Science.gov

Sample records for integrated bioenergy production

  1. Integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the production of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of productivity, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, heat and bio-ethanol: the produced power and heat are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol production and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is based upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main products are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol production (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the heat of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.

  2. Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are used to investigate integrated algae bioenergy production and nutrient management on small dairy farms. Four cases are considered: a reference land-application scenario (REF), anaerobic digestion with land-application of liquid digestate (AD), and anaerobic digestion with recycling of liquid digestate to either an open-pond algae cultivation system (OPS) or an algae turf scrubber (ATS). LCA indicates that all three "improved" scenarios (AD, OPS, and ATS) are environmentally favorable compared to REF, exhibiting increases in net energy output up to 854GJ/yr, reductions in net eutrophication potential up to 2700kg PO(4)-eq/yr, and reductions in global warming potential up to 196Mg CO(2)-eq/yr. LCC reveals that the integrated algae systems are much more financially attractive than either AD or REF, whereby net present values (NPV) are as follows: $853,250 for OPS, $790,280 for ATS, -$62,279 for REF, and -$211,126 for AD. However, these results are highly dependent on the sale price for nutrient credits. Comparison of LCA and LCC results indicates that robust nutrient credit markets or other policy tools are required to align financial and environmental preferability of energy production systems and foster widespread adoption of sustainable nutrient management systems. PMID:23313697

  3. Integrated photo-bioelectrochemical system for contaminants removal and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Young, Erica B; Berges, John A; He, Zhen

    2012-10-16

    An integrated photobioelectrochemical (IPB) system was developed by installing a microbial fuel cell (MFC) inside an algal bioreactor. This system achieves the simultaneous removal from a synthetic solution of organics (in the MFC) and nutrients (in the algal bioreactor), and the production of bioenergy in electricity and algal biomass through bioelectrochemical and microbiological processes. During the one-year operation, the IPB system removed more than 92% of chemical oxygen demand, 98% of ammonium nitrogen, and 82% of phosphate and produced a maximum power density of 2.2 W/m(3) and 128 mg/L of algal biomass. The algal growth provided dissolved oxygen to the cathode reaction of the MFC, whereas electrochemical oxygen reduction on the MFC cathode buffered the pH of the algal growth medium (which was also the catholyte). The system performance was affected by illumination and dissolved oxygen. Initial energy analysis showed that the IPB system could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption; however, further improvement of electricity production is desired. An analysis of the attached and suspended microbes in the cathode revealed diverse bacterial taxa typical of aquatic and soil bacterial communities with functional roles in contaminant degradation and nutrient cycling. PMID:22998430

  4. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  5. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal carbonization for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Werner, Maja; Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant yet underutilized renewable energy resources. Both anaerobic digestion (AD) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) are promising technologies for bioenergy production from biomass in terms of biogas and HTC biochar, respectively. In this study, the combination of AD and HTC is proposed to increase overall bioenergy production. Wheat straw was anaerobically digested in a novel upflow anaerobic solid state reactor (UASS) in both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Wet digested from thermophilic AD was hydrothermally carbonized at 230 °C for 6 hr for HTC biochar production. At thermophilic temperature, the UASS system yields an average of 165 LCH4/kgVS (VS: volatile solids) and 121 L CH4/kgVS at mesophilic AD over the continuous operation of 200 days. Meanwhile, 43.4 g of HTC biochar with 29.6 MJ/kgdry_biochar was obtained from HTC of 1 kg digestate (dry basis) from mesophilic AD. The combination of AD and HTC, in this particular set of experiment yield 13.2 MJ of energy per 1 kg of dry wheat straw, which is at least 20% higher than HTC alone and 60.2% higher than AD only. PMID:24962786

  6. Evaluation of Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrothermal Carbonization for Bioenergy Production

    PubMed Central

    Reza, M. Toufiq; Werner, Maja; Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant yet underutilized renewable energy resources. Both anaerobic digestion (AD) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) are promising technologies for bioenergy production from biomass in terms of biogas and HTC biochar, respectively. In this study, the combination of AD and HTC is proposed to increase overall bioenergy production. Wheat straw was anaerobically digested in a novel upflow anaerobic solid state reactor (UASS) in both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Wet digested from thermophilic AD was hydrothermally carbonized at 230 °C for 6 hr for HTC biochar production. At thermophilic temperature, the UASS system yields an average of 165 LCH4/kgVS (VS: volatile solids) and 121 L CH4/kgVS at mesophilic AD over the continuous operation of 200 days. Meanwhile, 43.4 g of HTC biochar with 29.6 MJ/kgdry_biochar was obtained from HTC of 1 kg digestate (dry basis) from mesophilic AD. The combination of AD and HTC, in this particular set of experiment yield 13.2 MJ of energy per 1 kg of dry wheat straw, which is at least 20% higher than HTC alone and 60.2% higher than AD only. PMID:24962786

  7. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

  8. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib S; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-02-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL process. This biorefinery concept offers a sophisticated and sustainable way of converting organic residuals into a range of high-value biofuel streams in addition to combined heat and power (CHP) production. The primary goal of this study is to provide an initial estimate of the feasibility of such a process. By adding a diesel-quality-fuel output to the process, the product value is increased significantly compared to a conventional BP. An input of 1000 kg h(-1) manure delivers approximately 30-38 kg h(-1) fuel and 38-61 kg h(-1) biogas. The biogas can be used to upgrade the biocrude, to supply the gas grid or for CHP. An estimated 62-84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels. PMID:23262018

  9. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  10. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. PMID:22306168

  11. Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-20

    Scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory are working with partners throughout the bioenergy industry in preprocessing and characterization to ensure optimum feedstock quality. This elite team understands that addressing feedstock variability is a critical component in the biofuel production process.

  12. Will Sulfur Limit Bioenergy Feedstock Production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The short- and long-term effects of striving for higher grain yields and removing crop residues for bioenergy feedstock production must be understood to provide more quantitative crop and soil management guidelines. Soil management studies focusing on tillage, fertilizer rates and placement, cover c...

  13. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  14. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  15. Biofuel Production Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections arel growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  16. Feedstock Production Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  17. Water usage in southeastern bioenergy crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...

  18. BIOFUEL AND BIOENERGY PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR BEETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A design spreadsheet model for sizing and analyzing the integrated ethanol and biogas production system, a prototype of the ethanol and biogas production system in the laboratory that has been tested and documented with performance data, and a design and operating manual for t...

