as compared to (inconsistent) HC information (346±210 kcal), but intake after the HC preloads did not depend on the information provided (LC information: 290±178 kcal, HC information: 333±179 kcal; caloric load*information P = 0.03). Hormone levels did not respond in an anticipatory manner, and the post-prandial responses depended on actual calories consumed. Conclusions These results suggest that both cognitive and physiological information determine food intake. When actual caloric intake was sufficient to produce physiological satiety, cognitive factors played no role; however, when physiological satiety was limited, cognitively induced satiety reduced intake to comparable levels. PMID:23585292

  4. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Diet digestibility decreased by 2.2 to 2.5 percentage units when the DM content was determined by oven drying (at 105°C) rather than by toluene distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01) and the fractional absorption rates of valerate (P < 0.01) and ethanol (P = 0.02) in the empty reticulorumen. The 40W diet led to a greater DMI (40W = 9.79 vs. 75W = 6.19 kg/d; P < 0.01), which altered most of the measured variables traditionally associated with high-concentrate diets. As in Exp. 1, diet digestibility decreased by 1.5 to 5.4 units when the DM content was determined by oven drying at 105°C rather than by toluene distillation. In this short-term study, volatile

  5. Effects of food form and timing of ingestion on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    RD, Mattes; WW, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Objective Overweight and obesity have been attributed to increased eating frequency and the size of eating events. This study explored the influence of the timing of eating events and food form on appetite and daily energy intake. Design Cross-over, clinical intervention where participants consumed 300 kcal loads of a solid (apple), semi-solid (apple sauce) and beverage (apple juice) at a meal or 2 hours later (snack). Subjects Twenty normal weight (body mass index - BMI=22.6±1.8kg/m2) and 20 obese (BMI=32.3±1.5kg/m2) adults. There were 10 males and 10 females within each BMI group. Measurements On 6 occasions, participants reported to the laboratory at their customary midday meal time. Appetite questionnaires and motor skills tests were completed upon arrival and at 30min intervals for the 2 hours participants were in the laboratory and at 30min intervals for 4 hours after leaving the laboratory. Diet recalls were collected the next day. Data were collected between January of 2006 and June of 2007. Results Whether consumed with a meal or alone as a snack, the beverage elicited the weakest appetitive response, the solid food form elicited the strongest appetitive response and the semi-solid response was intermediate. The appetite shift was greatest for the solid food when consumed as a snack. The interval between test food consumption and the first spontaneous eating event >100 kcal was shortest for the beverage. No significant treatment effects were observed for test day energy intake or between lean and obese individuals. Conclusion Based on the appetitive findings, consumption of an energy-yielding beverage either with a meal or as a snack poses a greater risk for promoting positive energy than macronutrient-matched semi-solid or solid foods consumed at these times. PMID:19248858

  6. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2015-07-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with