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Sample records for integral transform techniques

  1. Analytical solution of the advection-diffusion transport equation using a change-of-variable and integral transform technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a formal exact solution of the linear advection-diffusion transport equation with constant coefficients for both transient and steady-state regimes. A classical mathematical substitution transforms the original advection-diffusion equation into an exclusively diffusive equation. ...

  2. Generating functions via integral transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Cheikh, Y.; Lamiri, I.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we use some integral transforms to derive, for a polynomial sequence {Pn(x)}n[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, generating functions of the type , starting from a generating function of type , where {[gamma]n}n[greater-or-equal, slanted]0 is a real numbers sequence independent on x and t. That allows us to unify the treatment of a generating function problem for many well-known polynomial sequences in the literature.

  3. Properties of the linear canonical integral transformation.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J

    2007-11-01

    We provide a general expression and different classification schemes for the general two-dimensional canonical integral transformations that describe the propagation of coherent light through lossless first-order optical systems. Main theorems for these transformations, such as shift, scaling, derivation, etc., together with the canonical integral transforms of selected functions, are derived. PMID:17975592

  4. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  5. Data integration using color space transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feuquay, Jay W.

    1987-01-01

    The demand for increased spatial resolution without sacrificing spectral discrimination can be fulfilled by integration of data from different sensor systems and satellite programs. Data of high spatial resolution are frequently available in panchromatic (black-and-white) form rather than multispectral. Techniques gave been developed to combine the higher resolution panchromatic data with a multispectral data set of lower spatial resolution. The standard method of integration modulates the intensity of the mutispectral with the panchromatic data. A less subjective approach uses an algorithm that describes color in terms of intensity (I), hue (H), and saturation (S). Combinations of high resolution panchromatic data (SPOT panchromatic) and lower resolution multispectral data [Landsat thematic mapper (TM), SPOT XS] have been developed. The SPOT data were acquired on April 3, 1986, and the Landsat TM data were acquired on April 5, 1986. The data sets were registered to each other and the multi-spectral data sets were contrast enhanced. The enhanced multispectral data sets were then transformed from red/green/blue (RGB) color space into IHS space. In each case (TM/SPOT panchromatic and SPOT XS/SPOT panchromatic), the SPOT panchromatic data were remapped on a cumulative histogram percentage basis to match the multispectral "I" data. These remapped SPOT panchromatic data were substituted for the original multispectral "I" and the hybrid IHS data transformed back into RGB space for display. While this technique is experimental and still being refined, the results, to date, indicate that the IHS method will be valuable for generating improved images that effectively present both high resolution spatial digital data and multispectral data.

  6. Wavelet transformation based watermarking technique for human electrocardiogram (ECG).

    PubMed

    Engin, Mehmet; Cidam, Oğuz; Engin, Erkan Zeki

    2005-12-01

    Nowadays, watermarking has become a technology of choice for a broad range of multimedia copyright protection applications. Watermarks have also been used to embed prespecified data in biomedical signals. Thus, the watermarked biomedical signals being transmitted through communication are resistant to some attacks. This paper investigates discrete wavelet transform based watermarking technique for signal integrity verification in an Electrocardiogram (ECG) coming from four ECG classes for monitoring application of cardiovascular diseases. The proposed technique is evaluated under different noisy conditions for different wavelet functions. Daubechies (db2) wavelet function based technique performs better than those of Biorthogonal (bior5.5) wavelet function. For the beat-to-beat applications, all performance results belonging to four ECG classes are highly moderate. PMID:16235811

  7. Mechanism of integrating foreign DNA during transformation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C H; Wilson, G A; Young, F E

    1978-01-01

    Genes encoding thymidylate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages were cloned in Escherichia coli. Chimeric plasmids pCD1 and pCD3 were constructed from site-specific endonuclease digests of bacteriophage phi3T DNA cloned in pMB9 in E. coli. Similar cloning techniques with bacteriophage beta22 DNA yielded chimeric plasmids pCD4, pCD5, and pCD6. Endonuclease digests of DNA from pCD1 and pCD3 propagated in E. coli or from DNA isolated from bacteriophage phi3T propagated in B. subtilis transformed B. subtilis from Thy- to Thy+. Intact DNA from bacteriophage beta22, endonuclease digests of beta22 DNA, and a chimeric plasmid (pCD5) composed only of the thybeta22 gene and pMB9 did not transform B. subtilis from Thy- to Thy+ even though pCD5 could transform Thy- E. coli to Thy+. However, if the thybeta22 fragment from pCD5 was introduced into another chimeric plasmid, pCD2, that contains a region of homology to the chromosome of B. subtilis in addition to pMB9, transformation of Thy- clones of B. subtilis was possible. Furthermore, Southern hybridization analyses of the digests of chromosomal DNA from the Thy+ transformants established that the entire chimeric plasmid was incorporated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. Treatment of these plasmids with site-specific endonucleases abolished transformation. These results indicated that the entire chimeric plasmid can be incorporated into the chromosome of B. subtilis by a Campbell-like model. Therefore, an additional mechanism for transformation exists whereby plasmids can be integrated if sufficient chromosomal homology is maintained. Images PMID:99740

  8. Advanced Techniques for Fourier Transform Wavefront Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2002-08-05

    The performance of Fourier transform (FT) reconstructors in large adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann sensors and a deformable mirror is analyzed. FT methods, which are derived for point-based geometries, are adapted for use on the continuous systems. Analysis and simulation show how to compensate for effects such as misalignment of the deformable mirror and wavefront sensor gain. Further filtering methods to reduce noise and improve performance are presented. All these modifications can be implemented at the filtering stage, preserving the speed of FT reconstruction. Simulation of a large system shows how compensated FT methods can have equivalent or better performance to slower vector-matrix-multiply reconstructions.

  9. Allied health: integral to transforming health.

    PubMed

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Turnbull, Catherine; Kroon, Tracey; Grimmer, Karen; Bell, Alison; Kumar, Saravana; McEvoy, Maureen; Milanese, Steve; Russell, Mary; Sheppard, Lorraine; Walters, Julie; Wiles, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Objective South Australia is taking an innovative step in transforming the way its healthcare is organised and delivered to better manage current and future demands on the health system. In an environment of transforming health services, there are clear opportunities for allied health to assist in determining solutions to various healthcare challenges. A recent opinion piece proposed 10 clinician-driven strategies to assist in maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. The present study aimed to seek the perspectives of allied health clinicians, educators, researchers, policy makers and managers on these strategies and their relevance to allied health. Methods A survey of allied health practitioners was undertaken to capture their perspectives on the 10 clinician-driven strategies for maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. Survey findings were then layered with evidence from the literature. Results Highly relevant across allied health are the strategies of discontinuation of low value practices, targeting clinical interventions to those getting greatest benefit, active involvement of patients in shared decision making and self-management and advocating for integrated systems of care. Conclusions Allied health professionals have been involved in the South Australian healthcare system for a prolonged period, but their services are poorly recognised, often overlooked and not greatly supported in existing traditional practices. The results of the present study highlight ways in which healthcare services can implement strategies not only to improve the quality of patient outcomes, but also to offer innovative solutions for future, sustainable healthcare. The findings call for concerted efforts to increase the utilisation of allied health services to ensure the 'maximum value for spend' of the increasingly scarce health dollar. What is known about the topic? In medicine, clinician-driven strategies have been proposed to

  10. Teaching Integrative Thought: Techniques and Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Thomas E.

    Focusing on techniques for teaching students to integrate diverse ideas at a deep level of cognitive processing, a study evaluated an idea integration package for teaching writing in the college classroom. Subjects, 29 college students from an introductory psychology class at a Utah university, were divided into two groups. The integration group…

  11. Technique for the metrology calibration of a Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Locke D.; Naylor, David A

    2008-11-10

    A method is presented for using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to calibrate the metrology of a second FTS. This technique is particularly useful when the second FTS is inside a cryostat or otherwise inaccessible.

  12. Radon transforms and Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals, I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We suggest new modifications of the Helgason's support theorem and description of the kernel for the hyperplane Radon transform and its dual. The assumptions for functions are formulated in integral terms and close to minimal. The proofs rely on the properties of the Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals which generalize Abel type fractional integrals on the positive half-line.

  13. Techniques for integrating ‐omics data

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Siva Prasad; Miriyala, Raghava Naidu; Thota, Hanuman; Rao, Allam Appa; Gedela, Srinubabu

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for -omics research is to tackle the problem of fragmentation of knowledge by integrating several sources of heterogeneous information into a coherent entity. It is widely recognized that successful data integration is one of the keys to improve productivity for stored data. Through proper data integration tools and algorithms, researchers may correlate relationships that enable them to make better and faster decisions. The need for data integration is essential for present ‐omics community, because ‐omics data is currently spread world wide in wide variety of formats. These formats can be integrated and migrated across platforms through different techniques and one of the important techniques often used is XML. XML is used to provide a document markup language that is easier to learn, retrieve, store and transmit. It is semantically richer than HTML. Here, we describe bio warehousing, database federation, controlled vocabularies and highlighting the XML application to store, migrate and validate -omics data. PMID:19255651

  14. Improved digital filters for evaluating Fourier and Hankel transform integrals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1975-01-01

    New algorithms are described for evaluating Fourier (cosine, sine) and Hankel (J0,J1) transform integrals by means of digital filters. The filters have been designed with extended lengths so that a variable convolution operation can be applied to a large class of integral transforms having the same system transfer function. A f' lagged-convolution method is also presented to significantly decrease the computation time when computing a series of like-transforms over a parameter set spaced the same as the filters. Accuracy of the new filters is comparable to Gaussian integration, provided moderate parameter ranges and well-behaved kernel functions are used. A collection of Fortran IV subprograms is included for both real and complex functions for each filter type. The algorithms have been successfully used in geophysical applications containing a wide variety of integral transforms

  15. A Transformative Approach to Work Integrated Learning in Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…

  16. Techniques for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The course, Decision Support Techniques for Integrated Water Resources Management, is designed mainly for technical managers and staff of water resources management agencies at the international, national, regional, and local water board level, as well as consultants in other professions working in or interested in the field of water resources development, planning, and operation. It will be held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 10-15, 1991.The course objective is to promote better understanding and dissemination of techniques to be applied in “real-world” integrated water resources management. The course offers an introduction to the concepts of decision modeling, plus ample case studies to demonstrate their applicability. It covers decision theory, operations research and simulation methods, as well as certain aspects of law and psychology. Selected multiple objective techniques will be presented, followed by an overview of recent trends in the field. Computer-based techniques will be demonstrated.

  17. Alternative representation of the linear canonical integral transform.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J

    2005-12-15

    Starting with the Iwasawa-type decomposition of a first-order optical system (or ABCD system) as a cascade of a lens, a magnifier, and an orthosymplectic system (a system that is both symplectic and orthogonal), a further decomposition of the orthosymplectic system in the form of a separable fractional Fourier transformer embedded between two spatial-coordinate rotators is proposed. The resulting decomposition of the entire first-order optical system then shows a physically attractive representation of the linear canonical integral transformation, which, in contrast to Collins integral, is valid for any ray transformation matrix. PMID:16389812

  18. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  19. The functional integral formulation of the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Farzaneh; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation and present a path integral version of this important canonical transformation. The equivalence between the low-energy sector of the Anderson model in the so-called local moment regime and the spin-isotropic Kondo model is usually established via a canonical transformation performed on the Hamiltonian, followed by a projection. Here we present a path integral formulation of the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation which relates the functional integral form of the partition function of the Anderson model to that of its effective low-energy model. The resulting functional integral assumes the form of a spin path integral and includes a geometric phase factor, i.e. a Berry phase. Our approach stresses the underlying symmetries of the model and allows for a straightforward generalization of the transformation to more involved models. It thus not only sheds new light on a classic problem, it also offers a systematic route of obtaining effective low-energy models and higher order corrections. This is demonstrated by obtaining the effective low-energy model of a quantum dot attached to two ferromagnetic leads.

  20. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  1. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    PubMed

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats. PMID:1293885

  2. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  3. Factorization of the polarization transformation matrix in integrated photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Ainola, Leo; Aben, Hillar

    2007-11-01

    In integrated photoelasticity, assessment of stresses in a three-dimensional specimen is based on the measurement of the change of polarization on many light rays that pass the specimen. Since the medium is optically anisotropic and inhomogeneous, the optical phenomena are nonlinear and solution of the inverse problem is complicated. Several methods of solving the inverse problem demand an efficient algorithm for solving the direct problem, i.e., for the calculation of the polarization transformation matrix on the basis of the stress field in the medium. We propose for this use factorization of the transformation matrix. We show that if the transformation of polarization is described by characteristic parameters, the three characteristic parameters can be determined by solving a single third-order differential equation. Since characteristic parameters can be measured experimentally, this approach can be used in practical three-dimensional stress analysis with integrated photoelasticity. PMID:17975565

  4. Integration of a piezoelectric transformer and an ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Manuspiya, Suwan; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    Ultrasonic motors are usually operated at an AC voltage higher than a regular battery. This implies the need of a voltage step-up transformer. In this paper, we report the integration of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) with an ultrasonic motor and a simple drive circuit. The stator of the ultrasonic motor and the PT were operated in the same radial vibration mode. Their dimensions were very close to each other yielding nearly matching resonance frequencies. Consequently, they could be combined together without inductor. The drive circuit was designed by using a 555 timer as an astable multivibrator, and high-speed dual MOSFET drivers as a class D half-bridge switching amplifier. This integrated PT-ultrasonic motor performed reasonably without the use of electromagnetic transformer or inductor. PMID:12565071

  5. Path Integrals, Fourier Transforms, and Feynman's Operational Calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byung Moo; Johnson, G. W.

    1998-03-15

    The disentangling process is the key to Feynman's operational calculus for noncommuting operators. The main result of his heuristic calculations deals with disentangling an exponential factor. We use the Wiener and Feynman integrals to make this disentangling (or time-ordering) mathematically rigorous in the case where the analytic functions from earlier work are replaced by Fourier transforms of complex-valued measures.

  6. Transforming the Economics Curriculum by Integrating Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunaratne, Prashan Shayanka Mendis; Breyer, Yvonne A.; Wood, Leigh N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Economics is catering to a diverse student cohort. This cohort needs to be equipped with transformative concepts that students can integrate beyond university. When a curriculum is content-driven, threshold concepts are a useful tool in guiding curriculum re-design. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  7. Efficient Integration of Quantum Mechanical Wave Equations by Unitary Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2009-08-13

    The integration of time dependent quantum mechanical wave equations is a fundamental problem in computational physics and computational chemistry. The energy and momentum spectrum of a wave function imposes fundamental limits on the performance of numerical algorithms for this problem. We demonstrate how unitary transforms can help to surmount these limitations.

  8. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  9. Optimization techniques for integrating spatial data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzfeld, U.C.; Merriam, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Two optimization techniques ta predict a spatial variable from any number of related spatial variables are presented. The applicability of the two different methods for petroleum-resource assessment is tested in a mature oil province of the Midcontinent (USA). The information on petroleum productivity, usually not directly accessible, is related indirectly to geological, geophysical, petrographical, and other observable data. This paper presents two approaches based on construction of a multivariate spatial model from the available data to determine a relationship for prediction. In the first approach, the variables are combined into a spatial model by an algebraic map-comparison/integration technique. Optimal weights for the map comparison function are determined by the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex algorithm in multidimensions. Geologic knowledge is necessary to provide a first guess of weights to start the automatization, because the solution is not unique. In the second approach, active set optimization for linear prediction of the target under positivity constraints is applied. Here, the procedure seems to select one variable from each data type (structure, isopachous, and petrophysical) eliminating data redundancy. Automating the determination of optimum combinations of different variables by applying optimization techniques is a valuable extension of the algebraic map-comparison/integration approach to analyzing spatial data. Because of the capability of handling multivariate data sets and partial retention of geographical information, the approaches can be useful in mineral-resource exploration. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Health monitoring techniques using integrated sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, Klaus; Stoessel, Rainer; Busse, Gerhard

    2003-08-01

    Advanced high performance materials and components such as CFRP, GFRP and Smart Structures require improved testing techniques. The first part of our contribution deals with nonlinear vibrometry as a defect selective non-destructive testing method. This method uses higher harmonics (which are generated only at defects) to locate the defect by scanning across the surface of the sample with a laser interferometer. For input coupling of the elastic wave both an external (like ultrasound welding converters) or internal (integrated piezo actuators) excitation source can be used. The external detection tools are a microphone or a scanning laser vibrometer. With this technique, we characterized Smart Structures made of aerospace materials and composites with embedded piezoelectric actuators. The next part is about health monitoring techniques and diagnostics where integrated elements are used for excitation and detection. Thus, we monitored the transfer function over a large frequency spectrum and especially its changes caused e.g. by defects. Changes in the properties of structures by fatigue, impacts, and thermoplasticity have been successfully observed. Also the changes in reinforced plastics under tensile stress have been monitored. The results were correlated with destructive measurements. For health monitoring we also present the impedance analysis of embedded piezo ceramic sensors. A defect causes changes in the modal response of the hole structure and that effect can be detected using the phase angle of the electric impedance of the piezo element. Additionally some types of defects cause a non-linear behavior of the structure which was verified by extracting higher harmonics as a reaction to sinusoidal single frequency excitation.

  11. Implementing quantum Fourier transform with integrated photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    2014-03-01

    Many quantum algorithms that exhibit exponential speedup over their classical counterparts employ the quantum Fourier transform, which is used to solve interesting problems such as prime factorization. Meanwhile, nonclassical interference of single photons achieved on integrated platforms holds the promise of achieving large-scale quantum computation with multiport devices. An optical multiport device can be built to realize any quantum circuit as a sequence of unitary operations performed by beam splitters and phase shifters on path-encoded qudits. In this talk, I will present a recursive scheme for implementing quantum Fourier transform with a multimode interference photonic integrated circuit. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.

  12. An analysis of spectral transformation techniques on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurović, Igor; Sejdić, Ervin; Bulatović, Nikola; Simeunović, Marko

    2015-05-01

    Emerging methods for the spectral analysis of graphs are analyzed in this paper, as graphs are currently used to study interactions in many fields from neuroscience to social networks. There are two main approaches related to the spectral transformation of graphs. The first approach is based on the Laplacian matrix. The graph Fourier transform is defined as an expansion of a graph signal in terms of eigenfunctions of the graph Laplacian. The calculated eigenvalues carry the notion of frequency of graph signals. The second approach is based on the graph weighted adjacency matrix, as it expands the graph signal into a basis of eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix instead of the graph Laplacian. Here, the notion of frequency is then obtained from the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix or its Jordan decomposition. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are examined. Potential challenges and improvements to graph spectral processing methods are considered as well as the generalization of graph processing techniques in the spectral domain. Its generalization to the time-frequency domain and other potential extensions of classical signal processing concepts to graph datasets are also considered. Lastly, it is given an overview of the compressive sensing on graphs concepts.

  13. Integrated polyoma genomes in inducible permissive transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, P; Gusew-Chartrand, N; Bourgaux, P

    1981-01-01

    Using the approach described by Botchan, Topp, and Sambrook (Cell 9:269-287, 1976), we analyzed the organization of the integrated viral sequences in five clonal isolates from the same permissive, inducible cell line (Cyp line) transformed by the tsP155 mutant of polyoma virus. In all five clones, viral sequences were found that could be assigned to a common integration site, as they were joined to the cellular DNA in the same fashion in every instance. However, the sequences comprised between these points differed markedly from clone to clone, as if cell propagation had been accompanied by amplification or recombination or both within the viral insertion. When the clones were compared, no correlation could be found between the abundance, or the organization, of the integrated viral sequences and the amount, or the nature, of the free viral DNA molecules produced during induction. Altogether, our findings suggest that specific events, occurring during either the excision or the subsequent replication of the integrated viral sequences, are responsible for the predominant production of nondefective viral DNA molecules by permissive transformed cells, such as Cyp cells. Images PMID:6268808

  14. General technique for the integration of MIC/MMIC'S with waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Bernard D. (Inventor); Zaghloul, Amir I. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A technique for packaging and integrating of a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) or monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with a waveguide uses a printed conductive circuit pattern on a dielectric substrate to transform impedance and mode of propagation between the MIC/MMIC and the waveguide. The virtually coplanar circuit pattern lies on an equipotential surface within the waveguide and therefore makes possible single or dual polarized mode structures.

  15. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  16. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques. PMID:26371347

  18. Feasibility investigation of integrated optics Fourier transform devices. [holographic subtraction for multichannel data preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.; Kenan, R. P.; Hartman, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of producing an integrated optics data processing device based upon Fourier transformations or other parallel processing techniques, and the ways in which such techniques may be used to upgrade the performance of present and projected NASA systems were investigated. Activities toward this goal include; (1) production of near-diffraction-limited geodesic lenses in glass waveguides; (2) development of grinding and polishing techniques for the production of geodesic lenses in LiNbO3 waveguides; (3) development of a characterization technique for waveguide lenses; and (4) development of a theory for corrected aspheric geodesic lenses. A holographic subtraction system was devised which should be capable of rapid on-board preprocessing of a large number of parallel data channels. The principle involved is validated in three demonstrations.

  19. Blind data hiding technique using the Fresnelet transform.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nazeer; Bibi, Nargis; Mahmood, Zahid; Kim, Dai-Gyoung

    2015-01-01

    A new blind data hiding scheme is proposed in which data is decomposed using the Fresnelet transform. The inverse Fresnelet transform is performed on decomposed subbands by choosing different key parameters, and the coded pattern of the information data is obtained. This coded pattern is embedded into particular subbands of the cover image using the wavelets. The proposed method has good imperceptibility and large capacity of the information embedded data. Using the Fresnelet transform with a family of wavelet transforms makes the scheme more efficient in terms of extracted accuracy of hidden information. Moreover, the hidden data can be recovered without access to the original cover data. The proposed method is used to resolve privacy and security issues raised with respect to emerging internet applications for the effective handling of confidential data. PMID:26753119

  20. Embedded wavelet packet transform technique for texture compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Cheng, Po-Yuen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-09-01

    A highly efficient texture compression scheme is proposed in this research. With this scheme, energy compaction of texture images is first achieved by the wavelet packet transform, and an embedding approach is then adopted for the coding of the wavelet packet transform coefficients. By comparing the proposed algorithm with the JPEG standard, FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard and the EZW scheme with extensive experimental results, we observe a significant improvement in the rate-distortion performance and visual quality.

  1. Imaging the transformation of hot strip steel using magnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, E.; Bell, Cathy; Morris, Peter F.; Peyton, A. J.

    2001-07-01

    In the production of steel strip, the temperature distribution and cooling rates along the mill run-out table have a significant effect on the steel microstructure and hence on final material properties, e.g., yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility. Noncontacting optical temperature sensors are typically used to implement feedback control of cooling, but water spray and surface emissivity irregularities can adversely affect these sensors. Ideally, the control of cooling path should account for the progress of dynamic transformation at required points rather than the strip temperature alone. There are several reports describing the use of magnetic sensors to monitor transformation. These sensors exploit the change in the electromagnetic properties as the steel progresses through transformation, for example the austenitic phase is paramagnetic and the ferritic phase is ferromagnetic below the Curie point. Previous work has concentrated on the operation and design of individual transformation sensors. This paper now describes the use of an array of electromagnetic sensors to image the progression of transformation along a sample steel block on a pilot scale industrial mill. The paper will describe the underlying physical principles, the design of the system, and present images showing the progress of transformation along one surface of the sample.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Integral Transformations for Engineering Drawings Vectorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaský, Jozef; Gramblička, Matúš

    2014-12-01

    The concept of digital manufacturing supposes application of digital technologies in the whole product life cycle. Direct digital manufacturing includes such information technology processes, where products are directly manufactured from 3D CAD model. In digital manufacturing, engineering drawing is replaced by CAD product model. In the contemporary practice, lots of engineering paper-based drawings are still archived. They could be digitalized by scanner and stored to one of the raster graphics format and after that vectorized for interactive editing in the specific software system for technical drawing or for archiving in some of the standard vector graphics file format. The vector format is suitable for 3D model generating, too.The article deals with using of selected integral transformations (Fourier, Hough) in the phase of digitalized raster engineering drawings vectorization.

  3. Project management techniques for highly integrated programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. F.; Bauer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The management and control of a representative, highly integrated high-technology project, in the X-29A aircraft flight test project is addressed. The X-29A research aircraft required the development and integration of eight distinct technologies in one aircraft. The project management system developed for the X-29A flight test program focuses on the dynamic interactions and the the intercommunication among components of the system. The insights gained from the new conceptual framework permitted subordination of departments to more functional units of decisionmaking, information processing, and communication networks. These processes were used to develop a project management system for the X-29A around the information flows that minimized the effects inherent in sampled-data systems and exploited the closed-loop multivariable nature of highly integrated projects.

  4. Auxiliary functions for molecular integrals with Slater-type orbitals. II. Gauss transform methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, I.; López, R.; Fernández, J. J.; Ramírez, G.; Rico, J. F.

    The Gauss transform of Slater-type orbitals is used to express several types of molecular integrals involving these functions in terms of simple auxiliary functions. After reviewing this transform and the way it can be combined with the shift operator technique, a master formula for overlap integrals is derived and used to obtain multipolar moments associated to fragments of two-center distributions and overlaps of derivatives of Slater functions. Moreover, it is proved that integrals involving two-center distributions and irregular harmonics placed at arbitrary points (which determine the electrostatic potential, field and field gradient, as well as higher order derivatives of the potential) can be expressed in terms of auxiliary functions of the same type as those appearing in the overlap. The recurrence relations and series expansions of these functions are thoroughly studied, and algorithms for their calculation are presented. The usefulness and efficiency of this procedure are tested by developing two independent codes: one for the derivatives of the overlap integrals with respect to the centers of the functions, and another for derivatives of the potential (electrostatic field, field gradient, and so forth) at arbitrary points.0

  5. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Applications of Conformal Computing techniques to problems in computational physics: the Fast Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, James E.; Mullin, Lenore R.

    2005-07-01

    The techniques of Conformal Computing are introduced with an application to the Fast Fourier Transform. Conformal Computing is a design methodology, based on a rigorous mathematical foundation, which provides a systematic approach to the most efficient organization of all levels of the software and hardware design hierarchy from high-level software constructs all the way down to the design of the integrated circuits. We show that using these general design principles, without any specialized optimization, leads to portable, scalable, code that is competitive with other well-tuned machine specific routines. Further improvements are straightforward within our formalism by taking into account specific hardware details (e.g., cache loops) in a portable parametric way. We also argue that the present theory constitutes a uniform way of reasoning about physics and the data structures that define physics on computers.

  7. Distance functions in dynamic integration of data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puuronen, Seppo J.; Tsymbal, Alexey; Terziyan, Vagan

    2000-04-01

    One of the most important directions in the improvement of data mining and knowledge discovery is the integration of multiple data mining techniques. An integration method needs to be able either to evaluate and select the most appropriate data mining technique or to combine two or more techniques efficiently. A recent integration method for the dynamic integration of multiple data mining techniques is based on the assumption that each of the data mining techniques is the best one inside a certain subarea of the whole domain area. This method uses an instance-based learning approach to collect information about the competence areas of the mining techniques and applies a distance function to determine how close a new instance is to each instance of the training set. The nearest instance or instances are used to predict the performance of the data mining techniques. Because the quality of the integration depends heavily on the suitability of the used distance function, our goal is to analyze the characteristics of different distance functions. In this paper we investigate several distance functions as the very commonly used Euclidean distance function, the Heterogeneous Euclidean- Overlap Metric (HEOM), and the Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric (HVDM), among others. We analyze the effects of the use of different distance functions to the accuracy achieved by dynamic integration when the parameters describing datasets vary. We include also results of our experiments with different datasets which include both nominal and continuous attributes.

  8. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  9. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) - Techniques, performance and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, James L.; Van Graas, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The goal of receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) for the Global Positioning System (GPS) is to provide a sufficient level of navigation integrity for all phases of flight based on the signals transmitted by the GPS satellites only. Integrity requirements for airborne use of GPS are reviewed. This is followed by the description of a baseline fault detection algorithm which is shown to be capable of satisfying tentative integrity requirements. The related issue of testing the fault detection algorithm is also briefly addressed. Preliminary performance results for the baseline fault detection algorithm are presented, along with the potential of RAIM techniques for achieving GPS integrity.

  10. An Operator Method for Evaluating Laplace Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanoue, B. G.; Yurekli, O.

    2005-01-01

    This note discusses a simple operator technique based on the differentiation and shifting properties of the Laplace transform to find Laplace transforms for various elementary functions. The method is simpler than known integration techniques to evaluate Laplace transforms.

  11. Transforming Student Health Services through Purpose-Driven Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Dorothy; Meiers, Chris; Honeck, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The University of Kansas Medical Center did a comprehensive review of the services provided in the Student Health Center (SHC). Using purpose-driven assessment techniques, areas needing improvement were identified. The results of the survey were presented to students and, with student support, student health fees were increased to fund desired…

  12. Ultrasonic technique for inspection of GPHS capsule girth weld integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Placr, Arnost

    1993-05-01

    An innovative nondestructive examination (NDE) technique for the inspection of integrity of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsule girth welds (Figure 1) was developed employing a Lamb (plate) wave as the mode of the sound propagation. Reliability of the Lamb wave technique was tested on GPHS capsules using plutonium pallet simulators. All ten capsules, which were previously rejected, passed ultrasonic (UT) inspection using the Lamb wave technique.

  13. Novel integration technique for silicon/III-V hybrid laser.

    PubMed

    Dong, Po; Hu, Ting-Chen; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Chen, Young-Kai; Xie, Chongjin; Luo, Xianshu; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kopf, Rose; Tate, Alaric

    2014-11-01

    Integrated semiconductor lasers on silicon are one of the most crucial devices to enable low-cost silicon photonic integrated circuits for high-bandwidth optic communications and interconnects. While optical amplifiers and lasers are typically realized in III-V waveguide structures, it is beneficial to have an integration approach which allows flexible and efficient coupling of light between III-V gain media and silicon waveguides. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel fabrication technique and associated transition structure to realize integrated lasers without the constraints of other critical processing parameters such as the starting silicon layer thicknesses. This technique employs epitaxial growth of silicon in a pre-defined trench with taper structures. We fabricate and demonstrate a long-cavity hybrid laser with a narrow linewidth of 130 kHz and an output power of 1.5 mW using the proposed technique. PMID:25401832

  14. Modern Integral Equation Techniques for Quantum Reactive Scattering Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Scott Michael

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D + H_2 to H _2/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H + H_2 state resolved integral cross sections sigma_{v^' j^ ',vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0, j = 0) to (v^' = 1,j^ ' = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence. To facilitate quantum calculations on more complex reactive systems, we develop a new method to compute the energy Green's function with absorbing boundary conditions (ABC), for use in calculating the cumulative reaction probability. The method is an iterative technique to compute the inverse of a non-Hermitian matrix which is based on Fourier transforming time dependent dynamics, and which requires very little core memory. The Hamiltonian is evaluated in a sinc-function based discrete variable representation (DVR) which we argue may often be superior to the fast Fourier transform method for reactive scattering. We apply the resulting power series Green's function to the benchmark collinear H + H_2 system over the energy range 3.37 to 1.27 eV. The convergence of the power series is stable at all energies, and is accelerated by the use of a stronger absorbing potential. The practicality of computing the ABC-DVR Green's function in a polynomial of the Hamiltonian is

  15. Incipient fault diagnosis of power transformers using optical spectro-photometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, K.; Karmakar, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    Power transformers are the vital equipment in the network of power generation, transmission and distribution. Mineral oil in oil-filled transformers plays very important role as far as electrical insulation for the winding and cooling of the transformer is concerned. As transformers are always under the influence of electrical and thermal stresses, incipient faults like partial discharge, sparking and arcing take place. As a result, mineral oil deteriorates there by premature failure of the transformer occurs causing huge losses in terms of revenue and assets. Therefore, the transformer health condition has to be monitored continuously. The Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is being extensively used for this purpose, but it has some drawbacks like it needs carrier gas, regular instrument calibration, etc. To overcome these drawbacks, Ultraviolet (UV) -Visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectro-photometric techniques are used as diagnostic tools for investigating the degraded transformer oil affected by electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses. The technique has several advantages over the conventional DGA technique.

  16. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  17. The Impact of Technology Integration through a Transformative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    The integration of technology into classroom instruction in K-12 schools remains problematic. The problems associated with this integration are troubling, as technology integration may change a teacher's pedagogy toward more innovative approaches that increase student achievement. The purpose of this study was to document teachers' experiences as…

  18. Eigenfunctions and eigenoperators of cyclic integral transforms with application to Gaussian beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, Matthew S.

    An integral transform which reproduces a transformable input function after a finite number N of successive applications is known as a cyclic transform. Of course, such a transform will reproduce an arbitrary transformable input after N applications, but it also admits eigenfunction inputs which will be reproduced after a single application of the transform. These transforms and their eigenfunctions appear in various applications, and the systematic determination of eigenfunctions of cyclic integral transforms has been a problem of interest to mathematicians since at least the early twentieth century. In this work we review the various approaches to this problem, providing generalizations of published expressions from previous approaches. We then develop a new formalism, differential eigenoperators, that reduces the eigenfunction problem for a cyclic transform to an eigenfunction problem for a corresponding ordinary differential equation. In this way we are able to relate eigenfunctions of integral equations to boundary-value problems, which are typically easier to analyze. We give extensive examples and discussion via the specific case of the Fourier transform. We also relate this approach to two formalisms that have been of interest to the mathematical physics community---hyperdifferential operators and linear canonical transforms. We show how this new approach reproduces known results of Fourier optics regarding free-space diffractive propagation of Gaussian beams in both one and two dimensions. Finally we discuss the group-theoretical aspects of the formalism and describe an isomorphism between roots of the identity transform and complex roots of unity. In the appendix we derive several technical results related to integrability and transformability of solutions in the Fourier transform case, and we prove two theorems---one of them new---on polynomial roots. We conclude that the formalism offers a new and equally valuable perspective on an interesting

  19. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  20. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  1. Bäcklund transformations for Darboux integrable differential systems: Examples and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ian M.; Fels, Mark E.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we demonstrate a new symmetry based method for constructing Bäcklund transformations by finding explicit Bäcklund transformations between Darboux integrable systems. This results in a number of new examples of Bäcklund transformations which are quite different in character than those typically found in the literature. The relation between the intermediate integrals for Darboux integrable systems and the differential invariants of the Vessiot group is also illustrated. We then show that a well known class of Bäcklund transformations between a Darboux integrable Monge-Ampère system and the wave equation always arises by this method. The results of this paper build upon the presentation of Darboux integrable systems as quotients of differential systems by symmetry groups.

  2. Derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A nonlinear stationary homogeneous digital filter DIRSIT (derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique) is investigated. The spectrum of a quasi-linear discrete describing function (DDF) to DIRSIT is obtained by a digital measuring scheme. A finite impulse response (FIR) approximation to the quasi-linearization is then obtained. Finally, DIRSIT is compared with its quasi-linear approximation and with a standard digital differentiating technique. Results indicate the effects of DIRSIT on a wide variety of practical signals.

  3. Multiscale Transient Signal Detection: Localizing Transients in Geodetic Data Through Wavelet Transforms and Sparse Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, B.; Simons, M.; Agram, P.

    2012-12-01

    Transients are a class of deformation signals on the Earth's surface that can be described as non-periodic accumulation of strain in the crust. Over seismically and volcanically active regions, these signals are often challenging to detect due to noise and other modes of deformation. Geodetic datasets that provide precise measurements of surface displacement over wide areas are ideal for exploiting both the spatial and temporal coherence of transient signals. We present an extension to the Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) approach for analyzing geodetic data by combining the localization benefits of wavelet transforms (localizing signals in space) with sparse optimization techniques (localizing signals in time). Our time parameterization approach allows us to reduce geodetic time series to sparse, compressible signals with very few non-zero coefficients corresponding to transient events. We first demonstrate the temporal transient detection by analyzing GPS data over the Long Valley caldera in California and along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, CA. For Long Valley, we are able to resolve the documented 2002-2003 uplift event with greater temporal precision. Similarly for Parkfield, we model the postseismic deformation by specific integrated basis splines characterized by timescales that are largely consistent with postseismic relaxation times. We then apply our method to ERS and Envisat InSAR datasets consisting of over 200 interferograms for Long Valley and over 100 interferograms for Parkfield. The wavelet transforms reduce the impact of spatially correlated atmospheric noise common in InSAR data since the wavelet coefficients themselves are essentially uncorrelated. The spatial density and extended temporal coverage of the InSAR data allows us to effectively localize ground deformation events in both space and time with greater precision than has been previously accomplished.

  4. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  5. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  6. Simulator verification techniques study. Integrated simulator self test system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, G.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    Software and hardware requirements for implementing hardware self tests are presented in support of the development of training and procedures development simulators for the space shuttle program. Self test techniques for simulation hardware and the validation of simulation performance are stipulated. The requirements of an integrated simulator self system are analyzed. Readiness tests, fault isolation tests, and incipient fault detection tests are covered.

  7. An efficient coordinate transformation technique for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic analysis of low aspect-ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient coordinate transformation technique is presented for constructing grids for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic computations for delta-type wings. The original shearing transformation yielded computations that were numerically unstable and this paper discusses the sources of those instabilities. The new shearing transformation yields computations that are stable, fast, and accurate. Comparisons of those two methods are shown for the flow over the F5 wing that demonstrate the new stability. Also, comparisons are made with experimental data that demonstrate the accuracy of the new method. The computations were made by using a time-accurate, finite-difference, alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for the transonic small-disturbance potential equation.

  8. 76 FR 17145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information Collection; Comment Request... Operating Environment (IOE); OMB Control No. 1615-NEW. SUMMARY: USCIS is developing an automated...

  9. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information Collection; Comment Request..., 2011, USCIS published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register at 76 FR 1745, seeking comment on...

  10. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  11. Lessons from the Desert: Integrating Managerial Expertise and Learning for Organizational Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, George

    2004-01-01

    Reflection upon a field study of a corporate transformation provides insights into the application and integration of organizational learning theory and frameworks with local, corporate knowledge. In the corporate transformation studied this local knowledge came from consumer psychology, marketing campaigns and the use of media. When these ideas…

  12. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  13. A novel technique for an integrated optical wavelength demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy Rabeh, M.; Mohanna, M.; Hosny, Tarek; Gabr, Mohamed I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new technique for optical wavelength demultiplexing (DEMUX) relaying on two phenomena: Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift and continuous refraction at a graded-index medium interface. In the first case, two light beams are totally reflected at a plane interface separating two dielectric lossless media. The reflected beams suffer different lateral shifts (GH shifts) depending on the wavelength; thus accomplishing the required spatial beam separation. In the second case, the two light beams have different "turning points" inside the graded index medium; hence, the "back-refracted" beams are spatially separated. In this paper, we optimized the conditions of operation of such demultiplexing technique. This makes possible the integration of such technique in "planar integrated-optics" structures which can be used reliably in optical fiber communication networks.

  14. Optical cryptographic system employing multiple reference-based joint transform correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Karim, Mohammad Ataul; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Asari, K. Vijayan

    2011-06-01

    An optical joint transform correlation-based cryptographic system is a used to feed multiple phase-shifted encryption keys into four parallel channels along with a to-be-encrypted signal in the form of an image. The resulting joint power spectra (JPS) signals are phase-shifted and then combined to yield a modified JPS signal. Inverse Fourier transformation of the modified JPS signal yields the secured encrypted image. For decryption purpose, the received encrypted signal is first Fourier transformed and multiplied by the encryption key used in encryption. The derived signal is then inverse Fourier transformed to generate the output signal. The proposed system offers a nonlinear encryption without the involvement of any complex mathematical operation on the encryption key otherwise required in similar encryption techniques and is invariant to noise. Computer simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme with binary, as well as gray images in both noise-free and noisy environment.

  15. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  16. Transforming Water Management: an Emerging Promise of Integrated Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Throughout its history, civilization has relied on technology to facilitate many of its advances. New innovations and technologies have often provided strategic advantages that have led to transformations in institutions, economies and ultimately societies. Observational and information technologies are leading to significant developments in the water sector. After a brief introduction tracing the role of observational technologies in the areas of hydrology and water cycle science, this talk explores the existing and potential contributions of remote sensing data in water resource management around the world. In particular, it outlines the steps being undertaken by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and its Water Task to facilitate capacity building efforts in water management using Earth Observations in Asia, Africa and Latin and Caribbean America. Success stories on the benefits of using Earth Observations and applying GEO principles are provided. While GEO and its capacity building efforts are contributing to the transformation of water management through interoperability, data sharing, and capacity building, the full potential of these contributions has not been fully realized because impediments and challenges still remain.