  19. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2011-2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Winter 2011-2012 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: 34th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals; feasibility of NIR spectroscopy-based rapid feedstock reactive screening; demonstrating integrated pilot-scale biomass conversion. The Biochemical Process Integration Task focuses on integrating the processing steps in enzyme-based lignocellulose conversion technology. This project supports the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts to foster development, demonstration, and deployment of 'biochemical platform' biorefineries that economically produce ethanol or other fuels, as well as commodity sugars and a variety of other chemical products, from renewable lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. Energycane production for biomass and bioenergy feedstocks in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poster discusses the results of the first two years of energycane production research conducted in Winnsboro, LA, and Houma, LA, as part of the USDA NIFA AFRI grant. Energycane can contribute greatly to a year around bioenergy industry in Louisiana and other areas of the SE United States. As par...

  1. Soil aggregation response to harvesting corn stover for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production in the U.S. Corn/Soybean Belt because of the vast area upon which the crop is grown. Developing sustainable cellulosic ethanol from corn stover residue has also been identified as a high priority...

  2. Managing for soil protection and bioenergy production on agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy systems are needed that can aid in meeting the growing energy demands of the expanding human population without sacrificing the long-term sustainability, productivity and quality of the underlying natural resources. Agriculture, like the forestry sector, will produce the feedstocks. While ...

  3. Soil Biochar Applications Enhance Sustainability of Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues return plant nutrients to soils and are critically important for nutrient cycling, maintaining levels of soil organic matter, and stabilizing soil structure. Removal of crop residues for use as feedstock for bioenergy production could adversely impact soil quality, reduce net energy pr...

  4. Field windbreaks for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree windbreaks are a multi-benefit land use with the ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate for improved crop growth and sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. Agroforestry practices are also being considered for bioenergy production by direct combustion or produci...

  5. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  6. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  7. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  8. Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2011-11-01

    Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest inventory data to show that fire prevention measures and large-scale bioenergy harvest in US West Coast forests lead to 2-14% (46-405TgC) higher emissions compared with current management practices over the next 20 years. We studied 80 forest types in 19 ecoregions, and found that the current carbon sink in 16 of these ecoregions is sufficiently strong that it cannot be matched or exceeded through substitution of fossil fuels by forest bioenergy. If the sink in these ecoregions weakens below its current level by 30-60gCm-2yr-1 owing to insect infestations, increased fire emissions or reduced primary production, management schemes including bioenergy production may succeed in jointly reducing fire risk and carbon emissions. In the remaining three ecoregions, immediate implementation of fire prevention and biofuel policies may yield net emission savings. Hence, forest policy should consider current forest carbon balance, local forest conditions and ecosystem sustainability in establishing how to decrease emissions.

  9. A life-cycle approach to low-invasion potential bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for energy has increased economic incentives to develop and deploy novel bioenergy crops for biomass production. Similarities in plant traits between many candidate bioenergy crops and known invasive species have raised concerns about the potential for bioenergy crops to escape pro...

  10. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  11. Can the Results of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Productivity Studies Be Translated to Bioenergy Production?

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally use high seeding densities that would be too expensive for bioenergy plantings. Here we report the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from two studies of more realistic bioenergy crop plantings in southern Michigan, USA. One study involved comparing production between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures and species-rich prairie plantings on private farm fields that were managed similarly to bioenergy plantings. The other study was an experiment where switchgrass was planted in monoculture and in combination with increasingly species-rich native prairie mixtures. Overall, we found that bioenergy plantings with higher species richness did not produce more biomass than switchgrass monocultures. The lack of a positive relationship between planted species richness and production in our studies may be due to several factors. Non-planted species (weeds) were not removed from our studies and these non-planted species may have competed with planted species and also prevented realized species richness from equaling planted species richness. Also, we found that low seeding density of individual species limited the biomass production of these individual species. Production in future bioenergy plantings with high species richness may be increased by using a high density of inexpensive seed from switchgrass and other highly productive species, and future efforts to translate the results of biodiversity experiments

  12. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  13. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  14. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; English, Burton C.; Jackson, Samuel W.; Tyler, Donald D.

    2016-02-26

    This paper connects the science of sustainability theory with applied aspects of sustainability deployment. A suite of 35 sustainability indicators spanning six environmental, three economic, and three social categories has been proposed for comparing the sustainability of bioenergy production systems across different feedstock types and locations. A recent demonstration-scale switchgrass-to-ethanol production system located in East Tennessee is used to assess the availability of sustainability indicator data and associated measurements for the feedstock production and logistics portions of the biofuel supply chain. Knowledge pertaining to the available indicators is distributed within a hierarchical decision tree framework to generate an assessment ofmore » the overall sustainability of this no-till switchgrass production system relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The relative contributions of the social, economic and environmental information are determined for the overall trajectory of this bioenergy system s sustainability under each scenario. Within this East Tennessee context, switchgrass production shows potential for improving environmental and social sustainability trajectories without adverse economic impacts, thereby leading to potential for overall enhancement in sustainability within this local agricultural system. Given the early stages of cellulosic ethanol production, it is currently difficult to determine quantitative values for all 35 sustainability indicators across the entire biofuel supply chain. This case study demonstrates that integration of qualitative sustainability indicator ratings may increase holistic understanding of a bioenergy system in the absence of complete information.« less

  15. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  16. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #26, January - March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-04-01

    January-March, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding and improving sugar measurements in biomass hydrolysates; expansion of the NREL/DOE Biochemical Pilot Plant.

  17. National Bioenergy Center--Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fall 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: rapid analysis models for compositional analysis of intermediate process streams; engineered arabinose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain.

  18. ALFALFA TRAITS THAT WILL IMPACT BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in production of energy from renewable resources such as biomass has increased tremendously with the recent price spike for oil and growing recognition of the threat posed by global warming. Alfalfa is an attractive alternative for biomass production because of its perennial nature, ability...