  17. Integrating the Scholarship on Women: Transforming the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Sara; Hedges, Elaine

    Townson State University's 3-year project integrated new scholarship on women into the curriculum, with emphasis on introductory survey courses in eight disciplines: art, biology, business, education, English, history, psychology, and sociology. About 70 faculty met in workshops for five semesters to (1) read and discuss new scholarship on women;…

  18. Diagnostic techniques and apparatus for detecting faults in perfluorocarbon liquid immersed transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; Ogawa, A.; Ooe, E.; Mori, E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with techniques and an apparatus designed to diagnosis transformer faults by detecting C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases contained in perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid. The authors first established fault diagnostic techniques that employ gas patterns, gas composition ratios and fault diagnostic diagram and flow chart, based on the C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases generated by overheating, partial discharges and arc discharges. Then, the authors verified the possibility of diagnosing internal faults in PFC liquid-immersed transformers when internal fault simulation tests on transformer model are conducted. The C{sub 2}F{sub 4} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases generated there are detected with the gas diagnostic apparatus equipped with a gas sensor.

  19. The use of hybrid integrated circuit techniques in biotelemetry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of some features of hybrid integrated circuits that make their use advantageous in miniature biotelemetry applications. The various techniques for fabricating resistors, capacitors and interconnections by both thin film and thick film technology are discussed. The use of chip capacitors, resistors, and especially standard IC chips on substrates with fired-on interconnection patterns is emphasized. The review is designed primarily to acquaint biotelemetry users and designers with an overview of this fabrication technique so that they can better communicate their needs with an understanding of its limitations and advantages to facilities specializing in hybrid construction.

  20. Seamless integration of global Dirichlet-to-Neumann boundary condition and spectral elements for transformation electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiguo; Wang, Li-Lian; Rong, Zhijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-element method (SEM) for solving general two-dimensional Helmholtz equations in anisotropic media, with particular applications in accurate simulation of polygonal invisibility cloaks, concentrators and circular rotators arisen from the field of transformation electromagnetics (TE). In practice, we adopt a transparent boundary condition (TBC) characterized by the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map to reduce wave propagation in an unbounded domain to a bounded domain. We then introduce a semi-analytic technique to integrate the global TBC with local curvilinear elements seamlessly, which is accomplished by using a novel elemental mapping and analytic formulas for evaluating global Fourier coefficients on spectral-element grids exactly. From the perspective of TE, an invisibility cloak is devised by a singular coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations that leads to anisotropic materials coating the cloaked region to render any object inside invisible to observers outside. An important issue resides in the imposition of appropriate conditions at the outer boundary of the cloaked region, i.e., cloaking boundary conditions (CBCs), in order to achieve perfect invisibility. Following the spirit of [48], we propose new CBCs for polygonal invisibility cloaks from the essential "pole" conditions related to singular transformations. This allows for the decoupling of the governing equations of inside and outside the cloaked regions. With this efficient spectral-element solver at our disposal, we can study the interesting phenomena when some defects and lossy or dispersive media are placed in the cloaking layer of an ideal polygonal cloak.

  1. Digital I and C system upgrade integration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Shih, C.; Wang, J. R.; Huang, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. A

  2. Time Delay Integration: A Wide-Field Survey Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, Robert; Hill, E.; Leimer, L.; McMillian, K.; Miller, A.; Prindle, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics class of Orange Lutheran High School has conducted a survey-imaging pro-ject using a Time Delay Integration (TDI) technique. TDI enables very wide-field images to be collected in the form of long strips of the sky. A series of five consecutive nights were captured, calibrated and compared to re-veal possible transient phenomena such as supernovae, asteroids, and other events that have a noticeable change over 24-hour intervals.

  3. Integral dose: Comparison between four techniques for prostate radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ślosarek, Krzysztof; Osewski, Wojciech; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Radwan, Michał; Dolla, Łukasz; Szlag, Marta; Stąpór-Fudzińska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Aim Comparisons of integral dose delivered to the treatment planning volume and to the whole patient body during stereotactic, helical and intensity modulated radiotherapy of prostate. Background Multifield techniques produce large volumes of low dose inside the patient body. Delivered dose could be the result of the cytotoxic injuries of the cells even away from the treatment field. We calculated the total dose absorbed in the patient body for four radiotherapy techniques to investigate whether some methods have a potential to reduce the exposure to the patient. Materials and methods We analyzed CyberKnife plans for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer. Five alternative plans for each patient were calculated with the VMAT, IMRT and TomoTherapy techniques. Alternative dose distributions were calculated to achieve the same coverage for PTV. Integral Dose formula was used to calculate the total dose delivered to the PTV and whole patient body. Results Analysis showed that the same amount of dose was deposited to the treated volume despite different methods of treatment delivery. The mean values of total dose delivered to the whole patient body differed significantly for each treatment technique. The highest integral dose in the patient's body was at the TomoTherapy and CyberKnife treatment session. VMAT was characterized by the lowest integral dose deposited in the patient body. Conclusions The highest total dose absorbed in normal tissue was observed with the use of a robotic radiosurgery system and TomoTherapy. These results demonstrate that the exposure of healthy tissue is a dosimetric factor which differentiates the dose delivery methods. PMID:25859398

  4. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:26193568

  5. Analytically reduced form of multicenter integrals from Gaussian transforms. [in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straton, Jack C.

    1989-01-01

    The four-dimensional Fourier-Feynman transformations previously used in analytically reducing the general class of integrals containing multicenter products of 1s hydrogenic orbitals, Coulomb or Yukawa potentials, and plane waves, are replaced by the one-dimensional Gaussian transformation. This reduces the previously required double-diagonalization of the quadratic form of the multicenter integrals to only one diagonalization, yielding a simpler reduced form of the integral. The present work also extends the result to include all s states and pairs of states with l not equal to zero summed over the m quantum number.

  6. Multispectral image sharpening using wavelet transform techniques and spatial correlation of edges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Several reported image fusion or sharpening techniques are based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The technique described here uses a pixel-based maximum selection rule to combine respective transform coefficients of lower spatial resolution near-infrared (NIR) and higher spatial resolution panchromatic (pan) imagery to produce a sharpened NIR image. Sharpening assumes a radiometric correlation between the spectral band images. However, there can be poor correlation, including edge contrast reversals (e.g., at soil-vegetation boundaries), between the fused images and, consequently, degraded performance. To improve sharpening, a local area-based correlation technique originally reported for edge comparison with image pyramid fusion is modified for application with the DWT process. Further improvements are obtained by using redundant, shift-invariant implementation of the DWT. Example images demonstrate the improvements in NIR image sharpening with higher resolution pan imagery.

  7. Harnessing modified manganin technique to study processes of explosive transformation in pyrotechnic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalov, Sergei

    2005-07-01

    The paper reviews results of the experimental study of explosive transformation in pyrotechnic compositions with modified manganin technique. In particular, experimental data on pressure profiles recorded with tiny manganin sensors are cited to characterize the effect of parameters of the loading pulse, dispersion and density on peculiarities of explosive transformation in studied pyrotechnic pieces under shock-wave initiation. In the paper are shown the experimental pressure profiles, characteristic for processes of explosive transformation of extended delay. The experimental results prove the effect of density variation of the specimens under study on the process of the explosive transformation. It is felt that for given range of pressures of the incoming shock wave the difference of the explosive transformation history, at equal parameters of loading pulse, is caused also by different dispersion of the initial powder and final porosity of studied specimens. The experimental results provide support for possibility of use of tiny manganin and constantan sensors in studying processes of explosive transformation of pyrotechnic compositions under initiation by divergent shock waves of large curve front and slumping pressure profile.

  8. Integrative Approach for a Transformative Freshman-Level STEM Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kathleen L.; Olsen, Paul E.; Nwogbaga, Agashi P.; Stotts, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Wesley College adopted a unified undergraduate program of evidence-based high-impact teaching practices. Through foundation and federal and state grant support, the college completely revised its academic core curriculum and strengthened its academic support structures by including a comprehensive early alert system for at-risk students. In this core, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty developed fresh manifestations of integrated concept-based introductory courses and revised upper-division STEM courses around student-centered learning. STEM majors can participate in specifically designed paid undergraduate research experiences in directed research elective courses. Such a college-wide multi-tiered approach results in institutional cultural change. PMID:27064213

  9. Darboux Transformation for the Vector Sine-Gordon Equation and Integrable Equations on a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for construction of Darboux transformations, which is a new development of the dressing method for Lax operators invariant under a reduction group. We apply the method to the vector sine-Gordon equation and derive its Bäcklund transformations. We show that there is a new Lax operator canonically associated with our Darboux transformation resulting an evolutionary differential-difference system on a sphere. The latter is a generalised symmetry for the chain of Bäcklund transformations. Using the re-factorisation approach and the Bianchi permutability of the Darboux transformations, we derive new vector Yang-Baxter map and integrable discrete vector sine-Gordon equation on a sphere.

  10. Stability of numerical integration techniques for transient rotor dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element model of a rotor bearing system was analyzed to determine the stability limits of the forward, backward, and centered Euler; Runge-Kutta; Milne; and Adams numerical integration techniques. The analysis concludes that the highest frequency mode determines the maximum time step for a stable solution. Thus, the number of mass elements should be minimized. Increasing the damping can sometimes cause numerical instability. For a uniform shaft, with 10 mass elements, operating at approximately the first critical speed, the maximum time step for the Runge-Kutta, Milne, and Adams methods is that which corresponds to approximately 1 degree of shaft movement. This is independent of rotor dimensions.

  11. Cost-Optimal Design of a 3-Phase Core Type Transformer by Gradient Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, R.; Das, A.; Sensarma, A. K.; Sanyal, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    3-phase core type transformers are extensively used as power and distribution transformers in power system and their cost is a sizable proportion of the total system cost. Therefore they should be designed cost-optimally. The design methodology for reaching cost-optimality has been discussed in details by authors like Ramamoorty. It has also been discussed in brief in some of the text-books of electrical design. The paper gives a method for optimizing design, in presence of constraints specified by the customer and the regulatory authorities, through gradient search technique. The starting point has been chosen within the allowable parameter space the steepest decent path has been followed for convergence. The step length has been judiciously chosen and the program has been maneuvered to avoid local minimal points. The method appears to be best as its convergence is quickest amongst different optimizing techniques.

  12. Transformation of full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices: a quantitative technique for biomedical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polarization images contain abundant microstructural information of samples. Recently, as a comprehensive description of the structural and optical properties of complex media, the Mueller matrix imaging has been widely applied to biomedical studies, especially cancer detections. In previous works, we proposed a technique to transform the backscattering 3 × 3 Mueller matrices into a group of quantitative parameters with clear relationships to specific microstructures. In this paper, we extend this transformation method to full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices of both the back and forward scattering directions. Using the experimental results of phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation based on the sphere-cylinder birefringence model, we fit the Mueller matrix elements to trigonometric curves in polar coordinates and obtain a new set of transformation parameters, which can be expressed as analytical functions of 16 Mueller matrix elements. Both the experimental and simulated results demonstrate that the transformation parameters have simple relationships to the characteristic microstructural properties, including the densities and orientations of fibrous structures, the sizes of the scatterers, and the depolarization power of the samples. We also apply the transformation parameters of full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices to human liver cancerous tissues. Preliminary imaging results show that the parameters can quantitatively reflect the formation of fibrous birefringent tissues accompanying the cancerous processes. The findings presented in this study can be useful for in vivo or in vitro polarization imaging of tissues for diagnostic applications.

  13. Joint transform correlator based on CIELAB model with encoding technique for color pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tiengsheng; Chen, Chulung; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Yuming

    2010-10-01

    The CIELAB standard color vision model instead of the traditional RGB color model is utilized for polychromatic pattern recognition. The image encoding technique is introduced. The joint transform correlator is set to be the optical configuration. To achieve the distortion invariance in discrimination processes, we have used the minimum average correlation energy approach to yield sharp correlation peak. From the numerical results, it is found that the recognition ability based on CIELAB color specification system is accepted.

  14. Simple technique of Fourier-transform holographic microscope with compensation of phase aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel simple technique of Fourier-transform holographic microscopy (FTHM). Simplicity of the scheme, possibility to use a small image sensor and provide compensation of aberration, enable one to construct inexpensive holographic microscopes. We experimentally compare FTHM with in-line holographic microscopy. In this paper, we present experimental scheme of FTHM, description of used algorithms and experimental results for an amplitude test object and biological samples (blood smears).

  15. Fast X-ray microdiffraction techniques for studying irreversible transformations in materials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Trenkle, Jonathan C.; Koerner, Lucas J.; Barron, Sara C.; Walker, Nöel; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Hufnagel, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    A pair of techniques have been developed for performing time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction on irreversible phase transformations. In one technique capillary optics are used to focus a high-flux broad-spectrum X-ray beam to a 60 µm spot size and a fast pixel array detector is used to achieve temporal resolution of 55 µs. In the second technique the X-rays are focused with Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors to achieve a spatial resolution better than 10 µm and a fast shutter is used to provide temporal resolution better than 20 µs while recording the diffraction pattern on a (relatively slow) X-ray CCD camera. Example data from experiments are presented where these techniques are used to study self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reactions in metal laminate foils. PMID:21525656

  16. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  17. Helicity is the only integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel; de Lizaur, Francisco Torres

    2016-02-23

    We prove that any regular integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations is equivalent to the helicity. Specifically, given a functional I defined on exact divergence-free vector fields of class C(1) on a compact 3-manifold that is associated with a well-behaved integral kernel, we prove that I is invariant under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms if and only if it is a function of the helicity. PMID:26864201

  18. Helicity is the only integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel; de Lizaur, Francisco Torres

    2016-01-01

    We prove that any regular integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations is equivalent to the helicity. Specifically, given a functional ℐ defined on exact divergence-free vector fields of class C1 on a compact 3-manifold that is associated with a well-behaved integral kernel, we prove that ℐ is invariant under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms if and only if it is a function of the helicity. PMID:26864201

  19. Integration or transformation? Looking in the future of Information and Communication Technology in education in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, crucial factors for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education have improved significantly in Vietnam. Nevertheless, it is clear that, as in other countries, no educational revolution is taking place. We argue that there is a need for a broad dialogue on the future of ICT in education in Vietnam as discussion of ideas about future possibilities can be instrumental in rationalizing and generating educational change. We explore how a group of key players representing the public and private sector as well as development partners in the field look at the future of ICT in education in the country. Following the Delphi method, these key players assessed in different survey rounds the current situation of ICT in education, identified a series of targets and were asked to assess these targets in respect of their importance. The key players reached a consensus that the purpose of technology integration is to achieve learning goals and enhance learning. However, there is more controversy on targets that could potentially transform education practice in Vietnam. We discuss the value of the Delphi technique and argue for increased participation of all involved stakeholders in policy development on ICT in education. PMID:25305806

  20. Slit Function Measurement of An Imaging Spectrograph Using Fourier Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Hongwoo; Swimyard, Bruce; Jakobsen, Peter; Moseley, Harvey; Greenhouse, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of a spectrograph slit function is necessary to interpret the unresolved lines in an observed spectrum. A theoretical slit function can be calculated from the sizes of the entrance slit, the detector aperture when it functions as an exit slit, the dispersion characteristic of the disperser, and the point spread function of the spectrograph. A measured slit function is preferred to the theoretical one for the correct interpretation of the spectral data. In a scanning spectrometer with a single exit slit, the slit function is easily measured. In a fixed grating/or disperser spectrograph, illuminating the entrance slit with a near monochromatic light from a pre-monochrmator or a tunable laser and varying the wavelength of the incident light can measure the slit function. Even though the latter technique had been used successfully for the slit function measurements, it had been very laborious and it would be prohibitive to an imaging spectrograph or a multi-object spectrograph that has a large field of view. We explore an alternative technique that is manageable for the measurements. In the proposed technique, the imaging spectrograph is used as a detector of a Fourier transform spectrometer. This method can be applied not only to an IR spectrograph but also has a potential to a visible/UV spectrograph including a wedge filter spectrograph. This technique will require a blackbody source of known temperature and a bolometer to characterize the interferometer part of the Fourier Transform spectrometer. This pa?er will describe the alternative slit function measurement technique using a Fourier transform spectrometer.

  1. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  2. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and

  3. Integrated testlets and the immediate feedback assessment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.

    2013-10-01

    We describe how an answer-until-correct multiple-choice (MC) response format allows for the construction of fully multiple-choice examinations designed to operate much as a hybrid between standard MC and constructed-response (CR) testing. With this tool—the immediate feedback assessment technique (IF-AT)—students gain complete knowledge of the correct answer for each question during the examination and can use such information for solving subsequent test items. This feature allows for the creation of a new type of context-dependent item set: the "integrated testlet." In an integrated testlet, certain items are purposefully inter-dependent and are thus presented in a particular order. Such integrated testlets represent a proxy of typical CR questions, but with a straightforward and uniform marking scheme that also allows for granting partial credit for proximal knowledge. As proof-of-principle, we present a case study of an IF-AT-scored midterm and final examination for an introductory physics course and discuss specific testlets possessing varying degrees of integration. In total, the polychotomously scored items are found to allow for excellent discrimination, with a mean item-total correlation measure for the combined 45 items of the two examinations of r¯'=0.41±0.13 (mean ± standard deviation) and a final examination test reliability of α = 0.82 (n = 25 items). Furthermore, partial credit is shown to be allocated in a discriminating and valid manner in these examinations. As has been found in other disciplines, the reaction of undergraduate physics students to the IF-AT is highly positive, further motivating its expanded use in formal classroom assessments.

  4. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  5. A system for multi-locus chromosomal integration and transformation-free selection marker rescue

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Michael S.; Choksi, Atri; Smolke, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast integrating plasmids (YIPs) are a versatile tool for stable integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, current YIP systems necessitate time- and labor-intensive methods for cloning and selection marker rescue. Here we describe the design, construction, and validation of a new YIP system capable of accelerating the stable integration of multiple expression constructs into different loci in the yeast S. cerevisiae. These “directed pop-out” plasmids enable a simple, two-step integration protocol that results in a scarless integration alongside a complete rescue of the selection marker. These plasmids combine three key features: a dedicated “YIPout” fragment directs a recombination event that rescues the selection marker while avoiding undesired excision of the target DNA sequence, a multi-fragment modular DNA assembly system simplifies cloning, and a new set of counterselectable markers enables serial integration followed by a transformation-free marker rescue event. We constructed and tested directed pop-out YIPs for integration of fluorescent reporter genes into four yeast loci. We validated our new YIP design by integrating three reporter genes into three different loci with transformation-free rescue of selection markers. These new YIP designs will facilitate the construction of yeast strains that express complex heterologous metabolic pathways. PMID:25226817

  6. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  7. Innovative use of the integrative review to evaluate evidence of technology transformation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare is in a period significant transformational activity through the accelerated adoption of healthcare technologies, new reimbursement systems that emphasize shared savings and care coordination, and the common place use of mobile technologies by patients, providers, and others. The complexity of healthcare creates barriers to transformational activity and has the potential to inhibit the desired paths toward change envisioned by policymakers. Methods for understanding how change is occurring within this complex environment are important to the evaluation of delivery system reform and the role of technology in healthcare transformation. This study examines the use on an integrative review methodology to evaluate the healthcare literature for evidence of technology transformation in healthcare. The methodology integrates the evaluation of a broad set of literature with an established evaluative framework to develop a more complete understanding of a particular topic. We applied this methodology and the framework of punctuated equilibrium (PEq) to the analysis of the healthcare literature from 2004 to 2012 for evidence of technology transformation, a time during which technology was at the forefront of healthcare policy. The analysis demonstrated that the established PEq framework applied to the literature showed considerable potential for evaluating the progress of policies that encourage healthcare transformation. Significant inhibitors to change were identified through the integrative review and categorized into ten themes that describe the resistant structure of healthcare delivery: variations in the environment; market complexity; regulations; flawed risks and rewards; change theories; barriers; ethical considerations; competition and sustainability; environmental elements, and internal elements. We hypothesize that the resistant nature of the healthcare system described by this study creates barriers to the direct consumer involvement and engagement

  8. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  9. Classification of the quantum two-dimensional superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals and the Staeckel transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Daskaloyannis, C. Tanoudis, Y.

    2008-05-15

    The two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals of motion on a manifold are classified by using the quadratic associative algebra of the integrals of motion. There are six general fundamental classes of quantum superintegrable systems corresponding to the classical ones. Analytic formulas for the involved integrals are calculated in all the cases. All the known quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals are classified as special cases of these six general classes. The coefficients of the quadratic associative algebra of integrals are calculated and they are compared to the coefficients of the corresponding coefficients of the Poisson quadratic algebra of the classical systems. The quantum coefficients are similar to the classical ones multiplied by a quantum coefficient -{h_bar}{sup 2} plus a quantum deformation of order {h_bar}{sup 4} and {h_bar}{sup 6}. The systems inside the classes are transformed using Staeckel transforms in the quantum case as in the classical case. The general form of the Staeckel transform between superintegrable systems is discussed.

  10. Pattern Transformation of Heat-Shrinkable Polymer by Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response. PMID:25757881

  11. Modern integral equation techniques for quantum reactive scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, S.M.

    1993-11-01

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H+H{sub 2} state resolved integral cross sections {sigma}{sub v{prime}j{prime},vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0,j = 0) to (v{prime} = 1,j{prime} = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence.

  12. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  13. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Andrea; Montanini, Barbara; Muggiano, Eleonora; Proietto, Marco; Filetici, Patrizia; Ottonello, Simone; Ballario, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi ("truffles") with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites. PMID:24949275

  14. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi (“truffles”) with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites. PMID:24949275

  15. Variable transformations and Gauss-Legendre quadrature for integrals with endpoint singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidi, Avram

    2009-09-01

    Gauss-Legendre quadrature formulas have excellent convergence properties when applied to integrals int^1_0f(x) dx with fin C^infty[0,1] . However, their performance deteriorates when the integrands f(x) are in C^infty(0,1) but are singular at x=0 and/or x=1 . One way of improving the performance of Gauss-Legendre quadrature in such cases is by combining it with a suitable variable transformation such that the transformed integrand has weaker singularities than those of f(x) . Thus, if x=psi(t) is a variable transformation that maps [0,1] onto itself, we apply Gauss-Legendre quadrature to the transformed integral int^1_{0}f(psi(t))psi'(t) dt , whose singularities at t=0 and/or t=1 are weaker than those of f(x) at x=0 and/or x=1 . In this work, we first define a new class of variable transformations we denote widetilde{mathcal{S}}_{p,q} , where p and q are two positive parameters that characterize it. We also give a simple and easily computable representative of this class. Next, by invoking some recent results by the author concerning asymptotic expansions of Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximations as the number of abscissas tends to infinity, we present a thorough study of convergence of the combined approximation procedure, with variable transformations from widetilde{mathcal{S}}_{p,q} . We show how optimal results can be obtained by adjusting the parameters p and q of the variable transformation in an appropriate fashion. We also give numerical examples that confirm the theoretical results.

  16. Single image orthogonal fringe technique for resolution enhancement of the Fourier transform fringe analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Paulo J.; Vaz, Mário A. P.

    2013-03-01

    Gradient range and spatial resolution in Fourier Transform Profilometry depend on the size of the filter window in reciprocal space. The proposed methods to date for the elimination of the fundamental frequency and enlargement of the filter window are either too computationally complex or depend on the possibility of using two frames, thus disabling the method's ability to cope with dynamic situations and subjecting the results to possible intensity changes between the two frame acquisitions. This article describes a simple method for using a single crossed fringe pattern to accomplish that objective, greatly improving the previously reported technique, whilst retaining its main advantages.

  17. Ontology for Transforming Geo-Spatial Data for Discovery and Integration of Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.

    2013-12-01

    Discovery and access to geo-spatial scientific data across heterogeneous repositories and multi-discipline datasets can present challenges for scientist. We propose to build a workflow for transforming geo-spatial datasets into semantic environment by using relationships to describe the resource using OWL Web Ontology, RDF, and a proposed geo-spatial vocabulary. We will present methods for transforming traditional scientific dataset, use of a semantic repository, and querying using SPARQL to integrate and access datasets. This unique repository will enable discovery of scientific data by geospatial bound or other criteria.

  18. Optical spatial heterodyne interferometric Fourier transform technique (OSHIFT) and a resulting interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, James A., III

    2007-09-01

    This article reports on the novel patent pending Optical Spatial Heterodyne Interferometric Fourier Transform Technique (the OSHIFT technique), the resulting interferometer also referred to as OSHIFT, and its preliminary results. OSHIFT was borne out of the following requirements: wavefront sensitivity on the order of 1/100 waves, high-frequency wavefront spatial sampling, snapshot 100Hz operation, and the ability to deal with discontinuous wavefronts. The first two capabilities lend themselves to the use of traditional interferometric techniques; however, the last two prove difficult for standard techniques, e.g., phase shifting interferometry tends to take a time sequence of images and most interferometers require estimation of a center fringe across wavefront discontinuities. OSHIFT overcomes these challenges by employing a spatial heterodyning concept in the Fourier (image) plane of the optic-under-test. This concept, the mathematical theory, an autocorrelation view of operation, and the design with results of OSHIFT will be discussed. Also discussed will be future concepts such as a sensor that could interrogate an entire imaging system as well as a methodology to create innovative imaging systems that encode wavefront information onto the image. Certain techniques and systems described in this paper are the subject of a patent application currently pending in the United States Patent Office.

  19. Integrated Personal Health Records: Transformative Tools for Consumer-Centric Care

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Raymond, Brian; Tang, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrated personal health records (PHRs) offer significant potential to stimulate transformational changes in health care delivery and self-care by patients. In 2006, an invitational roundtable sponsored by Kaiser Permanente Institute, the American Medical Informatics Association, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was held to identify the transformative potential of PHRs, as well as barriers to realizing this potential and a framework for action to move them closer to the health care mainstream. This paper highlights and builds on the insights shared during the roundtable. Discussion While there is a spectrum of dominant PHR models, (standalone, tethered, integrated), the authors state that only the integrated model has true transformative potential to strengthen consumers' ability to manage their own health care. Integrated PHRs improve the quality, completeness, depth, and accessibility of health information provided by patients; enable facile communication between patients and providers; provide access to health knowledge for patients; ensure portability of medical records and other personal health information; and incorporate auto-population of content. Numerous factors impede widespread adoption of integrated PHRs: obstacles in the health care system/culture; issues of consumer confidence and trust; lack of technical standards for interoperability; lack of HIT infrastructure; the digital divide; uncertain value realization/ROI; and uncertain market demand. Recent efforts have led to progress on standards for integrated PHRs, and government agencies and private companies are offering different models to consumers, but substantial obstacles remain to be addressed. Immediate steps to advance integrated PHRs should include sharing existing knowledge and expanding knowledge about them, building on existing efforts, and continuing dialogue among public and private sector stakeholders. Summary Integrated PHRs promote active, ongoing

  20. T-DNA transfer and T-DNA integration efficiencies upon Arabidopsis thaliana root explant cocultivation and floral dip transformation.

    PubMed

    Ghedira, Rim; De Buck, Sylvie; Van Ex, Frédéric; Angenon, Geert; Depicker, Ann

    2013-12-01

    T-DNA transfer and integration frequencies during Agrobacterium-mediated root explant cocultivation and floral dip transformations of Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed with and without selection for transformation-competent cells. Based on the presence or absence of CRE recombinase activity without or with the CRE T-DNA being integrated, transient expression versus stable transformation was differentiated. During root explant cocultivation, continuous light enhanced the number of plant cells competent for interaction with Agrobacterium and thus the number of transient gene expression events. However, in transformation competent plant cells, continuous light did not further enhance cotransfer or cointegration frequencies. Upon selection for root transformants expressing a first T-DNA, 43-69 % of these transformants showed cotransfer of another non-selected T-DNA in two different light regimes. However, integration of the non-selected cotransferred T-DNA occurred only in 19-46 % of these transformants, indicating that T-DNA integration in regenerating root cells limits the transformation frequencies. After floral dip transformation, transient T-DNA expression without integration could not be detected, while stable T-DNA transformation occurred in 0.5-1.3 % of the T1 seedlings. Upon selection for floral dip transformants with a first T-DNA, 8-34 % of the transformants showed cotransfer of the other non-selected T-DNA and in 93-100 % of them, the T-DNA was also integrated. Therefore, a productive interaction between the agrobacteria and the female gametophyte, rather than the T-DNA integration process, restricts the floral dip transformation frequencies. PMID:23975012

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques for the analysis of drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Levine, Barry K.; Smith, Michael L.; Magluilo, Joseph J.; Schaefer, Teresa

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic deposition techniques for Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared (GC/FT-IR) can be successfully employed in urinalysis for drugs of abuse with detection limits comparable to those of the established Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. The additional confidence of the data that infrared analysis can offer has been helpful in identifying ambiguous results, particularly, in the case of amphetamines where drugs of abuse can be confused with over-the-counter medications or naturally occurring amines. Hair analysis has been important in drug testing when adulteration of urine samples has been a question. Functional group mapping can further assist the analysis and track drug use versus time.

  2. Dilatometric technique for evaluation of the kinetics of solid-state transformation of maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-12-01

    Solid-state transformation kinetics of a 350 grad commercial maraging steel were investigated using a nonisothermal dilatometric technique. Two solid-state reactions -- namely, precipitation of intermetallic phases from supersaturated martensite and reversion of martensite to austenite -- were identified. Determination was made of the temperatures at which the rates of these reactions reached a maximum at different heating rates. The kinetics of the individual reactions in terms of activation energy were analyzed by simplified procedures based on the Kissinger equation. An estimated activation energy of 145 {+-} 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of intermetallic phase was in good agreement with reported results based on the isothermal hardness measurement technique. Martensite to austenite reversion was associated with an activation energy of 224 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, which is very close to the activation energy for diffusion of substitutional elements in ferrite. Results were supplemented with microstructural analysis.

  3. Efficient gene transfer in C.elegans: extrachromosomal maintenance and integration of transforming sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mello, C C; Kramer, J M; Stinchcomb, D; Ambros, V

    1991-01-01

    We describe a dominant behavioral marker, rol-6(su-1006), and an efficient microinjection procedure which facilitate the recovery of Caenorhabditis elegans transformants. We use these tools to study the mechanism of C.elegans DNA transformation. By injecting mixtures of genetically marked DNA molecules, we show that large extrachromosomal arrays assemble directly from the injected molecules and that homologous recombination drives array assembly. Appropriately placed double-strand breaks stimulated homologous recombination during array formation. Our data indicate that the size of the assembled transgenic structures determines whether or not they will be maintained extrachromosomally or lost. We show that low copy number extrachromosomal transformation can be achieved by adjusting the relative concentration of DNA molecules in the injection mixture. Integration of the injected DNA, though relatively rare, was reproducibly achieved when single-stranded oligonucleotide was co-injected with the double-stranded DNA. Images PMID:1935914

  4. Constrained tone transformation technique for separation and combination of Mandarin tone and intonation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinfu; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirose, Keikichi

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses a classical but important problem: The coupling of lexical tones and sentence intonation in tonal languages, such as Chinese, focusing particularly on voice fundamental frequency (F1) contours of speech. It is important because it forms the basis of speech synthesis technology and prosody analysis. We provide a solution to the problem with a constrained tone transformation technique based on structural modeling of the F1 contours. This consists of transforming target values in pairs from norms to variants. These targets are intended to sparsely specify the prosodic contributions to the F1 contours, while the alignment of target pairs between norms and variants is based on underlying lexical tone structures. When the norms take the citation forms of lexical tones, the technique makes it possible to separate sentence intonation from observed F0 contours. When the norms take normative F0 contours, it is possible to measure intonation variations from the norms to the variants, both having identical lexical tone structures. This paper explains the underlying scientific and linguistic principles and presents an algorithm that was implemented on computers. The method's capability of separating and combining tone and intonation is evaluated through analysis and re-synthesis of several hundred observed F0 contours. PMID:16583918

  5. Integration of Geomatic Techniques for the Urban Cavity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cagliari, county seat of Sardinia Region (Italy), situated in the southern part of the island, is characterized by a subsoil full of cavities. The excavations in fact, which lasted more than 4000 years, had a great development due also to the special geological characteristics of the city subsoil. The underground voids, which the city is rich in, belong to different classes such as hydraulic structures (aqueducts, cisterns, wells, etc.), settlement works (tunnels, bomb shelters, tombs etc.) and various works (quarries, natural caves, etc.). This paper describes the phases of the survey of a large cavity below a high-traffic square near the Faculty of Engineering in the city of Cagliari, where the research team works. The cave, which is part of a larger complex, is important because it was used in the thirteenth century (known as the Pisan age) as a stone quarry. There are traces of this activity that have to be protected. Moreover, during the last forty years the continuous crossover of vehicles cracked the roof of the cave compromising the stability of the entire area. Consequently a plan was developed to make the whole cavity safe and usable for visits. The study of the safety of the cave has involved different professionals among which geologists, engineers, constructors. The goal of the University of Cagliari geomatic team was to solve two problems: to obtain geometrical information about the void and correctly place the cave in the context of existing maps. The survey and the products, useful for the investigation of the technicians involved, had to comply with tolerances of 3 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical component. The approach chosen for this purpose was to integrate different geomatic techniques. The cave was surveyed using a laser scanner (Faro Photon 80) in order to obtain a 3D model of the cave from which all the geometrical information was derived, while both classic topography and GPS techniques were used to include the cave in the

  6. Tensor Product Model Transformation Based Adaptive Integral-Sliding Mode Controller: Equivalent Control Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model. PMID:24453897

  7. Renal Graft Fibrosis and Inflammation Quantification by an Automated Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    Vuiblet, Vincent; Fere, Michael; Gobinet, Cyril; Birembaut, Philippe; Piot, Olivier; Rieu, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis and interstitial active inflammation are the main histologic features of renal allograft biopsy specimens. Fibrosis is currently assessed by semiquantitative subjective analysis, and color image analysis has been developed to improve the reliability and repeatability of this evaluation. However, these techniques fail to distinguish fibrosis from constitutive collagen or active inflammation. We developed an automatic, reproducible Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging-based technique for simultaneous quantification of fibrosis and inflammation in renal allograft biopsy specimens. We generated and validated a classification model using 49 renal biopsy specimens and subsequently tested the robustness of this classification algorithm on 166 renal grafts. Finally, we explored the clinical relevance of fibrosis quantification using FTIR imaging by comparing results with renal function at 3 months after transplantation (M3) and the variation of renal function between M3 and M12. We showed excellent robustness for fibrosis and inflammation classification, with >90% of renal biopsy specimens adequately classified by FTIR imaging. Finally, fibrosis quantification by FTIR imaging correlated with renal function at M3, and the variation in fibrosis between M3 and M12 correlated well with the variation in renal function over the same period. This study shows that FTIR-based analysis of renal graft biopsy specimens is a reproducible and reliable label-free technique for quantifying fibrosis and active inflammation. This technique seems to be more relevant than digital image analysis and promising for both research studies and routine clinical practice. PMID:26683669

  8. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  9. An integrating current transformer for fast extraction from the HIRFL-CSR main ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Xia; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Mao, Rui-Shi; Yin, Yan; Yuan, You-Jin; Yang, Jian-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    For any experiment that uses the beam of an accelerator, monitoring the beam intensity is always an important concern. It is particularly useful if one can continuously measure the beam current without disturbing the beam. We report here on test experiments for an Integrating Current Transformer (ICT) used to measure fast extraction beams from the HIRFL-CSR main ring (CSRm). The laboratory tests and beam intensity measurement results are presented in this paper. The influence of the kicker noise is also analyzed.

  10. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    SciTech Connect

    Zerr, Robert J; Azmy, Yousry Y

    2010-11-23

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution by up to {approx}50% when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing case are opticaUy thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block preconditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient preconditioner.

  11. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  12. Partial discharge localization in power transformers based on the sequential quadratic programming-genetic algorithm adopting acoustic emission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And

  13. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application. PMID:26405924

  14. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods. PMID:27586732

  15. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Liao Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  16. Prepreg cure monitoring using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier Transform Infrared Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in situ diffuse reflectance-Fourier transform infrared technique was developed to determine infrared spectra of graphite fiber prepregs as they were being cured. A bismaleimide, an epoxy, and addition polyimide matrix resin prepregs were studied. An experimental polyimide adhesive was also examined. Samples were positioned on a small heater at the focal point of diffuse reflectance optics and programmed at 15 F/min while FTIR spectra were being scanned, averaged, and stored. An analysis of the resulting spectra provided basic insights into changes in matrix resin molecular structure which accompanied reactions such as imidization and crosslinking. An endo-exothermal isomerization involving reactive end-caps was confirmed for the addition polyimide prepregs. The results of this study contribute to a fundamental understanding of the processing of composites and adhesives. Such understanding will promote the development of more efficient cure cycles.

  17. The use of near infrared Fourier Transform techniques in the study of surface enhanced Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, M.; Sockalingum, D.; Musiani, M. M.

    Near infrared Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the SERS of a number of electrode-solution interfaces. These measurements are illustrated by the following examples: the adsorption of pyridine on Ag, Cu and An surfaces; the adsorption of ferri- and ferrocyanide ions on An electrodes in two different support electrolytes; the behaviour of the corrosion inhibitors benzotriazole and 2-aminopyrimidine at Cu surfaces. Measurements of the DSERS spectra of pyridine at Ag electrodes and of normal Raman spectra of pyridine at Pt electrodes are also reported. The results are also compared with data taken by conventional methods in the visible region and the advantages of this newly developed technique are assessed.

  18. Measurements of solar magnetic fields by Fourier transform techniques. II - Saturated and blended lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fourier techniques have been exhaustively calibrated using Unno's (1956) results for the absorption profile of a simple Zeeman triplet. If a simple transformation is applied to the normalized line depths, then magnetic-field strengths and inclination angles can be measured very accurately from noisy saturated line profiles. Systematic errors caused by saturation effects can be estimated and reduced by varying one parameter. When a significant fraction of the line profile is unsplit and unpolarized, large errors may be made in measurements of low fields, unless the line is sufficiently weak. For a weak line, a vertical field of 1600 gauss can be measured to 10% accuracy even when 70% of the line profile is stray light. These stray-light errors are troublesome in measuring fields of gaps and pores but not sunspots. Numerical results of the error analysis are presented graphically.

  19. Estimation of petrophysical and fluid properties using integral transforms in nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Fred K; Venkataramanan, Lalitha; Habashy, Tarek M; Freed, Denise E

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade, low-field NMR relaxation and diffusion measurements in grossly inhomogeneous fields have been used to characterize properties of porous media, e.g., porosity and permeability. Pulse sequences such as CPMG, inversion and saturation recovery as well as diffusion editing have been used to estimate distribution functions of relaxation times and diffusion. Linear functionals of these distribution functions have been used to predict petro-physical and fluid properties like permeability, viscosity, fluid typing, etc. This paper describes an analysis method using integral transforms to directly compute linear functionals of the distributions of relaxation times and diffusion without first computing the distributions from the measured magnetization data. Different linear functionals of the distribution function can be obtained by choosing appropriate kernels in the integral transforms. There are two significant advantages of this approach over the traditional algorithm involving inversion of the distribution function from the measured data. First, it is a direct linear transform of the data. Thus, in contrast to the traditional analysis which involves inversion of an ill-conditioned, non-linear problem, the estimates from this new method are more accurate. Second, the uncertainty in the linear functional can be obtained in a straight-forward manner as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the measured data. We demonstrate the performance of this method on simulated data. PMID:23369701

  20. Transformation of Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas: Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Integration Events

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S. M.; Boynton, J. E.; Gillham, N. W.; Randolph-Anderson, B. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Harris, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in Chlamydomonas has been achieved by the biolistic process using cloned chloroplast DNA fragments carrying mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. The sites of exchange employed during the integration of the donor DNA into the recipient genome have been localized using a combination of antibiotic resistance mutations in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms that flank these genes. Complete or nearly complete replacement of a region of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cell by the corresponding sequence from the donor plasmid was the most common integration event. Exchange events between the homologous donor and recipient sequences occurred preferentially near the vector:insert junctions. Insertion of the donor rRNA genes and flanking sequences into one inverted repeat of the recipient genome was followed by intramolecular copy correction so that both copies of the inverted repeat acquired identical sequences. Increased frequencies of rRNA gene transformants were achieved by reducing the copy number of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cells and by decreasing the heterology between donor and recipient DNA sequences flanking the selectable markers. In addition to producing bona fide chloroplast rRNA transformants, the biolistic process induced mutants resistant to low levels of streptomycin, typical of nuclear mutations in Chlamydomonas. PMID:1981764

  1. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  2. Self-Consistent Sources for Integrable Equations Via Deformations of Binary Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvartatskyi, Oleksandr; Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2016-08-01

    We reveal the origin and structure of self-consistent source extensions of integrable equations from the perspective of binary Darboux transformations. They arise via a deformation of the potential that is central in this method. As examples, we obtain in particular matrix versions of self-consistent source extensions of the KdV, Boussinesq, sine-Gordon, nonlinear Schrödinger, KP, Davey-Stewartson, two-dimensional Toda lattice and discrete KP equation. We also recover a (2+1)-dimensional version of the Yajima-Oikawa system from a deformation of the pKP hierarchy. By construction, these systems are accompanied by a hetero binary Darboux transformation, which generates solutions of such a system from a solution of the source-free system and additionally solutions of an associated linear system and its adjoint. The essence of all this is encoded in universal equations in the framework of bidifferential calculus.