  19. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    PubMed

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  20. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Kline, Keith L; Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Post, Wilfred M; Brandt, Craig C; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  1. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    PubMed

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. PMID:26087365

  2. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  3. Biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to bioenergy production in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Abraha, M.; Gelfand, I.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Thomson, A. M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Chen, J.; Robertson, P.; Xu, M.; Liang, X. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Land use conversion to bioenergy crops production not only alters biogeochemical cycles, but also modifies surface biophysics, such as albedo and and leaf area. These biophysical perturbations subsequently change radiation budget at land surface and land-atmosphere exchange in water and energy, and ultimately influence local/regional climate. Here, we combine long-term in situ field measurements, remote sensing observations, and regional earth system modeling to improve our understanding of changes in biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to perennial bioenergy crops. In the US Midwest, albedo change as a result of cultivating native grassland for cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks could enhance the net greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation benefit of cellulosic bioenergy production (116.5 MgCO2 ha-1) by 20% over a time horizon of 50 years. With an integrated climate-agroecosystem model, parameterized with in situ and remote sensing data, we further demonstrate that cultivating native grassland may result in noticeable difference in simulated regional climate (e.g. precipitation, temperature, and radiation budget), highlighting the importance of additionally including biophysical climate services in evaluating land-based climate mitigation activities, such as bioenergy production.

  4. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  5. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra; Kang, Shujiang

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  6. Comparing Bioenergy Production Sites in the Southeastern US Regarding Ecosystem Service Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Markus A.; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  7. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  8. Impacts of bioenergy feedstock production on environmental factors in the Central U.S. using an agroecosystem model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Vanloocke, A. D.; Williams, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires annual U.S. production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, nearly half of this from cellulosic biofuels. We have little guidance as to where to grow bioenergy feedstocks to maximize yield without competing for food resources, and little understanding of the environmental and economic impacts of their production. Furthermore, it is unclear how bioenergy feedstocks might be incorporated into the current landscape to minimize environmental consequences. Numerical models allow us to predict environmental impacts across large spatial domains and long time periods by simulating the response of potential feedstocks to drivers such as soil type and climate. We used the Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version) model to quantify the impacts on Midwest U.S. water and energy budgets from land use for bioenergy production. We analyzed effects of changes in land cover (e.g., from current crops to perennial grasses) as well as changes in management (e.g., removal of crop residues for fuel). Our analyses indicate that perennial grasses can substantially increase evapotranspiration (water transport to the atmosphere) in locations where fraction cover is greater than 25%. This change in evapotranspiration is lowest in regions where current crops and grasses are highly productive and evapotranspiration is large, and is highest in semi-arid regions where productivity is lower. These results imply that growing bioenergy feedstocks on marginal lands could have substantial effects on water resources.

  9. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  10. Biomass production from native warm-season grass monocultures and polycultures managed for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass monocultures grown for Bioenergy lack plant species diversity and may not optimize ecosystem services. However, switchgrass monocultures are generally perceived to be more productive and provide fewer establishment and management challenges than polycultures. Our objective was to compare...

  11. Residues of bioenergy production chains as soil amendments: immediate and temporal phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gell, Kealan; van Groenigen, JanWillem; Cayuela, Maria Luz

    2011-02-28

    The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol and pyrolysis). The RPs were mixed into a sandy soil and the seedling root and shoot elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were measured. Immediate phytotoxic effects were observed with biodiesel and bioethanol RPs (root elongation reduced to 14-60% for the three crops; P<0.05). However, phytotoxicity was no longer significant after seven days. Digestates had no phytotoxic effect whereas biochars ranged from beneficial to detrimental depending on the original feedstock and temperature of pyrolysis. Biochar amendment alleviated phytotoxicity of bioethanol by-products for wheat and radish. Phytotoxicity assessment is critical for successful soil amendment with bioenergy RPs. PMID:21256672

  12. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  13. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  14. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  15. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  16. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #27, April - June 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-07-01

    April-June, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding performance of alternative process configurations for producing ethanol from biomass; investigating Karl Fischer Titration for measuring water content of pretreated biomass slurries.

  17. Quantifying tradeoffs between water availability, water quality, food production and bioenergy production in a Central German Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, M.; Lautenbach, S.; Strauch, M.; Whittaker, G. W.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide increasing bioenergy production is on the political agenda. It is well known that bioenergy production comes at a cost - several trade-offs with food production, water quality and quantity issues, biodiversity and ecosystem services are known. However, a quantification of these trade-offs is still missing. Hence, our study presents an analysis of trade-offs between water availability, water quality, bioenergy production and production in a Central German agricultural catchment. Our analysis is based on using SWAT and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA II). The genetic algorithm is used to find Pareto optimal configurations of crop rotation schemes. The Pareto-optimality describes solutions in which an objective cannot be improved without decreasing other objectives. This allows us to quantify the costs at which several levels of increase in bioenergy production come and to derive recommendations for policy makers.

  18. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  19. Use of the SWAT model to evaluate the sustainability of bioenergy production at a National scale

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Latha Malar; Jager, Yetta; Schweizer, Peter E; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2009-01-01

    As the US begins to integrate biomass crops and residues into its mix of energy feedstocks, tools are needed to measure the long-term sustainability of these feedstocks. Two aspects of sustainability are long-term potential for profitably producing energy and protection of ecosystems influenced by energy-related activities. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an important model used in the efforts to quantify both aspects. To quantify potential feedstock production, they used SWAT to estimate switchgrass yields at a national scale. The results from this analysis produced a map of the potential switchgrass yield along its natural eastern range. To quantify ecological protection, they are using the SWAT model to forecast changes in water quality and fish richness as a result of landscape alterations due to incorporating bioenergy crops. They have implemented the SWAT model in the Arkansas-Red-White region, which drains into the Mississippi River, and they present their methods here. They identified two sub-watersheds for sensitivity analysis and calibration of the water quality results, and then, explored ways to apply the calibration results to the whole region and validate the model setup. They also present an overview of their research in which results from the calibrated regional SWAT model were used to analyze potential changes in fish biodiversity. Only by evaluating the energy and environmental implications of landscape changes can we make informed decisions about bioenergy at the national scale, and the SWAT model will enable us to reach that goal.

  20. Potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to improve the environment, increase rural incomes, and reduce Federal budget deficits and the U.S. trade imbalance. In the wake of the devastating Midwest floods, bioenergy crops may also offer a more robust crop for flood-prone regions. Bioenergy crops include annual row crops such as corn, herbaceous perennial grasses (herbaceous energy crops--HECs) such as switchgrass, and short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) such as poplar. HECs are analogous to growing hay, harvesting the crop for energy rather than for forage. SRWCs typically consist of a plantation of closely spaced (2 to 3 meters apart on a grid) trees that are harvested on a cycle of 3 to 10 years.