  3. Self-Consistent Sources for Integrable Equations Via Deformations of Binary Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvartatskyi, Oleksandr; Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2016-06-01

    We reveal the origin and structure of self-consistent source extensions of integrable equations from the perspective of binary Darboux transformations. They arise via a deformation of the potential that is central in this method. As examples, we obtain in particular matrix versions of self-consistent source extensions of the KdV, Boussinesq, sine-Gordon, nonlinear Schrödinger, KP, Davey-Stewartson, two-dimensional Toda lattice and discrete KP equation. We also recover a (2+1)-dimensional version of the Yajima-Oikawa system from a deformation of the pKP hierarchy. By construction, these systems are accompanied by a hetero binary Darboux transformation, which generates solutions of such a system from a solution of the source-free system and additionally solutions of an associated linear system and its adjoint. The essence of all this is encoded in universal equations in the framework of bidifferential calculus.

  4. Integrating Literature in Mathematics: A Teaching Technique for Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elsa C.; Thornton, Jenifer Salter; Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of content areas is not a new concept (Moyer, 2000). Integration is promoted by many teacher educators because of its benefits for learners of all ages and backgrounds (Burns, 2005; Douville, Pugalee, & Wallace, 2003; Pica, 2002). Literacy in general, but reading in particular, is important across the content areas. Mathematics…

  5. Transformation of Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) by vector plasmids integrating into the genome.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Wolfgang; Wichard, Thomas; Weissgerber, Adelheid

    2015-10-01

    A method for the stable transformation of the green marine macroalga Ulva mutabilis was developed based on vector plasmids integrating into the genome. By combination of the expression signals (promoter, enhancer, and transcriptional termination sequences) of a chromosomal rbcS gene from U. mutabilis with the bleomycin resistance gene (ble) from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus, a dominant selectable marker gene was constructed for the preparation of a series of E. coli-U. mutabilis shuttle vector plasmids. Special vectors were prepared for the introduction and expression of foreign genes in Ulva, for insertional mutagenesis and gene tagging by plasmid integration into the genome, and for protein tagging by the green fluorescent protein, as well as tools for posttranscriptional gene silencing and cosmid cloning to prepare genomic gene libraries for mutant gene complementation. The vectors were successfully tested in pilot experiments, where they were efficiently introduced into Ulva gametes, zoospores or protoplasts of somatic blade cells by treatment with Ca(2+) -ions and polyethylene glycol under isotonic conditions at low ionic strength. The parthenogenetically propagated phleomycin-resistant transformants of the mutant slender (sl) and the wildtype (wt) were demonstrated to be carrying the plasmids randomly integrated into the chromosomes often as tandem repeat clusters. PMID:26986891

  6. Performance of an HDTV codec adopting transform and motion compensation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Marzio; Cucchi, Silvio; Muratori, Mario

    1991-12-01

    Digital techniques are widely adopted to process the video signal, and nowadays there is the necessity of transmitting conventional and high-definition television signals between different studios. In the near future it could be possible to deliver a digital signal to the consumer. To allow the use of the presently available digital networks and satellites, sophisticated compression techniques have been devised to limit the bit-rate requirements and to provide a high-quality and reliable service. A hybrid predictive/transform system has been devised and implemented in the framework of the European project EU 256. The main parameters of this system are in accordance with those being recommended by ETSI and CMTT for the transmission of conventional component TV. Codecs are available for the TV and HDTV formats presently in use and can operate with a wide range of transmission rates. The optimization of the system and the evaluation of its performance have been carried out on the basis of a large number of subjective tests in accordance with the user requirements specified by the standardization bodies. The codecs have been extensively tested on-field during experimental point-to-multipoint satellite transmission of HDTV signals on the occasion of soccer matches.

  7. Studies on Nephrite and Jadeite Jades by Fourier Transform Infrared (ftir) and Raman Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.; Lim, L. C.

    2013-10-01

    The mineralogical properties of black nephrite jade from Western Australia are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using both transmission and specular reflectance techniques in the 4000-400 cm-1 wavenumber region. The infrared absorption peaks in the 3700-3600 cm-1 region which are due to the O-H stretching mode provides a quantitative analysis of the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio in the mineral composition of jade samples. The Fe/(Fe+Mg) percentage in black nephrite is found to be higher than that in green nephrite, but comparable to that of actinolite (iron-rich nephrite). This implies that the mineralogy of black nephrite is closer to actinolite than tremolite. The jade is also characterized using Raman spectroscopy in the 1200-200 cm-1 region. Results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic data of black nephrite jade are compared with those of green nephrite jade from New Zealand and jadeite jade from Myanmar. Black nephrite appears to have a slightly different chemical composition from green nephrite. Spectra from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques were found to be useful in differentiating black nephrite, green nephrite, and green jadeite jades. Furthermore, data on refractive index, specific gravity, and hardness of black nephrite jade are measured and compared with those of green nephrite and of jadeite jade.

  8. Application of the windowed-Fourier-transform-based fringe analysis technique for investigating temperature and concentration fields in fluids.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Sharika; Srivastava, Atul

    2014-04-10

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a novel fringe analysis technique based on the principles of the windowed-Fourier-transform (WFT) for the determination of temperature and concentration fields from interferometric images for a range of heat and mass transfer applications. Based on the extent of the noise level associated with the experimental data, the technique has been coupled with two different phase unwrapping methods: the Itoh algorithm and the quality guided phase unwrapping technique for phase extraction. In order to generate the experimental data, a range of experiments have been carried out which include cooling of a vertical flat plate in free convection conditions, combustion of mono-propellant flames, and growth of organic as well as inorganic crystals from their aqueous solutions. The flat plate and combustion experiments are modeled as heat transfer applications wherein the interest is to determine the whole-field temperature distribution. Aqueous-solution-based crystal growth experiments are performed to simulate the mass transfer phenomena and the interest is to determine the two-dimensional solute concentration field around the growing crystal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been employed to record the path-integrated quantity of interest (temperature and/or concentration) in the form of interferometric images in the experiments. The potential of the WFT method has also been demonstrated on numerically simulated phase data for varying noise levels, and the accuracy in phase extraction have been quantified in terms of the root mean square errors. Three levels of noise, i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20% have been considered. Results of the present study show that the WFT technique allows an accurate extraction of phase values that can subsequently be converted into two-dimensional temperature and/or concentration distribution fields. Moreover, since WFT is a local processing technique, speckle patterns and the inherent

  9. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization. PMID:25629264

  10. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  11. An Optimized Integrator Windup Protection Technique Applied to a Turbofan Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Stephen R.; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technique for providing memoryless integrator windup protection which utilizes readily available optimization software tools. This integrator windup protection synthesis provides a concise methodology for creating integrator windup protection for each actuation system loop independently while assuring both controller and closed loop system stability. The individual actuation system loops' integrator windup protection can then be combined to provide integrator windup protection for the entire system. This technique is applied to an H(exp infinity) based multivariable control designed for a linear model of an advanced afterburning turbofan engine. The resulting transient characteristics are examined for the integrated system while encountering single and multiple actuation limits.

  12. Infrared sequence transformation technique for in situ measurement of thermal diffusivity and monitoring of thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huilong; Zheng, Boyu; Chen, Feifan

    2015-11-01

    An infrared (IR) sequence transformation technique for visualization of thermal diffusion process and in situ measurement of radial thermal diffusivity is reported. It consists of heating the sample surface instantaneously by an angle-adjustable Gaussian beam and recording the temperature evolution by an IR camera. Compared to common techniques requiring the excitation beam to be fixed approximately perpendicular to the measurement surface, the proposed method allows a dynamic adjustment of the excitation incidence angle according to the actual operating space, which contributes to a fast and efficient in situ measurement approach. To achieve this, a new heat transfer model considering the elliptical distortion of the Gaussian beam caused by tilted incidence is established. Through decoupling analysis it is discovered that the area s surrounded by the maximum temperature curve rTmax (θ) grows linearly over time. The thermal diffusivity can be obtained from the growth rate at any incidence angle. Based on this s-time relation, an automatic thermal diffusivity characterization framework which involves extracting the rTmax (θ) sequence through a distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE) formulation is proposed. For verification, samples of 304 stainless steel, titanium and zirconium are measured with the excitation incidence angles ranging from 30 ° to 60 ° , and the relative deviations from the literature values are - 6.28 % to 3.27 %, - 3.22 % to 5.79%, and - 1.61 % to 4.03% respectively. Besides, the thermal diffusion process of two typical printed circuit boards (PCBs) are monitored and analyzed visually with this technique.

  13. Standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer for imaging spectrometry in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowiecki, Gaël. D.; Madi, Mohammad; Shorubalko, Ivan; Philipoussis, Irène; Alberti, Edoardo; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.

    2015-09-01

    We show the miniaturization and parallelization of a scanning standing wave spectrometer with a long term goal of creating a compact imaging spectrometer. In our standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer, light is injected with micro-lenses into several optical polymer waveguides. A piezo actuated mirror located at the waveguide end-facet can shift the interferogram to increase its sampling frequency. The spatial distribution of the standing wave intensity inside the waveguide is partially scattered out of the plane by a periodic metallic grating and recorded by a CCD camera. We present spectra acquisition for six adjacent waveguides simultaneously at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  14. Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response. PMID:26368182

  15. Integrated transformations of plant biomass to valuable chemicals, biodegradable polymers and nanoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, B. N.; Chesnokov, N. V.; Taraban'ko, V. E.; Kuznetsova, S. A.; Petrov, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Integrated transformations of wood biomass to valuable chemicals and materials are described. They include the main biomass components separation, the conversion of cellulose to glucose, levulinic acid, biodegradable polymers and lignin - to nanoporous carbons. For wood fractionation on pure cellulose and low molecular mass lignin the methods of catalytic oxidation and exploded autohydrolysis are used. The processes of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and levulinic acid were optimized. New methods of biodegradable polymers synthesis from lactone of levulinic acid and nanoporous carbons from lignin were suggested.

  16. Time transformations and Cowell's method. [for numerical integration of satellite motion equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez, C. E.; Hilinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The precise numerical integration of Cowell's equations of satellite motion is frequently performed with an independent variable s defined by an equation of the form dt = cr to the n-th power ds, where t represents time, r the radial distance from the center of attraction, c is a constant, and n is a parameter. This has been primarily motivated by the 'uniformizing' effects of such a transformation resulting in desirable 'analytic' stepsize control for elliptical orbits. This report discusses the 'proper' choice of the parameter n defining the independent variable s for various types of orbits and perturbation models, and develops a criterion for its selection.

  17. Large-scale, white-light, transformation optics using integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxburgh, Stephen; White, Chris D.; Antoniou, Georgios; Orife, Ejovbokoghene; Sharpe, Tim; Courtial, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    We describe a way to realise transformation-optical devices from structures of micro-structured sheets called generalised confocal lenslet arrays. The resulting devices should work for all visible light, and they should be relatively easy and cheap to (mass-)produce on the scale of metres, but they suffer from field-of-view limitations and significant transmission loss. Furthermore, the mapping between electromagnetic space and physical space is not through stigmatic imaging, but integral imaging. As an example application of this technology, we design and simulate an architectural window that cloaks insulation material with the aim of reducing heat loss.

  18. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and −31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  19. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (T g) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and -31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  20. Methane emissions from free-ranging cattle: comparison of tracer and integrated horizontal flux techniques.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David W T; Bryant, Glenn R; Hsu, David; Reisinger, Andy R

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurements of methane (CH4) emission rates from livestock in their undisturbed natural environments are required to assess their impacts on radiative forcing (i.e., enhanced greenhouse effect) and the environment. Here we compare results from two nonintrusive techniques for the measurement of CH4 emissions from cattle. The cows were kept in an outdoor feeding strip that allowed them to follow natural behavioral patterns but contained them within a well defined space. In the first technique, nitrous oxide (N2O) was released as a tracer at the upwind edge of the feeding strip, and the downwind concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured simultaneously using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Average CH4 emission per cow was calculated each half-hour on three separate days from the correlation between the two gases. The second technique was the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) or 1-D mass-balance method, in which we used the measured vertical profiles of CH4 concentration and windspeed downwind of the cows to determine the total CH4 emission. Comparing the IHF results to the known release rate of N2O allowed us to test the IHF technique independently. We found agreement within 10% for all comparisons on all days. The daily CH4 emission rate averaged over all tracer and IHF measurements was 342 g CH4 head(-1) d(-1). This is within the range of previous measurements for mature lactating dairy cattle (200-430 g CH4 head(-1) d(-1)) but higher than expected for yearling cattle. The high CH4 emissions are accompanied by high CO2 emissions determined from the FTIR measurements. The bias is most likely due to the measurements being made during and after supplementary feeding of the cattle. PMID:18396544

  1. Detonation discrimination techniques using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system and a near-infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dills, Anthony N.; Gross, Kevin; Perram, Glen P.

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of battlespace characterization, including the ability to classify munitions type and size, experimental data has been collected remotely from ground-based sensors, processed, and analyzed for several conventional munitions. The spectral, temporal and spatial infrared signatures from bomb detonations were simultaneously recorded using a Bomem MR157 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and an Indigo Systems Alpha Near-Infrared camera. Three different high explosive materials at three different quantities each were examined in one series of field studies. The FTIR spectra were recorded at 4 cm-1 spectral resolution and 123-ms temporal resolution using both HgCdTd (500-6000 cm-1) and InSb (1800-6000 cm-1) detectors. Novel key features have been identified that will aid in discriminating various types and sizes of flashes. These features include spectral dependent projections of one event's temporal data onto another event's temporal data, time dependence of the fireball size, ratios of specific integrated bands, and spectral dependence of temporal fit constants. Using Fisher discrimination and principal component techniques these features are projected onto a line that maximizes the differences in the classes of flashes and then identify the Bayesian decision boundaries for classification.

  2. Third-order symplectic integration method with inverse time dispersion transform for long-term simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-06-01

    The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.

  3. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAP PROJECTION OF THE SPHEROID USING TRANSFORMATION OF THE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    the (irreducible) Incomplete Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind, the value for the tangent of one half the amplitude of the Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind is now known. The elliptic integral may now be computed by any desired method, and the result will be the Gauss-Kruger Transverse Mercator Projection. This result is a consequence of the fact that these steps produce a computation of real distance along the image (in the plane) of the principal meridian, and an analytic continuation of the distance at points that don't lie on the principal meridian. The elliptic-integral method used by this program is one of the "transformations of the elliptic integral" (similar to Landen's Transformation), appearing in standard handbooks of mathematical functions. Only elementary transcendental functions are utilized. The program output is the conventional (as used by the mapping agencies) cartesian coordinates, in meters, of the Transverse Mercator projection. The origin is at the intersection of the principal meridian and the equator. This FORTRAN77 program was developed on an IBM PC series computer equipped with an Intel Math Coprocessor. Double precision complex arithmetic and transcendental functions are needed to support a projection accuracy of 1 mm. Because such functions are not usually part of the FORTRAN library, the needed functions have been explicitly programmed and included in the source code. The program was developed in 1989. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAP PROJECTION OF THE SPHEROID USING TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  4. Gravitational Waves from Rotating Neutron Stars and Evaluation of fast Chirp Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies from 300 - 600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during X-ray bursts.

  5. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  6. Techniques for optimization of queries on integrated biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Zoé; Raschid, Louiqa; Eckman, Barbara A

    2004-06-01

    Today, scientific data are inevitably digitized, stored in a wide variety of formats, and are accessible over the Internet. Scientific discovery increasingly involves accessing multiple heterogeneous data sources, integrating the results of complex queries, and applying further analysis and visualization applications in order to collect datasets of interest. Building a scientific integration platform to support these critical tasks requires accessing and manipulating data extracted from flat files or databases, documents retrieved from the Web, as well as data that are locally materialized in warehouses or generated by software. The lack of efficiency of existing approaches can significantly affect the process with lengthy delays while accessing critical resources or with the failure of the system to report any results. Some queries take so much time to be answered that their results are returned via email, making their integration with other results a tedious task. This paper presents several issues that need to be addressed to provide seamless and efficient integration of biomolecular data. Identified challenges include: capturing and representing various domain specific computational capabilities supported by a source including sequence or text search engines and traditional query processing; developing a methodology to acquire and represent semantic knowledge and metadata about source contents, overlap in source contents, and access costs; developing cost and semantics based decision support tools to select sources and capabilities, and to generate efficient query evaluation plans. PMID:15297988

  7. Optical transformation based image encryption and data embedding techniques using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debalina; Ghosh, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    The proposed work describes optical transformations such as Fourier transformation and Fresnel transformation based encryption and decryption of images using random phase masks (RPMs). The encrypted images have been embedded in some secret cover files of other formats like text files, word files, audio files etc to increase the robustness in the security applications. So, if any one wants to send confidential documents, it will be difficult for the interloper to unhide the secret information. The whole work has been done in MATLAB®

  8. Integrating Positive Psychology Techniques into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Boykin, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology offers rehabilitation counselor educators a framework to help students evaluate their own competencies and understand the value of a strengths-based approach to rehabilitation counseling. This article reviews several positive psychology techniques and discusses recommended uses as well as their effectiveness. Positive…

  9. Flat focusing lens designs having minimized reflection based on coordinate transformation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2009-05-11

    Two-dimensional far-zone focusing lenses are designed using the coordinate transformation approach that feature minimized reflections from the lens boundaries. A flat lens of trapezoidal cross section completely converts incident waves with cylindrical wavefronts into transmitted waves with planar wavefronts. A rectangular lens with reduced non-magnetic material parameters that incorporates a nonlinear coordinate transformation features a significantly reduced amount of reflections compared with the non-magnetic lens based on a linear transformation. The improved reflection performance of each new lens design is verified using a full-wave finite-element analysis and compared with previously reported transformation optical lenses. PMID:19434112

  10. Integrative genomic testing of cancer survival using semiparametric linear transformation models.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Cai, Tianxi; Kim, Eunhee

    2016-07-20

    The wide availability of multi-dimensional genomic data has spurred increasing interests in integrating multi-platform genomic data. Integrative analysis of cancer genome landscape can potentially lead to deeper understanding of the biological process of cancer. We integrate epigenetics (DNA methylation and microRNA expression) and gene expression data in tumor genome to delineate the association between different aspects of the biological processes and brain tumor survival. To model the association, we employ a flexible semiparametric linear transformation model that incorporates both the main effects of these genomic measures as well as the possible interactions among them. We develop variance component tests to examine different coordinated effects by testing various subsets of model coefficients for the genomic markers. A Monte Carlo perturbation procedure is constructed to approximate the null distribution of the proposed test statistics. We further propose omnibus testing procedures to synthesize information from fitting various parsimonious sub-models to improve power. Simulation results suggest that our proposed testing procedures maintain proper size under the null and outperform standard score tests. We further illustrate the utility of our procedure in two genomic analyses for survival of glioblastoma multiforme patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887583

  11. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    PubMed

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty. PMID:18279256

  12. Process sequence optimization for digital microfluidic integration using EWOD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Supriya; Joyce, Robin; Sharma, Akash Kumar; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, Niti Nipun; Varghese, Soney; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Micro/nano-fluidic MEMS biosensors are the devices that detects the biomolecules. The emerging micro/nano-fluidic devices provide high throughput and high repeatability with very low response time and reduced device cost as compared to traditional devices. This article presents the experimental details for process sequence optimization of digital microfluidics (DMF) using "electrowetting-on-dielectric" (EWOD). Stress free thick film deposition of silicon dioxide using PECVD and subsequent process for EWOD techniques have been optimized in this work.

  13. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu

    2012-09-15

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

  14. Binary Darboux Transformations in Bidifferential Calculus and Integrable Reductions of Vacuum Einstein Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2013-02-01

    We present a general solution-generating result within the bidifferential calculus approach to integrable partial differential and difference equations, based on a binary Darboux-type transformation. This is then applied to the non-autonomous chiral model, a certain reduction of which is known to appear in the case of the D-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. A large class of exact solutions is obtained, and the aforementioned reduction is implemented. This results in an alternative to the well-known Belinski-Zakharov formalism. We recover relevant examples of space-times in dimensions four (Kerr-NUT, Tomimatsu-Sato) and five (single and double Myers-Perry black holes, black saturn, bicycling black rings).

  15. Redatuming controlled-source electromagnetic data using Stratton-Chu type integral transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method of analyzing controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data based on redatuming of the observed data from the actual receivers into the virtual receivers. We use the Stratton-Chu type integral transform to calculate the EM field in the virtual receivers. The virtual receivers can be placed at any desirable position, including close to the target, which increases the sensitivity of the EM data to the target. The developed method provides an effective model-based interpolation/extrapolation tool for electromagnetic field data. This paper demonstrates that redatuming can be used for designing the optimized CSEM survey configuration. The numerical examples, for the Kevin Dome Electromagnetic Project Site, illustrate the practical effectiveness of the developed method.

  16. Reconstructing Folding Energy Landscape Profiles from Nonequilibrium Pulling Curves with an Inverse Weierstrass Integral Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Megan C.; Ritchie, Dustin B.; Foster, Daniel A. N.; Beach, Kevin S. D.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2014-12-01

    The energy landscapes that drive structure formation in biopolymers are difficult to measure. Here we validate experimentally a novel method to reconstruct landscape profiles from single-molecule pulling curves using an inverse Weierstrass transform (IWT) of the Jarzysnki free-energy integral. The method was applied to unfolding measurements of a DNA hairpin, replicating the results found by the more-established weighted histogram (WHAM) and inverse Boltzmann methods. Applying both WHAM and IWT methods to reconstruct the folding landscape for a RNA pseudoknot having a stiff energy barrier, we found that landscape features with sharper curvature than the force probe stiffness could not be recovered with the IWT method. The IWT method is thus best for analyzing data from stiff force probes such as atomic force microscopes.

  17. Three New (2+1)-dimensional Integrable Systems and Some Related Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We introduce two operator commutators by using different-degree loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1, then under the framework of zero curvature equations we generate two (2+1)-dimensional integrable hierarchies, including the (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave (SWW) hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional Kaup-Newell (KN) hierarchy. Through reduction of the (2+1)-dimensional hierarchies, we get a (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KN equation. Furthermore, we obtain two Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation. Similarly, the Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional KN equation could be deduced. Finally, with the help of the spatial spectral matrix of SWW hierarchy, we generate a (2+1) heat equation and a (2+1) nonlinear generalized SWW system containing inverse operators with respect to the variables x and y by using a reduction spectral problem from the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2012AQ011, ZR2013AL016, ZR2015EM042, National Social Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 13BJY026, the Development of Science and Technology Project under Grant No. 2015NS1048 and A Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program under Grant No. J14LI58

  18. Nitrogen transformations and mass balance in an integrated constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) transformations and removal in integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs) are often high, but the contributions of various pathways, including nitrification/denitrification, assimilation by plants and sediment storage, remain unclear. This study quantified the contributions of different N removal pathways in a typical multi-celled ICW system treating domestic wastewater. Findings showed near complete average total N retention of circa 95% at 102.3 g m⁻² yr⁻¹ during the 4-year period of operation. Variations in total N and NH4-N removal rates were associated with effluent flow volume rates and seasons. According to the mass balance estimation, assimilation by plants and sediment/soil storage accounted for approximately 23% and 20%, respectively, of the total N load removal. These were the major N removal route besides microbial transformations. Thus, the combination of plants with high biomass production offer valuable opportunities for improving ICW performance. The retrieval and use of sequestered N in the ICW sediment/soils require coherent management and provide innovative and valuable opportunities. PMID:25401313

  19. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  20. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  1. Application of Reflectance Transformation Imaging Technique to Improve Automated Edge Detection in a Fossilized Oyster Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, Ana; Puttonen, Eetu; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Székely, Balázs; Mandic, Oleg; Nothegger, Clemens; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The world's largest fossilized oyster reef is located in Stetten, Lower Austria excavated during field campaigns of the Natural History Museum Vienna between 2005 and 2008. It is studied in paleontology to learn about change in climate from past events. In order to support this study, a laser scanning and photogrammetric campaign was organized in 2014 for 3D documentation of the large and complex site. The 3D point clouds and high resolution images from this field campaign are visualized by photogrammetric methods in form of digital surface models (DSM, 1 mm resolution) and orthophoto (0.5 mm resolution) to help paleontological interpretation of data. Due to size of the reef, automated analysis techniques are needed to interpret all digital data obtained from the field. One of the key components in successful automation is detection of oyster shell edges. We have tested Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to visualize the reef data sets for end-users through a cultural heritage viewing interface (RTIViewer). The implementation includes a Lambert shading method to visualize DSMs derived from terrestrial laser scanning using scientific software OPALS. In contrast to shaded RTI no devices consisting of a hardware system with LED lights, or a body to rotate the light source around the object are needed. The gray value for a given shaded pixel is related to the angle between light source and the normal at that position. Brighter values correspond to the slope surfaces facing the light source. Increasing of zenith angle results in internal shading all over the reef surface. In total, oyster reef surface contains 81 DSMs with 3 m x 2 m each. Their surface was illuminated by moving the virtual sun every 30 degrees (12 azimuth angles from 20-350) and every 20 degrees (4 zenith angles from 20-80). This technique provides paleontologists an interactive approach to virtually inspect the oyster reef, and to interpret the shell surface by changing the light source direction

  2. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  3. Highly efficient full-wave electromagnetic analysis of 3-D arbitrarily shaped waveguide microwave devices using an integral equation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A.; San-Blas, A. A.; Quesada-Pereira, F. D.; Pérez-Soler, J.; Gil, J.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.

    2015-07-01

    A novel technique for the full-wave analysis of 3-D complex waveguide devices is presented. This new formulation, based on the Boundary Integral-Resonant Mode Expansion (BI-RME) method, allows the rigorous full-wave electromagnetic characterization of 3-D arbitrarily shaped metallic structures making use of extremely low CPU resources (both time and memory). The unknown electric current density on the surface of the metallic elements is represented by means of Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, and an algebraic procedure based on a singular value decomposition is applied to transform such functions into the classical solenoidal and nonsolenoidal basis functions needed by the original BI-RME technique. The developed tool also provides an accurate computation of the electromagnetic fields at an arbitrary observation point of the considered device, so it can be used for predicting high-power breakdown phenomena. In order to validate the accuracy and efficiency of this novel approach, several new designs of band-pass waveguides filters are presented. The obtained results (S-parameters and electromagnetic fields) are successfully compared both to experimental data and to numerical simulations provided by a commercial software based on the finite element technique. The results obtained show that the new technique is specially suitable for the efficient full-wave analysis of complex waveguide devices considering an integrated coaxial excitation, where the coaxial probes may be in contact with the metallic insets of the component.

  4. A new algorithm for integrated image quality measurement based on wavelet transform and human visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haihui

    2006-01-01

    An essential determinant of the value of digital images is their quality. Over the past years, there have been many attempts to develop models or metrics for image quality that incorporate elements of human visual sensitivity. However, there is no current standard and objective definition of spectral image quality. This paper proposes a reliable automatic method for objective image quality measurement by wavelet transform and Human visual system. This way the proposed measure differentiates between the random and signal-dependant distortion, which have different effects on human observer. Performance of the proposed quality measure is illustrated by examples involving images with different types of degradation. The technique provides a means to relate the quality of an image to the interpretation and quantification throughout the frequency range, in which the noise level is estimated for quality evaluation. The experimental results of using this method for image quality measurement exhibit good correlation to subjective visual quality assessments.

  5. ORGANIC ACID DERIVATIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way. u mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cle...

  6. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  7. Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Junseok; Stark, Brian H.; Kuo, Andrew; Oliver, Andrew David; Najafi, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.

  8. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  9. Fiber-optic sensor integration and multiplexing techniques for smart skin applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muhs, J.D.; Allison, S.W.; Janke, C.J.; Kercel, S.; Smith, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Integration and multiplexing techniques for smart skin applications using optical fibers has become an increasingly important topic of research in recent years. This paper reviews the initial stages of research in this area at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Specifically, results from first generation fiber-optic temperature and strain sensor development efforts are given, along with a discussion of various integration and multiplexing techniques proposed for future development.

  10. Fiber-optic sensor integration and multiplexing techniques for smart skin applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muhs, J.D.; Allison, S.W.; Janke, C.J.; Kercel, S.; Smith, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    Integration and multiplexing techniques for smart skin applications using optical fibers has become an increasingly important topic of research in recent years. This paper reviews the initial stages of research in this area at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Specifically, results from first generation fiber-optic temperature and strain sensor development efforts are given, along with a discussion of various integration and multiplexing techniques proposed for future development.

  11. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  12. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  13. Application of the wavelet transform in seismic data processing for the development of new noise reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouniotis, Fotios P.; Kubichek, Robert F.; Boyd, Nicholas G. K., III; Majumdar, Arun K.

    1996-10-01

    New techniques for developing more efficient noise reduction schemes are presented and implemented by applying the wavelet transform (WT) to a series of stationary and non- stationary signals. Their effectiveness is illustrated with specific applications to both real and synthetic seismic data, and the superiority over Fourier transform (FT) based methods is demonstrated. These methods aim at the efficient reduction of the effects that surface waves, airwaves, and direct waves can have on the interpretation of a seismic record. We first apply the WT on each trace in a common- depth-point gather and then perform stacking in the WT domain and compute both the mean and median transforms. Then, the signal-to-noise ratio of the stacked transforms is estimated and used as a criterion to improve the quality of the transformed data, and finally the total energy in the stacked WT plane is computed and redistributed in order to boost weak events. The advantage of stacking in the WT domain is that it allows for detection of weak reflections overpowered by high amplitude surface and air waves. Additionally, it is shown that by frequency modulating a mother wavelet, further attenuation of surface waves, airwaves, and first breaks may be achieved.

  14. The conceptual basis of mathematics in cardiology III: linear systems theory and integral transforms.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Sobel, Burton E

    2003-05-01

    This is the third in a series of four articles developed for the readers of Coronary Artery Disease. Without language ideas cannot be articulated. What may not be so immediately obvious is that they cannot be formulated either. One of the essential languages of cardiology is mathematics. Unfortunately, medical education does not emphasize, and in fact, often neglects empowering physicians to think mathematically. Reference to statistics, conditional probability, multicompartmental modeling, algebra, calculus and transforms is common but often without provision of genuine conceptual understanding. At the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Professor Bates developed a course designed to address these deficiencies. The course covered mathematical principles pertinent to clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine and research. It focused on fundamental concepts to facilitate formulation and grasp of ideas.This series of four articles was developed to make the material available for a wider audience. The articles will be published sequentially in Coronary Artery Disease. Beginning with fundamental axioms and basic algebraic manipulations they address algebra, function and graph theory, real and complex numbers, calculus and differential equations, mathematical modeling, linear system theory and integral transforms and statistical theory. The principles and concepts they address provide the foundation needed for in-depth study of any of these topics. Perhaps of even more importance, they should empower cardiologists and cardiovascular researchers to utilize the language of mathematics in assessing the phenomena of immediate pertinence to diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutics. The presentations are interposed with queries (by Coronary Artery Disease abbreviated as CAD) simulating the nature of interactions that occurred during the course itself. Each article concludes with one or more examples illustrating application of the concepts covered to

  15. Exogenous Gene Integration for Microalgal Cell Transformation Using a Nanowire-Incorporated Microdevice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sunwoong; Park, Seunghye; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kwon, Donguk; Jin, EonSeon; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-16

    Superior green algal cells showing high lipid production and rapid growth rate are considered as an alternative for the next generation green energy resources. To achieve the biomass based energy generation, transformed microalgae with superlative properties should be developed through genetic engineering. Contrary to the normal cells, microalgae have rigid cell walls, so that target gene delivery into cells is challengeable. In this study, we report a ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice for a high throughput microalgal transformation. The proposed microdevice was equipped with not only a ZnO nanowire in the microchannel for gene delivery into cells but also a pneumatic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microvalve to modulate the cellular attachment and detachment from the nanowire. As a model, hygromycin B resistance gene cassette (Hyg3) was functionalized on the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires through a disulfide bond and released into green algal cells, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, by reductive cleavage. During Hyg3 gene delivery, a monolithic PDMS membrane was bent down, so that algal cells were pushed down toward ZnO nanowires. The supply of vacuum in the pneumatic line made the PDMS membrane bend up, enabling the gene delivered algal cells to be recovered from the outlet of the microchannel. We successfully confirmed Hyg3 gene integrated in microalgae by amplifying the inserted gene through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The efficiency of the gene delivery to algal cells using the ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice was 6.52 × 10(4)- and 9.66 × 10(4)-fold higher than that of a traditional glass bead beating and electroporation. PMID:26584003

  16. Sensory Integration and Play Behavior: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Using Sensory Integrative Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This case study describes a developmentally delayed 4-year-old and examines behavioral changes that occurred in occupational therapy using sensory integration (SI) techniques. The use of play observation to measure change following SI treatment is discussed, and the relevance of qualitative methodologies to collecting data on play is demonstrated.…

  17. The Kinetic Drawing System: A Review and Integration of the Kinetic Family and School Drawing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.; Prout, H. Thompson

    1985-01-01

    Presents the Kinetic Drawing System as a logical integration of the Kinetic Family Drawing and Kinetic School Drawing techniques. Reviews the literature of these two projective techniques and provides a rationale and process toward their combination into a single approach. (LLL)

  18. Ultra-fast dynamic compression technique to study kinetics of phase transformations in Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Kane, J O; Eggert, J H; Saculla, M D; Jankowski, A F; Bastea, M; Hicks, D G; Collins, G W

    2007-12-28

    Pre-heated Bi was ramp compressed within 30 ns to a peak stress of {approx}11 GPa to explore structural phase transformation kinetics under dynamic loading conditions. Under these ultra-fast compression time-scales the equilibrium Bi I-II phase boundary is overpressurized by {Delta}P {approx} 0.8 GPa. {Delta}P is observed to increase logarithmically with strain rate, {var_epsilon}, above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. Estimates from a kinetics model predict that the Bi I phase is fully transformed within 3 ns.

  19. A non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique to investigate the wave transformation and breaking over a breakwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Simone; Grazia Badas, Maria; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    To design longshore breakwaters, the evaluation of the wave motion transformations over the structures and of the energy they are able to absorb, dissipate and reflect is necessary. To characterize features and transformations of monochromatic wave trains above a breakwater, both submerged and emerged, we have designed and developed a non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique, based on Image Analysis, and carried out an experimental campaign, in a laboratory flume equipped with a wave-maker, in order to test it. The investigation area was lighted with a light sheet and images were recorded by a video-camera. The working fluid was seeded with non buoyant particles to make it bright and clearly distinct from dark background and breakwater. The technique, that is based on a robust algorithm to identify the free surface, has showed to properly work also in prohibitive situations for traditional resistive probes (e.g., very shallow waters and/or breaking waves) and to be able to measure the free surface all over the investigation field in a non-intrusive way. Two kind of analysis were mainly performed, a statistical and a spectral one. The peculiarities of the measurement technique allowed to describe the whole wave transformation and to supply useful information for design purposes.

  20. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the

  1. Some results on the integral transforms and applications to differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Eltayeb, Hassan; Kilicman, Adem

    2010-11-11

    In this paper we give some remark about the relationship between Sumudu and Laplace transforms, further; for the comparison purpose, we apply both transforms to solve partial differential equations to see the differences and similarities.

  2. Leading Education Reform Initiatives: How SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Coordinates and Enhances Impact. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this Issue Brief we discuss the impact that the Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT) has on improving the outcomes of several current federal, state, district, and school education reform initiatives. Federal initiatives include Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and Campaign for Grade-Level Reading; Common Core…

  3. PLANE-INTEGRATED OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY METHODOLOGY FOR ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOON EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of ammonia and methane from an anaerobic lagoon at a swine animal feeding operation were evaluated five times over a period of two years. The plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) methodology was used to transect the plume at ...

  4. Transforming Healthcare Delivery: Integrating Dynamic Simulation Modelling and Big Data in Health Economics and Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Padula, William V; IJzerman, Maarten J; Wong, Peter K; Higashi, Mitchell K; Engbers, Jordan; Wiebe, Samuel; Crown, William; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2016-02-01

    In the era of the Information Age and personalized medicine, healthcare delivery systems need to be efficient and patient-centred. The health system must be responsive to individual patient choices and preferences about their care, while considering the system consequences. While dynamic simulation modelling (DSM) and big data share characteristics, they present distinct and complementary value in healthcare. Big data and DSM are synergistic-big data offer support to enhance the application of dynamic models, but DSM also can greatly enhance the value conferred by big data. Big data can inform patient-centred care with its high velocity, volume, and variety (the three Vs) over traditional data analytics; however, big data are not sufficient to extract meaningful insights to inform approaches to improve healthcare delivery. DSM can serve as a natural bridge between the wealth of evidence offered by big data and informed decision making as a means of faster, deeper, more consistent learning from that evidence. We discuss the synergies between big data and DSM, practical considerations and challenges, and how integrating big data and DSM can be useful to decision makers to address complex, systemic health economics and outcomes questions and to transform healthcare delivery. PMID:26497003

  5. Integration of Scale Invariant Generator Technique and S-A Technique for Characterizing 2-D Patterns for Information Retrieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Cheng, Q.

    2004-12-01

    The scale invariant generator technique (SIG) and spectrum-area analysis technique (S-A) were developed independently relevant to the concept of the generalized scale invariance (GSI). The former was developed for characterizing the parameters involved in the GSI for characterizing and simulating multifractal measures whereas the latter was for identifying scaling breaks for decomposition of superimposed multifractal measures caused by multiple geophysical processes. A natural integration of these two techniques may yield a new technique to serve two purposes, on the one hand, that can enrich the power of S-A by increasing the interpretability of decomposed patterns in some applications of S-A and, on the other hand, that can provide a mean to test the uniqueness of multifractality of measures which is essential for application of SIG technique in more complicated environment. The implementation of the proposed technique has been done as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) in Visual C++. The program can be friendly used for method validation and application in different fields.

  6. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Robust Volume Assessment of Brain Tissues for 3-Dimensional Fourier Transformation MRI via a Novel Multispectral Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton C.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hsian-Min; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, San-Kan

    2015-01-01

    A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising in cross

  8. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing

  9. Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vera; Mueller, Dirk; Strowig, Till; Stahl, Ulf

    2003-08-01

    Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate for transforming A. giganteus, due to a low transformation yield. The conventional transformation technique based on protoplasts yielded up to 55 transformants in 10(8) protoplasts/microg DNA and was enhanced to 140-fold by A. tumefaciens-mediated transfer of its T-DNA. Here, the germination time prior to cocultivation and the fungus:bacterium ratio were found to alter the transformation efficiency. Southern blot analysis revealed that the A. giganteus transformants contained a randomly integrated single T-DNA copy, whereas multiple integration events were frequent in transformants obtained by the protoplast method. PMID:12756496

  10. Fourier transform image processing techniques for grid-based phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Sajjad; Bashir, Sajid; Petruccelli, Jonathan C.; MacDonald, C. A.

    2014-09-01

    A recently developed technique for phase imaging using table top sources is to use multiple fine-pitch gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerences and precise alignment required have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we employ a technique recently demonstrated by Bennett et al.1 that ultilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Phase is extracted using Fourier processing on a single raw image taken using a focused mammography grid. The effects on the final image of varying grid, object, and detector distances, window widths, and of a variety of windowing functions, used to separate the harmonics, were investigated.

  11. Phase controlled integrated interferometric single-sideband filter based on planar Bragg gratings implementing photonic Hilbert transform.