  1. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  2. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF SWITCHGRASS MANAGED FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is an important bioenergy crop with the potential to provide a reliable supply of renewable energy while also removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequestering it in the soil. We conducted a four-year study to quantify carbon dioxide sequestration during the establishment and ...

  3. Sorghum as a Versatile Feedstock for Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World economy development, population increase, and urban expansion accelerate the depletion of naturally preserved energy (fossil fuel), reduction in arable land, and trend of global climate change. Bioenergy, the forms of energy produced from materials of living organisms, holds special promise in...

  4. An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

    2003-12-01

    Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40

  5. Simulation of Biomass Yield and Soil Organic Carbon under Bioenergy Sorghum Production

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fugen; Wight, Jason P.; Wilson, Lloyd T.; Storlien, Joseph O.; Hons, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing sustainable management practices including appropriate residue removal and nitrogen (N) fertilization for bioenergy sorghum is critical. However, the effects of residue removal and N fertilization associated with bioenergy sorghum production on soil organic carbon (SOC) are less studied compared to other crops. The objective of our research was to assess the impacts of residue removal and N fertilization on biomass yield and SOC under biomass sorghum production. Field measurements were used to calibrate the DNDC model, then verified the model by comparing simulated results with measured results using the field management practices as agronomic inputs. Both residue removal and N fertilization affected bioenergy sorghum yields in some years. The average measured SOC at 0–50 cm across the treatments and the time-frame ranged from 47.5 to 78.7 Mg C ha−1, while the simulated SOC was from 56.3 to 67.3 Mg C ha−1. The high correlation coefficients (0.65 to 0.99) and low root mean square error (3 to 18) between measured and simulated values indicate the DNDC model accurately simulated the effects of residue removal with N fertilization on bioenergy sorghum production and SOC. The model predictions revealed that there is, in the long term, a trend for higher SOC under bioenergy sorghum production regardless of residue management. PMID:25531758

  6. Biogeochemical research priorities for sustainable biofuel and bioenergy feedstock production in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demands on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustaina...

  7. Conservation Considerations for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production: If, What, Where, and How Much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased awareness of the need to achieve energy independence and security has resulted in many questions regarding the use of agricultural products as feedstock for bioenergy production. Initial efforts with grain crops, though successful, raised many more questions regarding sustainability and po...

  8. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Results Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Conclusion Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production. PMID:25187788

  9. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, William K.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods Currently, the United States (U.S.) supplies roughly half the world’s biofuel (secondary bioenergy), with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) stipulating an additional three-fold increase in annual production by 2022. Implicit in such energy targets is an associated increase in annual biomass demand (primary bioenergy) from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 exajoules (EJ; 1018 Joules). Yet, many of the factors used to estimate future bioenergy potential are relatively unresolved, bringing into question the practicality of the EISA’s ambitious bioenergy targets. Here, our objective was to constrain estimates of primary bioenergy potential (PBP) for the conterminous U.S. using satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data (measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S) as the most geographically explicit measure of terrestrial growth capacity. Results/Conclusions We show that the annual primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. realistically ranges from approximately 5.9 (± 1.4) to 22.2 (± 4.4) EJ, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents current harvest residuals, an attractive potential energy source since no additional harvest land is required. In contrast, the high end represents an annual harvest over an additional 5.4 million km2 or 75% of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S. While we identify EISA energy targets as achievable, our results indicate that meeting such targets using current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current croplands or the conversion of 60% of total rangelands. Our results differ from previous evaluations in that we use high resolution, satellite-derived NPP as an upper-envelope constraint on bioenergy potential, which removes the need for extrapolation of plot-level observed yields over large spatial areas. Establishing realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential seems a

  10. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  11. Progress toward evaluating the sustainability of switchgrass production as a bioenergy crop using the SWAT model

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Latha Malar; Jager, Yetta; Schweizer, Peter E; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2010-01-01

    Adding bioenergy to the US energy portfolio requires long-term profitability for bioenergy producers and the long-term protection of affected ecosystems. In this study, we present steps along the path towards evaluating both sides of the sustainability equation (production and environmental) for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We modeled production of switchgrass and river flow using SWAT for current landscapes at a regional scale. To quantify feedstock production, we compared lowland switchgrass yields simulated by SWAT with estimates from a model based on empirical data for the eastern US. Geographic patterns were very similar. Average yields reported in field trials tended to be higher than average SWAT-predicted yields, which may nevertheless be more representative of production-scale yields. As a preliminary step toward quantifying bioenergy-related changes in water quality, we evaluated flow predictions by the SWAT model for the Arkansas-Red-White river basin. Monthly SWAT flow predictions were compared to USGS measurements from 86 subbasins across the region. Although agreement was good, analysis of residuals (functional validation) identified patterns to guide future improvements. Our next step will be to continue model improvement, after which we will forecast changes in water quality associated with incorporating bioenergy crops into future landscapes. This analysis will help us, in future, to identify areas with the highest economic and environmental potential for feedstock production.

  12. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    PubMed

    Schmer, Marty R; Vogel, Kenneth P; Varvel, Gary E; Follett, Ronald F; Mitchell, Robert B; Jin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  13. Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

    PubMed Central

    Schmer, Marty R.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Varvel, Gary E.; Follett, Ronald F.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Jin, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of −29 to −396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha−1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  14. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  15. Land conversion to bioenergy production: water budget and sediment output in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass based bioenergy production has been considered a feasible alternative of land use for the mixed-grass prairie and marginal croplands in the High Plains. However, little is known of the effect of this land use change on the water cycle and associated sediment output in this water controll...

  16. Fluid fertilizer's role in sustaining soils used for bio-energy feedstock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of corn (Zea mays L.) as a bio-energy feedstock has attracted the attention of many producers. Recently, the focus has shifted from grain-based to cellulose-based ethanol production. In addition to biological conversion of corn stover to ethanol, thermal conversion (pyrolysis) of stover is b...

  17. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  18. Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this challenge by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, sorghum-triticale, switchgrass) arrayed acro...

  19. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  20. Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in

  1. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants. PMID:26866460

  2. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results. PMID:23126612

  3. Energy balance and emissions associated with biochar sequestration and pyrolysis bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, John L; Lehmann, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    The implications for greenhouse gas emissions of optimizing a slow pyrolysis-based bioenergy system for biochar and energy production rather than solely for energy production were assessed. Scenarios for feedstock production were examined using a life-cycle approach. We considered both purpose grown bioenergy crops (BEC) and the use of crop wastes (CW) as feedstocks. The BEC scenarios involved a change from growing winter wheat to purpose grown miscanthus, switchgrass, and corn as bioenergy crops. The CW scenarios consider both corn stover and winter wheat straw as feedstocks. Our findings show that the avoided emissions are between 2 and 5 times greater when biochar is applied to agricultural land (2--19 Mg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1)) than used solely for fossil energy offsets. 41--64% of these emission reductions are related to the retention of C in biochar, the rest to offsetting fossil fuel use for energy, fertilizer savings, and avoided soil emissions other than CO2. Despite a reduction in energy output of approximately 30% where the slow pyrolysis technology is optimized to produce biochar for land application, the energy produced per unit energy input at 2--7 MJ/MJ is greater than that of comparable technologies such as ethanol from corn. The C emissions per MWh of electricity production range from 91-360 kg CO2 MWh(-1), before accounting for C offset due to the use of biochar are considerably below the lifecycle emissions associated with fossil fuel use for electricity generation (600-900 kg CO2 MWh(-1)). Low-temperature slow pyrolysis offers an energetically efficient strategy for bioenergy production, and the land application of biochar reduces greenhouse emissions to a greater extent than when the biochar is used to offset fossil fuel emissions. PMID:18589980

  4. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  5. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    Growing crops for bioenergy is increasingly viewed as conflicting with food production. However, energy use continues to rise and food production requires fuel inputs, which have increased with intensification. The debate should shift from "food or fuel" to the more challenging target: how the increasing demand for food and energy can be met in the future, particularly when water and land availability will be limited. As for food crops, also for bioenergy crops it is questioned whether it is preferable to manage cultivation to enhance ecosystem services ("land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand ("land sparing" strategy). Energy crop production systems differ greatly in the supply of ecosystem services. The use of perennial biomass (e.g. Switchgrass, Mischantus, Giant reed) for energy production is considered a promising way to reduce net carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. In addition, regulating and supporting ecosystem services could be provided when specific management of bioenergy crops is implemented. The idea of HEDGE-BIOMASS* project is to convert the arable field margins to bioenergy crop production fostering a win-win strategy at landscape level. Main objective of the project is to improve land management to generate environmental benefits and increase farmer income. The various options available in literature for an improved field boundary management are presented. The positive/unknown/negative effects of growing perennial bioenergy crops on field margins will be discussed relatively to the following soil-related ecosystem services: (I) biodiversity conservation and enhancement, (II) soil nutrient cycling, (III) climate regulation (reduction of GHG emissions and soil carbon sequestration/stabilization, (IV) water regulation (filtering and buffering), (V) erosion regulation, (VI) pollination and pest regulation. From the analysis of available

  6. Selection, breeding and engineering of microalgae for bioenergy and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Ross, Ian L; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2012-04-01

    Microalgal production technologies are seen as increasingly attractive for bioenergy production to improve fuel security and reduce CO(2) emissions. Photosynthetically derived fuels are a renewable, potentially carbon-neutral and scalable alternative reserve. Microalgae have particular promise because they can be produced on non-arable land and utilize saline and wastewater streams. Furthermore, emerging microalgal technologies can be used to produce a range of products such as biofuels, protein-rich animal feeds, chemical feedstocks (e.g. bioplastic precursors) and higher-value products. This review focuses on the selection, breeding and engineering of microalgae for improved biomass and biofuel conversion efficiencies. PMID:22178650

  7. The impact of cultivar diversity in bioenergy feedstock production systems on soil carbon sequestration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Graaff, M.; Morris, G.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change for bioenergy production can create greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through disturbance of soil carbon (C) pools, but native species with extensive root systems may rapidly repay the GHG debt, particularly when grown in diverse mixtures, by enhancing soil C sequestration upon land-use change. Native bioenergy candidate species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) show extensive within-species variation, and our preliminary data show that increased cultivar diversity can enhance yield. We aim to assess how shifting C3-dominated nonnative perennial grasslands to C4-dominated native perennial grasslands for use as bioenergy feedstock affects soil C stocks, and how within-species diversity in switchgrass and big bluestem affects soil C sequestration rates. Our experiment is conducted at the Fermilab National Environmental Research Park, and compares different approaches for perennial feedstock production ranging across a biodiversity gradient, where diversity is manipulated at both the species- and cultivar level, and nitrogen (N) is applied at two levels (0 and 67 kg/ha). Preliminary results indicate that switchgrass and big bluestem differentially affect soil C sequstration, and that increasing diversity may enhance soil C sequestration rates.

  8. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  9. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  10. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  11. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. PMID:25444887

  12. Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Papoutsakis, Elefterios

    2015-04-30

    This is the final project report for project "Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production" for the funding period of 9/1/12 to 2/28/2015 (three years with a 6-month no-cost extension) OVERVIEW AND PROJECT GOALS The bottleneck of achieving higher rates and titers of toxic metabolites (such as solvents and carboxylic acids that can used as biofuels or biofuel precursors) can be overcome by engineering the stress response system. Thus, understanding and modeling the response of cells to toxic metabolites is a problem of great fundamental and practical significance. In this project, our goal is to dissect at the molecular systems level and build models (conceptual and quantitative) for the stress response of C. acetobutylicum (Cac) to its two toxic metabolites: butanol (BuOH) and butyrate (BA). Transcriptional (RNAseq and microarray based), proteomic and fluxomic data and their analysis are key requirements for this goal. Transcriptional data from mid-exponential cultures of Cac under 4 different levels of BuOH and BA stress was obtained using both microarrays (Papoutsakis group) and deep sequencing (RNAseq; Meyers and Papoutsakis groups). These two sets of data do not only serve to validate each other, but are also used for identification of stress-induced changes in transcript levels, small regulatory RNAs, & in transcriptional start sites. Quantitative proteomic data (Lee group), collected using the iTRAQ technology, are essential for understanding of protein levels and turnover under stress and the various protein-protein interactions that orchestrate the stress response. Metabolic flux changes (Antoniewicz group) of core pathways, which provide important information on the re-allocation of energy and carbon resources under metabolite stress, were examined using 13C-labelled chemicals. Omics data are integrated at different levels and scales. At the metabolic-pathway level, omics data are integrated into a 2nd generation genome

  13. Organic Matter Balance: Managing for Soil Protection and Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (organi...