    PubMed

    Sima, Chaotan; Gates, J C; Rogers, H L; Mennea, P L; Holmes, C; Zervas, M N; Smith, P G R

    2013-03-01

    The monolithically integrated all-optical single-sideband (SSB) filter based on photonic Hilbert transform and planar Bragg gratings is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An SSB suppression of 12 dB at 6 GHz and sideband switching are achieved via thermal tuning. An X-coupler, photonic Hilbert transformer, flat top reflector, and a micro heater are incorporated in a single silicon-on-silica substrate. The device can be thermally tuned by the micro heater on top of the channel waveguide. The device is fabricated using a combination of direct UV grating writing technology and photolithography. PMID:23455279

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry: a versatile technique for real world samples.

    PubMed

    Rintoul, L; Panayiotou, H; Kokot, S; George, G; Cash, G; Frost, R; Bui, T; Fredericks, P

    1998-04-01

    The versatility of FTIR spectrometry was explored by considering a variety of samples drawn from industrial applications, materials science and biomedical research. These samples included polymeric insulators, bauxite ore, clay, human hair and human skin. A range of sampling techniques suitable for these samples is discussed, in particular FTIR microscopy, FTIR emission spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance and photoacoustic FTIR spectrometry. The power of modern data processing techniques, particularly multivariate analysis, to extract useful information from spectral data is also illustrated. PMID:9684399

  13. Measurements of solar magnetic fields by Fourier transform techniques. I - Unsaturated lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1975-01-01

    If the basic profile shapes of the normal Zeeman triplet do not have zeros in their Fourier transform, the magnetic field splitting can be determined independent of the profile shape. When the ratio of the splitting of the components is greater than the intrinsic FWHM of the component profiles, the magnetic splitting can be determined with significantly greater accuracy than the measurement accuracy of the original profile. For Gaussian shaped components and a ratio of magnetic splitting to FWHM of 1.5, the noise reduction factor is 25.

  14. Fourier transform techniques for measuring absorption of transient species in optical limiting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yanong; Sonnenberg, Wendi; Short, Kurt W.; Spangler, Lee H.

    1999-10-01

    We have developed methods of measuring absorption of transient species utilizing stepped-scan Fourier transform interferometry that allows a combination of broad spectral coverage (10,000 - 15,000 cm-1 per spectrum), good spectral resolution, and up to ns temporal resolution with possibilities of extension to the ps domain. Nanosecond, psec or fsec laser systems, tunable from UV to IR can be used as the pump source to prepare the transient species. The absorption of that species is measured with broadband, incoherent light and can be simultaneously time and frequency resolved.

  15. Technique for gray-scale visual light and infrared image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    A novel image fusion technique based on NSST (non-subsampled shearlet transform) is presented, aiming at resolving the fusion problem of spatially gray-scale visual light and infrared images. NSST, as a new member of MGA (multi-scale geometric analysis) tools, possesses not only flexible direction features and optimal shift-invariance, but much better fusion performance and lower computational costs compared with several current popular MGA tools such as NSCT (non-subsampled contourlet transform). We specifically propose new rules for the fusion of low and high frequency sub-band coefficients of source images in the second step of the NSST-based image fusion algorithm. First, the source images are decomposed into different scales and directions using NSST. Then, the model of region average energy (RAE) is proposed and adopted to fuse the low frequency sub-band coefficients of the gray-scale visual light and infrared images. Third, the model of local directional contrast (LDC) is given and utilized to fuse the corresponding high frequency sub-band coefficients. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using inverse NSST to all fused sub-images. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, several current popular ones are compared over three different publicly available image sets using four evaluation metrics, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  16. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Grazzi, F.; Sutton, L. F.; Scherillo, A.; Bognetti, L.; Bini, A.; Barzagli, E.; Schooneveld, E.; Andreani, C.

    2013-09-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.

  17. Planarization techniques for vertically integrated metallic MEMS on silicon foundry circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-B.; English, J.; Ahn, C.-H.; Allen, M. G.

    1997-06-01

    Various micromachining techniques exist to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which include sensors, signal processing and/or driving circuits, and/or actuators in one small die. Post-processing techniques performed on foundry-fabricated circuits (e.g., MOSIS) are attractive since such an approach eliminates the need for an in-house integrated circuit fabrication line to produce integrated MEMS. A method based on the combination of metallic (e.g., electroplating) micromachining techniques with multichip module deposited (MCM-D) processes is a possible candidate to realize vertically-stacked integrated MEMS using the post-processing of integrated circuits (post-IC) approach. In order to realize such devices, planarization of the surface of foundry-fabricated circuit chips or wafers is often required. In such planarization layers, mechanical and chemical stability, as well as adhesion between the circuit-containing substrate and the micromachined devices, should be addressed. A PI/BCB/PI sandwich interlayer system, which utilizes both advantages of DuPont polyimide PI 2611 and Dow benzocyclobutene (BCB) Cyclotene 3022 series, was developed as a planarization interlayer for vertically integrated MEMS. The PI/BCB/PI interlayer system shows an over 95% degree of planarization (DOP) as well as passes the Method 107G Thermal Shock from the military standard MIL-STD-202F. A 0960-1317/7/2/002/img7 interlayer system was also developed as an alternative to the PI/BCB/PI system.

  18. Feature extraction and classification for EEG signals using wavelet transform and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Badruddin, Nasreen; Kamel, Nidal; Hussain, Muhammad; Chooi, Weng-Tink

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate. PMID:25649845

  19. Integrated velocity field from ground and satellite geodetic techniques: application to Arenal volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Cyril; del Potro, Rodrigo; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Guillaume, Sébastien; Cattin, Paul-Henri; Van der Laat, Rodolfo

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of ground deformation can be used to identify and interpret geophysical processes occurring at volcanoes. Most studies rely on a single geodetic technique, or fit a geophysical model to the results of multiple geodetic techniques. Here we present a methodology that combines GPS, Total Station measurements and InSAR into a single reference frame to produce an integrated 3-D geodetic velocity surface without any prior geophysical assumptions. The methodology consists of five steps: design of the network, acquisition and processing of the data, spatial integration of the measurements, time series computation and finally the integration of spatial and temporal measurements. The most significant improvements of this method are (1) the reduction of the required field time, (2) the unambiguous detection of outliers, (3) an increased measurement accuracy and (4) the construction of a 3-D geodetic velocity field. We apply this methodology to ongoing motion on Arenal's western flank. Integration of multiple measurement techniques at Arenal volcano revealed a deformation field that is more complex than that described by individual geodetic techniques, yet remains consistent with previous studies. This approach can be applied to volcano monitoring worldwide and has the potential to be extended to incorporate other geodetic techniques and to study transient deformation.

  20. Computer-assisted techniques for the verification of the Chebyshev property of Abelian integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, Jordi-Lluís; Tucker, Warwick; Villadelprat, Jordi

    We develop techniques for the verification of the Chebyshev property of Abelian integrals. These techniques are a combination of theoretical results, analysis of asymptotic behavior of Wronskians, and rigorous computations based on interval arithmetic. We apply this approach to tackle a conjecture formulated by Dumortier and Roussarie in [F. Dumortier, R. Roussarie, Birth of canard cycles, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 2 (2009) 723-781], which we are able to prove for q≤2.

  1. Interpretation of pile-oscillation measurements by the integral data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Gruel, A.; Leconte, P.; Bernard, D.

    2011-02-01

    The Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) was designed to deduce values of infinite dilute neutron cross-sections from specific integral measurements. Performances of the IDA procedure are demonstrated with pile-oscillation measurements carried out on 155Gd in the pool type reactor MINERVE (CEA Cadarache, France). At low neutron energies, the Integral Data Assimilation is based on the Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis technique routinely used in neutron spectroscopy measurements. As a result of the IDA analysis, a value of (61 900±1500) b has been obtained for the 155Gd thermal capture cross-section at ( Eth=25.3 meV).

  2. Nucleases Encoded by Integrated Elements CJIE2 and CJIE4 Inhibit Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Campylobacter jejuni displays huge genetic diversity, and is naturally competent for DNA uptake. Nevertheless, not every strain is able to acquire foreign DNA since nonnaturally transformable strains do exist. Previously we showed that many nonnaturally transformable C. jejuni strains ex...

  3. Automated ambient desorption-ionization platform for surface imaging integrated with a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Vidová, Veronika; Kruppa, Gary; Kobliha, Václav; Novák, Petr; Lemr, Karel; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Havlícek, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2009-10-15

    A fully automated atmospheric pressure ionization platform has been built and coupled with a commercial high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) instrument. The outstanding performance of this instrument allowed screening on the basis of exact masses in imaging mode. The main novel aspect was in the integration of the atmospheric pressure ionization imaging into the current software for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging, which allows the user of this commercial dual-source mass spectrometer to perform MALDI-MS and different ambient MS imaging from the same user interface and to utilize the same software tools. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) were chosen to test the ambient surface imaging capabilities of this new ionization platform. Results of DESI imaging experiments performed on brain tissue sections are in agreement with previous MS imaging reports obtained by DESI imaging, but due to the high resolution and mass accuracy of the FTICR instrument it was possible to resolve several ions at the same nominal mass in the DESI-MS spectra of brain tissue. These isobaric interferences at low resolution are due to the overlap of ions from different lipid classes with different biological relevance. It was demonstrated that with the use of high-resolution MS fast imaging screening of lipids can be achieved without any preseparation steps. DAPPI, which is a relatively new and less developed ambient ionization technique compared to DESI, was used in imaging mode for the first time ever. It showed promise in imaging of phytocompounds from plant leaves, and selective ionization of a sterol lipid was achieved by DAPPI from a brain tissue sample. PMID:19761221

  4. Radiological image compression using error-free irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform coding techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Lo, S C; Ho, B K; Lou, S L

    1987-05-01

    Some error-free and irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform (2D-DCT) coding, image-compression techniques applied to radiological images are discussed in this paper. Run-length coding and Huffman coding are described, and examples are given for error-free image compression. In the case of irreversible 2D-DCT coding, the block-quantization technique and the full-frame bit-allocation (FFBA) technique are described. Error-free image compression can achieve a compression ratio from 2:1 to 3:1, whereas the irreversible 2D-DCT coding compression technique can, in general, achieve a much higher acceptable compression ratio. The currently available block-quantization hardware may lead to visible block artifacts at certain compression ratios, but FFBA may be employed with the same or higher compression ratios without generating such artifacts. An even higher compression ratio can be achieved if the image is compressed by using first FFBA and then Huffman coding. The disadvantages of FFBA are that it is sensitive to sharp edges and no hardware is available. This paper also describes the design of the FFBA technique. PMID:3598750

  5. Techniques for computing the discrete Fourier transform using the quadratic residue Fermat number systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    The complex integer multiplier and adder over the direct sum of two copies of finite field developed by Cozzens and Finkelstein (1985) is specialized to the direct sum of the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers. Such multiplication over the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers can be performed by means of two integer multiplications, whereas the complex integer multiplication requires three integer multiplications. Such multiplications and additions can be used in the implementation of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence of complex numbers. The advantage of the present approach is that the number of multiplications needed to compute a systolic array of the DFT can be reduced substantially. The architectural designs using this approach are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  6. Nanowire humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Pérez-Herrera, R.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; López Bautista, M. C.; Esteban, O.; López-Amo, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on its interaction with the evanescent field of a nanowire is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the fast Fourier transform phase variations of one of the nanowire interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the necessity of tracking the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-70% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/% relative humidity. Finally, due to the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  7. High security and robust optical image encryption approach based on computer-generated integral imaging pickup and iterative back-projection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

  8. An inversion formula for the spherical transform in S2 for a special family of circles of integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Yehonatan

    2016-03-01

    In this article, an inversion formula is obtained for the spherical transform which integrates functions, defined on the unit sphere S2, on circles. The inversion formula is for the case where the circles of integration are obtained by intersections of S2 with hyperplanes passing through a common point overline{a} strictly inside S2. In particular, this yields inversion formulas for two well-known special cases. The first inversion formula is for the special case where the family of circles of integration consists of great circles; this formula is obtained by taking overline{a} = 0. The second inversion formula is for the special case where the circles of integration pass through a common point p on S2; this formula is obtained by taking the limit overline{a}→ p.

  9. Interconnect modeling using integrated time-domain and frequency-domain techniques

    SciTech Connect

    You, Hong; Yeh, Chune-Sin; Gadepally, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an integrated time- and-frequency-domain technique for characterization and modeling of parasitic effects associated with interconnects. This technique enables direct measurements of critical transient as well as frequency responses of interconnects; accurate and efficient SPICE model extraction for coupled lines; and cross-domain verification of the measured data as well as the extracted models. To illustrate its application this technique is applied to characterize and extract the equivalent circuit model of the I/O bus on a real-world printed circuit board.

  10. Key words: Sound Diffraction; Lined Duct; Integral Transform; Wiener-Hopf Technique; Expansion Coefficients; Pole Removal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Bulent; Afsin, Beytullah; Eren, Erdal; Tabak, Ahmet; Cirak, Cagri; Cubuk, Osman

    2010-11-01

    The intercalation of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), pyridine (Py), ethanolamine (Ea), and Nmethyl formamide (NMF) molecules into the kaolinite interlayers led to an appreciable decrease of 3697 cm-1 of the hydroxyl band. The appearance of the peaks at 3662, 3541, and 3504 cm-1 proved that the DMSO species are intercalated between the kaolinite layers through forming H-bonds with internal-surface hydroxyl groups. The intensities of the 942 and 796 cm-1 bending peaks arising from inner-surface hydroxyls decreased and new vibrational features appeared due to the intercalation of the guest species. The d001 value of pure kaolinite was found at 7.18 A° , and the d001 values were seen at 11.26, 11.62, 10.77, and 10.67 °A for kaolinite-dimethyl sulphoxide (K-DMSO), kaolinite-pyridine (K-Py), kaolinite-ethanolamine (K-EA), and kaolinite-N-methyl formamide (K-NMF) composites, respectively. The endothermic differential thermal analysis (DTA) peaks at a temperature of 108 - 334 ◦C reflected the changes in the physicochemical properties of the intercalated species. The thermal stability increase followed the order of K-Py

  11. On preconditioning techniques for dense linear systems arising from singular boundary integral equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke

    1996-12-31

    We study various preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of boundary integral equations, and aim to provide a theory for a class of sparse preconditioners. Two related ideas are explored here: singularity separation and inverse approximation. Our preliminary conclusion is that singularity separation based preconditioners perform better than approximate inverse based while it is desirable to have both features.

  12. Techniques for measurement of dipole endfields with a rigid integrating coil

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, H.D.

    1993-07-01

    The endfield is often one of the most critical regions in conventional accelerator magnets. While the magnetic field structure of dipole ends can be complicated, it can be well described by a few parameters which include the effective magnetic length, L{sub eff}, and the integrated harmonics. Both of these parameters can be measured using a rigid coil which measures {integral} Bdl in the endfield region as a function of insertion depth z and transverse displacement x. We employ a data analysis technique which uses these measurements to remove body field contributions to the end field integral, resulting in the effective integrated endfield shape. A least squares polynomial fit is then used to estimate the harmonic coefficients up to decapole. We also present the technique for measuring L{sub eff} as a function of magnet current. These measurement techniques were successfully used in a study to finalize the design of the endpacks for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. The techniques are sufficiently general to be useful for other applications, such as the testing of the SSC Medium Energy Booster endpacks.

  13. Integrating Fundamental Principles Underlying Somatic Practices into the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Julie; Lobel, Elin

    2004-01-01

    Integrating somatic practices into the dance technique class by bringing awareness to the bodily processes of breathing, sensing, connecting, and initiating can help students reconnect the mind with the body within the context of the classroom environment. Dance educators do not always have the resources to implement separate somatics courses…

  14. Adaptive learning of Multi-Sensor Integration techniques with genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1994-06-01

    This research focuses on automating the time-consuming process of developing and optimizing multi-sensor integration techniques. Our approach is currently based on adaptively learning how to exploit low-level image detail. Although this system is specifically designed to be both sensor and application domain independent, an empirical validation with actual multi-modal sensor data is presented.

  15. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Natarajan, Hariharan; Dempster, Andrew G.

    2007-12-01

    It has recently been shown that thse[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

  16. Advanced Techniques for In-Situ Monitoring of Phase Transformations During Welding Using Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Palmer, T A; Zhang, W; DebRoy, T

    2005-06-05

    Understanding the evolution of microstructure in welds is an important goal of welding research because of the strong correlation between weld microstructure and weld properties. To achieve this goal it is important to develop a quantitative measure of phase transformations encountered during welding in order to ultimately develop methods for predicting weld microstructures from the characteristics of the welding process. To aid in this effort, synchrotron radiation methods have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for direct observation of microstructure evolution during welding. Using intense, highly collimated synchrotron radiation, the atomic structure of the weld heat affected and fusion zones can be probed in real time. Two synchrotron-based techniques, known as spatially resolved (SRXRD) and time resolved (TRXRD) x-ray diffraction, have been developed for these investigations. These techniques have now been used to investigate welding induced phase transformations in titanium alloys, low alloy steels, and stainless steel alloys. This paper will provide a brief overview of these methods and will discuss microstructural evolution during the welding of low carbon (AISI 1005) and medium carbon (AISI 1045) steels where the different levels of carbon influence the evolution of microstructures during welding.

  17. Technology and geomorphology: Are improvements in data collection techniques transforming geomorphic science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, Heather

    2016-10-01

    In recent years technological developments have revolutionized our ability to collect data in geomorphology. Enhanced data collection not only enables us to provide deeper answers to a wider range of fundamental questions about the Earth's surface, but also encourages us to pose new questions. This paper considers in more detail the relationships between science, technology and the development of geomorphological tools and techniques, reviews the spectrum of tools and techniques now available to geomorphologists, and critically assesses what impact 'new technologies' are having on geomorphology. It focuses on the role of technology in biogeomorphology and weathering research, and how it is advancing theoretical, empirical and applied dimensions of these growing sub-fields of geomorphology. Five areas of important technological development are reviewed: remote sensing, dating, geophysical techniques, field and laboratory based analysis and sensing of physical and chemical characteristics, and field and laboratory based analysis of biological properties. There is good evidence that, taken together, technological developments are revolutionizing geomorphology through opening the doors to better cross-scalar investigations, blurring the boundaries between laboratory, field and computer model, and facilitating cross-disciplinary and democratized research.

  18. An efficient watermarking technique for satellite images using discrete cosine transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mansoori, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Due to the significant progress in science and technology, the digital world became an interesting topic for many studies. "Data Security" is one of the main concepts related to the digital world especially in the field of remote sensing. Therefore, to deal with this matter the "Watermarking" concept was introduced. The idea of digital image watermarking is to embed the information within a signal (i.e. image, video, etc.), which cannot be easily extracted by a third party. This will generate a copyright protection and authentication for the owner(s). Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) as an owner provides satellite images captured by DubaiSat-1 satellite to customers. The aim of this study is to implement a robust algorithm to hide EIAST logo within any delivered image in order to increase the data security and protect the ownership of DubaiSat-1 images. In addition, it is necessary to provide a high quality images to the end-user; nevertheless, adding any information (logo) to these images will affect its quality. Therefore, the model will be designed to keep the observable difference between the watermarked and original image at minimum. Moreover, the watermark should be difficult to remove or alter without the degradation of the host image. This study will be based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to provide an excellent and highly robust protection in cases such as noise addition, cropping, rotation and JPEG compression attacks.

  19. PI film property analysis in the application of infrared image transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo

    2013-09-01

    Modern infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) with high dynamic range, and multiband versions are being deployed in fielded systems. It needs to develop advanced scene projection technology to operate both in laboratory testing for hardware-in-the-loop simulation and validation of fielded units immediately prior to mission use. One of the fiber array visible to infrared imaging transducer is introduced. Different from the fiber bundle, the fiber array is etched on the substrate material. The property of transducer is determined by the substrate material. Polyimide (PI) film has the property of high dynamic range for temperature resistant, electric insulating, radiation resistant, good thermosetting and thermomechanical effect. The heat diffusion property of PI film is analyzed by experimental study. For experimental study, samples of with sputtered graphite on surface and different thickness of PI film were made. Using the visible light irradiate on the film and a high speed infrared camera capture the temperature information. The time of raising temperature process and the max temperature were recorded. The different energy of visible light was tried for the max temperature for samples. The result show the PI film can be achieved to 600K and has high thermal efficiency. And the surface film with good absorptivity is also important for heat transforming. PI film can be used as one of the material in the Infrared imaging transducer for high dynamic range and multiband radiation.

  20. Tomography of homogenized laser-induced plasma by Radon transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Demidov, A.; Gornushkin, I. B.; Schmid, T.; Rössler, R.; Huber, N.; Panne, U.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Tomography of a laser-induced plasma in air is performed by inverse Radon transform of angle-resolved plasma images. Plasmas were induced by single laser pulses (SP), double pulses (DP) in collinear geometry, and by a combination of single laser pulses with pulsed arc discharges (SP-AD). Images of plasmas on metallurgical steel slags were taken at delay times suitable for calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). Delays ranged from few microseconds for SP and DP up to tens of microseconds for SP-AD excitation. The white-light and the spectrally resolved emissivity ε(x,y,z) was reconstructed for the three plasma excitation schemes. The electron number density Ne(x,y,z) and plasma temperature Te(x,y,z) were determined from Mg and Mn emission lines in reconstructed spectra employing the Saha-Boltzmann plot method. The SP plasma revealed strongly inhomogeneous emissivity and plasma temperature. Re-excitation of plasma by a second laser pulse (DP) and by an arc discharge (SP-AD) homogenized the plasma and reduced the spatial variation of ε and Te. The homogenization of a plasma is a promising approach to increase the accuracy of calibration-free LIBS analysis of complex materials.

  1. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  2. DNA Integrity and Shock Wave Transformation Efficiency of Bacteria and Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loske, Achim M.; Campos-Guillén, Juan; Fernández, Francisco; Pastrana, Xóchitl; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel

    Delivery of DNA into bacteria and fungi is essential in medicine and biotechnology to produce metabolites, enzymes, antibiotics and proteins. So far, protocols to genetically transform bacteria and fungi are inefficient and have low reproducibility.

  3. Writing trace identification using ultraviolet Fourier-transform imaging spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Wu, Wenmin; Li, Yasheng; Cao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Conventional identification methods of writing traces commonly utilize imaging or spectroscopic techniques which work in visible to near infrared range or short-wave infrared range. Yet they cannot be applied in identifying the erased writing traces. In this study, we perform a research in identification of erased writing traces applying an ultraviolet Fouriertransform imaging spectrometer. Experiments of classifying the reflected ultraviolet spectra of erasable pens are made. The resulting hyperspectral images demonstrate that the erased writing traces on printing paper can be clearly identified by this ultraviolet imaging spectrometer.

  4. Application of the Coupled Finite Element-Combined Field Integral Equation Technique (FEICFIE) to the Radiation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, V.; Cwik, T.; Zuffada, C.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled finite element-combined field integral equation technique was originally developed for solving scattering problems involving inhomogeneous objects of arbitrary shape and large dimensions in wavelength.

  5. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a technique for rapid, quantitative analysis of biogeochemical properties from Lake El gygytgyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P.; Vogel, H.; Cunningham, L.; Persson, P.; Melles, M.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) as a fast and cost efficient analytical tool for quantitative estimations of biogenic silica (BSi), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in lacustrine sediment. Simultaneous inference of these components is possible because IR-spectra in the MIR-region contain a wide variety of information on minerogenic and organic substances. The technique requires only small amounts (0.01g dry weight) of sample material and negligible sample pre-treatments. In this study the FTIRS technique is applied to sediment successions from the ICDP deep drilling site Lake El gygytgyn, NE Siberia. FTIRS calibrations for BSi, TN, TOC, and TIC yielded good statistical performances and emphasize the potential of the technique for high-resolution investigations of long sediment successions. This is particularly crucial since the sediment successions recovered during the winter/spring 2009 ICDP campaign are c. 320 m long, reach back 3.6 million years and provide the longest continental climate record in the Arctic. The results from Lake El gygytgyn indicate that FTIRS is a useful analytical alternative for quantitative inference of BSi, TN, TOC, and TIC and might therefore also be interesting for other ICDP lake drilling projects where long sediment successions are recovered and need to be analyzed.

  7. Super-resolution technique for CW lidar using Fourier transform reordering and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joel F; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R; Harrison, F Wallace; Obland, Michael D

    2014-12-15

    An interpolation method is described for range measurements of high precision altimetry with repeating intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar waveforms using binary phase shift keying (BPSK), where the range profile is determined by means of a cross-correlation between the digital form of the transmitted signal and the digitized return signal collected by the lidar receiver. This method uses reordering of the array elements in the frequency domain to convert a repeating synthetic pulse signal to single highly interpolated pulse. This is then enhanced further using Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to greatly enhance the resolution of the pulse. We show the sampling resolution and pulse width can be enhanced by about two orders of magnitude using the signal processing algorithms presented, thus breaking the fundamental resolution limit for BPSK modulation of a particular bandwidth and bit rate. We demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for determining cloud and tree canopy thicknesses far beyond this fundamental limit in a lidar not designed for this purpose. PMID:25503046

  8. Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the Integrated Deployment model to accelerate market adoption of alternative energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles through a comprehensive and aggressive approach.

  9. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  10. Outlier and target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery: a comparison of traditional and percentage occupancy hit or miss transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew; Marshall, Stephen; Gray, Alison

    2016-05-01

    The use of aerial hyperspectral imagery for the purpose of remote sensing is a rapidly growing research area. Currently, targets are generally detected by looking for distinct spectral features of the objects under surveillance. For example, a camouflaged vehicle, deliberately designed to blend into background trees and grass in the visible spectrum, can be revealed using spectral features in the near-infrared spectrum. This work aims to develop improved target detection methods, using a two-stage approach, firstly by development of a physics-based atmospheric correction algorithm to convert radiance into re ectance hyperspectral image data and secondly by use of improved outlier detection techniques. In this paper the use of the Percentage Occupancy Hit or Miss Transform is explored to provide an automated method for target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery.

  11. Transformative Experience: An Integrative Construct in the Spirit of Deweyan Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A sentiment held by Dewey and shared by other educators is that learning should enrich and expand everyday experience. However, this goal has not been a focus of research. In this article, I propose "transformative experience" as a construct capable of reflecting this goal and functioning as an empirical research construct. I discuss the…

  12. Cancer cell stiffness: integrated roles of three-dimensional matrix stiffness and transforming potential.

    PubMed

    Baker, Erin L; Lu, Jing; Yu, Dihua; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2010-10-01

    While significant advances have been made toward revealing the molecular mechanisms that influence breast cancer progression, much less is known about the associated cellular mechanical properties. To this end, we use particle-tracking microrheology to investigate the interplay among intracellular mechanics, three-dimensional matrix stiffness, and transforming potential in a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) cancer progression series. We use a well-characterized model system where human-derived MCF10A MECs overexpress either ErbB2, 14-3-3ζ, or both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ, with empty vector as a control. Our results show that MECs possessing ErbB2 transforming potential stiffen in response to elevated matrix stiffness, whereas non-transformed MECs or those overexpressing only 14-3-3ζ do no exhibit this response. We further observe that overexpression of ErbB2 alone is associated with the highest degree of intracellular sensitivity to matrix stiffness, and that the effect of transforming potential on intracellular stiffness is matrix-stiffness-dependent. Moreover, our intracellular stiffness measurements parallel cell migration behavior that has been previously reported for these MEC sublines. Given the current knowledge base of breast cancer mechanobiology, these findings suggest that there may be a positive relationship among intracellular stiffness sensitivity, cell motility, and perturbed mechanotransduction in breast cancer. PMID:20923638

  13. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  14. Challenging Core Assumptions: Integrating Transformative Leadership Models into Campus-Wide Implementation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Sharon F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines three cycles of activities during the multi-year implementation of new student services software at a Masters I public comprehensive college with an enrollment of 12,000. Uses the theoretical framework of transformative leadership. Interpretations and recommendations address organizational issues that can be generalized beyond the…

  15. A DNase encoded by integrated element CJIE1 inhibits natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is considered naturally competent for DNA uptake and displays strong genetic diversity. Yet, non-transformable strains and several relatively stable clonal lineages exist. In the present study, the molecular mechanism responsible for the non-transformabil...

  16. Transforming University Practice through ICT--Integrated Perspectives on Organizational, Technological, and Pedagogical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lorentsen, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for strengthening and transforming university practice in line with the social and technological conditions of the new ideas for "interactive" universities. The purpose is to use ICT as a change-agent in order to establish new practices--new pedagogical methods, new…

  17. An integrated computer model with applications for austenite-to-ferrite transformation during hot deformation of Nb-microalloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majta, Janusz; Pietrzyk, Maciej; Zurek, Anna K.; Cola, Mark; Hochanadel, Pat

    2002-05-01

    This work presents an austenite decomposition model, based on the thermodynamics of the system and diffusion-controlled nucleation theory, to predict the evolution of microstructure during hot working of niobium-microalloyed steels. The differences in microstructural development of hotdeformed microalloyed steel in the single-phase austenite and two-phase (austenite + ferrite) regions have been effectively described using an integrated computer modeling process. The complete model presented here takes into account the kinetics of recrystallization, recrystallized austenite grain size, precipitation, phase transformation, and the resulting ferrite structure. After considering existing austenite decomposition models, we decided that the method adopted in the present work relies on isothermal transformation kinetics and the principle-of-additivity rule. The thermomechanical part of the modeling process was carried out using the finite-element method. Experimental results at different temperatures, strain rates, and strain levels were obtained using a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A comparison of results of the model with experiments shows good agreement.

  18. Study of {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) longitudinal response functions with the integral-transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Dobretsov, V.Yu.; Efros, V.D.; Shao, B.

    1995-09-01

    The method of integral transforms is first applied to study of the {sup 3}He longitudinal response functions. The transforms are calculated from localized bound-state type solutions to an inhomogenous three-body equation. {sup 3}N dynamics and the conventional charge density operator serve as an input. The final-state interaction the contribution of the T = 3/2 final states to the problem suppressed and amounts to about 15%. This might be ascribed to symmetry properties of the final-state wave functions. The contributions of the p-wave N/N interaction and of the Coulomb interaction to the problem are studied and found to amount to several percent. Uncertainties due to different choices of s-wave NN forces are found to be of a similar magnitude. For q = 300 MeV/c, the results obtained agree with experiment. For q = 500 MeV/c, noticeable differences are detected. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Integration of Hybrid and Single Ventricle Rehabilitation Techniques to Treat a Neonate After Iatrogenic Mitral Injury.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Awais; Seckeler, Michael; Pophal, Stephen; Rhee, Edward; Ryan, Justin; Rao, Rohit; Klewer, Scott; Nigro, John J

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal critical aortic stenosis is life threatening and requires intervention shortly after birth. Early percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty is generally considered to be an effective way to obtain reliable prograde flow. We describe the integrated use of hybrid, open surgical, and single ventricle rehabilitation techniques to successfully treat a neonate with borderline left-sided cardiac structures, who sustained a complication from balloon aortic valvuloplasty. PMID:26865067

  20. Fast iterative, coupled-integral-equation technique for inhomogeneous profiled and periodic slabs.

    PubMed

    Magath, Thore; Serebryannikov, Andriy E

    2005-11-01

    A fast coupled-integral-equation (CIE) technique is developed to compute the plane-TE-wave scattering by a wide class of periodic 2D inhomogeneous structures with curvilinear boundaries, which includes finite-thickness relief and rod gratings made of homogeneous material as special cases. The CIEs in the spectral domain are derived from the standard volume electric field integral equation. The kernel of the CIEs is of Picard type and offers therefore the possibility of deriving recursions, which allow the computation of the convolution integrals occurring in the CIEs with linear amounts of arithmetic complexity and memory. To utilize this advantage, the CIEs are solved iteratively. We apply the biconjugate gradient stabilized method. To make the iterative solution process faster, an efficient preconditioning operator (PO) is proposed that is based on a formal analytical inversion of the CIEs. The application of the PO also takes only linear complexity and memory. Numerical studies are carried out to demonstrate the potential and flexibility of the CIE technique proposed. Though the best efficiency and accuracy are observed at either low permittivity contrast or high conductivity, the technique can be used in a wide range of variation of material parameters of the structures including when they contain components made of both dielectrics with high permittivity and typical metals. PMID:16302391

  1. A data-hiding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hui-Mei; Hsu, Chin-Ming; Miaou, Shaou-Gang

    2002-03-01

    A data-hiding technique called the "bipolar multiple-number base" was developed to provide capabilities of authentication, integration, and confidentiality for an electronic patient record (EPR) transmitted among hospitals through the Internet. The proposed technique is capable of hiding those EPR related data such as diagnostic reports, electrocardiogram, and digital signatures from doctors or a hospital into a mark image. The mark image could be the mark of a hospital used to identify the origin of an EPR. Those digital signatures from doctors and a hospital could be applied for the EPR authentication. Thus, different types of medical data can be integrated into the same mark image. The confidentiality is ultimately achieved by decrypting the EPR related data and digital signatures with an exact copy of the original mark image. The experimental results validate the integrity and the invisibility of the hidden EPR related data. This newly developed technique allows all of the hidden data to be separated and restored perfectly by authorized users. PMID:11936596

  2. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust.

  3. On Quantum Integrable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Viatcheslav; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.

  4. Integrable maps from Galois differential algebras, Borel transforms and number sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    A new class of integrable maps, obtained as lattice versions of polynomial dynamical systems is introduced. These systems are obtained by means of a discretization procedure that preserves several analytic and algebraic properties of a given differential equation, in particular symmetries and integrability (see Tempesta, 2010 [40]). Our approach is based on the properties of a suitable Galois differential algebra, that we shall call a Rota algebra. A formulation of the procedure in terms of category theory is proposed. In order to render the lattice dynamics confined, a Borel regularization is also adopted. As a byproduct of the theory, a connection between number sequences and integrability is discussed.

  5. Standardization of (18)F using the 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counting technique.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawada, Y; Sato, Y; Yunoki, A; Hino, Y

    2008-01-01

    Alpha 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counting technique using a 4pibeta-4pigamma detector configuration was adopted for the standardization of (18)F. In this technique, the beta-detector is composed of two thin plastic scintillators sandwiching the source, coupled with a slender photomultiplier tube. The beta-detector part with the source was inserted into a large well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma-ray detection, making a 4pibeta-4pigamma coincidence counting system. In this work, positron particles were detected with high efficiency in the beta-channel and annihilation quanta were also detected with high efficiency in the 4pigamma channel. The very small inefficiency of the 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counter for the beta-plus branch has been confirmed by EGS5 Monte Carlo simulation. The result using this technique agreed within the uncertainties with the result obtained by the conventional 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting with the efficiency extrapolation technique using the same detector configuration and a conventional 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counter. PMID:18378155

  6. Techniques for a Wind Energy System Integration with an Islanded Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Megha; Fan, Yuanyuan; Ghosh, Arindam; Shahnia, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents two different techniques of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) integration with an islanded microgrid (MG). The islanded microgrid operates in a frequency droop control where its frequency can vary around 50 Hz. The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed WECS is considered, which converts wind energy to a low frequency ac power. Therefore it needs to be connected to the microgrid through a back to back (B2B) converter system. One way of interconnection is to synchronize the MG side converter with the MG bus at which it is connected. In this case, this converter runs at the MG frequency. The other approach is to bring back the MG frequency to 50 Hz using the isochronization concept. In this case, the MG side converter operates at 50 Hz. Both these techniques are developed in this paper. The proposed techniques are validated through extensive PSCAD/EMTDC simulation studies.

  7. Calculations of transient fields in the Felix experiments at Argonne using null field integrated techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H. C.; Davey, K. R.; Turner, L.

    1985-08-01

    The transient eddy current problem is characteristically computationally intensive. The motivation for this research was to realize an efficient, accurate, solution technique involving small matrices via an eigenvalue approach. Such a technique is indeed realized and tested using the null field integral technique. Using smart (i.e., efficient, global) basis functions to represent unknowns in terms of a minimum number of unknowns, homogeneous eigenvectors and eigenvalues are first determined. The general excitatory response is then represented in terms of these eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Excellent results are obtained for the Argonne Felix cylinder experiments using a 4 x 4 matrix. Extension to the 3-D problem (short cylinder) is set up in terms of an 8 x 8 matrix.

  8. Propulsion Airframe Integration Test Techniques for Hypersonic Airbreathing Configurations at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Trexler, Carl A.; Cabell, Karen F.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The scope and significance of propulsion airframe integration (PAI) for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles is presented through a discussion of the PAI test techniques utilized at NASA Langley Research Center. Four primary types of PAI model tests utilized at NASA Langley for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles are discussed. The four types of PAI test models examined are the forebody/inlet test model, the partial-width/truncated propulsion flowpath test model, the powered exhaust simulation test model, and the full-length/width propulsion flowpath test model. The test technique for each of these four types of PAI test models is described, and the relevant PAI issues addressed by each test technique are illustrated through the presentation of recent PAI test data.

  9. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  10. An Integrated Backscatter Ultrasound Technique for the Detection of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques. PMID:25574937

  11. An integrated backscatter ultrasound technique for the detection of coronary and carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques. PMID:25574937

  12. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2016-05-03

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  13. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-27

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  14. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: An analytical technique to understand therapeutic responses at the molecular level

    PubMed Central

    Kalmodia, Sushma; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Yang, Wenrong; Barrow, Colin J.; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid monitoring of the response to treatment in cancer patients is essential to predict the outcome of the therapeutic regimen early in the course of the treatment. The conventional methods are laborious, time-consuming, subjective and lack the ability to study different biomolecules and their interactions, simultaneously. Since; mechanisms of cancer and its response to therapy is dependent on molecular interactions and not on single biomolecules, an assay capable of studying molecular interactions as a whole, is preferred. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has become a popular technique in the field of cancer therapy with an ability to elucidate molecular interactions. The aim of this study, was to explore the utility of the FTIR technique along with multivariate analysis to understand whether the method has the resolution to identify the differences in the mechanism of therapeutic response. Towards achieving the aim, we utilized the mouse xenograft model of retinoblastoma and nanoparticle mediated targeted therapy. The results indicate that the mechanism underlying the response differed between the treated and untreated group which can be elucidated by unique spectral signatures generated by each group. The study establishes the efficiency of non-invasive, label-free and rapid FTIR method in assessing the interactions of nanoparticles with cellular macromolecules towards monitoring the response to cancer therapeutics. PMID:26568521

  15. Blue genes: An integrative laboratory to differentiate genetic transformation from gene mutation for underclassmen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Kevin T; Chang, Ming-Mei; Simon, Robert D; Lazatin, Justine C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of students to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and the mechanisms by which genotypes and phenotypes can change is essential for students studying genetics. To this end, we have developed a four-week laboratory called Blue Genes, which is designed to help novice students discriminate between two mechanisms by which the genetic material can be altered: genetic transformation and gene mutation. In the first week of the laboratory, students incubate a plasmid DNA with calcium chloride-treated Escherichia coli JM109 cells and observe a phenotype change from ampicillin sensitive to ampicillin resistant and from white color to blue color on plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) and isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Over the course of the next three weeks, students use a battery of approaches including plasmid DNA isolation experiments, restriction maps, and PCR to differentiate between mutation and transformation. The students ultimately come to the conclusion that the changes in phenotypes are due to genetic transformation and not mutation based on the evidence generated over the four-week period. Pre-laboratory tests and post-laboratory tests indicate that this set of exercises is successful in helping students differentiate between transformation and mutation. The laboratory is designed for underclassmen and is a good prerequisite for an apprentice-based research opportunity, although it is not designed as a class based research experience. Potential modifications and future directions of the laboratory based upon student experiences and assessment are presented. PMID:26525488

  16. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-08-08

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICSmore » can provide pro file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.« less

  17. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-08-08

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide pro file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  18. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-11-15

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at the Large Helical Device. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide profile measurements of the local emissivity, temperature, and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modified Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example, geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  19. Integrator Windup Protection-Techniques and a STOVL Aircraft Engine Controller Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.; Narayanaswamy, S.

    1997-01-01

    Integrators are included in the feedback loop of a control system to eliminate the steady state errors in the commanded variables. The integrator windup problem arises if the control actuators encounter operational limits before the steady state errors are driven to zero by the integrator. The typical effects of windup are large system oscillations, high steady state error, and a delayed system response following the windup. In this study, methods to prevent the integrator windup are examined to provide Integrator Windup Protection (IW) for an engine controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. An unified performance index is defined to optimize the performance of the Conventional Anti-Windup (CAW) and the Modified Anti-Windup (MAW) methods. A modified Genetic Algorithm search procedure with stochastic parameter encoding is implemented to obtain the optimal parameters of the CAW scheme. The advantages and drawbacks of the CAW and MAW techniques are discussed and recommendations are made for the choice of the IWP scheme, given some characteristics of the system.