  14. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-02-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

  15. Bioenergy and biobased products hold promise of reducing pollution emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Trees and other plants have, of course, long been useful for the wood and agricultural benefits they provide. Now, this organic matter is gaining new cachet as “biomass.”Some scientists hope that this stuff can be converted into practically a panacea of goods, including transportation fuels, electricity, commercial products such as chemicals, glues, and paints, and other materials—reducing societal dependence on petrochemical products.

  16. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  17. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  18. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henner, Dagmar N.; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall P.

    2015-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers as many ecosystem services as possible at a Continental level including biodiversity, water, GHG emissions, soil, and cultural services. The distribution and production of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on ecosystem services and biodiversity, and weighting of the importance of the individual ecosystem services. Energy crops will be modelled using low, medium and high climate change scenarios for the years between 2015 and 2050. We will present first results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and with different climate warming scenarios. All this will be complemented by the presentation of a matrix

  19. Environmental Implications of Increased Bioenergy Production on Midwest Soil Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie soil landscapes encompass over 16 million acres in Missouri and surrounding states. Much of this area has been degraded by erosion but is still used for grain production. Erosion has caused variable topsoil depth within fields which in turn has resulted in greater within-field variability of...

  20. Bioenergy grass feedstock production in the southern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Renewable Fuels Standard within the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA)(Pub L.) requires that by the year 2022, 36 billion gallons of biofuels be added to gasoline and that 21 billion gallons would come from non-cornstarch products such as sugar or cellulosic feedstock. The Sout...

  1. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gross, Katherine L.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-01-24

    Long-term measurements of global warming impact coupled with spatially explicit modeling suggests that both climate benefits and the production potential of cellulosic crops grown on marginal lands of the US North Central region are substantial but will be insufficient to meet long-term biofuel needs.

  2. A Landscape Vision for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedstock production for biofuel and other bioproducts is poised to rejuvenate rural economies, but may lead to long-term degradation of soil resources or other adverse and unintended environmental consequences if the practices are not developed in a sustainable manner. This presentation will examin...

  3. Arundo donax L.: a non-food crop for bioenergy and bio-compound production.

    PubMed

    Corno, Luca; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Arundo donax L., common name giant cane or giant reed, is a plant that grows spontaneously in different kinds of environments and that it is widespread in temperate and hot areas all over the world. Plant adaptability to different kinds of environment, soils and growing conditions, in combination with the high biomass production and the low input required for its cultivation, give to A. donax many advantages when compared to other energy crops. A. donax can be used in the production of biofuels/bioenergy not only by biological fermentation, i.e. biogas and bio-ethanol, but also, by direct biomass combustion. Both its industrial uses and the extraction of chemical compounds are largely proved, so that A. donax can be proposed as the feedstock to develop a bio-refinery. Nowadays, the use of this non-food plant in both biofuel/bioenergy and bio-based compound production is just beginning, with great possibilities for expanding its cultivation in the future. To this end, this review highlights the potential of using A. donax for energy and bio-compound production, by collecting and critically discussing the data available on these first applications for the crop. PMID:25457226

  4. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions. PMID:25892438

  5. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    SciTech Connect

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  6. Satellite observations of vegetation productivity provide new insight into United States bioenergy targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    The United States (U.S.) currently supplies roughly half the world's biofuel, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) specifying an additional three-fold increase in annual production by 2022. Implicit in such energy targets is an associated increase in biomass demand from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 exajoules (EJ; 1018 joules) annually. However, many of the factors used to estimate future biomass availability are relatively unresolved, bringing into question EISA's ambitious future targets. Here, we estimate the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. using satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data as the most geographically-explicit measure of current vegetation growth capacity. We show that the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. realistically ranges from approximately 5.9 (± 1.4) to 22.2 (± 4.4) EJ annually, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents current harvest residuals, an attractive potential energy source since no additional harvest land is required. In contrast, the high end represents an annual harvest over 75% of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S. While we identify EISA energy targets as achievable, our results indicate that meeting such targets using current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current U.S. croplands or the conversion of 60% of total U.S. rangelands. Our results are unique in that we apply high resolution, satellite-derived NPP as an upper-envelope constraint on bioenergy potential, which removes the need for extrapolation of plot-level observed yields over large spatial areas. Effective incorporation of biofuel into the U.S. energy portfolio will depend on our ability to accurately quantify the availability of biomass as a resource.

  7. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  8. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-07-31

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  9. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-08-12

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  10. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Gross, Katherine L; Robertson, G Philip

    2013-01-24

    Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from

  11. Preface: Biocatalysis and Bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and bioenergy with emphasis on biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and industrial products. Biocatalysis and bioenergy defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, b...

  12. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  13. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; House, Joanna I; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; Delucia, Evan H

    2011-04-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  14. Development of sustainable, native grass-based bioenergy production systems in the prairie region of Minnesota: Soil nutrient response to fertilizer and harvest treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of cropland for the production of bioenergy feedstocks is a promising scenario for the upper Midwest as economic and social interests in bioenergy and low-carbon fuels grow. Landowners are in the forefront of developing the necessary whole-farm management systems. Progressive multipurpos...

  15. Eroding forest carbon sinks following thinning for combined fire prevention and bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2010-12-01

    Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. Using Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) plot data, regional supplemental plot data, and remote sensing products we determined the carbon stocks and fluxes of West Coast forests under current and proposed management scenarios for a 20 year treatment period. Varying biofuels thinning treatments designed to meet multiple objectives emphasizing fire prevention, economic gain, or energy production were applied to determine the resulting net carbon balance and bioenergy potential. Contrary to the management objectives, we find that increased removals result in substantial decreases in forest carbon stocks and Net Biome Production (NBP) and increased emissions. Thinning forests for energy production is not carbon neutral. Emissions are estimated to increase over the 20-year period because preventive thinning removals exceed the CO2 that would have been emitted due to wildfires, fossil fuel inputs are required for harvest and manufacturing, and use of woody biomass in short-lived products emits large quantities of CO2 to the atmosphere. It has the net effect of releasing otherwise sequestered carbon to the atmosphere, which may effectively reduce ongoing carbon uptake by forests and as a result, increase net greenhouse gas emissions, undermining the objective of greenhouse gas reductions over the next several decades.