  20. Application of Transformational Leadership Principles in the Development and Integration of Palliative Care Within an Advanced Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Leasure, A Renee

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in United States, and it has reached epidemic proportions. Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although the prognosis of HF is worse than many forms of cancer, many patients, families, and clinicians are unaware of the dire prognosis. As the disease progress to advanced HF, patients are faced with many challenges, such as poor quality of life due to worsening symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. Heart failure management adds significant financial burden to the health care system. Palliative care can be integrated into HF care to improve quality of life and symptom management and to address physical, spiritual, and psychosocial needs of patients and families. Palliative care can be used concurrently with or independent of curative or life-prolonging HF therapies. Transformational leadership principles were used to guide the development of a plan to enhance integration of palliative care within traditional advanced HF care. PMID:26836596

  1. Three-Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Technique for Breast-Conserving Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Laan, Hans Paul van der

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the target coverage and normal tissue dose with the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and the sequential boost technique in breast cancer, and to evaluate the incidence of acute skin toxicity in patients treated with the SIB technique. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer underwent breast-conserving radiotherapy using the SIB technique. The breast and boost planning target volumes (PTVs) were treated simultaneously (i.e., for each fraction, the breast and boost PTVs received 1.81 Gy and 2.3 Gy, respectively). Three-dimensional conformal beams with wedges were shaped and weighted using forward planning. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk with the SIB technique, 28 x (1.81 + 0.49 Gy), were compared with those for the sequential boost technique, 25 x 2 Gy + 8 x 2 Gy. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated for 90 patients treated with the SIB technique according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: PTV coverage was adequate with both techniques. With SIB, more efficiently shaped boost beams resulted in smaller irradiated volumes. The mean volume receiving {>=}107% of the breast dose was reduced by 20%, the mean volume outside the boost PTV receiving {>=}95% of the boost dose was reduced by 54%, and the mean heart and lung dose were reduced by 10%. Of the evaluated patients, 32.2% had Grade 2 or worse toxicity. Conclusion: The SIB technique is proposed for standard use in breast-conserving radiotherapy because of its dose-limiting capabilities, easy implementation, reduced number of treatment fractions, and relatively low incidence of acute skin toxicity.

  2. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  3. An integrated GPS-accelerometer data processing technique for structural deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W. S.; Xu, Y. L.; Ding, X. L.; Dai, W. J.

    2006-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is being actively applied to measure static and dynamic displacement responses of large civil engineering structures under winds. However, multipath effects and low sampling frequencies affect the accuracy of GPS for displacement measurement. On the other hand, accelerometers cannot reliably measure static and low-frequency structural responses, but can accurately measure high-frequency structural responses. Therefore, this paper explores the possibility of integrating GPS-measured signals with accelerometer-measured signals to enhance the measurement accuracy of total (static plus dynamic) displacement response of a structure. Integrated data processing techniques using both empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and an adaptive filter are presented. A series of motion simulation table tests are then performed at a site using three GPS receivers, one accelerometer, and one motion simulation table that can simulate various types of motion defined by input wave time histories around a pre-defined static position. The proposed data processing techniques are applied to the recorded GPS and accelerometer data to find both static and dynamic displacements. These results are compared with the actual displacement motions generated by the motion simulation table. The comparative results demonstrate that the proposed technique can significantly enhance the measurement accuracy of the total displacement of a structure.

  4. Revenue Forecasting to Integrate CCC Planning and Resource Allocation for Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Ann

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the majority of California community colleges evaluated for re-accreditation received sanctions requiring documented improvement in the integration of college planning and budgeting processes. This study explores the challenges colleges face and the best practices utilized by successful colleges in implementing integrated…

  5. Determination of the far-field from measured near-field data, theory and measuring technique of the near-field far-field transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, A.; Stein, V.

    1980-12-01

    Methods are described for measuring the far field of antennas at distances that are small compared to the wavelength of the field. The so called compact test range is explained and the principle of the near field far field transformation is described. The advantages and disadvantages of the planar, cylindrical, and spherical transformation techniques are discussed. Theory and measuring technique for the spherical method are treated extensively. An assessment of the influence of errors is given and the acceptable tolerances are presented. A proposal is given for the construction of a near field test range. Finally the performance of the method is demonstrated with the aid of some examples.

  6. Fault tolerance techniques to assure data integrity in high-volume PACS image archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yutao; Huang, Lu J.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Wingate, W. Keith; Avizienis, Algirdas

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) perform the systematic acquisition, archiving, and presentation of large quantities of radiological image and text data. In the UCLA Radiology PACS, for example, the volume of image data archived currently exceeds 2500 gigabytes. Furthermore, the distributed heterogeneous PACS is expected to have near real-time response, be continuously available, and assure the integrity and privacy of patient data. The off-the-shelf subsystems that compose the current PACS cannot meet these expectations; therefore fault tolerance techniques had to be incorporated into the system. This paper is to report our first-step efforts towards the goal and is organized as follows: First we discuss data integrity and identify fault classes under the PACS operational environment, then we describe auditing and accounting schemes developed for error-detection and analyze operational data collected. Finally, we outline plans for future research.

  7. Hybrid routing technique for a fault-tolerant, integrated information network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the space station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated, local area networks capable of supporting data, voice, and video communications. In addition, fault-tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard the space station of time-critical data system repair tasks. A key issue for the design of the fault-tolerant, integrated network is the development of a robust routing algorithm which dynamically selects the optimum communication paths through the net. A routing technique is described that adapts to topological changes in the network to support fault-tolerant operation and system evolvability.

  8. Alignment and Integration Techniques for Mirror Segment Pairs on the Constellation X Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Lehan, John; Olsen, Larry; Owens, Scott; Saha, Timo; Wallace, Tom; Zhang, Will

    2007-01-01

    We present the concepts behind current alignment and integration techniques for testing a Constellation-X primary-secondary mirror segment pair in an x-ray beam line test. We examine the effects of a passive mount on thin glass x-ray mirror segments, and the issues of mount shape and environment on alignment. We also investigate how bonding and transfer to a permanent housing affects the quality of the final image, comparing predicted results to a full x-ray test on a primary secondary pair.

  9. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  10. Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Balakrishnan; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Lakshmiy Ammal; Sundaram, Karimassery Ramaiyer; Kumar, Harish

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P < .05). ANCOVA (Repeated measures) on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P = .001) drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P = .138). IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons. PMID:21318156

  11. Techniques and equipment for assessing the structural integrity of subterranean tower anchor rods

    DOEpatents

    Hinz, William R.; Parker, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques and equipment for evaluating structural integrity of buried anchor rods in situ are disclosed. The techniques avoid excavation of soil and avoid, or at least reduce, the possibility of damage to the rods or the concrete in which they may be embedded when evaluations are conducted. Instead, ultrasonic energy is transmitted through the rod from a portable transducer, and returned energy (in either or both of direct and mode-converted states) may be analyzed to assist in detecting flaws, corrosion, wastage, or other degradation of the rod. Data from a field evaluation may be compared with baseline data maintained either for a specific rod or for rods of similar composition and length (or both), and periodic field evaluations of a rod may be used to analyze trends in its structure over time.

  12. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Forsyth, D. S.

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in an automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.

  13. Integrated multi-criteria flood vulnerability approach using fuzzy TOPSIS and Delphi technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Jun, K.-S.; Chung, E.-S.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to develop a new procedure that combines multi-criteria spatial vulnerability analysis with the traditional linear probabilistic risk approach. This approach is named integrated fuzzy flood vulnerability assessment because it combines the watershed-based vulnerability framework with stream-based risk analysis. The Delphi technique and pressure-state-impact-response framework are introduced to objectively select evaluation criteria, and the fuzzy TOPSIS technique is proposed to address the uncertainty of weights to all criteria and crisp input data of all spatial units. ArcGIS is used to represent the spatial results to all criteria. This framework is applied to the south Han River basin in South Korea. As a result, the flood vulnerability ranking was derived and vulnerability characteristics of all spatial units were compared. This framework can be used to conduct a prefeasibility study for flood mitigation projects when various stakeholders should be included.

  14. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. II - Accuracy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for solving stiff differential equations is presented. The techniques examined include two general purpose codes EEPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREKID, and GCKP84 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy comparisons are made by applying these solution procedures to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction heat release, and equilibration. The comparisons show that LSODE is the most efficient code - in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than computing the temperature by integrating its time derivative.

  15. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. 2: Accuracy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for solving stiff differential equations is presented. The techniques examined include two general purpose codes EEPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREKID, and GCKP84 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy comparisons are made by applying these solution procedures to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction, heat release, and equilibration. The comparisons show that LSODE is the most efficient code - in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than computing the temperature by integrating its time derivative.

  16. Extract transformation loading from OLTP to OLAP data using pentaho data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaki, R. J.; Waworuntu, J.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.

    2016-04-01

    The design of the data warehouse in this case is expected to solve the problem of evaluation of learning results as well as the relevance of the information received to support decision-making by the leader. Data warehouse design is very important, which is designed to utilize the existing resources of information. GPA (Grade Point Average) data warehouse can be used for the process of evaluation, decision making and even further planning of the study program of PTIK. The diversity of data sources in the course PTIK make decisionmaking and evaluation process becomes not easier. Pentaho Data Integration is used to integrate data in PTIK easy. CPI data warehouse design with multidimensional database modeling approach using the dimension tables and fact tables.

  17. Measuring Temperature-Dependent Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Fan Loops Using Multiple SDO-AIA Channels and Surfing Transform Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritskiy, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Ofman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A set of co-aligned high resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling quantitative description of sub visual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional surfing signals extracted from position-timeplots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency - velocity space which exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square root dependence predicted for the slow mode magneto-acoustic wave which seems to be the dominating wave mode in the studied loop structures. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. (2012) to a more general class of fan loop systems not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  18. Integration of remote sensing techniques for the evaluation of the landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, F.; Singhroy, V.; Parise, M.; Ramondini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Slope movements are worldwide recognized as the most damaging natural hazard, even though sometimes their effects are erroneously attributed to other hazards such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, etc.: they affect wide areas, producing severe economic damage, as well as direct and indirect losses, in function of both landslide velocity and exposure of the main elements at risk. Evaluation of the landslide hazard is therefore of extreme importance, in order to address the future development of built-up areas toward territories not affected by slope movements. Remote sensing techniques, that is the observation and analysis of the earth landscape from a distance, have being used since many decades at this aim. In the last 20 years, the use of satellite images considerably increased the role of remote sensing techniques, opening the ground to many new, technologically-advanced, applications. In this paper we present the results obtained by integrating different remote sensing techniques for the evaluation of the hazard related to slow-moving, intermittent landslides in the Southern Apennines of Italy. The work has been carried out by means of multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, that allowed to assess the spatial and temporal evolution of slope movements in a 50-years time span. Landslide inventory maps, produced for each pair of available aerial photos, have been compared to obtain landslide activity maps, that represent a shortcut for assessing the evolution of slope movements, since they focus on the effects of slope instabilities rather than on the causative conditions and processes. In these maps, the landslide activity trends are based on the variations in areal frequency of mass movements in time; thus, the estimates of these variations need not reflect the exact absolute values of landsliding. The stereoscopic observation and interpretation of vertical aerial photographs have been then integrated by analysis of satellite images (years 1992

  19. An efficient technique for the reduction of wavelength noise in resonance-based integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Farshid; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

    2014-11-21

    A systematic study of the limit of detection (LOD) in resonance-based silicon photonic lab-on-chip sensors is presented. The effects of the noise, temperature fluctuations, and the fundamental thermodynamic limit of the resonator are studied. Wavelength noise is identified as the dominant source of noise, and an efficient technique for suppressing this noise is presented. A large ensemble of statistical data from the transmission measurements in a laser-scanning configuration on five silicon nitride (SiN) microrings is collected to discuss and identify the sources of noise. The experimental results show that the LOD is limited by a 3σ wavelength noise of ∼1.8 pm. We present a sub-periodic interferometric technique, relying on an inverse algorithm, to suppress this noise. Our technique reduces the wavelength noise by more than one order of magnitude to an ensemble average of 3σ = 120 fm, for a resonator quality factor (Q) of about 5 × 10(4) without any temperature stabilization or cooling. This technique is readily amenable to on-chip integration to realize highly accurate and low-cost lab-on-chip sensors. PMID:25243248

  20. Evaluation of an adaptive unstructured remeshing technique for integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, Pramote

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured remeshing technique is evaluated for integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis. The technique is combined with the finite element method to solve: (1) the Navier-Stokes equations for high-speed compressible flow, (2) the energy equation for the structural-thermal response, and (3) the quasi-static equilibrium equations for the structural response. The remeshing technique and the analysis solution procedure are described. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated with two applications studies. The flow analysis of Mach 8 shock-shock interference on a three-inch-diameter cylinder is used as the first application study to demonstrate the capability of the remeshing technique and to examine proper remeshing indicators for the inviscid and boundary layer regions. The applicability of the approach for the thermal and structural analyses of the structure is evaluated in the second application study of a 0.25-inch-diameter convectively cooled leading edge subjected to intense aerodynamic heating. Issues associated with remeshing indicators for thermal stress problems are identified.

  1. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different {open_quotes}realities{close_quotes} lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques attempt to resolve some of these ambiguities by appropriately coupling complementary images to eliminate possible inverse mappings. What constitutes the best MSI technique is dependent on the given application domain, available sensors, and task requirements. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) {open_quotes}detail enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) {open_quotes}data enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the MSI techniques are concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) {open_quotes}conceptual enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail.

  2. Evaluation of an adaptive unstructured remeshing technique for integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, Pramote

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured remeshing technique is evaluated for integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis. The technique is combined with the finite element method to solve: (1) the Navier-Stokes equations for high-speed compressible flow; (2) the energy equation for the structural-thermal response; and (3) the quasi-static equilibrium equations for the structural response. The remeshing technique and the analysis solution procedure are described. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated with two application studies. The flow analysis of Mach 8 shock-shock interference on a three-inch-diameter cylinder is used as the first application study to demonstrate the capability of the remeshing technique and to examine proper remeshing indicators for the inviscid and boundary layer regions. The applicability of the approach for the thermal and structural analyses of the structure is evaluated in the second application study of a 0.25-inch-diameter convectively cooled leading edge subjected to intense aerodynamic heating. Issues associated with remeshing indicators for thermal stress problems are identified.

  3. Application of Modern Aperture Integration (AI) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) Techniques for Analysis of Large Reflector Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudduck, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of aperture integration (AI) and geometrical theory of diffraction (GTO) techniques to analyze large reflector antennas is outlined. The following techniques were used: computer modeling, validation of analysis and computer codes, computer aided design modifications, limitation on the conventional aperture integration (AIC) method, extended aperture integration (AIE) method, the AIE method for feed scattering calculations, near field probing predictions for 15 meter model, limitation on AIC for surface tolerance effects, aperture integration on the surface (AIS) method, and AIC and GTD calculations for compact range reflector.

  4. Triple transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farrukh I.; Schinn, Dustin S.

    2013-08-01

    A new business plan that enables policy transformation and resource mobilization at the national and international level, while improving access to resources, will allow the Green Climate Fund to integrate development goals and action on climate change.

  5. InTeGrate: Transforming the Teaching of Geoscience and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockstein, D.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Castendyk, D.; Egger, A. E.; Gosselin, D. C.; Iverson, E. A.; Matson, P. A.; MacGregor, J.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Nevle, R. J.; Oches, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Wiese, K.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is an NSF-funded community project to improve geoscience literacy and build a workforce that can apply geoscience principles to address societal issues. Three workshops offered this year by InTeGrate and its partner, On the Cutting Edge, addressed strategies for bringing together geoscience and sustainability within geoscience courses and programs, in interdisciplinary courses and programs, and in courses and programs in other disciplines or schools including arts and humanities, health science, and business. Participants in all workshops described the power of teaching geoscience in the context of sustainability and the utility of this approach in engaging students with geoscience, including student populations not traditionally represented in the sciences. Faculty involved in both courses and programs seek to teach important skills including the ability to think about systems and to make connections between local observations and challenges and global phenomena and issues. Better articulation of these skills, including learning outcomes and assessments, as well as documenting the relationship between these skills and employment opportunities were identified as important areas for further work. To support widespread integration of geoscience and sustainability concepts, these workshops initiated collections describing current teaching activities, courses, and programs. InTeGrate will continue to build these collections in collaboration with On the Cutting Edge and Building Strong Geoscience Departments, and through open contributions by individual faculty and programs. In addition, InTeGrate began developing new teaching modules and courses. Materials for use in introductory geoscience and environmental science/studies courses, distance learning courses, and courses for education majors are being developed and tested by teams of faculty drawn from at least three institutions, including several members from two-year colleges. An assessment team is

  6. New genetic techniques for group B streptococci: high-efficiency transformation, maintenance of temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmids, and mutagenesis with Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Framson, P E; Nittayajarn, A; Merry, J; Youngman, P; Rubens, C E

    1997-01-01

    Three techniques were developed to improve the genetic manipulation of group B streptococci (GBS). We first optimized a protocol for transformation of GBS by electroporation, which provided transformation efficiencies of 10(5) CFU/microgram. Variables that influenced the transformation efficiency were the glycine content of the competent cell growth media, the electric field strength during electroporation, the electroporation buffer composition, the host origin of the transforming plasmid, and the concentration of selective antibiotic at the final plating. Our transformation protocol provides an efficiency sufficient for cloning from ligation reactions directly into GBS, obviating an intermediate host such as Escherichia coli. Second, temperature-sensitive plasmids of the pWV01 lineage were shown to transform GBS, and their temperature-sensitive replication was confirmed. Lastly, the temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmid pTV1OK, which contains Tn917, was used as a transposon delivery vector for the construction of genomic Tn917 mutant libraries. We have shown, for the first time, that Tn917 transposes to the GBS chromosome and at a frequency of 10(-3)/CFU. Furthermore, representative clones from a Tn917 library contained single transposon insertions that were randomly located throughout the chromosome. These techniques should provide useful methods for cloning, mutagenesis, and characterization of genes from GBS. PMID:9293004

  7. Analysis of slow - moving landslides by means of integration of ground measurements and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, F.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides are among the most costly geological hazards in Italy, widely affecting properties and infrastructures. The analysis of unstable slopes characterized by slow movements (that is, velocity comprised between few mm/year to few cm/year) requires a regular and continuous monitoring in order to correctly establish the causes of the instability and to prevent the possible catastrophic phase. However, the sustainability for long time intervals of an effective monitoring network based on traditional measurement methods is, in most of the cases, hampered by financial and technical limitations. "Innovative" monitoring techniques, known as remote sensing techniques, may contribute in overcome these problems. This paper focuses on the application of an integrated monitoring system based on ground and satellite techniques to two case studies, Moio della Civitella (Salerno province) and Calitri (Avellino province), located in the Campania Region of Southern Italy. Detailed geomorphological analysis, carried out through multi-temporal air-photo interpretation and field surveys, resulted in thematic maps (landslides inventory map, landslides activity map, etc) that showed the high density of slope instability phenomena at both the study sites. The main triggering factors are heavy and/or prolonged rainfall, anthropogenic factors and earthquakes (as in the case of the large landslide at Calitri, induced by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, and which directly involved the historical part of the town). In addition to the geomorphological approach, both sites are being monitored with inclinometers and topographic measurements. These ground data are being, in turn, integrated with the results obtained by applying remote sensing monitoring, in particular interferometric techniques. Current descending Radarsat-2 Ultra-Fine images have been processed with Standard Differential Interferometry, and ERS-1/ERS-2 images acquired from 1992 - 2001 with Permanent Scatterers

  8. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Vannini, Lucia; Gottardi, Davide; Del Chierico, Federica; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Guerzoni, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI) functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Metabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake. This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach has a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers. PMID:23248777

  9. Inverse measurement of stiffness by the normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric

    2012-06-07

    The single specimen normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness has been successfully employed by several researchers to study the strongly non-linear fracture response of ductile semicrystalline polymers. As part of the normalization technique the load and the plastic component of displacement are normalized. The normalized data is then fit with a normalization function that approximates a power law for small displacements that are dominated by blunting and smoothly transitions to a linear relationship for large displacements that are dominated by stable crack extension. Particularly for very ductile polymers the compliance term used to determine the plastic displacement can dominate the solution and small errors in determining the elastic modulus can lead to large errors in the normalization or even make it ill-posed. This can be further complicated for polymers where the elastic modulus is strong strain rate dependent and simply using a 'quasistatic' modulus from a dogbone measurement may not equate to the dominant strain rate in the compact tension specimen. The current work proposes directly measuring the compliance of the compact tension specimen in the solution of J-integral fracture toughness and then solving for the elastic modulus. By comparison with a range of strain rate data the dominant strain rate can then be determined.

  10. Integration of ab-initio nuclear calculation with derivative free optimization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sharda, Anurag

    2008-01-01

    Optimization techniques are finding their inroads into the field of nuclear physics calculations where the objective functions are very complex and computationally intensive. A vast space of parameters needs searching to obtain a good match between theoretical (computed) and experimental observables, such as energy levels and spectra. Manual calculation defies the scope of such complex calculation and are prone to error at the same time. This body of work attempts to formulate a design and implement it which would integrate the ab initio nuclear physics code MFDn and the VTDIRECT95 code. VTDIRECT95 is a Fortran95 suite of parallel code implementing the derivative-free optimization algorithm DIRECT. Proposed design is implemented for a serial and parallel version of the optimization technique. Experiment with the initial implementation of the design showing good matches for several single-nucleus cases are conducted. Determination and assignment of appropriate number of processors for parallel integration code is implemented to increase the efficiency and resource utilization in the case of multiple nuclei parameter search.

  11. New Techniques for Simulation of Ion Implantation by Numerical Integration of Boltzmann Transport Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Wei; Guo, Shuang-Fa

    1998-01-01

    New techniques for more accurate and efficient simulation of ion implantations by a stepwise numerical integration of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have been developed in this work. Instead of using uniform energy grid, a non-uniform grid is employed to construct the momentum distribution matrix. A more accurate simulation result is obtained for heavy ions implanted into silicon. In the same time, rather than utilizing the conventional Lindhard, Nielsen and Schoitt (LNS) approximation, an exact evaluation of the integrals involving the nuclear differential scattering cross-section (dσn=2πp dp) is proposed. The impact parameter p as a function of ion energy E and scattering angle φ is obtained by solving the magic formula iteratively and an interpolation techniques is devised during the simulation process. The simulation time using exact evaluation is about 3.5 times faster than that using the Littmark and Ziegler (LZ) spline fitted cross-section function for phosphorus implantation into silicon.

  12. Transformation of Care: Integrating the Registered Nurse Care Coordinator into the Patient-Centered Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Pamela J; Champagne, Mary T; Peng, Shane; Maizel, David R; Turner, Barbara S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement and evaluate a care delivery model integrating the registered nurse care coordinator (RNCC) into a family practice that is certified as a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) by the National Committee for Quality Assurance. The initial target population was the 937 patients with diabetes in the family practice. A pre-post design was used to assess changes in patients' diabetic quality indicators after integrating the role of RNCC using existing staff. This 6-month project compared the following diabetic quality indicators: blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg, hemoglobin A1c ≤ 7, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL, documentation of smoking cessation counseling, and aspirin prescription if existing vascular disease. Yearly documentation of microalbuminurea level, and filament foot and retinal examination was assessed. Patient and health care team satisfaction also was measured. Care coordination interventions included: telehealth, group visits, standardized individual patient education, as well as creative uses of the electronic medical record for workflow changes, daily huddles, and monthly meetings. The results were positive, statistically significant differences in the pre and post scores for A1c (P = .001, n = 790), foot exam (P = .001, n = 850), and microalbumin (P = .01, n = 850). Post intervention, patient and health care team satisfaction with the RNCC role was high (mean scores ≥3 on a 5-point Likert scale). Integrating the RNCC within a multidisciplinary team in the PCMH had a significant positive impact on diabetic quality indicators. Patient and health care team satisfaction with the RNCC role was high. PMID:25632926

  13. Deletions in the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi by Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration and Conventional Transformation-Mediated Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Linnemannstöns, Pia; Voß, Thorsten; Hedden, Peter; Gaskin, Paul; Tudzynski, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    We induced mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi deficient in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis by transformation-mediated mutagenesis with the vector pAN7-1. We recovered 24 GA-defective mutants in one of nine transformation experiments performed without the addition of a restriction enzyme. Each mutant had a similar Southern blot pattern, suggesting the integration of the vector into the same site. The addition of a restriction enzyme by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) significantly increased the transformation rate and the rate of single-copy integration events. Of 1,600 REMI transformants, two produced no GAs. Both mutants had multiple copies of the vector pAN7-1 and one had a Southern blot pattern similar to those of the 24 conventionally transformed GA-deficient mutants. Biochemical analysis of the two REMI mutants confirmed that they cannot produce ent-kaurene, the first specific intermediate of the GA pathway. Feeding the radioactively labelled precursors ent-kaurene and GA12-aldehyde followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that neither of these intermediates was converted to GAs in the mutants. Southern blot analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the transformants using the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate/ent-kaurene synthase gene (cps/ks) and the flanking regions as probes revealed a large deletion in the GA-deficient REMI transformants and in the GA-deficient transformants obtained by conventional insertional transformation. We conclude that transformation procedures with and without the addition of restriction enzymes can lead to insertion-mediated mutations and to deletions and chromosome translocations. PMID:10347043

  14. Nd:YVO4 and YVO4 laser crystal integration by a direct bonding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Katsumata, Masaki; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2003-04-01

    Laser crystal integration using a neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (or orthovanadate) laser crystal, and non-doped yttrium vanadate crystals that function as cold fingers has been demonstrated. In our bonding technique of YVO4 crystals, a newly developed dry etching process was adopted in the preparation for contact of mechanically polished surfaces. In the successive heat treatment process, temperature optimization was essential to get rid of precipitation of vanadic acid caused by the thermo-chemical reaction in a vacuum furnace. The bonded surface of 5 mm × 6 mm was studied via optical characteristics and magnified inspection. In addition, we also compared the integrated crystal with a normal one in laser output power pumped by a CW laser diode. From these experiments, it was clear that the integrated Nd:YVO4 laser crystal, securing the well-improved thermal conductivity, can increase laser output power nearly twice that of the conventional single crystal which was cracked in high power laser pumping due to its intrinsic poor thermal conductivity.

  15. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm−1 from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry. PMID:26576321

  16. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm(-1) from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry. PMID:26576321

  17. Integration of sexual trauma in a religious narrative: Transformation, resolution and growth among contemplative nuns

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The psychological consequences of sexual abuse are generally serious and enduring, particularly when the perpetrator is known and trusted by the survivor. This paper explores the experiences of five contemplative nuns who were sexually abused by priests and the spiritual journeys that followed. In the context of an ethnographic study of contemplative practice, participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to examine the ways that the nuns sought to make sense of their experiences through a long process of solitary introspection. The pursuit of meaning was shaped by religious beliefs relating to forgiveness, sacrifice, and salvation. Thus, trauma was transformed into a symbolic religious narrative that shaped their sense of identity. They were able to restructure core beliefs and to manage their current relationships with priests more securely. They described regaining their spiritual well-being in ways that suggest a form of posttraumatic spiritual growth. We conclude by discussing the findings in the light of the existing literature on the interaction of trauma and spirituality. PMID:23296289

  18. Integration of sexual trauma in a religious narrative: transformation, resolution and growth among contemplative nuns.

    PubMed

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard

    2013-02-01

    The psychological consequences of sexual abuse are generally serious and enduring, particularly when the perpetrator is known and trusted by the survivor. This paper explores the experiences of five contemplative nuns who were sexually abused by priests and the spiritual journeys that followed. In the context of an ethnographic study of contemplative practice, participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to examine the ways that the nuns sought to make sense of their experiences through a long process of solitary introspection. The pursuit of meaning was shaped by religious beliefs relating to forgiveness, sacrifice, and salvation. Thus, trauma was transformed into a symbolic religious narrative that shaped their sense of identity. They were able to restructure core beliefs and to manage their current relationships with priests more securely. They described regaining their spiritual well-being in ways that suggest a form of posttraumatic spiritual growth. We conclude by discussing the findings in the light of the existing literature on the interaction of trauma and spirituality. PMID:23296289

  19. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M.; Aldama-Reyna, W.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.G.; Garcia-Fernandez, T.; Pulos, G.; Trivi, M.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2010-05-15

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  20. Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP semiconductor lasers using the stop-cleaving technique

    SciTech Connect

    Antreasyan, A.; Napholtz, S.G.; Wilt, D.P.; Garbinski, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper the authors describe the stop-cleaving technique for locally cleaving the mirrors of semiconductor lasers without cleaving the entire substrate, and its applications. The technique is suitable for batch processing with a good yield and, therefore, can be applied to preparing optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC's). InGaAsP/InP double-channel-planar-buried-heterostructure lasers emitting at 1.3 ..mu..m are fabricated utilizing this technique with threshold currents as low as 20 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 60 percent (two facets). The implementation of this technique for preparing a monolithically integrated pair of lasers is also demonstrated. The integrated dual-laser configuration is utilized to obtain a monolithically integrated laser-detector pair by operating one of the lasers under reserve bias, and to enhance longitudinal mode discrimination by utilizing the optical feedback from the self-aligned stop-cleaved facet of the second cavity.

  1. The Syrian hamster embryo cells transformation assay identifies efficiently nongenotoxic carcinogens, and can contribute to alternative, integrated testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of chemical carcinogenicity. However, this strategy cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. Since up to 25% of IARC human carcinogens are recognized to have nongenotoxic mechanisms of action, the risk they pose to human health cannot be disregarded, and it is urgent to fill the gap in the tools for alternative testing. In this paper, we analyze from different perspectives the ability of Cell Transformation Assays to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens, and we conclude that the Syrian hamster embryo cells test is able to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens with 80-90% efficiency, and thus, can play an important role in integrated, alternative testing strategies. PMID:25813724

  2. Efficient compression of motion-compensated sub-images with Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ho-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-03-01

    An approach to highly enhance the compression efficiency of the integral images by applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) algorithm to the motion-compensated sub-images is proposed. The sub-images transformed from the elemental images picked-up from the three-dimensional (3D) object might represent the different perspectives of the object. Thus, the similarity among the sub-images gets better than that among the elemental images, so that an improvement of compression efficiency of the sub-images could be obtained. However, motion vectors occurred among the sub-images might result in an additional increase of image data to be compressed. Accordingly, in this paper, motion vectors have been estimated and compensated in all sub-image in advance. Then the KLT algorithm was applied to these motion-compensated sub-images for compression. It is shown from some experimental results that compression efficiency of the proposed method has been improved up to 24.44%, 40.62%, respectively, on the average compared to that of the conventional KLT compression method and that of the JPEG.

  3. Numerical integration techniques for curved-element discretizations of molecule-solvent interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Altman, Michael D; Willis, David J; Lippow, Shaun M; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K

    2007-07-01

    Surface formulations of biophysical modeling problems offer attractive theoretical and computational properties. Numerical simulations based on these formulations usually begin with discretization of the surface under consideration; often, the surface is curved, possessing complicated structure and possibly singularities. Numerical simulations commonly are based on approximate, rather than exact, discretizations of these surfaces. To assess the strength of the dependence of simulation accuracy on the fidelity of surface representation, here methods were developed to model several important surface formulations using exact surface discretizations. Following and refining Zauhar's work [J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des. 9, 149 (1995)], two classes of curved elements were defined that can exactly discretize the van der Waals, solvent-accessible, and solvent-excluded (molecular) surfaces. Numerical integration techniques are presented that can accurately evaluate nonsingular and singular integrals over these curved surfaces. After validating the exactness of the surface discretizations and demonstrating the correctness of the presented integration methods, a set of calculations are presented that compare the accuracy of approximate, planar-triangle-based discretizations and exact, curved-element-based simulations of surface-generalized-Born (sGB), surface-continuum van der Waals (scvdW), and boundary-element method (BEM) electrostatics problems. Results demonstrate that continuum electrostatic calculations with BEM using curved elements, piecewise-constant basis functions, and centroid collocation are nearly ten times more accurate than planar-triangle BEM for basis sets of comparable size. The sGB and scvdW calculations give exceptional accuracy even for the coarsest obtainable discretized surfaces. The extra accuracy is attributed to the exact representation of the solute-solvent interface; in contrast, commonly used planar-triangle discretizations can only offer improved

  4. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in transformed laryngeal keratoses by in situ hybridization (ISH) technique.

    PubMed

    Gallo, O; Bianchi, S; Giannini, A; Boccuzzi, S; Calzolari, A; Fini-Storchi, O

    1994-03-01

    Laryngeal keratosis (LK) is a precancerous mucosal change with a variable possibility of malignant transformation. Recent studies evidencing HPV-DNA genomes in a large series of non-malignant and malignant laryngeal lesions suggest a role of HPV in the transformation of laryngeal lesions possibly in synergistic interaction with other carcinogens. In this study, we analyzed 115 biopsy specimens from benign laryngeal lesions to evaluate the risk of malignant transformation and its relationship to degree of dysplasia and to histological features of virus cell infection. The rate of transformation of LK was 8% (9/115). Our results indicate that the risk of transformation in laryngeal keratoses without dysplasia (LKWOD) is lower than that in laryngeal keratoses with dysplasia (2.2% vs 25%, respectively) (p < 0.05). An increased risk of malignant evolution in laryngeal keratoses with dysplasia (LKWD) was also related to the degree of dysplasia (rate of transformation of 12.5, 22.2 and 36% in mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, respectively). Histological features suggesting HPV infection (koilocytic-like atypia and epithelial papillary hyperplasia) were found in 6 LK only, no case subsequently developing cancer. In both benign and transformed LK, analyzed by ISH, we failed to detect HPV genomes, suggesting a major role of others carcinogens, such as tobacco and/or alcohol, in the transformation of LK. PMID:8203204

  5. Mind Ahead of the Tone: Integration of Technique and Imagination in Vocal Training at Tanglewood Summer Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Integration of technique and imagination is an essential but rarely explicitly discussed topic in music education literature or in the performing arts classroom. Exploring how master teacher Phyllis Curtin puts the two together and how students describe their integrative experiences in her class, the author tackles the paradoxes and complexity of…

  6. 0.1 V 13 GHz Transformer-Based Quadrature Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with a Capacitor Coupling Technique in 90 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Tatsuya; Lee, Sang-yeop; Tanoi, Satoru; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2012-04-01

    A low power-supply voltage and high-frequency quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) using a combination of capacitor coupling and transformer feedback techniques is presented. The capacitor coupling technique can boost the transconductance of the LC-VCO core and coupling transconductance of QVCO at high frequency. Also, this technique can improve the quality factor of the QVCO at high frequency with low power-supply voltage, compared with the conventional QVCO. In addition, the capacitor coupling QVCO with transformer feedback can improve the quality factor of QVCO. Using this topology, the QVCO is able to operate at over 10 GHz with lower power-supply voltage. Implemented in the 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, the proposed QVCO measures 1-MHz-offset phase noise of -94 dBc/Hz at 13 GHz while consuming 0.68 mW from a 0.1 V power-supply.

  7. Hilbert transform and exponential integral estimates of rectangular sums of double Fourier series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagulyan, G. A.

    1996-04-01

    A new integral estimate for rectangular partial sums of double Fourier series is obtained. The main result of the paper is the following.Theorem. For any f\\in L\\log L(\\mathbf T^2) and \\delta>0 there exists a set E_{\\delta,f}\\in\\mathbf T^2, \\vert E_{\\delta,f}\\vert>(2\\pi)^2-\\delta such that \\displaystyle 1)\\quad\\int_{E_{\\delta,f}}\\exp\\biggl\\lbrack\\frac{c_1\\delta\\vert ......L(\\mathbf T^2)}}\\biggr\\rbrack^{1/2}\\,dx\\,dy\\leqslant C_2, \\qquad N,M=1,2,\\dots, \\displaystyle 2)\\quad\\lim_{N,M\\to\\infty}\\int_{E_{\\delta,f}}\\bigl\\lbrack\\exp(\\vert S_{N,M}(x,y,f)-f(x,y)\\vert)^{1/2}-1\\bigr\\rbrack\\,dx\\,dy=0. This theorem yields estimates almost everywhere for rectangular sums of double Fourier series and convergence in L^p on sets of large measure.

  8. Caring Science: Transforming the Ethic of Caring-Healing Practice, Environment, and Culture within an Integrated Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes. PMID:26828076

  9. A new approach of weighted integration technique based on accumulated images using dynamic PET and H2(15)O

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoi, T.; Kanno, I.; Iida, H.; Miura, S.; Uemura, K. )

    1991-05-01

    We developed a new technique of weighted integration for the measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and the blood-tissue partition coefficient (p) using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) and H2(15)O. The weighted integration in the new technique is carried out on the equation of the first time integration of the Kety-Schmidt differential equation. Practically, serially accumulated images with sequentially prolonged accumulation times are weighted by two arbitrary functions. The weighting functions do not have to be differentiated because of the exclusion of the differential term in the starting equation. Consequently, the method does not require data at the end of the scan. The technique was applied to H2(15)O dynamic PET performed on four normal subjects, and was verified to provide a better signal-to-noise ratio than the previously developed integrated projection (IP) technique. Computer simulations were carried out to investigate the effects of statistical noise, tissue heterogeneity, and time delay and dispersion in arterial input function. The simulation showed that the new technique provided about a 1.4 times lower statistical error in both LCBF and p at 50 ml 100 g-1 min-1 compared to the IP technique, and it should be noted that the new technique was less sensitive to the shape of the weighting functions. The new technique provides a new strategy with respect to the statistical error for estimation of LCBF and p.

  10. Dimension reduction techniques for the integrative analysis of multi-omics data

    PubMed Central

    Zeleznik, Oana A.; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Kuster, Bernhard; Gholami, Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art next-generation sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics and other high-throughput ‘omics' technologies enable the efficient generation of large experimental data sets. These data may yield unprecedented knowledge about molecular pathways in cells and their role in disease. Dimension reduction approaches have been widely used in exploratory analysis of single omics data sets. This review will focus on dimension reduction approaches for simultaneous exploratory analyses of multiple data sets. These methods extract the linear relationships that best explain the correlated structure across data sets, the variability both within and between variables (or observations) and may highlight data issues such as batch effects or outliers. We explore dimension reduction techniques as one of the emerging approaches for data integration, and how these can be applied to increase our understanding of biological systems in normal physiological function and disease. PMID:26969681

  11. LIGHT SCATTERING: Fast path-integration technique in simulation of light propagation through highly scattering objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Aleksandr V.; Tret'yakov, Evgeniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir V.

    2004-06-01

    Based on the path-integration technique and the Metropolis method, the original calculation scheme is developed for solving the problem of light propagation through highly scattering objects. The elimination of calculations of 'unnecessary' realisations and the phenomenological description of processes of multiple small-angle scattering provided a drastic increase (by nine and more orders of magnitude) in the calculation rate, retaining the specific features of the problem (consideration of spatial inhomogeneities, boundary conditions, etc.). The scheme allows one to verify other fast calculation algorithms and to obtain information required to reconstruct the internal structure of highly scattering objects (of size ~1000 scattered lengths and more) by the method of diffusion optical tomography.

  12. The derivation of vector magnetic fields from Stokes profiles - Integral versus least squares fitting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronan, R. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1987-01-01

    The results of two methods for deriving photospheric vector magnetic fields from the Zeeman effect, as observed in the Fe I line at 6302.5 A at high spectral resolution (45 mA), are compared. The first method does not take magnetooptical effects into account, but determines the vector magnetic field from the integral properties of the Stokes profiles. The second method is an iterative least-squares fitting technique which fits the observed Stokes profiles to the profiles predicted by the Unno-Rachkovsky solution to the radiative transfer equation. For sunspot fields above about 1500 gauss, the two methods are found to agree in derived azimuthal and inclination angles to within about + or - 20 deg.

  13. Ramp-integration technique for capacitance-type blade-tip clearance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, G. R.; Barranger, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of a proposed new technique for capacitance type blade tip clearance measurement is presented. The capacitance between the blade tip and a mounted capacitance electrode within a guard ring forms one of the feedback elements of a high speed operational amplifier. The differential equation governing the operational amplifier circuit is formulated and solved for two types of inputs to the amplifier - a constant voltage and a ramp. The resultant solutions shows an output that contains a term that is proportional to the derivative of the product of the input voltage and the time constant of the feedback network. The blade tip clearance capacitance is obtained by subtracting the output of a balancing reference channel followed by integration. The proposed sampled data algorithm corrects the environmental effects and varying rotor speeds on-line, making the system suitable for turbine instrumentation. System requirements, block diagrams, and typical application are included.

  14. Ramp-integration technique for capacitance-type blade-tip clearance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Garimella R.; Barranger, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of a proposed new technique for capacitance type blade tip clearance measurement is presented. The capacitance between the blade tip and a mounted capacitance electrode within a guard ring forms one of the feedback elements of a high speed operational amplifier. The differential equation governing the operational amplifier circuit is formulated and solved for two types of inputs to the amplifier - a constant voltage and a ramp. The resultant solution shows an output that contains a term that is proportional to the derivative of the product of the input voltage and the time constant of the feedback network. The blade tip clearance capacitance is obtained by subtracting the output of a balancing reference channel followed by integration. The proposed sampled data algorithm corrects for environmental effects and varying rotor speeds on-line, making the system suitable for turbine instrumentation. System requirements, block diagrams, and a typical application are included.

  15. Integrating modal-based NDE techniques and bridge management systems using quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorsky, Charles S.

    1997-05-01

    The intent of bridge management systems is to help engineers and managers determine when and where to spend bridge funds such that commerce and the motoring public needs are satisfied. A major shortcoming which states are experiencing is the NBIS data available is insufficient to perform certain functions required by new bridge management systems, such as modeling bridge deterioration and predicting costs. This paper will investigate how modal based nondestructive damage evaluation techniques can be integrated into bridge management using quality management principles. First, quality from the manufacturing perspective will be summarized. Next, the implementation of quality management in design and construction will be reinterpreted for bridge management. Based on this, a theory of approach will be formulated to improve the productivity of a highway transportation system.

  16. Dimension reduction techniques for the integrative analysis of multi-omics data.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Zeleznik, Oana A; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Kuster, Bernhard; Gholami, Amin M; Culhane, Aedín C

    2016-07-01

    State-of-the-art next-generation sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics and other high-throughput 'omics' technologies enable the efficient generation of large experimental data sets. These data may yield unprecedented knowledge about molecular pathways in cells and their role in disease. Dimension reduction approaches have been widely used in exploratory analysis of single omics data sets. This review will focus on dimension reduction approaches for simultaneous exploratory analyses of multiple data sets. These methods extract the linear relationships that best explain the correlated structure across data sets, the variability both within and between variables (or observations) and may highlight data issues such as batch effects or outliers. We explore dimension reduction techniques as one of the emerging approaches for data integration, and how these can be applied to increase our understanding of biological systems in normal physiological function and disease. PMID:26969681

  17. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  18. Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; Campbell, Stuart I; Delaire, Olivier A; Doucet, Mathieu; Goswami, Monojoy; Hagen, Mark E; Lynch, Vickie E; Proffen, Thomas E; Ren, Shelly; Savici, Andrei T; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

  19. Non-invasive quantification of endogenous root auxin transport using an integrated flux microsensor technique.

    PubMed

    McLamore, Eric S; Diggs, Alfred; Calvo Marzal, Percy; Shi, Jin; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Peer, Wendy A; Murphy, Angus S; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a primary phytohormone that regulates multiple aspects of plant development. Because polar transport of IAA is an essential determinant of organogenesis and dynamic tropic growth, methods to monitor IAA movement in vivo are in demand. A self-referencing electrochemical microsensor was optimized to non-invasively measure endogenous IAA flux near the surface of Zea mays roots without the addition of exogenous IAA. Enhanced sensor surface modification, decoupling of acquired signals, and integrated flux analyses were combined to provide direct, real time quantification of endogenous IAA movement in B73 maize inbred and brachytic2 (br2) auxin transport mutant roots. BR2 is localized in epidermal and hypodermal tissues at the root apex. br2 roots exhibit reduced shootward IAA transport at the root apex in radiotracer experiments and reduced gravitropic growth. IAA flux data indicates that maximal transport occurs in the distal elongation zone of maize roots, and net transport in/out of br2 roots was decreased compared to B73. Integration of short term real time flux data in this zone revealed oscillatory patterns, with B73 exhibiting shorter oscillatory periods and greater amplitude than br2. IAA efflux and influx were inhibited using 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA), respectively. A simple harmonic oscillation model of these data produced a correlation between modeled and measured values of 0.70 for B73 and 0.69 for br2. These results indicate that this technique is useful for real-time IAA transport monitoring in surface tissues and that this approach can be performed simultaneously with current live imaging techniques. PMID:20626658

  20. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  1. Near-station terrain corrections for gravity data by a surface-integral technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A new method of computing gravity terrain corrections by use of a digitizer and digital computer can result in substantial savings in the time and manual labor required to perform such corrections by conventional manual ring-chart techniques. The method is typically applied to estimate terrain effects for topography near the station, for example within 3 km of the station, although it has been used successfully to a radius of 15 km to estimate corrections in areas where topographic mapping is poor. Points (about 20) that define topographic maxima, minima, and changes in the slope gradient are picked on the topographic map, within the desired radius of correction about the station. Particular attention must be paid to the area immediately surrounding the station to ensure a good topographic representation. The horizontal and vertical coordinates of these points are entered into the computer, usually by means of a digitizer. The computer then fits a multiquadric surface to the input points to form an analytic representation of the surface. By means of the divergence theorem, the gravity effect of an interior closed solid can be expressed as a surface integral, and the terrain correction is calculated by numerical evaluation of the integral over the surfaces of a cylinder, The vertical sides of which are at the correction radius about the station, the flat bottom surface at the topographic minimum, and the upper surface given by the multiquadric equation. The method has been tested with favorable results against models for which an exact result is available and against manually computed field-station locations in areas of rugged topography. By increasing the number of points defining the topographic surface, any desired degree of accuracy can be obtained. The method is more objective than manual ring-chart techniques because no average compartment elevations need be estimated ?

  2. Subdivision based isogeometric analysis technique for electric field integral equations for simply connected structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Dault, Daniel; Liu, Beibei; Tong, Yiying; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic scattering has long been performed on a discrete representation of the geometry. This representation is typically continuous but not differentiable. The need to define physical quantities on this geometric representation has led to development of sets of basis functions that need to satisfy constraints at the boundaries of the elements/tessellations (viz., continuity of normal or tangential components across element boundaries). For electromagnetics, these result in either curl/div-conforming basis sets. The geometric representation used for analysis is in stark contrast with that used for design, wherein the surface representation is higher order differentiable. Using this representation for both geometry and physics on geometry has several advantages, and is elucidated in Hughes et al. (2005) [7]. Until now, a bulk of the literature on isogeometric methods have been limited to solid mechanics, with some effort to create NURBS based basis functions for electromagnetic analysis. In this paper, we present the first complete isogeometry solution methodology for the electric field integral equation as applied to simply connected structures. This paper systematically proceeds through surface representation using subdivision, definition of vector basis functions on this surface, to fidelity in the solution of integral equations. We also present techniques to stabilize the solution at low frequencies, and impose a Calderón preconditioner. Several results presented serve to validate the proposed approach as well as demonstrate some of its capabilities.

  3. Transforming trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas by use of an integrated call center

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There is poor penetration of trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas. On the other hand, mobile penetration in India is now averaging 80% with most families having access to mobile phone. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the implementation and socioeconomic impact of a call center in providing healthcare delivery for patients with head and spinal injuries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a 6-month period at a level I trauma Center in New Delhi, India. A nine-seater call center was outsourced to a private company and the hospital's electronic medical records were integrated with the call-center operations. The call center was given responsibility of maintaining appointments and scheduling clinics for the whole hospital as well as ensuring follow-up visits. Trained call-center staff handled simple patient queries and referred the rest via email to concerned doctors. A telephonic survey was done prior to the start of call-center operations and after 3 months to assess for user satisfaction. Results: The initial cost of outsourcing the call center was Rs 1.6 lakhs (US$ 4000), with a recurring cost of Rs 80,000 (US$ 2000) per month. A total of 484 patients were admitted in the department of Neurosurgery during the study period. Of these, 63% (n=305) were from rural areas. Patients’ overall experience for clinic visits improved markedly following implementation of call center. Patient satisfaction for follow-up visits increased from a mean of 32-96%. Ninety-five percent patients reported a significant decrease in waiting time in clinics 80.4% reporting improved doctor-patient interaction. A total of 52 visits could be postponed/cancelled for patients living in far flung areas resulting in major socioeconomic benefits to these families. Conclusions: As shown by our case study, call centers have the potential to revolutionize delivery of trauma healthcare to rural areas in an

  4. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  5. A novel solubilization technique for poorly soluble drugs through the integration of nanocrystal and cocrystal technologies.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Kouya; Yamamoto, Katsuhiko; Kojima, Takashi; Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel solubilization technique consisting of a nano-cocrystal suspension by integrating cocrystal and nanocrystal formulation technologies to maximize solubilization over current solubilizing technologies. Monodisperse carbamazepine-saccharin, indomethacin-saccharin, and furosemide-caffeine nano-cocrystal suspensions, as well as a furosemide-cytosine nano-salt suspension, were successfully prepared with particle sizes of less than 300nm by wet milling with the stabilizers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Interestingly, the properties of resultant nano-cocrystal suspensions were dramatically changed depending on the physicochemical and structural properties of the cocrystals. In the formulation optimization, the concentration and ratio of the stabilizers also influenced the zeta potentials and particles sizes of the resultant nano-cocrystal suspensions. Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed that the crystalline structures of the cocrystals were maintained in the nanosuspensions, and were physically stable for at least one month. Furthermore, their dissolution profiles were significantly improved over current solubilization-enabling technologies, nanocrystals, and cocrystals. In the present study, we demonstrated that nano-cocrystal formulations can be a new promising option for solubilization techniques to improve the absorption of poorly soluble drugs, and can expand the development potential of poorly soluble candidates in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27393561

  6. Integrating Nanostructured Artificial Receptors with Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonators via Inorganic Molecular Imprinting Techniques.

    PubMed

    Hammond, G Denise; Vojta, Adam L; Grant, Sheila A; Hunt, Heather K

    2016-01-01

    The creation of label-free biosensors capable of accurately detecting trace contaminants, particularly small organic molecules, is of significant interest for applications in environmental monitoring. This is achieved by pairing a high-sensitivity signal transducer with a biorecognition element that imparts selectivity towards the compound of interest. However, many environmental pollutants do not have corresponding biorecognition elements. Fortunately, biomimetic chemistries, such as molecular imprinting, allow for the design of artificial receptors with very high selectivity for the target. Here, we perform a proof-of-concept study to show how artificial receptors may be created from inorganic silanes using the molecular imprinting technique and paired with high-sensitivity transducers without loss of device performance. Silica microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode optical microresonators are coated with a silica thin film templated by a small fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate, which serves as our model target. Oxygen plasma degradation and solvent extraction of the template are compared. Extracted optical devices are interacted with the template molecule to confirm successful sorption of the template. Surface characterization is accomplished via fluorescence and optical microscopy, ellipsometry, optical profilometry, and contact angle measurements. The quality factors of the devices are measured to evaluate the impact of the coating on device sensitivity. The resulting devices show uniform surface coating with no microstructural damage with Q factors above 10⁶. This is the first report demonstrating the integration of these devices with molecular imprinting techniques, and could lead to new routes to biosensor creation for environmental monitoring. PMID:27314397

  7. Integrating Nanostructured Artificial Receptors with Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonators via Inorganic Molecular Imprinting Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, G. Denise; Vojta, Adam L.; Grant, Sheila A.; Hunt, Heather K.

    2016-01-01

    The creation of label-free biosensors capable of accurately detecting trace contaminants, particularly small organic molecules, is of significant interest for applications in environmental monitoring. This is achieved by pairing a high-sensitivity signal transducer with a biorecognition element that imparts selectivity towards the compound of interest. However, many environmental pollutants do not have corresponding biorecognition elements. Fortunately, biomimetic chemistries, such as molecular imprinting, allow for the design of artificial receptors with very high selectivity for the target. Here, we perform a proof-of-concept study to show how artificial receptors may be created from inorganic silanes using the molecular imprinting technique and paired with high-sensitivity transducers without loss of device performance. Silica microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode optical microresonators are coated with a silica thin film templated by a small fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate, which serves as our model target. Oxygen plasma degradation and solvent extraction of the template are compared. Extracted optical devices are interacted with the template molecule to confirm successful sorption of the template. Surface characterization is accomplished via fluorescence and optical microscopy, ellipsometry, optical profilometry, and contact angle measurements. The quality factors of the devices are measured to evaluate the impact of the coating on device sensitivity. The resulting devices show uniform surface coating with no microstructural damage with Q factors above 106. This is the first report demonstrating the integration of these devices with molecular imprinting techniques, and could lead to new routes to biosensor creation for environmental monitoring. PMID:27314397

  8. Heat Transfer Study of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) Using Simulation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Jeffrey León; Martínez, Edgar Leonardo; Wolf, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2011-08-01

    Separation processes is largely used in petroleum refining and alcohol industries. Distillation columns consume a huge amount of energy in industrial process. Therefore, the concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) was studied using simulation techniques in order to overcome this drawback. In this configuration the column is composed for two concentric sections called rectifying and stripping. The heat transfer is conducted from the rectifying section (which works at higher pressure and temperature) to the stripping section (which works at lower pressure and temperature) using the heat present in the process and decreasing the energy charge required by the reboiler. The HIDiC column offers great potential to reduce energy consumption compared to conventional columns. However, the complexity of the internal configuration requires the development of rigorous works that enable a better understanding of the column operation. For this reason, techniques of simulation were used through of computational software. The current work presents a heat transfer study in a concentric stage of a HIDiC column. The results obtained by Aspen Plus and CFD simulation showed the internal heat transfer in a concentric tray as a promissory configuration in order to decrease energy consumption in distillation processes.

  9. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  10. Calculus Technique of Integration by Parts, Correlated with a Geometric Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromhold, Albert T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The method of integration by parts is one of the most useful in integral calculus. Among the most important applications is the integration of differentials involving products, differentials in involving logarithms, and differentials involving inverse circular functions.

  11. A program system for ab initio MO calculations on vector and parallel processing machines III. Integral reordering and four-index transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiest, Roland; Demuynck, Jean; Bénard, Marc; Rohmer, Marie-Madeleine; Ernenwein, René

    1991-01-01

    This series of three papers presents a program system for ab initio molecular orbital calculations on vector and parallel computers. Part III is devoted to the four-index transformation on a molecular orbital basis of size NMO of the file of two-electron integrals ( pq∥ rs) generated by a contracted Gaussian set of size NATO (number of atomic orbitals). A fast Yoshimine algorithm first sorts the ( pq∥ rs) integrals with respect to index pq only. This file of half-sorted integrals labelled by their rs-index can be processed without further modification to generate either the transformed integrals or the supermatrix elements. The large memory available on the CRAY-2 has made possible to implement the transformation algorithm proposed by Bender in 1972, which requires a core-storage allocation varying as (NATO) 3. Two versions of Bender's algorithm are included in the present program. The first version is an in-core version, where the complete file of accumulated contributions to transformed integrals is stored and updated in central memory. This version has been parallelized by distributing over a limited number of logical tasks the NATO steps corresponding to the scanning of the most external loop. The second version is an out-of-core version, in which twin fires are alternatively used as input and output for the accumulated contributions to transformed integrals. This version is not parallel. The choice of one or another version and (for version 1) the determination of the number of tasks depends upon the balance between the available and the requested amounts of storage. The storage management and the choice of the proper version are carried out automatically using dynamic storage allocation. Both versions are vectorized and take advantage of the molecular symmetry.

  12. The Fourier transform method and the SD-bar approach for the analytical and numerical treatment of multicenter overlap-like quantum similarity integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Safouhi, Hassan . E-mail: hassan.safouhi@ualberta.ca; Berlu, Lilian

    2006-07-20

    Molecular overlap-like quantum similarity measurements imply the evaluation of overlap integrals of two molecular electronic densities related by Dirac delta function. When the electronic densities are expanded over atomic orbitals using the usual LCAO-MO approach (linear combination of atomic orbitals), overlap-like quantum similarity integrals could be expressed in terms of four-center overlap integrals. It is shown that by introducing the Fourier transform of delta Dirac function in the integrals and using the Fourier transform approach combined with the so-called B functions, one can obtain analytic expressions of the integrals under consideration. These analytic expressions involve highly oscillatory semi-infinite spherical Bessel functions, which are the principal source of severe numerical and computational difficulties. In this work, we present a highly efficient algorithm for a fast and accurate numerical evaluation of these multicenter overlap-like quantum similarity integrals over Slater type functions. This algorithm is based on the SD-bar approach due to Safouhi. Recurrence formulae are used for a better control of the degree of accuracy and for a better stability of the algorithm. The numerical result section shows the efficiency of our algorithm, compared with the alternatives using the one-center two-range expansion method, which led to very complicated analytic expressions, the epsilon algorithm and the nonlinear D-bar transformation.

  13. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method

  14. Site-specific recombination for precise and clean transgene integration in plant genome. In: Touraev, A., Citovsky, V., Tzfira, T., Editors of book. Plant Transformation Technologies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant Transformation Technologies is a comprehensive, authoritative book focusing on cutting-edge plant biotechnologies, offering in-depth, forward-looking information on methods for controlled and accurate genetic engineering. In response to ever-increasing pressure for precise and efficient integr...

  15. How Change Occurred at the Stoughton Area School District: Lessons from a SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Knowledge Development Site. Issue Brief #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The SWIFT Center (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) is an initiative to bring about educational equity district by district until all students excel, including students with the most profound needs. As the national technical assistance center to build schoolwide inclusive practices to improve academic and behavioral outcomes for…

  16. Techniques de Theatre Integrees a l'Enseignement du Francais 1989 = Theatre Techniques Integrated into the Teaching of French, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Roger

    This curriculum guide presents a methodology for teaching language and literature through role-playing in the classroom and demonstrates to teachers the link that exists between effective communication and the techniques used to achieve it. The new French program views language as an instrument of communication, a concept that implies that…

  17. Event triggered state estimation techniques for power systems with integrated variable energy resources.

    PubMed

    Francy, Reshma C; Farid, Amro M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-05-01

    For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of

  18. Covariant Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  19. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different 44 realities`` lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) ``detail enhancement,`` wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) ``data enhancement,`` wherein the MSI techniques axe concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) ``conceptual enhancement,`` wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail. This research focuses on data and conceptual enhancement algorithms. To be useful in many real-world applications, e.g., autonomous or teleoperated robotics, real-time feedback is critical. But, many MSI/image processing algorithms require significant processing time. This is especially true of feature extraction, object isolation, and object recognition algorithms due to their typical reliance on global or large neighborhood information. This research attempts to exploit the speed currently available in state-of-the-art digitizers and highly parallel processing systems by developing MSI algorithms based on pixel rather than global-level features.

  20. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different 44 realities'' lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) detail enhancement,'' wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) data enhancement,'' wherein the MSI techniques axe concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) conceptual enhancement,'' wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail. This research focuses on data and conceptual enhancement algorithms. To be useful in many real-world applications, e.g., autonomous or teleoperated robotics, real-time feedback is critical. But, many MSI/image processing algorithms require significant processing time. This is especially true of feature extraction, object isolation, and object recognition algorithms due to their typical reliance on global or large neighborhood information. This research attempts to exploit the speed currently available in state-of-the-art digitizers and highly parallel processing systems by developing MSI algorithms based on pixel rather than global-level features.

  1. Trapping and marking terrestrial mammals for research: integrating ethics, performance criteria, techniques, and common sense.

    PubMed

    Powell, Roger A; Proulx, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    We propose that researchers integrate ethics, performance criteria, techniques, and common sense when developing research trapping programs and in which members of institutional animal care and use committees address these topics when evaluating research protocols. To ask questions about ethics is in the best tradition of science, and researchers must be familiar with codes of ethics and guidelines for research published by professional societies. Researchers should always work to improve research methods and to decrease the effects on research animals, if for no other reason than to minimize the chances that the methods influence the animals' behavior in ways that affect research results. Traps used in research should meet performance criteria that address state-of-the-art trapping technology and that optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the research. The proposal includes the following criteria for traps used in research: As Criterion I, killing-traps should render >/= 70% of animals caught irreversibly unconscious in /= 70% of animals with techniques for short-term, long-term, and permanent marking of mammals. PMID:13130157

  2. Integrated atomic force microscopy techniques for analysis of biomaterials: Study of membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Laura S.

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the prominent techniques for structural studies of biological materials in physiological relevant fluidic environments. AFM has been used to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) surface structure of cells, membranes, and proteins structures. Ion channels, formed by membrane proteins, are the key structures that control the activity of all living systems. This dissertation focuses on the structural evaluation of membrane proteins through atomic force microscopy. In Part I, AFM is utilized to study one of the most prominent medical issues facing our society, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is a misfolded protein disease characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide as senile plaques, progressive neurodegeneration, and memory loss. Recent evidence suggests that AD pathology is linked to the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis mediated by toxic channel structures composed of Abeta peptides. Selectively engineered sequences of Abeta were examined by AFM to elucidate the substructures and thus activity Abeta channels. Key residues were evaluated with the intent better understand the exact nature by which these pores conduct electrical and molecular signals, which could aid in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the prevention/treatment of AD. Additionally, AFM was used to analyze brain derived Abeta and newly developed pharmacological agents to study membranes and Abeta. Part II, presents a novel technology that incorporates electrophysiology into the AFM interface, enabling simultaneous imaging and complementary conductance measurements. The activity of ion channels is studied by various techniques, including patch clamp, free standing lipid bilayers, droplet interface bilayers, and supported lipid bilayers. However, direct correlation with channel structures has remained a challenge. The integrated atomic force microscopy system presented offers a solution to this challenge. The functionality of the

  3. Comparison of ultrasound and optical coherence tomography techniques for evaluation of integrity of spontaneously repaired horse cartilage.

    PubMed

    Virén, T; Huang, Y P; Saarakkala, S; Pulkkinen, H; Tiitu, V; Linjama, A; Kiviranta, I; Lammi, M J; Brünott, A; Brommer, H; Van Weeren, R; Brama, P A J; Zheng, Y P; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques for the evaluation of the integrity of spontaneously repaired horse cartilage. Articular surfaces of horse intercarpal joints, featuring both intact tissue and spontaneously healed chondral or osteochondral defects, were imaged ex vivo with arthroscopic ultrasound and laboratory OCT devices. Quantitative ultrasound (integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), apparent integrated backscattering coefficient (AIB) and ultrasound roughness index (URI)) and optical parameters (optical reflection coefficient (ORC), optical roughness index (ORI) and optical backscattering (OBS)) were determined and compared with histological integrity and mechanical properties of the tissue. Spontaneously healed tissue could be quantitatively discerned from the intact tissue with ultrasound and OCT techniques. Furthermore, several significant correlations (p < 0.05) were detected between ultrasound and OCT parameters. Superior resolution of OCT provided a more accurate measurement of cartilage surface roughness, while the ultrasound backscattering from the inner structures of the cartilage matched better with the histological findings. Since the techniques were found to be complementary to each other, dual modality imaging techniques could provide a useful tool for the arthroscopic evaluation of the integrity of articular cartilage. PMID:22439802

  4. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  5. Successful integration of remote sensing and ground based exploration techniques in an arid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.F.E. ); Oehlers, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Twenty years ago, remote sensing promised to revolutionize exploration; unfortunately, many of the early promises made were unfulfilled and remote sensing tended to drop out of mainstream exploration. Both these extremes are unrealistic, and projects undertaken by Clyde in Yemen illustrate some of the ways remote sensing can become a successful and cost-effective part of an exploration program. Firstly, the remote sensed data, integrated with a minimum of ground control work, provided maps to use in subsequent fieldwork, a surface geology map, and a digital elevation model with its derived topographic contour maps. Secondly, the remote sensed data enabled the authors to create a structural contour map of a near surface horizon at a very low cost per square kilometer. Thirdly, the remote sensed data became a crucial planning tool for seismic operations to optimize data quality and minimize acquisition cost without having to resort to costly and time-consuming swath shooting or similar high-effort techniques. Finally, the surface geological map derived from the image interpretation enabled them to create geological cross sections along the shot seismic lines in a matter of hours without having a field geologist mapping along the lines. Remote sensing can provide highly cost-effective benefits to an exploration program in an arid region, and many of the applications can also be developed for use in areas with vegetation cover.

  6. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphasis is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  7. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. )

    1996-01-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  8. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  9. Applied Focused Ion Beam Techniques for Sample Preparation of Astromaterials for Integrated Nano-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G A; Teslich, N E; Kearsley, A T; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R M; Dai, Z R; Ishii, H A; Hutcheon, I D; Bajt, S; Snead, C J; Weber, P K; Bradley, J P

    2007-02-20

    Sample preparation is always a critical step in study of micrometer sized astromaterials available for study in the laboratory, whether their subsequent analysis is by electron microscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry. A focused beam of gallium ions has been used to prepare electron transparent sections from an interplanetary dust particle, as part of an integrated analysis protocol to maximize the mineralogical, elemental, isotopic and spectroscopic information extracted from one individual particle. In addition, focused ion beam techniques have been employed to extract cometary residue preserved on the rims and walls of micro-craters in 1100 series aluminum foils that were wrapped around the sample tray assembly on the Stardust cometary sample collector. Non-ideal surface geometries and inconveniently located regions of interest required creative solutions. These include support pillar construction and relocation of a significant portion of sample to access a region of interest. Serial sectioning, in a manner similar to ultramicrotomy, is a significant development and further demonstrates the unique capabilities of focused ion beam microscopy for sample preparation of astromaterials.

  10. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. I - Efficiency comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the efficiency of several recently developed numerical techniques for solving chemical kinetic rate equations is presented. The solution procedures examined include two general-purpose codes, EPISODE and LSODE, developed as multipurpose differential equation solvers, and three specialzed codes, CHEMEQ, CREK1D, and GCKP84, developed specifically for chemical kinetics. The efficiency comparison is made by applying these codes to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, constant-pressure, gas-phase chemical reactions and include all three combustion regimes: induction, heat release, and equilibration. The comparison shows that LSODE is the fastest routine currently available for solving chemical kinetic rate equations. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for temperature can be significantly faster than evaluation of the temperature by integration of its time derivative. Significant increases in computational speed are realized by updating the reaction rate constants only when the temperature change exceeds an amount Delta-T that is problem dependent. An approximate expression for the automatic evaluation of Delta-T is presented and is shown to result in increased computational speed.

  11. Z-depth integration: a new technique for manipulating z-depth properties in composited scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Kayla; Whittinghill, David

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a new technique in the production pipeline of asset creation for virtual environments called Z-Depth Integration (ZeDI). ZeDI is intended to reduce the time required to place elements at the appropriate z-depth within a scene. Though ZeDI is intended for use primarily in two-dimensional scene composition, depth-dependent "flat" animated objects are often critical elements of augmented and virtual reality applications (AR/VR). ZeDI is derived from "deep image compositing", a capacity implemented within the OpenEXR file format. In order to trick the human eye into perceiving overlapping scene elements as being in front of or behind one another, the developer must manually manipulate which pixels of an element are visible in relation to other objects embedded within the environment's image sequence. ZeDI improves on this process by providing a means for interacting with procedurally extracted z-depth data from a virtual environment scene. By streamlining the process of defining objects' depth characteristics, it is expected that the time and energy required for developers to create compelling AR/VR scenes will be reduced. In the proof of concept presented in this manuscript, ZeDI is implemented for pre-rendered virtual scene construction via an AfterEffects software plug-in.

  12. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    PubMed

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred. PMID:21908011

  13. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  15. A 300 mV sub-threshold region 2.4 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator and frequency divider with transformer technique for ultralow power RF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Keisuke; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    2014-01-01

    A new ultralow voltage 2.4 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and a divide-by-2 frequency divider circuits operating in a CMOS sub-threshold region using a transformer technique have been developed. In the sub-threshold region, the CMOS transistor high frequency performances are decreased to the point where oscillation and frequency division are challenging to achieve. The new proposed VCO uses the transformer feedback complementary VCO technique to improves VCO negative feedback gain. The circuits have been fabricated in a 65 nm standard CMOS process. The oscillation frequency is designed at 2.4 GHz under a 300 mV supply voltage. The total power consumption is 202 µW with noise performance of -96 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The new proposed frequency divider circuit consists of two stages master-slave D-type flip-flop (DFF). The DFF differential input is coupled to a transformer circuit instead of transistors to reduce the number of stacks. The minimum operating supply voltage is 300 mV with power consumption of 34 µW with a free-run frequency of 1.085 GHz.

  16. An imaging evaluation of the simultaneously integrated boost breast radiotherapy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, Jessica; Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate in-field megavoltage (MV) imaging of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) breast fields to determine its feasibility in treatment verification for the SIB breast radiotherapy technique, and to assess whether the current-imaging protocol and treatment margins are sufficient. For nine patients undergoing SIB breast radiotherapy, in-field MV images of the SIB fields were acquired on days that regular treatment verification imaging was performed. The in-field images were matched offline according to the scar wire on digitally reconstructed radiographs. The offline image correction results were then applied to a margin recipe formula to calculate safe margins that account for random and systematic uncertainties in the position of the boost volume when an offline correction protocol has been applied. After offline assessment of the acquired images, 96% were within the tolerance set in the current department-imaging protocol. Retrospectively performing the maximum position deviations on the Eclipse™ treatment planning system demonstrated that the clinical target volume (CTV) boost received a minimum dose difference of 0.4% and a maximum dose difference of 1.4% less than planned. Furthermore, applying our results to the Van Herk margin formula to ensure that 90% of patients receive 95% of the prescribed dose, the calculated CTV margins were comparable to the current departmental procedure used. Based on the in-field boost images acquired and the feasible application of these results to the margin formula the current CTV-planning target volume margins used are appropriate for the accurate treatment of the SIB boost volume without additional imaging.

  17. Predicting feeding success in a migratory predator: integrating telemetry, environment, and modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Bestley, Sophie; Patterson, Toby A; Hindell, Mark A; Gunn, John S

    2010-08-01

    Foraging theory predicts that mobile predators should target high profitability areas with plentiful resources and minimize time spent moving between these areas. This has led to a focus in recent literature on the identification of "hotspots" important for migratory marine predators, i.e., regions where predators spend disproportionate amounts of time ostensibly due to high prey abundance; and determination of the environmental features characteristic of such areas. We investigated factors predicting foraging success in southern bluefin tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii), by integrating telemetry-based feeding and movement data (n = 19 fish, length to caudal fork [LCF] = 99 +/- 3 cm) with environmental data over the scale of their annual oceanic migrations during 1998-2000. We used widely available statistical modeling techniques, generalized linear models, and generalized linear mixed models, formulated to represent feeding as a Markov process. The results showed increased feeding and predictability of feeding occurs in the coastal waters of southern Australia, providing some evidence that this area represents a fixed foraging "hotspot" for juvenile tuna during the austral summer. However, in oceanic waters southern bluefin tuna did not fit the common model of migration, but rather showed a pattern of relatively high foraging success throughout their migratory range, especially during periods of continuous travel. Interestingly, foraging "coldspots" (prolonged low-feeding periods) as well as "hotspots" were apparent across individual tracks, predicted most strongly by warm ocean temperatures. These results provide a new perspective on the ecology of large-scale feeding migrations within the context of the heterogeneous ocean environment, where the continuous and opportunistic feeding of generalist predators may be more common, particularly in predatory large pelagic fishes, than is currently documented. PMID:20836459

  18. Differential-Integral method in polymer processing: Taking melt electrospinning technique for example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haoyi, Li; Weimin, Yang; Hongbo, Chen; Jing, Tan; Pengcheng, Xie

    2016-03-01

    A concept of Differential-Integral (DI) method applied in polymer processing and molding was proposed, which included melt DI injection molding, DI nano-composites extrusion molding and melt differential electrospinning principle and equipment. Taking the melt differential electrospinning for example to introduce the innovation research progress, two methods preparing polymer ultrafine fiber have been developed: solution electro-spinning and melt electro-spinning, between which solution electro-spinning is much simpler to realize in lab. More than 100 institutions have endeavored to conduct research on it and more than 30 thousand papers have been published. However, its industrialization was restricted to some extend because of the existence of toxic solvent during spinning process and poor mechanical strength of resultant fibers caused by small pores on fiber surface. Solvent-free melt electrospinning is environmentally friendly and highly productive. However, problems such as the high melt viscosity, thick fiber diameter and complex equipment makes it relatively under researched compared with solution electrospinning. With the purpose of solving the shortage of traditional electro-spinning equipment with needles or capillaries, a melt differential electro-spinning method without needles or capillaries was firstly proposed. Nearly 50 related patents have been applied since 2005, and systematic method innovations and experimental studies have also been conducted. The prepared fiber by this method had exhibited small diameter and smooth surface. The average fiber diameter can reach 200-800 nm, and the single nozzle can yield two orders of magnitude more than the capillaries. Based on the above principle, complete commercial techniques and equipment have been developed to produce ultra-fine non-woven fabrics for the applications in air filtration, oil spill recovery and water treatment, etc.

  19. Monitoring the integrity of massive aluminum structures using PZT transducers and the technique of impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Rosalba; Maia, Joaquim M.; Assef, Amauri A.; Pichorim, Sergio F.; Costa, Eduardo T.; L. S. N. Button, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Safety, performance, economy and durability are essential items to qualify materials for the manufacturing of structures used in different areas. Generally, the materials used for this purpose are formed by composites and sometimes they can present failure during the manufacturing process. Such failures can also occur during use due to fatigue and wear, causing damage often difficult to be visually detected. In these cases, the use of non destructive testing (NDT) has proven to be a good choice for assessing the materials quality. The objective of this work was the electromechanical impedance evaluation of massive aluminum structures using ultrasonic transducers to detect discontinuities in the material. The tests have been done using an impedance analyzer (Agilent 4294A), an ultrasound transducer (1.6 MHz of central frequency), two types of PZT ceramics (0.267 mm and 1 mm thickness) and four aluminum samples (250 x 50 x 50 mm) with the transducer placed at three different regions. One sample was kept intact (reference) and the others were drilled in three positions with different sizes of holes (5 mm. 8 mm and 11 mm). The electromechanical impedance was recorded for each sample. The root mean square deviation index (RMSD) between the impedance magnitude of the reference and damaged samples was calculated and it was observed an increase in the RMSD due to the increase of the diameter of the holes (failures) in the samples completely drilled. The results show that the proposed methodology is suitable for monitoring the integrity of aluminum samples. The technique may be evaluated in characterizing other materials to be used in the construction of prostheses and orthoses.

  20. Modelling and calibration technique of laser triangulation sensors for integration in robot arms and articulated arm coordinate measuring machines.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Guillomía, David; Cajal, Carlos; Albajez, José A; Aguilar, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic-laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry-and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs. PMID:22400001

  1. A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-VLLC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To be the first one of its kind in employing light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a fiber-VLLC integration lightwave transmission system, the light is successfully directly modulated with Community Access Television (CATV), 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signals. Over a 40 km SMF and a 10 m free-space VLLC transport, good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB)/bit error rate (BER) are achieved for CATV/16-QAM/16-QAM-OFDM signals transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transmission system would be very useful since it can provide broadband integrated services including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services over both distribute fiber and in-building networks.

  2. An iterative finite element-integral technique for predicting sound radiation from turbofan inlets in steady flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, S. J.; Sigman, R. K.; Zinn, B. T.

    1982-01-01

    A new iterative solution technique for predicting the sound field radiated from a turbofan inlet in steady flight is presented. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. A continuous solution is obtained by matching the finite element and integral solutions at the interface between the two regions. The applicability of the iterative technique is demonstrated by comparison of experimental results with the theoretical results for several different inlet configurations with and without flow. These examples show that good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained within five iterations.

  3. The area-time-integral technique to estimate convective rain volumes over areas applied to satellite data - A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Miller, James R., Jr.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Laybe, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    The use of the area-time-integral (ATI) technique, based only on satellite data, to estimate convective rain volume over a moving target is examined. The technique is based on the correlation between the radar echo area coverage integrated over the lifetime of the storm and the radar estimated rain volume. The processing of the GOES and radar data collected in 1981 is described. The radar and satellite parameters for six convective clusters from storm events occurring on June 12 and July 2, 1981 are analyzed and compared in terms of time steps and cluster lifetimes. Rain volume is calculated by first using the regression analysis to generate the regression equation used to obtain the ATI; the ATI versus rain volume relation is then employed to compute rain volume. The data reveal that the ATI technique using satellite data is applicable to the calculation of rain volume.

  4. Integration of the simian virus 40 genome into cellular DNA in temperature-sensitive (N) and temperature-insensitive (A) transformants of 3T3 rat and Chinese hamster lung cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chepelinsky, A B; Seif, R; Martin, R G

    1980-01-01

    We studied the pattern of integration of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome into the cellular DNA of N-transformants (temperature sensitive) and A-transformants (temperature insensitive) derived from 3T3-Fisher rat and Chinese hamster lung cells. The SV40 DNA was covalently linked to the cellular DNA in both types of transformants. In the rat cells, most N-transformants contained SV40 sequences integrated at a single site; most A-transformants contained SV40 sequences integrated at two to five sites. In the Chinese hamster cells, no significant correlation between the number of integration sites and the phenotype of the transformant was found; one of three integration sites were observed for both the N- and A-transformants. Single copies and tandem repeats of SV40 sequences were observed in A- and N-transformants derived from rat cells. A-transformants arise neither by amplification of the SV40 genome nor by integration at a unique site. Images PMID:6251267

  5. Evaluation of oxide layers formed during the decarburisation of grain-oriented electrical steel using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poultney, Darren; Snell, David

    Electrical steels are highly specialised, magnetically soft materials, used to form the cores that carry the magnetic flux in electrical machines such as motors, generators and transformers. During the production of GO electrical steel, the strip passes through a decarburisation furnace, which promotes the formation of a thin surface oxide layer consisting of predominantly fayalite (Fe 2SiO 4) and silica (SiO 2). During a subsequent high temperature anneal, this layer reacts with magnesia (MgO) to form a forsterite 'glass film' layer, which applies a tensile stress to the steel. This reduces the magnetic losses of the material on which the final product is routinely graded. Due to the effect that the oxide layer has on the quality of the final material, it would be beneficial to possess a technique that can rapidly assess its composition and/or morphology. This paper details the assessment of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electrochemical potential (ECP) analysis, and a technique of combining the two. FTIR analysis of the decarburisation oxide layer exhibited evidence of just fayalite, with silica only being observed on the spectra following brief acid etching. To refine the etching process, samples were removed from the acid at various intervals based on the output of the ECP technique. It was established that there was a clear link between the position reached on the ECP profile and absorption bands observed on the corresponding FTIR spectra.

  6. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people. PMID:24912580

  7. How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  8. Integration of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the nondestructive inspection of aeronautic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Paoletti, D.; Maldague, X.

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses in the implementation of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the inspection of aeronautics parts. To this aim, a helicopter blade with known defects is inspected with four different techniques: long pulse thermography, pulsed thermography, digital speckle photography (DSP) and holographic interferometry (HI). The first two techniques belongs to the group of infrared imaging techniques, which are based on the analysis of the infrared thermal patterns in order to detect internal anomalies in the material; whilst the last two (DSP and HI) corresponds to the optical imaging techniques which make use of visible light to measure the material response to an applied stress. Both techniques were applied using the active approach, i.e. an external stimulation is applied in order to produce a gradient in either, the thermal and/or displacement field of the material. The results are then compared in order to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each technique.

  9. Transform approach to electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review of the Fourier transform technique as applied to the problem of high-frequency scattering is presented and the concepts of the spectral theory of diffraction (STD) are introduced. In contrast to the more commonly employed ray-optical method for high-frequency scattering, the STD approach interprets the scattered field as the spectrum, or the Fourier transform of the induced current on the scatterer. Such an interpretation offers several important advantages: uniform nature of representation, capacity to improve and extend the ray-optical formulas in a systematic manner, and convenient accuracy tests for the results. Methods for combining integral equation methods with the Galerkin procedure and asymptotic techniques in the transform domain are described, and representative examples illustrating the application of the spectral approach are included.

  10. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: Reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.