  16. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in

  17. Sustainable production of bioenergy and bio-char from the straw of high biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The straws of two high-biomass soybean lines developed at ARS for bioenergy were subjected to thermochemical conversion by fast pyrolysis. The objective was to evaluate the potential use of the straw for the production of liquid fuel intermediates that can be burned “as is” and/or potentially upgra...

  18. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: land use change effects of bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-02-15

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import-export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE+LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. PMID:24291133

  19. Bioenergy from stillage anaerobic digestion to enhance the energy balance ratio of ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2015-10-01

    The challenges associated with the availability of fossil fuels in the past decades intensified the search for alternative energy sources, based on an ever-increasing demand for energy. In this context, the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as a core treatment technology in industrial plants should be highlighted, since this process combines the pollution control of wastewaters and the generation of bioenergy, based on the conversion of the organic fraction to biogas, a methane-rich gaseous mixture that may supply the energetic demands in industrial plants. In this context, this work aimed at assessing the energetic potential of AD applied to the treatment of stillage, the main wastewater from ethanol production, in an attempt to highlight the improvements in the energy balance ratio of ethanol by inserting the heating value of methane as a bioenergy source. At least 5-15% of the global energy consumption in the ethanol industry could be supplied by the energetic potential of stillage, regardless the feedstock (i.e. sugarcane, corn or cassava). The association between bagasse combustion and stillage anaerobic digestion in sugarcane-based distilleries could provide a bioenergy surplus of at least 130% of the total fossil fuel input into the ethanol plant, considering only the energy from methane. In terms of financial aspects, the economic gains could reach US$ 0.1901 and US$ 0.0512 per liter of produced ethanol, respectively for molasses- (Brazil) and corn-based (EUA) production chains. For large-scale (∼1000 m(3)EtOH per day) Brazilian molasses-based plants, an annual economic gain of up to US$ 70 million could be observed. Considering the association between anaerobic and aerobic digestion, for the scenarios analyzed, at least 25% of the energetic potential of stillage would be required to supply the energy consumption with aeration, however, more suitable effluents for agricultural application could be produced. The main conclusion from this work

  20. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  1. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  2. Biogeochemical Research Priorities for Sustainable Biofuel and Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Gollany, Hero T; Titus, Brian D; Scott, D Andrew; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Resh, Sigrid C; Chimner, Rodney A; Kaczmarek, Donald J; Leite, Luiz F C; Ferreira, Ana C C; Rod, Kenton A; Hilbert, Jorge; Galdos, Marcelo V; Cisz, Michelle E

    2015-12-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems incrementally remove greater quantities of organic matter, which in turn affects soil organic matter and associated carbon and nutrient storage (and hence long-term soil productivity) and off-site impacts. While these consequences have been extensively studied for some crops and sites, the ongoing and impending impacts of biomass removal require management strategies for ensuring that soil properties and functions are sustained for all combinations of crops, soils, sites, climates, and management systems, and that impacts of biomass management (including off-site impacts) are environmentally acceptable. In a changing global environment, knowledge of cumulative impacts will also become increasingly important. Long-term experiments are essential for key crops, soils, and management systems because short-term results do not necessarily reflect long-term impacts, although improved modeling capability may help to predict these impacts. Identification and validation of soil sustainability indicators for both site prescriptions and spatial applications would better inform commercial and policy decisions. In an increasingly inter-related but constrained global context, researchers should engage across inter-disciplinary, inter-agency, and international lines to better ensure the long-term soil productivity across a range of scales, from site to landscape. PMID:26006220

  3. Biogeochemical Research Priorities for Sustainable Biofuel and Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollany, Hero T.; Titus, Brian D.; Scott, D. Andrew; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Resh, Sigrid C.; Chimner, Rodney A.; Kaczmarek, Donald J.; Leite, Luiz F. C.; Ferreira, Ana C. C.; Rod, Kenton A.; Hilbert, Jorge; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Cisz, Michelle E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems incrementally remove greater quantities of organic matter, which in turn affects soil organic matter and associated carbon and nutrient storage (and hence long-term soil productivity) and off-site impacts. While these consequences have been extensively studied for some crops and sites, the ongoing and impending impacts of biomass removal require management strategies for ensuring that soil properties and functions are sustained for all combinations of crops, soils, sites, climates, and management systems, and that impacts of biomass management (including off-site impacts) are environmentally acceptable. In a changing global environment, knowledge of cumulative impacts will also become increasingly important. Long-term experiments are essential for key crops, soils, and management systems because short-term results do not necessarily reflect long-term impacts, although improved modeling capability may help to predict these impacts. Identification and validation of soil sustainability indicators for both site prescriptions and spatial applications would better inform commercial and policy decisions. In an increasingly inter-related but constrained global context, researchers should engage across inter-disciplinary, inter-agency, and international lines to better ensure the long-term soil productivity across a range of scales, from site to landscape.

  4. Water Footprints of Cellulosic Bioenergy Crops: Implications for Production on Marginal Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Basso, B.; Abraha, M. G.; Robertson, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability often limits crop production, even in relatively humid climates, and crops vary in their water demand and water use efficiency. Crop production for biofuel (ethanol or biodiesel) offers an alternative to fossil energy sources but requires large amounts of land, and is therefore a more viable option if such crops could be produced on marginal lands that often have soils of poor water-holding capacity. The selection of an appropriate crop requires information on its water demand, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance, but such information is incompletely available for the suite of cellulosic biofuel crops currently under consideration. This study analyzed soil moisture profiles (time-domain reflectometry) to estimate evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of three leading candidate crops for cellulosic bioenergy production (switchgrass, Miscanthus, and maize) grown in a relatively humid climate (Midwestern United States) over four years (2010-13). These field observations of water use by these annual and perennial crops reveal their water use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production. Total growing season water use was remarkably consistent among crops and across years of varying soil water availability, including very favorable precipitation years as well as a drought year (2012). Water use efficiency was more variable and, for maize, depends on whether the maize serves for both grain and cellulosic biofuel production.

  5. Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Running, Steve; Searchinger, Timothy D.; Kolby Smith, W.