  11. Analysis of two-pass Modified Hough Transform (MHT) technique for the detection of wake like signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmut, M. J.; MacKinnon, R. F.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper a procedure is developed using the Modified Hough Transform (MHT) for the detection of signals of low signal-to-noise ratio. The signal can be considered as being composed of a sum of narrow lines. The expected number of signal and false lines to be found in an image can be determined as a function of the false alarm probability per decision. The MHT performance is compared to that of the matched filter. The method is applied to noisy images containing a wake-like signal. The MHT is able to detect the signal pattern at signal-to-noise ratios for which the signal is just visible on a good image display system. A two pass system, employing prior knowledge about the signal, gives improved detection performance.

  12. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung. PMID:23998948

  13. SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.

  14. A computerized symbolic integration technique for development of triangular and quadrilateral composite shallow-shell finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Noor, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Computerized symbolic integration was used in conjunction with group-theoretic techniques to obtain analytic expressions for the stiffness, geometric stiffness, consistent mass, and consistent load matrices of composite shallow shell structural elements. The elements are shear flexible and have variable curvature. A stiffness (displacement) formulation was used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of both the displacement and rotation components of the reference surface of the shell. The triangular elements have six and ten nodes; the quadrilateral elements have four and eight nodes and can have internal degrees of freedom associated with displacement modes which vanish along the edges of the element (bubble modes). The stiffness, geometric stiffness, consistent mass, and consistent load coefficients are expressed as linear combinations of integrals (over the element domain) whose integrands are products of shape functions and their derivatives. The evaluation of the elemental matrices is divided into two separate problems - determination of the coefficients in the linear combination and evaluation of the integrals. The integrals are performed symbolically by using the symbolic-and-algebraic-manipulation language MACSYMA. The efficiency of using symbolic integration in the element development is demonstrated by comparing the number of floating-point arithmetic operations required in this approach with those required by a commonly used numerical quadrature technique.

  15. Fiber Optic Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Techniques for Advanced On-Line Chemical Analysis in Semiconductor Fabrication Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Michael; Trygstad, Marc; Chabot, Paul

    2003-09-01

    A unique analytical methodology has recently been developed to perform real-time, on-line chemical analysis of bath solutions in semiconductor fabrication tools. A novel, patented fiber optic sensor is used to transmit infrared light directly through the tube walls of the circulating bath solutions within the fabrication tool in a completely non-invasive, non-extractive way. The sensor simply "clips" onto the tubing, thus permitting immediate analysis of the bath composition by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectrometer is capable of multiplexing up to eight "Clippir™" sensor heads to a single interferometer using fiber optic cables. The instrument can analyze almost any bath solution utilized today. The analysis is performed using the near-infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where absorption bands related to molecular vibrations can be found. The Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer gives access to absorption bands over a wide range of frequencies (or wavelengths), and the absorptions are correlated to concentrations using a chemometric approach employing a partial least-squares algorithm. Models are generated from this approach for each chemistry to be analyzed. This paper will review the analytical technology necessary to make such measurements, and discuss the instrument performance criteria required to achieve accurate and precise measurements of bath chemistries. The ability to measure non-infrared absorbing compounds will be discussed, as will the nature of the influence of sample temperature on measurement. Issues critical to the development of robust models and their direct implementation on multiple channels and even different instruments will be considered.

  16. An Integral View on Virgo and Field Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: Late-Type Origin and Environmental Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rys, Agnieszka; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are the most common galaxy class in dense environments. They are also a surprisingly inhomogenous class, which has made it challenging both to relate different dE subtypes to each other, as well as place the whole class in the larger context of galaxy assembly and (trans)formation processes. Here we will show the effects of environmental evolution on Virgo Cluster and field dEs, presenting the first large-scale integral-field spectroscopic (SAURON) data for this galaxy class. Our sample consists of 12 galaxies and no two of them are alike. We find that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening; we observe kinematic twists; we discover large-scale kinematically-decoupled components; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps. This great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar population parameters supports the claim that dEs are defunct dwarf spiral/irregular galaxies and points to a formation scenario that allows for a stochastic shaping of galaxy properties. The combined influence of ram-pressure stripping and harassment fulfils this requirement, still, their exact impact is not yet understood. We thus further investigate the properties of our sample by performing a detailed comprehensive analysis of its kinematic, dynamical, and stellar population properties. We infer the total (dark and baryonic) matter distribution by fitting the observed stellar velocity and velocity dispersion with the solutions of the Jeans equations. We obtain 2D age, metallicity, and enrichment information from line-strength analysis. We then tie these results to the galaxies' intrinsic (i.e. deprojected) locations in the cluster with the use of surface-brightness fluctuation distances. This step is essential to providing unbiased correlations with the local environment density. We show that the dark matter fraction, unlike the level of rotational support, appears to correlate with the clustrocentric distance, and that our dwarfs have

  17. An Innovative Technique for Evaluating the Integrity and Durability of Wind Turbine Blade Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2010-09-01

    Wind turbine blades are subjected to complex multiaxial stress states during operation. A review of the literature suggests that mixed mode fracture toughness can be significantly less than that of the tensile opening mode (Mode I), implying that fracture failure can occur at a much lower load capacity if the structure is subject to mixed-mode loading. Thus, it will be necessary to identify the mechanisms that might lead to failure in blade materials under mixed-mode loading conditions. Meanwhile, wind turbine blades are typically fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric materials, e.g. fiber glass composites. Due to the large degree of anisotropy in mechanical properties that is usually associated with laminates, the fracture behavior of these composite materials is likely to be strongly dependent on the loading conditions. This may further strengthen the need to study the effect of mixed-mode loading on the integrity and durability of the wind turbine blade composites. To quantify the fracture behavior of composite structures under mixed mode loading conditions, particularly under combined Mode I (flexural or normal tensile stress) and Mode III (torsional shear stress) loading, a new testing technique is proposed based on the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT). As a 2002 R&D 100 Award winner, SNTT is a novel fracture testing technology. SNTT has many advantages over conventional fracture toughness methods and has been used to determine fracture toughness values on a wide spectrum of materials. The current project is the first attempt to utilize SNTT on polymeric and polymer-based composite materials. It is expected that mixed-mode failure mechanisms of wind turbine blades induced by typical in-service loading conditions, such as delamination, matrix cracking, fiber pull-out and fracture, can be effectively and economically investigated by using this methodology. This project consists of two phases. The Phase I (FY2010) effort includes (1) preparation of testing

  18. A PAPR reduction technique using Hadamard transform combined with clipping and filtering based on DCT/IDCT for IM/DD optical OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangone, Fall; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In Intensity Modulator/Direct Detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM systems, the high peak-to-power average ratio (PAPR) will cause signal impairments through the nonlinearity of modulator and fiber. In this paper, a joint PAPR reduction technique based on Hadamard transformation and clipping and filtering using DCT/IDCT transform has been proposed for mitigating the impairments in IM/DD optical OFDM system. We then experimentally evaluated the effect of PAPR reduction on the bit error rate (BER) performance and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. At a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of the proposed 2.5 Gb/s IM/DD optical OFDM system after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 0.8 dB, 1.3 dB and 3.1 dB for a launch power of 6.4 dBm, 8 dBm and 10 dBm respectively when compared with the classical system.

  19. Development of a technique for the automatic wireless mounting of integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A.

    1980-10-01

    This technique is also applicable to power circuits because the heat can be easily removed. It is suitable either for highly reliable circuits or for devices for consumer applications. It is an economical technique, able to compete with cheap labor countries.

  20. Examination of the Thermal Transformation of Chrysotile by Using Dispersion Staining and Conventional X-ray Diffraction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crummett, C. D.; Candela, P. A.; Wylie, A. G.; Earnest, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chrysotile has been used industrially as a component of refractory products, and in friction products, such as brake linings. Examining the decomposition or transformation of chrysotile as a function of time and temperature will help clarify the characteristics of particulates released during processes such as automotive braking. Previous studies have reported that the thermal treatment of chrysotile alters both its surface and structure, resulting in deviations from its natural properties, possibly reducing its biological activity (Langer, 2003: Reg Tox Pharm, v38, p71). In past studies, the nonequilibrium thermal decomposition of chrysotile has been investigated by using static dehydration, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. These studies suggest that the thermal transformation of chrysotile follows a two step sequence of dehydroxylation/dehydration and recrystallization where (1) chrysotile yields forsterite + silica + water with (2) forsterite + silica later forming enstatite (Ball and Taylor, 1963: Mineral. Mag. v33, p467, Brindley and Hayami, 1965: Mineral. Mag. v35, p189). In this research the decomposition of chrysotile from Thetford Quebec was studied. Samples were heated isothermally in air at temperatures from 200° C to 1000° C. After heating for up to 24 hours the refractive indices of remaining chrysotile fibers were measured by using dispersion staining. In addition, reaction products were identified by optical methods, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction performed after the termination of the experiment. Preliminary results show that there is no change in optical properties of chrysotile heated to 400° C for 24 hours. From 400° C to 575° C for 24 hours, the index of refraction increases parallel to the length of the fiber from 1.552 to 1.560. From 400° C to 575° C for 24 hours, the index of refraction perpendicular to the length of the fiber varies irregularly from 1.538-1.548. The

  1. A reliable modeless mobile multi-sensor integration technique based on RLS-lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gizawy, Mahmoud; Noureldin, Aboelmagd; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2006-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an increasing trend in integrating different navigation sensors for the overall purpose of overcoming the limitation of stand-alone systems. An example of this integration is the fusion of the global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) for several navigation and positioning applications. Both systems have their unique features and shortcomings. Therefore, their integration offers a robust navigation solution. This paper introduces a novel multi-sensor system integration using a recursive least-squares lattice (RLSL) filter. The proposed system has a similar structure to the widely used KF. However, it has the major advantage of working without the need of either dynamic or stochastic models. Furthermore, no prior information about the covariance information of INS and GPS is required. The proposed RLSL filter parameters, similar to Kalman gain, are tuned recursively in the update mode utilizing the GPS velocity components. The RLSL, in turn, can filter out the high frequency noise associated with the INS. To test the capabilities of the proposed architecture, a field test was conducted in a land vehicle using a tactical grade INS system (the Honeywell HG1700) integrated with differential GPS measurements collected by a NovAtel OEM4 GPS receiver. The proposed system is examined during the availability of the GPS signal and with intentionally introduced GPS signal outages. The results indicate that the proposed RLSL system is robust in providing a reliable modeless INS/GPS integration module.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Change the Outcome Part II: Targeted Neuromuscular Training Techniques to Reduce Identified ACL Injury Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior reports indicate that female athletes who demonstrate high knee abduction moments (KAMs) during landing are more responsive to neuromuscular training designed to reduce KAM. Identification of female athletes who demonstrate high KAM, which accurately identifies those at risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, may be ideal for targeted neuromuscular training. Specific neuromuscular training targeted to the underlying biomechanical components that increase KAM may provide the most efficient and effective training strategy to reduce noncontact ACL injury risk. The purpose of the current commentary is to provide an integrative approach to identify and target mechanistic underpinnings to increased ACL injury in female athletes. Specific neuromuscular training techniques will be presented that address individual algorithm components related to high knee load landing patterns. If these integrated techniques are employed on a widespread basis, prevention strategies for noncontact ACL injury among young female athletes may prove both more effective and efficient. PMID:22580980

  3. A Gas Dynamics Method Based on The Spectral Deferred Corrections (SDC) Time Integration Technique and The Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu

    2011-12-01

    We present a computational gas dynamics method based on the Spectral Deferred Corrections (SDC) time integration technique and the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) finite volume method. The PPM framework is used to define edge averaged quantities which are then used to evaluate numerical flux functions. The SDC technique is used to integrate solution in time. This kind of approach was first taken by Anita et al in [17]. However, [17] is problematic when it is implemented to certain shock problems. Here we propose significant improvements to [17]. The method is fourth order (both in space and time) for smooth flows, and provides highly resolved discontinuous solutions. We tested the method by solving variety of problems. Results indicate that the fourth order of accuracy in both space and time has been achieved when the flow is smooth. Results also demonstrate the shock capturing ability of the method.

  4. Assessment of nitrous oxide emission from cement plants: real data measured with both Fourier transform infrared and nondispersive infrared techniques.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Silvia; Benedetti, Paolo; Guerriero, Ettore; Rotatori, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, and contributes about 6% to the greenhouse effect. Nitrous oxide is a minor component of the atmosphere, and it is a thousand times less than carbon dioxide (CO2). Nevertheless, it is much more potent than CO2 and methane, owing to its long stay in the atmosphere of approximately 120 yr and the high global warmingpotential (GWP) of298 times that of CO2. Although greenhouse gases are natural in the atmosphere, human activities have changed the atmospheric concentrations. Most of the values of emission of nitrous oxide are still obtained by means ofemission factors and not actually measured; the lack ofreal data may result in an underestimation ofcurrent emissions. The emission factors used for the calculation of N2O can be obtained from the "Guidelines for the implementation of the national inventory of emissions" of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which refer to all nations for the realization of their inventory. This study will present real data, measured in several Italian cement plants with different characteristics. The work also shows a comparison between N2O concentration measured with in situ-Fourier transform IR (FTIR) and the reference method EN ISO 21258 based on nondispersive IR (NDIR), in order to investigate the interfering compounds in the measurement with NDIR. PMID:25509548

  5. Computer simulation of the thermal environment of large-scale integrated circuits - Computer time-saving techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. R.; Blum, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the computer costs for both the steady-state and transient thermal responses of large-scale integrated circuits (LSI) when metal is present within the substrate. For the more cost-sensitive transient case, an extrapolation technique for computer time savings is compared with the accuracy loss in this study. This approach could be useful for design-cost planning.

  6. Uncertainty quantification and integration of machine learning techniques for predicting acid rock drainage chemistry: a probability bounds approach.

    PubMed

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2014-08-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a major pollution problem globally that has adversely impacted the environment. Identification and quantification of uncertainties are integral parts of ARD assessment and risk mitigation, however previous studies on predicting ARD drainage chemistry have not fully addressed issues of uncertainties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) are used for the prediction of ARD drainage chemistry and their predictive uncertainties are quantified using probability bounds analysis. Furthermore, the predictions of ANN and SVM are integrated using four aggregation methods to improve their individual predictions. The results of this study showed that ANN performed better than SVM in enveloping the observed concentrations. In addition, integrating the prediction of ANN and SVM using the aggregation methods improved the predictions of individual techniques. PMID:24852616

  7. Generation of 238U Covariance Matrices by Using the Integral Data Assimilation Technique of the CONRAD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privas, E.; Archier, P.; Bernard, D.; De Saint Jean, C.; Destouche, C.; Leconte, P.; Noguère, G.; Peneliau, Y.; Capote, R.

    2016-02-01

    A new IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) aims to test, validate and improve the IRDF library. Among the isotopes of interest, the modelisation of the 238U capture and fission cross sections represents a challenging task. A new description of the 238U neutrons induced reactions in the fast energy range is within progress in the frame of an IAEA evaluation consortium. The Nuclear Data group of Cadarache participates in this effort utilizing the 238U spectral indices measurements and Post Irradiated Experiments (PIE) carried out in the fast reactors MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) and PHENIX (CEA Marcoule). Such a collection of experimental results provides reliable integral information on the (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. This paper presents the Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) technique of the CONRAD code used to propagate the uncertainties of the integral data on the 238U cross sections of interest for dosimetry applications.

  8. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  9. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Animesh Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  10. The gated integration technique for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from random phase screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Cheng, Chuanfu; Teng, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xu, Zhizhan

    2007-09-01

    A new approach based on the gated integration technique is proposed for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from a random phase screen. The Boxcar used for this technique in the acquisition of the speckle intensity data integrates the photoelectric signal during its sampling gate open, and it repeats the sampling by a preset number, m. The average analog of the m samplings output by the Boxcar enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by √{m}, because the repeated sampling and the average make the useful speckle signals stable, while the randomly varied photoelectric noise is suppressed by 1/√{m}. In the experiment, we use an analog-to-digital converter module to synchronize all the actions such as the stepped movement of the phase screen, the repeated sampling, the readout of the averaged output of the Boxcar, etc. The experimental results show that speckle signals are better recovered from contaminated signals, and the autocorrelation function with the secondary maximum is obtained, indicating that the accuracy of the measurement of the autocorrelation function is greatly improved by the gated integration technique.

  11. Assessment of liver steatosis and fibrosis in rats using integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Shuoyu; Tai, Dean; Yu, Hanry; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-11-01

    We report the implementation of a unique integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy imaging technique developed for label-free monitoring of the progression of liver steatosis and fibrosis generated in a bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model. Among the 21 adult rats used in this study, 18 rats were performed with BDL surgery and sacrificed each week from weeks 1 to 6 (n = 3 per week), respectively; whereas 3 rats as control were sacrificed at week 0. Colocalized imaging of the aggregated hepatic fats, collagen fibrils, and hepatocyte morphologies in liver tissue is realized by using the integrated CARS, SHG, and TPEF technique. The results show that there are significant accumulations of hepatic lipid droplets and collagen fibrils associated with severe hepatocyte necrosis in BDL rat liver as compared to a normal liver tissue. The volume of normal hepatocytes keeps decreasing and the fiber collagen content in BDL rat liver follows a growing trend until week 6; whereas the hepatic fat content reaches a maximum in week 4 and then appears to stop growing in week 6, indicating that liver steatosis and fibrosis induced in a BDL rat liver model may develop at different rates. This work demonstrates that the integrated CARS and multiphoton microscopy imaging technique has the potential to provide an effective means for early diagnosis and detection of liver steatosis and fibrosis without labeling.

  12. Coating integrity survey using DC voltage gradient technique at Korea Gas Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.B.; Park, K.W.; Jeon, K.S.; Song, H.S.; Won, D.S.; Lee, S.M.; Kho, Y.T.

    1996-12-31

    The reliability and applicability of various coating defect detecting techniques are investigated utilizing mock pipe. It is shown that both close interval potential survey and dc voltage gradient methods are impertinent as field techniques: They require considerable cathodic polarization in order to effectively locate the coating defects. DC voltage gradient with current interruption technique is recommended as a viable field method in that it is able to precisely locate the defects irrespective of CP condition. Utilizing the method field survey was undertaken for the KGC`s pipeline of 120 km and 106 assumed defects were located.

  13. Development and application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques to the characterization of coal and oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of application programs for infrared spectroscopy has been an ongoing proposition for a number of years. This development, however, was accelerated with the advent of Fourier transform infared (FT-IR) instruments and their built-in mini-computers. The uses and pitfalls of several of these routines are discussed in this thesis. A least-squares curve resolving program has been developed and the use of this program is also discussed. The analysis of complex, multicomponent polymeric materials, such as coal and oil shale, by conventional infrared spectroscopy has been a difficult problem. The use of FT-IR spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these types of materials is discussed. A characterization of oil shale from the Mahogany Zone of the Green River Formation has been obtained by FT-IR. A quantitative analysis of the mineral component by FT-IR spectroscopy is shown to be comparable to that obtained by x-ray diffraction when considering broad mineral types, i.e., carbonates. Methods for the FT-IR analysis of the organic component, both from the whole shale and from kerogen specimens, have been refined. There is a good correlation between the intensity of alkyl bands and Fisher assay yields. An assessment is made of the applicability of extinction coefficients obtained from paraffins to their use in quantitative analysis in oil shales. A quantitative analysis of OH content in coal by FT-IR is comparable to that done by other methods (i.e., chemical and NMR). An analysis is also made of the various types of OH groups in coal.

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.

  15. Integrating Milton H. Erickson's Hypnotherapeutic Techniques into General Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otani, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Examines several basic hypnotherapeutic techniques (rapport building, problem assessment, resistance management, and behavior change) based on Milton H. Erickson's hypnotherapeutic principles that can be translated into the general framework of counseling. (Author/CM)

  16. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  17. Terahertz imaging technique and application in large scale integrated circuit failure inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Zhi-gang; Yao, Jian-quan; Jia, Chun-rong; Xu, De-gang; Bing, Pi-bin; Yang, Peng-fei; Zheng, Yi-bo

    2010-11-01

    Terahertz ray, as a new style optic source, usually means the electromagnetic whose frequencies lies in between 0.1THz~10THz, the waveband region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies in the gap between microwaves and infrared ray. With the development of laser techniques, quantum trap techniques and compound semiconductor techniques, many new terahertz techniques have been pioneered, motivated in part by the vast range of possible applications for terahertz imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. THz imaging technique was introduced, and THz imaging can give us not only the density picture but also the phase information within frequency domain. Consequently, images of suspicious objects such as concealed metallic or metal weapons are much sharper and more readily identified when imaged with THz imaging scanners. On the base of these, the application of THz imaging in nondestructive examination, more concretely in large scale circuit failure inspection was illuminated, and the important techniques of this application were introduced, also future prospects were discussed. With the development of correlative technology of THz, we can draw a conclusion that THz imaging technology will have nice application foreground.

  18. Light absorption by airborne aerosols: comparison of integrating plate and spectrophone techniques.

    PubMed

    Szkarlat, A C; Japar, S M

    1981-04-01

    An excellent correlation between the integrating plate (IP) and the photoacoustic methods for measuring aerosol light absorption has been found for airborne graphitic carbon in diesel vehicle exhaust. However, the regression coefficient depends on the orientation of the Teflon membrane filter during the IP analysis. With the collected particulates between the filter and the integrating plate, the IP response is 1.85 times that for the filter reversed. In either case the response ratio of the IP method to the photoacoustic method is >1.0, i.e., 2.43 vs 1.30. The IP calibration is also probably dependent on the nature of the filter medium. PMID:20309278

  19. A study on techniques for and user requirements on systems integration in SCADA/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rahkonen, T.; Cegrell, T.

    1995-12-31

    Stating requirements on systems integration in a SCADA/EMS procurement project can be a delicate task, especially if a long-term strategy including integration with future systems is striven for. The problems are accentuated by the fact that in order to achieve a cost-efficient system utilities requirements have to be often stated, at least to some degree, with the SCADA/EMS vendors` standard systems in mind. This paper summarizes results from two state-of-the-practice studies, where among others, experienced SCADA/EMS users and vendors were investigated in terms of practical experiences from this field. The first study covered technical possibilities/problems in achieving systems integration; the focus of the second study was on specification of user requirements in industrial procurement projects. Based on the two studies, some common obstacles are recognized and some recommendations in how to state requirements on systems integration for a utility are given. The results should be of interest to utilities, vendors, and consultants in SCADA/EMS procurement projects.

  20. Techniques and Measurements. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) introduce students to and familiarize them with working in the school laboratory;…

  1. Comparison of numerical techniques for integration of stiff ordinary differential equations arising in combustion chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of several algorithms recently developed for the efficient numerical integration of stiff ordinary differential equations are compared. The methods examined include two general-purpose codes, EPISODE and LSODE, and three codes (CHEMEQ, CREK1D, and GCKP84) developed specifically to integrate chemical kinetic rate equations. The codes are applied to two test problems drawn from combustion kinetics. The comparisons show that LSODE is the fastest code currently available for the integration of combustion kinetic rate equations. An important finding is that an interactive solution of the algebraic energy conservation equation to compute the temperature does not result in significant errors. In addition, this method is more efficient than evaluating the temperature by integrating its time derivative. Significant reductions in computational work are realized by updating the rate constants (k = at(supra N) N exp(-E/RT) only when the temperature change exceeds an amount delta T that is problem dependent. An approximate expression for the automatic evaluation of delta T is derived and is shown to result in increased efficiency.

  2. Monitoring of Land Subsidence in Ravenna Municipality Using Integrated SAR - GPS Techniques: Description and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, G.; Fiaschi, S.; Di Martire, D.; Tessitore, S.; Fabris, M.; Achilli, V.; Ahmed, A.; Borgstrom, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Ramondini, M.; Artese, S.; Floris, M.; Menin, A.; Monego, M.; Siniscalchi, V.

    2016-06-01

    The Emilia Romagna Region (N-E Italy) and in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline of Ravenna, is affected by a noticeable subsidence that started in the 1950s, when the exploitation of on and off-shore methane reservoirs began, along with the pumping of groundwater for industrial uses. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, reaches the -2 cm/y. Over the years, local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with DInSAR and GPS techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory. With regard to the DInSAR, the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques have been used. Different SAR datasets have been exploited: ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1. Some GPS campaigns have been also carried out in a subsidence prone area. 3D vertices have been selected very close to existing persistent scatterers in order to link the GPS measurement results to the SAR ones. GPS data were processed into the International reference system and the comparisons between the coordinates, for the first 6 months of the monitoring, provided results with the same trend of the DInSAR data, even if inside the precision of the method.

  3. "I'll Squeeze It In": Transforming Preservice Classroom Teachers' Perceptions toward Movement Integration in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Webster, Collin; Podlog, Leslie; Pillow, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    A program titled Physical Education Programming Infusion (PEPI) was incorporated into a required science methods course for preservice classroom teachers (PCTs). Using the transformative learning theory and the social ecological model, the authors examined changes in PCTs' personal health behaviors and perceived barriers toward movement…

  4. Investigation of Prospective Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Integration Practices in Terms of Transformative Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Izmirli, Özden; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil

    2014-01-01

    An examination of prospective teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) integration skills development in an undergraduate program indicated that the only course available to practice these skills was the teaching practice course. However, the practice and development of these ICT integration skills in the teaching practice…

  5. Case Study for Integration of an Oncology Clinical Site in a Semantic Interoperability Solution based on HL7 v3 and SNOMED-CT: Data Transformation Needs.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Bucur, Anca; Perez-Rey, David; Alonso, Enrique; de Hoog, Matthy; Dekker, Andre; Marshall, M Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the data transformation pipeline defined to support the integration of a new clinical site in a standards-based semantic interoperability environment. The available datasets combined structured and free-text patient data in Dutch, collected in the context of radiation therapy in several cancer types. Our approach aims at both efficiency and data quality. We combine custom-developed scripts, standard tools and manual validation by clinical and knowledge experts. We identified key challenges emerging from the several sources of heterogeneity in our case study (systems, language, data structure, clinical domain) and implemented solutions that we will further generalize for the integration of new sites. We conclude that the required effort for data transformation is manageable which supports the feasibility of our semantic interoperability solution. The achieved semantic interoperability will be leveraged for the deployment and evaluation at the clinical site of applications enabling secondary use of care data for research. This work has been funded by the European Commission through the INTEGRATE (FP7-ICT-2009-6-270253) and EURECA (FP7-ICT-2011-288048) projects. PMID:26306242

  6. An integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton imaging technique for liver disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Hanry; Sheppard, Colin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-03-01

    Liver steatosis and fibrosis are two prevalence liver diseases and may eventually develop into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Due to their prevalence and severity, much work has been done to develop efficient diagnostic methods and therapies. Nonlinear optical microscopy has high sensitivity and chemical specificity for major biochemical compounds, making it a powerful tool for tissue imaging without staining. In this study, three nonlinear microscopy imaging modalities are applied to the study of liver diseases in a bile duct ligation rat modal. CARS shows the distributions of fats or lipids quantitatively across the tissue; SHG visualizes the collagens; and TPEF reveals the morphology of hepatic cells. The results clearly show the development of liver steatosis and fibrosis with time, and the hepatic fat and collagen fibrils are quantified. This study demonstrates the ability of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy for liver disease diagnosis, and may provide new insights into the understanding of the mechanisms of steatosis/fibrosis transformations at the cellular and molecular levels.

  7. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  8. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  9. The computer integrated documentation project: A merge of hypermedia and AI techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Boy, Guy

    1993-01-01

    To generate intelligent indexing that allows context-sensitive information retrieval, a system must be able to acquire knowledge directly through interaction with users. In this paper, we present the architecture for CID (Computer Integrated Documentation). CID is a system that enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework and includes an intelligent browsing system that incorporates indexing in context. CID's knowledge-based indexing mechanism allows case based knowledge acquisition by experimentation. It utilizes on-line user information requirements and suggestions either to reinforce current indexing in case of success or to generate new knowledge in case of failure. This allows CID's intelligent interface system to provide helpful responses, based on previous experience (user feedback). We describe CID's current capabilities and provide an overview of our plans for extending the system.

  10. LC-MS screening techniques for wastewater analysis and analytical data handling strategies: Sartans and their transformation products as an example.

    PubMed

    Letzel, Thomas; Bayer, Anne; Schulz, Wolfgang; Heermann, Alexandra; Lucke, Thomas; Greco, Giorgia; Grosse, Sylvia; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2015-10-01

    A large number of anthropogenic trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and further transformation products (TPs) enter wastewater treatment plants on a daily basis. A mixture of known, expected, and unknown molecules are discharged into the receiving aquatic environment because only partial elimination occurs for many of these chemicals during physical, biological and chemical treatment processes. In this study, an array of LC-MS methods from three collaborating laboratories was applied to detect and identify anthropogenic trace contaminants and their TPs in different waters. Starting with theoretical predictions of TPs, an efficient workflow using the combination of target, suspected-target and non-target strategies for the identification of these TPs in the environment was developed. These techniques and strategies were applied to study anti-hypertensive drugs from the sartan group (i.e., candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, and valsartan). Degradation experiments were performed in lab-scale wastewater treatment plants, and a screening workflow including an inter-laboratory approach was used for the identification of transformation products in the effluent samples. Subsequently, newly identified compounds were successfully analyzed in effluents of real wastewater treatment plants and river waters. PMID:26246044

  11. Integration of Spatial Interpolation Techniques and Association Rules for Estimation of Missing Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegavarapu, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Deterministic and stochastic weighting methods are the most frequently used methods for estimating missing rainfall values at a gage based on values recorded at all other available recording gages. These methods may not always provide accurate estimates due to spatial and temporal variability of rainfall available at point measurements in space and also due to limitations of spatial interpolation techniques. Since an interpolated value of a variable at a point in space depends on observed values at all other points in space, temporal associations among observations in space can be beneficial in interpolation. An association rule mining (ARM) based spatial interpolation approach is proposed and investigated in the current study to estimate missing precipitation values at a gaging station. A stochastic spatial interpolation technique and three deterministic weighting methods are used in the current study. Historical daily precipitation data obtained from 15 rain gauging stations from temperate climatic region, Kentucky, USA, are used to test this approach and derive conclusions about its efficacy for estimating missing precipitation data. Results suggest that the use of association rule mining in conjunction with any spatial interpolation technique can improve the precipitation estimates and help to address one of the major limitations of any spatial interpolation technique.

  12. Shape identification technique for a two-dimensional elliptic system by boundary integral equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Fumio

    1989-01-01

    The geometrical structure of the boundary shape for a two-dimensional boundary value problem is identified. The output least square identification method is considered for estimating partially unknown boundary shapes. A numerical parameter estimation technique using the spline collocation method is proposed.

  13. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  14. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; O'Brien, James E.; McKellar, Michael G.; Housley, Gregory K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  15. Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

  16. Radar and satellite area-time-integral techniques for estimating convective precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Reinke, Don

    1990-01-01

    The application of the area-time-integral (ATI) method (Doneaud et al, 1984) to radar and satellite measurements is reviewed. Results are presented from the calculation of ATI values from radar observations based on low-elevation-angle and low-altitude CAPPI data. Also, results from a satellite ATI calculation using IR images from a GEO platform are given. The results suggest that the radar and satellite applications produce good consistency.

  17. Process Product Integrity Audits: A Hardware Auditing Technique for the '90s'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Mike

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has experienced hardware problems that have delayed several shuttle launches. A NASA review determined that the problems could have been prevented. NASA further concluded that a new kind of Quality emphasis at all Space Shuttle prime contractors and subcontractors was necessary to ensure mission success. To meet this challenge, NASA initiated an innovative review process called Process/Product Integrity (PPIA).

  18. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Methods: Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E + IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. Results: The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E + IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E + IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E + IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. Conclusions: The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery

  19. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

    2012-05-01

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  20. The impact of radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques on the performance of readout integrated circuits in radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbs, John E.; Gramer, Mark E.; Maestas-Jepson, Diana; Dole, Gary A.; Hahn, Allan

    2008-08-01

    The tolerance of a hybrid array (HA) to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation continues to be a major performance consideration for space based imaging systems. In an effort to improve TID performance, HA manufacturers have begun to utilize circuit design techniques to enhance the TID tolerance of readout integrated circuits (ROICs). This paper will report on the radiometric and TID radiation characterizations of a HA that utilizes radiation-hardened-by-design (RHBD) techniques. This paper will not describe the design techniques used. Instead, characterization data are presented that demonstrate a HA TID tolerance of over 25 units of total ionizing dose (UTID). This result is compared with the performance of devices with ROICs processed at commercial foundries that do not make use of RHBD techniques. The HA described in this paper represents a state-of-the-art device; the ROIC was designed to be low noise, high gain, and radiation tolerant. While design techniques were utilized to enhance its TID hardness, no special fabrication processes were used.

  1. Importance of integrated results of different non-destructive techniques in order to evaluate defects in panel paintings: the contribution of infrared, optical and ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarra, S.; Theodorakeas, P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Paoletti, A.; Paoletti, D.; Hrissagis, K.; Bendada, A.; Koui, M.; Maldague, X.

    2011-06-01

    The increasing deterioration of panel paintings can be due to physical processes that take place during exhibition or transit, or as a result of temperature and humidity fluctuations within a building, church or museum. In response to environmental alterations, a panel painting can expand or contract and a new equilibrium state is eventually reached. These adjustments though, are usually accompanied by a change in shape in order to accommodate to the new conditions. In this work, a holographic method for detecting detached regions and micro-cracks is described. Some of these defects are confirmed by Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) technique. In addition, Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) allow to identify with greater contrast two artificial defects in Mylar which are crucial to understand the topic of interest: the discrimination between defect materials. Finally, traditional contact ultrasounds applications, are widely applied for the evaluation of the wood quality in several characterization procedures. Inspecting the specimen from the front side, the natural and artificial defects of the specimen are confirmed. Experimental results derived by the application of the integrated methods on an Italian panel painting reproduction, called The Angel specimen, are presented. The main advantages that these techniques can offer to the conservation and restoration of artworks are emphasized.

  2. A modified Bessel-type integral transform and its compositions with fractional calculus operators on spaces and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaeske, H.-J.; Kilbas, Anatoly A.; Saigo, Megumi

    2000-06-01

    The paper is devoted to study the integral transformwith the kernelfor [beta]>0; Re([gamma])>1/[beta]-1; ; Re(z)>0, which is a generalization of the modified Bessel function of the third kind or Macdonald function K-[gamma](z). Properties of [lambda][gamma],[sigma]([beta])(z) are investigated and compositions of the operator L[gamma],[sigma]([beta]) with the left- and right-sided Liouville fractional integrals and derivatives are proved.

  3. Workplace and environmental air contaminant concentrations measured by open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a statistical process control technique to detect changes from normal operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Malachowski, M S; Levine, S P; Herrin, G; Spear, R C; Yost, M; Yi, Z

    1994-05-01

    Open path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy is a new air monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of air contaminants in real or near-real time. OP-FTIR spectroscopy has been used to monitor workplace gas and vapor exposures, emissions from hazardous waste sites, and to track emissions along fence lines. This paper discusses a statistical process control technique that can be used with air monitoring data collected with an OP-FTIR spectrometer to detect departures from normal operating conditions in the workplace or along a fence line. Time series data, produced by plotting consecutive air sample concentrations in time, were analyzed. Autocorrelation in the time series data was removed by fitting dynamic models. Control charts were used with the residuals of the model fit data to determine if departures from defined normal operating conditions could be rapidly detected. Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts were evaluated for use with data collected under different room air flow and mixing conditions. Under rapidly changing conditions the Shewhart control chart was able to detect a leak in a simulated process area. The EWMA control chart was found to be more sensitive to drifts and slowly changing concentrations in air monitoring data. The time series and statistical process control techniques were also applied to data obtained during a field study at a chemical plant. A production area of an acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and styrene (ABS) polymer process was monitored in near-real time. Decision logics based on the time series and statistical process control technique introduced suggest several applications in workplace and environmental monitoring. These applications might include signaling of an alarm or warning, increasing levels of worker respiratory protection, or evacuation of a community, when gas and vapor concentrations are determined to be out-of-control. PMID:8012765

  4. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  5. The quest for tolerant varieties: the importance of integrating “omics” techniques to phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zivy, Michel; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Renaut, Jenny; Pinheiro, Carla; Goulas, Estelle; Carpentier, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of crop breeding is to improve yield and/or harvest quality while minimizing inputs. Global climate change and the increase in world population are significant challenges for agriculture and call for further improvements to crops and the development of new tools for research. Significant progress has been made in the molecular and genetic analysis of model plants. However, is science generating false expectations? Are ‘omic techniques generating valuable information that can be translated into the field? The exploration of crop biodiversity and the correlation of cellular responses to stress tolerance at the plant level is currently a challenge. This viewpoint reviews concisely the problems one encounters when working on a crop and provides an outline of possible workflows when initiating cellular phenotyping via “-omic” techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). PMID:26217344

  6. The quest for tolerant varieties: the importance of integrating "omics" techniques to phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Zivy, Michel; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Renaut, Jenny; Pinheiro, Carla; Goulas, Estelle; Carpentier, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of crop breeding is to improve yield and/or harvest quality while minimizing inputs. Global climate change and the increase in world population are significant challenges for agriculture and call for further improvements to crops and the development of new tools for research. Significant progress has been made in the molecular and genetic analysis of model plants. However, is science generating false expectations? Are 'omic techniques generating valuable information that can be translated into the field? The exploration of crop biodiversity and the correlation of cellular responses to stress tolerance at the plant level is currently a challenge. This viewpoint reviews concisely the problems one encounters when working on a crop and provides an outline of possible workflows when initiating cellular phenotyping via "-omic" techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). PMID:26217344

  7. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p < 0.05), but BIC and MI data did not differ significantly. Thus, the results partly indicate improved bone formation at blasted and hydrogen fluoride treated implants, compared to blasted implants. The 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies. PMID:24711247

  8. Combination of different microscopy techniques for the integrated study of extremophile endolithic microorganisms and their habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Ríos, Asunción; Wierzchos, Jacek; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ascaso, Carmen

    2001-08-01

    Some micro-organisms are able to withstand extreme environments and form communities within rocks. To characterise these endolithic micro-ecosystems, several microscopy and microanalytical approaches need to be combined, including scanning electron microscopy with back scattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM), confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and the X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalytical system. These techniques have allowed the simultaneous observation of these micro-organisms and their habitats. SEM-BSE and LTSEM serve to evaluate the biodiversity of the rock from a morphological and ultrastructural perspective. LTSEM also permits water localisation in the cells and their microhabitats. Information on the spatial distribution of the micro-organisms inside the rock is provided by CSLM. Lithobiontic communities have been shown to interact with their substrate. The EDS technique coupled to SEM-BSE permits the chemical characterisation of mineral features, the detection of biomobilisation and biomineralisation processes, and yields information on the chemical environment. These techniques are also applicable in the search for fossilised micro-organisms.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of organochlorines in soil: enhancement techniques and integration with other remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-06-01

    Electrokinetic remediation has been increasingly used in soils and other matrices for numerous contaminants such as inorganic, organic, radionuclides, explosives and their mixtures. Several strategies were tested to improve this technology effectiveness, namely techniques to solubilize contaminants, control soil pH and also couple electrokinetics with other remediation technologies. This review focus in the experimental work carried out in organochlorines soil electroremediation, aiming to systemize useful information to researchers in this field. It is not possible to clearly state what technique is the best, since experimental approaches and targeted contaminants are different. Further research is needed in the application of some of the reviewed techniques. Also a number of technical and environmental issues will require evaluation for full-scale application. Removal efficiencies reported in real contaminated soils are much lower than the ones obtained with spiked kaolinite, showing the influence of other factors like aging of the contamination and adsorption to soil particles, resulting in important challenges when transferring technologies into the field. PMID:22386462

  10. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  11. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  12. Integrating complementary medicine literacy education into Australian medical curricula: Student-identified techniques and strategies for implementation.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Formal medical education about complementary medicine (CM) that comprises medicinal products/treatments is required due to possible CM interactions with conventional medicines; however, few guidelines exist on design and implementation of such education. This paper reports findings of a constructivist grounded theory method study that identified key strategies for integrating CM literacy education into medical curricula. Analysis of data from interviews with 30 medical students showed that students supported a longitudinal integrative and pluralistic approach to medicine. Awareness of common patient use, evidence, and information relevant to future clinical practice were identified as focus points needed for CM literacy education. Students advocated for interactive case-based, experiential and dialogical didactic techniques that are multiprofessional and student-centred. Suggested strategies provide key elements of CM literacy within research, field-based practice, and didactic teaching over the entirety of the curriculum. CM educational strategies should address CM knowledge deficits and ultimately respond to patients' needs. PMID:26573450

  13. Efficiency of Integrated Geophysical techniques in delineating the extension of Bauxites ore in north Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Alanazi, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Muteb; Alsama, Ali; Alhenaki, Bander; Almalki, Awadh

    2014-05-01

    We exploit the integration of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study for delineating the subsurface Bauxite layer in Zabira locality, north of Riyadh. Integrated GPR, magnetic gradiometry resistivity and seismic refraction are used in the case of high contrast targets and provide an accurate subsurface reconstruction of foundations in sediments. Resistivity pseudo-sections are in particular useful for the areal identification of contacts between soils and foundations while GPR and magnetic gradiometry provide detailed information about location and depth of the structures. Results obtained by GPR, Magnetics and resistivity shows a very good agreement in mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 5 m to 10 m while the depth obtained by seismic refraction was 10 m to 15 m due to lack of velocity information.

  14. Technique for integrative energy planning in developing nations with illustrative application to Pakistan. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliano, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the conceptual definition, development and illustrative application of a new methodology for integrative energy planning in less developed countries (LDCs). The author terms his approach the Integrative Planning Technique (IPT). The IPT provides a direct linkage between sectoral activity levels and targets specified in the overall economic development plan and the energy system physical infrastructure and resource flows upon which they depend. Central concepts within the IPT include (a) the Energy Resource Delivery Network (ERDN), a network representation of the overall energy system from resource extraction through ultimate end-use; and (b) the Resource Coefficient Table (RCT), a computational matrix method which prepares inputs to the ERDN and provides the building block basis for translating policy initiatives relating to new technology penetration, interfuel substitution, and re-directed development targets into corresponding energy requirements associated with policy implementation.

  15. Monolithically integrated external feedback InGaAsP lasers using stop-cleaving technique

    SciTech Connect

    Antreasyan, A.; Chen, C.Y.; Napholtz, S.G.; Wilt, D.P.; Ostermayer, F.W.

    1986-02-15

    We have developed a monolithically integrated external feedback laser utilizing a pair of stop-cleaved double channel planar buried heterostructure lasers emitting at 1.3 ..mu..m. The external feedback is provided by the stop cleaved facet of the second cavity. A sidemode rejection ratio of 200 : 1 has been obtained with a laser having a 250-..mu..m cavity length and an external resonator length of 200 ..mu..m. Since both lasers are fabricated in a self-aligned structure, this device may prove to be a powerful scheme for injection locking to reduce dynamic linewidth.

  16. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  17. Monitoring of HIFU thermal damage using integrated photoacoustic imaging and high intensity focused ultrasound technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Huizhong; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we applied an integrated photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system to noninvasively monitor the thermal damage due to HIFU ablation in vivo. A single-element, spherically focused ultrasonic transducer, with a central frequency of 5MHz, was used to generate a HIFU area in soft tissue. Photoacoustic signals were detected by the same ultrasonic transducer before and after HIFU treatments using different wavelengths. The feasibility of combined contrast imaging and treatment of solid tumor in vivo by the integrated PAI and HIFU system was also studied. Gold nanorods were used to enhance PAI during the imaging of a CT26 tumor, which was subcutaneously inoculated on the hip of a BALB/c mouse. Subsequently, the CT26 tumor was ablated by HIFU with the guidance of photoacoustic images. Our results suggested that the tumor was clearly visible on photoacoustic images after the injection of gold nanorods and was ablated by HIFU. In conclusion, PAI may potentially be used for monitoring HIFU thermal lesions with possible diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors.

  18. Research on regulating technique of material flow for 2-person and 30-day integrated CELSS test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Ai, Weidang; Feng, Hongqi; Tang, Yongkang; Huang, Zhide; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin; Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Gu; Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Jingtao; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin

    2014-07-01

    A man-plant integration test was processed using the CELSS integration experiment platform in which 4 kinds of plants were grown (Lactuca sativa L var. Dasusheng, L. sativa L var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L) to exchange material with 2 persons in order to research the dynamic changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in an inclosed system. In the test the material flow was measured so that the dynamically changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in the closed system were mostly mastered. The material closure degree of air, water and food reached 100%, 90% and 13.9% respectively with the whole system closure degree up to 95.1%. Meanwhile, it was proved that a 13.5 m2 planting area could meet the demand of one person for O2 in the system, and the energy efficiency ratio of which reached 59.56 g/(kW m2 day). The material flow dynamic balance-regulating technology was initially mastered between man and plant through the test. The interaction was realized among man, plant and environment in the closed system, which is of great significance to the advancement of long-term manned environment control and life support technology for China.

  19. Symplectic wavelet transformation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang

    2006-12-01

    Usually a wavelet transform is based on dilated-translated wavelets. We propose a symplectic-transformed-translated wavelet family psi(*)(r,s)(z-kappa) (r,s are the symplectic transform parameters, |s|(2)-|r|(2)=1, kappa is a translation parameter) generated from the mother wavelet psi and the corresponding wavelet transformation W(psi)f(r,s;kappa)=integral(infinity)(-infinity)(d(2)z/pi)f(z)psi(*)(r,s)(z-kappa). This new transform possesses well-behaved properties and is related to the optical Fresnel transform in quantum mechanical version. PMID:17099740

  20. Scattering of the transverse magnetic modes from an abruptly ended strongly asymmetrical slab waveguide by an accelerated integral equation technique.

    PubMed

    Manenkov, A B; Latsas, G P; Tigelis, L G

    2001-12-01

    We study the problem of the scattering of the first TM guided mode from an abruptly ended strongly asymmetrical slab waveguide by an improved iteration technique, which is based on the integral equation method with "accelerating" parameters. We demonstrate that the values of these parameters are related to the variational principle, and we save approximately 1-2 iterations compared with the case in which these parameters are not employed. The tangential electric-field distribution on the terminal plane, the reflection coefficient of the first TM guided mode, and the far-field radiation pattern are computed. Furthermore, a simple technique based on the Aitken extrapolation procedure is employed for faster computation of the higher-order solutions of the reflection coefficient. Numerical results are presented for several cases of abruptly ended waveguides, including systems with variational profile, while special attention is given to the far-field radiation pattern rotation and its explanation. PMID:11760208

  1. How to (path-) integrate by differentiating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Achim; Jackson, David M.; Morales, Alejandro H.

    2015-07-01

    Path integrals are at the heart of quantum field theory. In spite of their covariance and seeming simplicity, they are hard to define and evaluate. In contrast, functional differentiation, as it is used, for example, in variational problems, is relatively straightforward. This has motivated the development of new techniques that allow one to express functional integration in terms of functional differentiation. In fact, the new techniques allow one to express integrals in general through differentiation. These techniques therefore add to the general toolbox for integration and for integral transforms such as the Fourier and Laplace transforms. Here, we review some of these results, we give simpler proofs and we add new results, for example, on expressing the Laplace transform and its inverse in terms of derivatives, results that may be of use in quantum field theory, e.g., in the context of heat traces.

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Eswaran, P.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Eswaran, P; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium. PMID:25467664

  4. Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.

    PubMed

    Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds. PMID:24694702

  5. The Integration of Voice and Dance Techniques in Musical Theatre: Anatomical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennie

    2015-06-01

    Musical theatre performers are required to be proficient in the three artistic disciplines of dancing, singing, and acting, although in today's modern productions, there is often a requirement to incorporate other skills such as acrobatics and the playing of an instrument. This article focuses on the issues faced by performers when dancing and voicing simultaneously, as it is between these two disciplines where we see the greatest pedagogical divide in terms of breath management and muscle recruitment patterns. The traditional teaching methods of dance and voice techniques are examined, areas of conflict highlighted, and solutions proposed through an exploration of the relevant anatomy. PMID:26046610

  6. Single mode fiber and twin-core fiber connection technique for in-fiber integrated interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaotong; Guan, Chunying; Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    A novel twin-core fiber connector has been made by two side-polished fibers. By using side polishing technique, we present a connector based on the twin-core fiber (TCF) and two D-shaped single-core fibers. After simple alignment and splicing, all fiber miniaturizing connector can be obtained. Two cores can operate independently and are non-interfering. The coupling loss of this connector is low and the fabrication technologies are mature. The connector device could be used for sensors or particle trapping.

  7. Are hybrid models integrated with data preprocessing techniques suitable for monthly streamflow forecasting? Some experiment evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Bende

    2015-11-01

    A number of hydrological studies have proven the superior prediction performance of hybrid models coupled with data preprocessing techniques. However, many studies first decompose the entire data series into components and later divide each component into calibration and validation datasets to establish models, which sends some amount of future information into the decomposition and reconstruction processes. As a consequence, the resulting components used to forecast the value of a particular moment are computed using information from future values, which are not available at that particular moment in a forecasting exercise. Since most papers don't present their model framework in detail, it is difficult to identify whether they are performing a real forecast or not. Even though several other papers have explicitly stated which experiment they are performing, a comparison between results in the hindcast and forecast experiments is still missing. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and compare the performance of these hybrid models in the two experiments in order to estimate whether they are suitable for real forecasting. With the combination of three preprocessing techniques, such as wavelet analysis (WA), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and two modeling methods (i.e. ANN model and ARMA model), six hybrid models are developed in this study, including WA-ANN, WA-ARMA, EMD-ANN, EMD-ARMA, SSA-ANN and SSA-ARMA. Preprocessing techniques are used to decompose the data series into sub-series, and then these sub-series are modeled using ANN and ARMA models. These models are examined in hindcasting and forecasting of the monthly streamflow of two sites in the Yangtze River of China. The results of this study indicate that the six hybrid models perform better in the hindcast experiment compared with the original ANN and ARMA models, while the hybrid models in the forecast experiment perform worse than the original models and the

  8. Integrative Network Analysis Combined with Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor type-2 (TGFBR2) as a Novel Regulator of Glioblastoma Stem Cell Properties.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Yuta; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Akiyama, Tetsu; Oyama, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis and their development and progression are known to be driven by glioblastoma stem cells. Although glioblastoma stem cells lose their cancer stem cell properties during cultivation in serum-containing medium, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating signaling alteration in relation to reduction of stem cell-like characteristics. To elucidate the global phosphorylation-related signaling events, we performed a SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of serum-induced dynamics in glioblastoma stem cells established from the tumor tissues of the patient. Among a total of 2876 phosphorylation sites on 1584 proteins identified in our analysis, 732 phosphorylation sites on 419 proteins were regulated through the alteration of stem cell-like characteristics. The integrative computational analyses based on the quantified phosphoproteome data revealed the relevant changes of phosphorylation levels regarding the proteins associated with cytoskeleton reorganization such as Rho family GTPase and Intermediate filament signaling, in addition to transforming growth factor-β receptor type-2 (TGFBR2) as a prominent upstream regulator involved in the serum-induced phosphoproteome regulation. The functional association of transforming growth factor-β receptor type-2 with stem cell-like properties was experimentally validated through signaling perturbation using the corresponding inhibitors, which indicated that transforming growth factor-β receptor type-2 could play an important role as a novel cell fate determinant in glioblastoma stem cell regulation. PMID:26670566

  9. Pathway of FeEDTA transformation and its impact on performance of NOx removal in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jingkai; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Zhang, Shihan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, employing ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) as a solvent, is deemed as a potential option for NOx removal from the flue gas. Previous work showed that the Fe(II)EDTA concentration was critical for the NOx removal in the CABR process. In this work, the pathway of FeEDTA (Fe(III)/Fe(II)-EDTA) transformation was investigated to assess its impact on the NOx removal in a biofilter. Experimental results revealed that the FeEDTA transformation involved iron precipitation and EDTA degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the iron was precipitated in the form of Fe(OH)3. The iron mass balance analysis showed 44.2% of the added iron was precipitated. The EDTA degradation facilitated the iron precipitation. Besides chemical oxidation, EDTA biodegradation occurred in the biofilter. The addition of extra EDTA helped recover the iron from the precipitation. The transformation of FeEDTA did not retard the NO removal. In addition, EDTA rather than the iron concentration determined the NO removal efficiency. PMID:26743930

  10. Sublacustrine groundwater discharge in esker aquifers; fully integrated groundwater flow modeling compared with novel field techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-aho, Pertti; Rossi, Pekka M.; Isokangas, Elina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater (GW) discharge to surface water bodies such as streams, lakes and wetlands can greatly affect their water quantity, quality and related aquatic ecology. Therefore better understanding of GW - surface water interaction is needed in integrated management of water resources. Sublacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) to lakes was studied in a complex unconfined Rokua esker aquifer system. SGD was studied for 12 lakes in the area to better understand water and solute inputs through lake beds and thereby the role of GW on lake water budget and solute concentrations. The locations and fluxes of SGD were simulated using a fully integrated groundwater flow model HydroGeoSphere. The used hydrological simulator allows water to flow and partition into overland and stream flow, evaporation, infiltration, and subsurface discharge into surface water features in a physically-based way, which was needed in simulating SGD of the complex aquifer system. The model was first calibrated for subsurface hydraulic conductivity in steady state using data of measured long-term average groundwater and lake levels and stream baseflow. The model performance in transient simulations was then examined against recorded hydrographs for lake and groundwater levels and stream flow. After model performance was verified, the simulated locations and fluxes of SGD were extracted from the model and compared with results from three independent field methods: airborne thermal imaging, stable isotope water balance and seepage meter measurements. Airborne thermal imaging was used to infer locations of SGD into lakes based on temperature anomalies at lakes shorelines due to discharging cold groundwater. Isotopic composition (H2 and O18) was analysed for lake water, groundwater and the data was used to estimate SGD flux into lakes. Finally, seepage meter measurements were conducted for one of the lakes to establish both locations and fluxes of SGD in detail. The simulated and field-based estimated

  11. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  12. Organic nanofibers integrated by transfer technique in field-effect transistor devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical properties of self-assembled organic crystalline nanofibers are studied by integrating these on field-effect transistor platforms using both top and bottom contact configurations. In the staggered geometries, where the nanofibers are sandwiched between the gate and the source-drain electrodes, a better electrical conduction is observed when compared to the coplanar geometry where the nanofibers are placed over the gate and the source-drain electrodes. Qualitatively different output characteristics were observed for top and bottom contact devices reflecting the significantly different contact resistances. Bottom contact devices are dominated by contact effects, while the top contact device characteristics are determined by the nanofiber bulk properties. It is found that the contact resistance is lower for crystalline nanofibers when compared to amorphous thin films. These results shed light on the charge injection and transport properties for such organic nanostructures and thus constitute a significant step forward toward a nanofiber-based light-emitting device. PMID:21711821

  13. Line-Integral Projection Reconstruction (LPR) with Slice Encoding Techniques: Multislice Regional Imaging in NMR Tomography.

    PubMed

    Oh, C H; Park, H W; Cho, Z H

    1984-01-01

    Line-integral projection reconstruction (LPR) in NMR imaging was found to be useful and has several advantages such as the imaging capability of objects having short T2 and compensation of phase fluctuations arising from the system instability. Although single slice LPR is found to be inefficient and poor in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the multislice encoded LPR method is of interest since it has a high SNR and also the capability of selected regional volume or multislice imaging. The latter, i.e., regional volume imaging capability, is a unique property of NMR imaging and offers a variety of imaging capabilities such as simultaneous multislice imaging of sagittal, transaxial, or coronal views. In this paper, we have investigated two basic forms of the multislice encoded imaging methods using LPR, i.e., Fourier and Hadamard-like encoding matrices. Applications of the methods to the experimented NMR imaging show good agreement with predicted behavior. PMID:18234626

  14. Visualization of Telomere Integrity and Function In Vitro and In Vivo Using Immunofluorescence Techniques.

    PubMed

    Cesare, Anthony J; Heaphy, Christopher M; O'Sullivan, Roderick J

    2015-01-01

    In cancer cells, telomere length maintenance occurs largely via the direct synthesis of TTAGGG repeats at chromosome ends by telomerase, or less frequently by the recombination-dependent alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. The latter is characterized by the atypical clustering of telomeres within promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, which harbor proteins that are linked with DNA repair and recombination activity. For this reason, it is speculated that these associated PML bodies represent the sites of the recombination that maintains telomere length. The protocols described here can be employed for the routine investigation of the structural integrity of telomeres and the association of proteins at telomeres in normal cells, challenged cells, and archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tissue specimens that may have activated the ALT pathway. PMID:26132175

  15. Visualization of Telomere Integrity and Function In Vitro and In Vivo Using Immunofluorescence Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Cesare, Anthony J.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, telomere length maintenance occurs largely via the direct synthesis of TTAGGG repeats at chromosome ends by telomerase, or less frequently by the recombination-dependent alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. The latter is characterized by the atypical clustering of telomeres within promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, which harbor proteins that are linked with DNA repair and recombination activity. For this reason, it is speculated that these associated PML bodies represent the sites of the recombination that maintains telomere length. The protocols described here can be employed for the routine investigation of the structural integrity of telomeres and the association of proteins at telomeres in normal cells, challenged cells, and archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tissue specimens that may have activated the ALT pathway. PMID:26132175

  16. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  17. Flash Lamp Integrating Sphere Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Reflectance of Shocked Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Gerald; La Lone, Brandon; Veeser, Lynn; Hixson, Rob; Holtkamp, David

    2013-07-08

    Accurate reflectance (R) measurements of metals undergoing shock wave compression can benefit high pressure research in several ways. For example, pressure dependent reflectance measurements can be used to deduce electronic band structure, and discrete changes with pressure or temperature may indicate the occurrence of a phase boundary. Additionally, knowledge of the wavelength dependent emissivity (1 -R, for opaque samples) of the metal surface is essential for accurate pyrometric temperature measurement because the radiance is a function of both the temperature and emissivity. We have developed a method for measuring dynamic reflectance in the visible and near IR spectral regions with nanosecond response time and less than 1.5% uncertainty. The method utilizes an integrating sphere fitted with a xenon flash-lamp illumination source. Because of the integrating sphere, the measurements are insensitive to changes in surface curvature or tilt. The in-situ high brightness of the flash-lamp exceeds the sample’s thermal radiance and also enables the use of solid state detectors for recording the reflectance signals with minimal noise. Using the method, we have examined the dynamic reflectance of gallium and tin subjected to shock compression from high explosives. The results suggest significant reflectance changes across phase boundaries for both metals. We have also used the method to determine the spectral emissivity of shock compressed tin at the interface between tin and a LiF window. The results were used to perform emissivity corrections to previous pyrometry data and obtain shock temperatures of the tin/LiF interface with uncertainties of less than 2%.

  18. Integrated Stamping Simulation Using State Of The Art Techniques To Fulfill Quality Assessment Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, David; Lambriks, Marc; El Khaldi, Fouad

    2005-08-01

    The last few years have seen the use of stamping simulation evolve to the extent that it is now a mainstream activity; a core part of the press tool engineering process. Now, new requirements for the use of challenging materials like Dual phase / Complex phase steel, VHSS, and aluminum, together with more stringent quality expectations, and shorter development cycles, there is a need to assess the panel quality in a wider context, before committing to tool manufacture. The integrated approach from ESI Group allows early up-front feasibility assessment, geometry and process optimization, and detailed process validation all within one system. Rapid die design and quick forming simulation modules play an essential role in the early stages of the process. A seamless connection between simulation and geometry is a vital characteristic, with the accurate simulation being used to validate and fine tune the process in order to assess final component quality in unprecedented detail, utilizing some of the most accurate material models available today. The combination of the distributed memory processing (DMP) solver together with new cost effective cluster based compute servers provide a practical solution to the problems of `one million element' model sizes, and more sophisticated modeling methodologies become realistic for the first time. It is no longer sufficient to merely focus on the draw die, forming simulation must now consider the entire die line up. Typically, around half of forming issues arise from the draw die, so the time has now come to address the other half as well! This paper will discuss how the PAM-STAMP 2G™ integrated solution is successfully used to deliver a positive business impact, by providing virtual panel quality assessment, tolerance control, and springback compensation. The paper will also discuss how other forming processes can be accurately modeled using the new modules.

  19. Individual classification of ADHD patients by integrating multiscale neuroimaging markers and advanced pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Ji, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Accurate classification or prediction of the brain state across individual subject, i.e., healthy, or with brain disorders, is generally a more difficult task than merely finding group differences. The former must be approached with highly informative and sensitive biomarkers as well as effective pattern classification/feature selection approaches. In this paper, we propose a systematic methodology to discriminate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients from healthy controls on the individual level. Multiple neuroimaging markers that are proved to be sensitive features are identified, which include multiscale characteristics extracted from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, such as regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Functional connectivity derived from Pearson, partial, and spatial correlation is also utilized to reflect the abnormal patterns of functional integration, or, dysconnectivity syndromes in the brain. These neuroimaging markers are calculated on either voxel or regional level. Advanced feature selection approach is then designed, including a brain-wise association study (BWAS). Using identified features and proper feature integration, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier can achieve a cross-validated classification accuracy of 76.15% across individuals from a large dataset consisting of 141 healthy controls and 98 ADHD patients, with the sensitivity being 63.27% and the specificity being 85.11%. Our results show that the most discriminative features for classification are primarily associated with the frontal and cerebellar regions. The proposed methodology is expected to improve clinical diagnosis and evaluation of treatment for ADHD patient, and to have wider applications in diagnosis of general neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22888314

  20. Pleasure, Throwing Breaches, and Embodied Metaphors: Tracing Transformations-in-Participation for a Child With Autism to a Sensory Integration-Based Therapy Session.

    PubMed

    Park, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In occupational therapy practice, the rich interweaving of procedural and narrative reasoning results in healing transformations. However, a lack of research focus on transformational processes perpetuates a focus on observable and measurable behaviors. In line with the movement toward evidence-based implementation research, this article focuses on a case study drawn from an ethnography of therapist-child-family interactions in a sensory integration-based clinic to provide a thick description of the moments leading up to and following changes in bodily and social engagement for a child with autism. Using theoretical resources on acted narratives and aesthetics, this article provides a developing method and language to show how an occupational therapist and a child with autism throw breaches to jointly create embodied metaphors of what matters to the child in his or her everyday life. A microanalysis of therapist-child bodily and sensing interactions also reveals how narrative and procedural reasoning converge in moments of pleasure that ultimately lead to outcomes in participation outside the clinic and confound characterizations of autistic aloneness. Implications for research on sensory integration approaches in general and social interventions for children with autism are discussed. PMID:24650787

  1. Building extraction from high-resolution optical spaceborne images using the integration of support vector machine (SVM) classification, Hough transformation and perceptual grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turker, Mustafa; Koc-San, Dilek

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach for the automatic extraction of rectangular- and circular-shape buildings from high-resolution optical spaceborne images using the integration of support vector machine (SVM) classification, Hough transformation and perceptual grouping. The building patches are detected from the image using the binary SVM classification. The generated normalized digital surface model (nDSM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are incorporated in the classification process as additional bands. After detecting the building patches, the building boundaries are extracted through sequential processing of edge detection, Hough transformation and perceptual grouping. Those areas that are classified as building are masked and further processing operations are performed on the masked areas only. The edges of the buildings are detected through an edge detection algorithm that generates a binary edge image of the building patches. These edges are then converted into vector form through Hough transform and the buildings are constructed by means of perceptual grouping. To validate the developed method, experiments were conducted on pan-sharpened and panchromatic Ikonos imagery, covering the selected test areas in Batikent district of Ankara, Turkey. For the test areas that contain industrial buildings, the average building detection percentage (BDP) and quality percentage (QP) values were computed to be 93.45% and 79.51%, respectively. For the test areas that contain residential rectangular-shape buildings, the average BDP and QP values were computed to be 95.34% and 79.05%, respectively. For the test areas that contain residential circular-shape buildings, the average BDP and QP values were found to be 78.74% and 66.81%, respectively.

  2. Development of a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled to UV-Visible analysis technique for aminosides and glycopeptides quantitation in antibiotic locks.

    PubMed

    Sayet, G; Sinegre, M; Ben Reguiga, M

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic Lock technique maintains catheters' sterility in high-risk patients with long-term parenteral nutrition. In our institution, vancomycin, teicoplanin, amikacin and gentamicin locks are prepared in the pharmaceutical department. In order to insure patient safety and to comply to regulatory requirements, antibiotic locks are submitted to qualitative and quantitative assays prior to their release. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative quantitation technique for each of these 4 antibiotics, using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) coupled to UV-Visible spectroscopy and to compare results to HPLC or Immunochemistry assays. Prevalidation studies permitted to assess spectroscopic conditions used for antibiotic locks quantitation: FTIR/UV combinations were used for amikacin (1091-1115cm(-1) and 208-224nm), vancomycin (1222-1240cm(-1) and 276-280nm), and teicoplanin (1226-1230cm(-1) and 278-282nm). Gentamicin was quantified with FTIR only (1045-1169cm(-1) and 2715-2850cm(-1)) due to interferences in UV domain of parabens, preservatives present in the commercial brand used to prepare locks. For all AL, the method was linear (R(2)=0.996 to 0.999), accurate, repeatable (intraday RSD%: from 2.9 to 7.1% and inter-days RSD%: 2.9 to 5.1%) and precise. Compared to the reference methods, the FTIR/UV method appeared tightly correlated (Pearson factor: 97.4 to 99.9%) and did not show significant difference in recovery determinations. We developed a new simple reliable analysis technique for antibiotics quantitation in locks using an original association of FTIR and UV analysis, allowing a short time analysis to identify and quantify the studied antibiotics. PMID:24438668

  3. Inorganic nitrogen transformations in the bed of the Shingobee River, Minnesota: Integrating hydrologic and biological processes using sediment perfusion cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic N transformations were examined in streambed sediments from the Shingobee River using sediment perfusion cores. The experimental design simulated groundwater-stream water mixing within sediment cores, which provided a well-defined one-dimensional representation of in situ hydrologic conditions. Two distinct hydrologic and chemical settings were preserved in the sediment cores: the lowermost sediments, perfused with groundwater, remained anaerobic during the incubations, whereas the uppermost sediments, perfused with oxic water pumped from the overlying water column, simulated stream water penetration into the bed. The maintenance of oxic and anoxic zones formed a biologically active aerobic-anaerobic interface. Ammonium (NH4+) dissolved in groundwater was transported conservatively through the lower core zone but was removed as it mixed with aerated recycle water. Concurrently, a small quantity of nitrate (NO3-) equaling ???25% of the NH4+ loss was produced in the upper sediments. The NH4+ and NO3- profiles in the uppermost sediments resulted from coupled nitrification-denitrification, because assimilation and sorption were negligible. We hypothesize that anaerobic microsites within the aerated upper sediments supported denitrification. Rates of nitrification and denitrification in the perfusion cores ranged 42-209 and 53-160 mg N m-2 day-1, respectively. The use of modified perfusion cores permitted the identification and quantification of N transformations and verified process control by surface water exchange into the shallow hyporheic zone of the Shingobee River.

  4. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A weighted stratified double sample design using hardcopy LANDSAT-1 and ground data was utilized in developmental studies for snow water content estimation. Study results gave a correlation coefficient of 0.80 between LANDSAT sample units estimates of snow water content and ground subsamples. A basin snow water content estimate allowable error was given as 1.00 percent at the 99 percent confidence level with the same budget level utilized in conventional snow surveys. Several evapotranspiration estimation models were selected for efficient application at each level of data to be sampled. An area estimation procedure for impervious surface types of differing impermeability adjacent to stream channels was developed. This technique employs a double sample of 1:125,000 color infrared hightflight transparency data with ground or large scale photography.

  5. Integrating machine learning techniques and high-resolution imagery to generate GIS-ready information for urban water consumption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Nils; Hof, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl driven by shifts in tourism development produces new suburban landscapes of water consumption on Mediterranean coasts. Golf courses, ornamental, 'Atlantic' gardens and swimming pools are the most striking artefacts of this transformation, threatening the local water supply systems and exacerbating water scarcity. In the face of climate change, urban landscape irrigation is becoming increasingly important from a resource management point of view. This paper adopts urban remote sensing towards a targeted mapping approach using machine learning techniques and highresolution satellite imagery (WorldView-2) to generate GIS-ready information for urban water consumption studies. Swimming pools, vegetation and - as a subgroup of vegetation - turf grass are extracted as important determinants of water consumption. For image analysis, the complex nature of urban environments suggests spatial-spectral classification, i.e. the complementary use of the spectral signature and spatial descriptors. Multiscale image segmentation provides means to extract the spatial descriptors - namely object feature layers - which can be concatenated at pixel level to the spectral signature. This study assesses the value of object features using different machine learning techniques and amounts of labeled information for learning. The results indicate the benefit of the spatial-spectral approach if combined with appropriate classifiers like tree-based ensembles or support vector machines, which can handle high dimensionality. Finally, a Random Forest classifier was chosen to deliver the classified input data for the estimation of evaporative water loss and net landscape irrigation requirements.

  6. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-15

    An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201×7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost. PMID:27037473

  7. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-03-21

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid-liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  8. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid/liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  9. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Vauhkonen, Marko; Schwaiger, Markus; Hakulinen, Mikko A.

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes.

  10. Identification of photoproducts of fungicide cyprodinil and elucidation of transformation mechanism in water using LC-IT-TOF-MS/MS technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxin; Dong, Bizhang; Lin, Hongfang; Hu, Jiye

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating photodegradation of cyprodinil in aquatic solution under the simulated natural light or UV-visible irradiation (290-800 nm) using LC-MS/MS techniques. Effects of pH, nitrate ion, Fe (III), humic acid and TiO2 on photolysis kinetics of cyprodinil were explored. The photodegradation followed first-order reaction kinetics, and linear accelerating effects of Fe (III), nitrate ion and TiO2 with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg L(-1) on photodegradation were remarkably observed. HA at low concentration ranges (<3.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced cyprodinil photodegradation while the photocatalytic rate was weakened with more addition of HA. The degradation rate in alkaline solutions was greater than in acidic solutions. Six main transformation products (TPs) were separated and identified based on mass spectra data and density functional theory (DFT) quantum calculations, and their kinetic evolutions were also investigated. Ultimately, a tentative transformation mechanism was proposed based the identified TPs and their kinetic evolutions. The results indicated that one α-H on pyridine ring of cyprodinil was hydroxylated to form TPs 1. TPs 1 underwent a series of photochemical reactions involving ring-opening, addition of one H2O molecule and demethylation on three-member ring to form TPs 2, which was further hydroxylated on benzene ring to form TPs 6. TPs 3-5 were three isomers from Hofmann-Martius rearrangement of cyprodinil. These findings were of utmost importance for elucidating environmental fate of cyprodinil in aquatic ecosystem and further environmental risk evaluation. PMID:27265400

  11. Microsphere integrated microfluidic disk: synergy of two techniques for rapid and ultrasensitive dengue detection

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Samira; Aeinehvand, Mohammad M.; Uddin, Shah M.; Benzina, Abderazak; Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana; Koole, Leo H.; Madou, Marc J.; Djordjevic, Ivan; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    The application of microfluidic devices in diagnostic systems is well-established in contemporary research. Large specific surface area of microspheres, on the other hand, has secured an important position for their use in bioanalytical assays. Herein, we report a combination of microspheres and microfluidic disk in a unique hybrid platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of dengue virus. Surface engineered polymethacrylate microspheres with carefully designed functional groups facilitate biorecognition in a multitude manner. In order to maximize the utility of the microspheres’ specific surface area in biomolecular interaction, the microfluidic disk was equipped with a micromixing system. The mixing mechanism (microballoon mixing) enhances the number of molecular encounters between spheres and target analyte by accessing the entire sample volume more effectively, which subsequently results in signal amplification. Significant reduction of incubation time along with considerable lower detection limits were the prime motivations for the integration of microspheres inside the microfluidic disk. Lengthy incubations of routine analytical assays were reduced from 2 hours to 5 minutes while developed system successfully detected a few units of dengue virus. Obtained results make this hybrid microsphere-microfluidic approach to dengue detection a promising avenue for early detection of this fatal illness. PMID:26548806

  12. Novel techniques for the analysis of wireless integrated voice/data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E.; Barnhart, Craig M.; Ephremides, Anthony

    1995-07-01

    In this report, we consider the evaluation of data-packet delay in wireless integrated voice data networks. In networks that support circuit-switched voice, the voice occupancy process satisfies a product-form solution under reasonable modeling assumptions. Although this product-form solution provides an accurate characterization of equilibrium voice-traffic behavior, it does not directly provide a method to evaluate data-packet delay. However, examination of each link separately in a manner that incorporates interaction with the rest of the network permits us to take advantage of the wireless nature of the network and obtain a three-flow characterization of each link, which also satisfies a product-form solution and is hence termed a 'mini-product-form' solution. By matching the values of these flows to the average values obtained from the product-form solution of the entire network, we obtain a three-dimensional Markov chain characterization of the voice occupancy state on the link, which permits a simpler evaluation of data-packet delay. A further reduction is possible by converting the three-dimensional chain to a single-dimensional one. Performance results demonstrate that these models provide satisfactory delay estimates that also appear to be upper bounds on delay.

  13. Neutron intensity modulation and time-focusing with integrated Larmor and resonant frequency techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinkui Hamilton, William A.; Robertson, J. L.; Crow, Lowell; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kang, Yoon W.

    2015-09-14

    The analysis of neutron diffraction experiments often assumes that neutrons are elastically scattered from the sample. However, there is growing evidence that a significant fraction of the detected neutrons is in fact inelastically scattered, especially from soft materials and aqueous samples. Ignoring these inelastic contributions gives rise to inaccurate experimental results. To date, there has been no simple method with broad applicability for inelastic signal separation in neutron diffraction experiments. Here, we present a simple and robust method that we believe could be suited for this purpose. We use two radio frequency resonant spin flippers integrated with a Larmor precession field to modulate the neutron intensity and to encode the inelastic scattering information into the neutron data. All three components contribute to the spin encoding. The Larmor field serves several additional purposes. Its usage facilitates neutron time-focusing, eliminates the need for stringent magnetic shielding, and allows for compact setups. The scheme is robust, simple, and flexible. We believe that, with further improvements, it has the potential of adding inelastic signal discrimination capabilities to many existing diffraction instruments in the future.

  14. Microsphere integrated microfluidic disk: synergy of two techniques for rapid and ultrasensitive dengue detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Samira; Aeinehvand, Mohammad M.; Uddin, Shah M.; Benzina, Abderazak; Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana; Koole, Leo H.; Madou, Marc J.; Djordjevic, Ivan; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-11-01

    The application of microfluidic devices in diagnostic systems is well-established in contemporary research. Large specific surface area of microspheres, on the other hand, has secured an important position for their use in bioanalytical assays. Herein, we report a combination of microspheres and microfluidic disk in a unique hybrid platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of dengue virus. Surface engineered polymethacrylate microspheres with carefully designed functional groups facilitate biorecognition in a multitude manner. In order to maximize the utility of the microspheres’ specific surface area in biomolecular interaction, the microfluidic disk was equipped with a micromixing system. The mixing mechanism (microballoon mixing) enhances the number of molecular encounters between spheres and target analyte by accessing the entire sample volume more effectively, which subsequently results in signal amplification. Significant reduction of incubation time along with considerable lower detection limits were the prime motivations for the integration of microspheres inside the microfluidic disk. Lengthy incubations of routine analytical assays were reduced from 2 hours to 5 minutes while developed system successfully detected a few units of dengue virus. Obtained results make this hybrid microsphere-microfluidic approach to dengue detection a promising avenue for early detection of this fatal illness.

  15. Neutron intensity modulation and time-focusing with integrated Larmor and resonant frequency techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinkui; Hamilton, William A.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Robertson, J. L.; Crow, Lowell; Kang, Yoon W.

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of neutron diffraction experiments often assumes that neutrons are elastically scattered from the sample. However, there is growing evidence that a significant fraction of the detected neutrons is in fact inelastically scattered, especially from soft materials and aqueous samples. Ignoring these inelastic contributions gives rise to inaccurate experimental results. To date, there has been no simple method with broad applicability for inelastic signal separation in neutron diffraction experiments. Here, we present a simple and robust method that we believe could be suited for this purpose. We use two radio frequency resonant spin flippers integrated with a Larmor precession field to modulate the neutron intensity and to encode the inelastic scattering information into the neutron data. All three components contribute to the spin encoding. The Larmor field serves several additional purposes. Its usage facilitates neutron time-focusing, eliminates the need for stringent magnetic shielding, and allows for compact setups. The scheme is robust, simple, and flexible. We believe that, with further improvements, it has the potential of adding inelastic signal discrimination capabilities to many existing diffraction instruments in the future.

  16. Microsphere integrated microfluidic disk: synergy of two techniques for rapid and ultrasensitive dengue detection.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Samira; Aeinehvand, Mohammad M; Uddin, Shah M; Benzina, Abderazak; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Koole, Leo H; Madou, Marc J; Djordjevic, Ivan; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    The application of microfluidic devices in diagnostic systems is well-established in contemporary research. Large specific surface area of microspheres, on the other hand, has secured an important position for their use in bioanalytical assays. Herein, we report a combination of microspheres and microfluidic disk in a unique hybrid platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of dengue virus. Surface engineered polymethacrylate microspheres with carefully designed functional groups facilitate biorecognition in a multitude manner. In order to maximize the utility of the microspheres' specific surface area in biomolecular interaction, the microfluidic disk was equipped with a micromixing system. The mixing mechanism (microballoon mixing) enhances the number of molecular encounters between spheres and target analyte by accessing the entire sample volume more effectively, which subsequently results in signal amplification. Significant reduction of incubation time along with considerable lower detection limits were the prime motivations for the integration of microspheres inside the microfluidic disk. Lengthy incubations of routine analytical assays were reduced from 2 hours to 5 minutes while developed system successfully detected a few units of dengue virus. Obtained results make this hybrid microsphere-microfluidic approach to dengue detection a promising avenue for early detection of this fatal illness. PMID:26548806

  17. Improved prediction of drug-target interactions using regularized least squares integrating with kernel fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-02-25

    Identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a central task in drug discovery processes. In this work, a simple but effective regularized least squares integrating with nonlinear kernel fusion (RLS-KF) algorithm is proposed to perform DTI predictions. Using benchmark DTI datasets, our proposed algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art results with area under precision-recall curve (AUPR) of 0.915, 0.925, 0.853 and 0.909 for enzymes, ion channels (IC), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and nuclear receptors (NR) based on 10 fold cross-validation. The performance can further be improved by using a recalculated kernel matrix, especially for the small set of nuclear receptors with AUPR of 0.945. Importantly, most of the top ranked interaction predictions can be validated by experimental data reported in the literature, bioassay results in the PubChem BioAssay database, as well as other previous studies. Our analysis suggests that the proposed RLS-KF is helpful for studying DTI, drug repositioning as well as polypharmacology, and may help to accelerate drug discovery by identifying novel drug targets. PMID:26851083

  18. A hermetic and room-temperature wafer bonding technique based on integrated reactive multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, J.; Gessner, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on direct deposition and patterning of reactive and nano-scale multilayer films at wafer level. These multilayer structures are called integrated reactive material systems (iRMS). In contrast to the typically used nickel (Ni)/ aluminum (Al) systems, in this work we needed to have our total multilayer film thicknesses smaller than 2.5 µm to reduce stress within the multilayer as well as deposition costs. Thus, we introduced new high energetic iRMS. These films were deposited by using alternating magnetron sputtering from high purity Al- and palladium (Pd)-targets to obtain films with a defined Al:Pd atomic ratio. In this paper, we present the result for reaction characteristics and reaction velocities which were up to 72.5 m s-1 for bond frames with lateral dimensions as low as 20 µm. Furthermore, the feasibility of silicon (Si)-Si, Si-glass as well as Si-ceramic hermetic and metallic wafer bonding at room temperature is presented. We show that by using this bond technology, strong (maximum shear strengths of 235 MPa) and hermetically sealed bond interfaces can be achieved without any additional solder material.

  19. Curved computational integral imaging reconstruction technique for resolution-enhanced display of three-dimensional object images.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Joo-Bong; Hwang, Dong-Choon; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2007-11-01

    A novel curved computational integral imaging reconstruction (C-CIIR) technique for the virtually curved integral imaging (VCII) system is proposed, and its performances are analyzed. In the C-CIIR model, an additional virtual large-aperture lens is included to provide a multidirectional curving effect in the reconstruction process, and its effect is analyzed in detail by using the ABCD matrix. With this method, resolution-enhanced 3D object images can be computationally reconstructed from the picked-up elemental images of the VCII system. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed model, some experiments are carried out. Experiments revealed that the sampling rate in the VCII system could be kept at a maximum value within some range of the distance z, whereas in the conventional integral imaging system it linearly decreased as the distance z increased. It is also shown that resolutions of the object images reconstructed by the C-CIIR method have been significantly improved compared with those of the conventional CIIR method. PMID:17973014

  20. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas. PMID:27122050