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of global primary bioenergy potentials in the literature span almost three orders of magnitude. We narrow that range by discussing biophysical constraints on bioenergy potentials resulting from plant growth (NPP) and its current human use. In the last 30 years, terrestrial NPP was almost constant near 54 PgC yr-1, despite massive efforts to increase yields in agriculture and forestry. The global human appropriation of terrestrial plant production has doubled in the last century. We estimate the maximum physical potential of the world’s total land area outside croplands, infrastructure, wilderness and denser forests to deliver bioenergy at approximately 190 EJ yr-1. These pasture lands, sparser woodlands, savannas and tundras are already used heavily for grazing and store abundant carbon; they would have to be entirely converted to bioenergy and intensive forage production to provide that amount of energy. Such a high level of bioenergy supply would roughly double the global human biomass harvest, with far-reaching effects on biodiversity, ecosystems and food supply. Identifying sustainable levels of bioenergy and finding ways to integrate bioenergy with food supply and ecological conservation goals remains a huge and pressing scientific challenge.

  6. Impact of bioenergy production on ecosystem dynamics and services-a case study on U.K. Heathlands.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Leach, Matthew; Yang, Aidong

    2015-05-01

    For sustainability's sake, the establishment of bioenergy production can no longer overlook the interactions between ecosystem and technological processes, to ensure the preservation of ecosystem functions that provide energy and other goods and services to the human being. In this paper, a bioenergy production system based on heathland biomass is investigated with the aim to explore how a system dynamics approach can help to analyze the impact of bioenergy production on ecosystem dynamics and services and vice versa. The effect of biomass harvesting on the heathland dynamics, ecosystem services such as biomass production and carbon capture, and its capacity to balance nitrogen inputs from atmospheric deposition and nitrogen recycling were analyzed. Harvesting was found to be beneficial for the maintenance of the heathland ecosystem if the biomass cut fraction is higher than 0.2 but lower than 0.6, but this will depend on the specific conditions of nitrogen deposition and nitrogen recycling. With 95% recycling of nitrogen, biomass production was increased by up to 25% for a cut fraction of 0.4, but at the expense of higher nitrogen accumulation and the system being less capable to withstand high atmospheric nitrogen deposition. PMID:25855030

  7. Biochemical production of bioenergy from agricultural crops and residue in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi Alavijeh, Masih; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-06-01

    The present study assessed the potential for biochemical conversion of energy stored in agricultural waste and residue in Iran. The current status of agricultural residue as a source of bioenergy globally and in Iran was investigated. The total number of publications in this field from 2000 to 2014 was about 4294. Iran ranked 21st with approximately 54 published studies. A total of 87 projects have been devised globally to produce second-generation biofuel through biochemical pathways. There are currently no second-generation biorefineries in Iran and agricultural residue has no significant application. The present study determined the amount and types of sustainable agricultural residue and oil-rich crops and their provincial distribution. Wheat, barley, rice, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, sugarcane, sugar beets, apples, grapes, dates, cotton, soybeans, rapeseed, sesame seeds, olives, sunflowers, safflowers, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts have the greatest potential as agronomic and horticultural crops to produce bioenergy in Iran. A total of 11.33million tonnes (Mt) of agricultural biomass could be collected for production of bioethanol (3.84gigaliters (Gl)), biobutanol (1.07Gl), biogas (3.15billion cubic meters (BCM)), and biohydrogen (0.90BCM). Additionally, about 0.35Gl of biodiesel could be obtained using only 35% of total Iranian oilseed. The potential production capacity of conventional biofuel blends in Iran, environmental and socio-economic impacts including well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the social cost of carbon dioxide reduction are discussed. The cost of emissions could decrease up to 55.83% by utilizing E85 instead of gasoline. The possible application of gaseous biofuel in Iran to produce valuable chemicals and provide required energy for crop cultivation is also studied. The energy recovered from biogas produced by wheat residue could provide energy input for 115.62 and 393.12 thousand hectares of irrigated and rain-fed wheat

  8. Alternative Land-Use Scenarios for Bioenergy Production in the U.S. and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. E.; Spak, S.; Tsao, C. C.; Mena, M.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be enhanced by growing demand for biofuels. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories and agronomic models to characterize land-use impacts and mitigation scenarios for bioenergy production in the U.S. and Brazil. In the U.S., our gridded historical cropland maps show potential for production in the U.S. on 68 Mha of abandoned croplands in the U.S. which is as much as 70% larger than previous estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. In Brazil, a critical land-use impact is associated with non-GHG air pollutants from the management and expansion of sugarcane feedstocks. Our bottom-up estimate for these Brazilian land-use emissions is seven times larger than estimated from remote-sensing data due to the improved spatial resolution of our approach. While current land-use policies in Brazil and the U.S. seek to reduce life-cycle biofuel emissions, these policies may not support the mitigation alternatives identified here.

  9. Impact of bio-energy production and climate change on soil organic matter reproduction in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Uwe; Volk, Martin; Witing, Felix; Jäckel, Greta

    2014-05-01

    For the region of Central Germany global change scenarios lead to the prediction of a growing risk of declining amounts of soil organic matter (SOM). The production of bioenergy is one strategy to counteract the growing anthropogenic CO2-emissions. Both issues have a close connection: SOM is one important base of soil productivity and requires a steady reproduction flux. Bioenergy production requires productive soils and partly consumes plant biomass carbon thus reducing the available amount for SOM reproduction. This study delivers a methodology for the identification of areas with possible conflicts between bioenergy production and SOM reproduction based on i) the prediction of climate change impact on SOM reproduction and ii) an analysis of the regional distribution of biogas plants. The proposed algorithm is applied for the region of Central Germany as a pilot region. The quantification of climate change impact was based on regionalized climate data from the IPCC scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 as prognosis for 2001 - 2100 in relation to the retrospective C20 data for 1961-2000 calculations. For downscaling we used the regional climate models REMO and WETTREG, the latter with 3 different subsets for wet, normal and moist conditions. For all resulting datasets the annual sum of rainfall and the average of air temperature were calculated. Soil impact is represented by means of the top soil texture that has been taken from the German soil map (BUEK1000; scale 1:1,000,000). The map shows 71 different soil mapping units in the study area. Each soil unit has been assigned a characteristic soil profile ("Leitprofil") where soil texture was derived by using the guidelines for soil mapping (KA4). Results indicate a growing demand (10%-30%) of fresh organic carbon for SOM production. The analysis reveals that bioenergy carbon demand is not evenly distributed over the study region. There is no significant correlation between matter demand for bioenergy and carbon amount required

  10. Household anaerobic digester for bioenergy production in developing countries: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Jasinski, Jonas; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is vital for advancing development objectives, particularly in rural areas of developing countries. There are some three billion people in these regions, however, who lack consistent access to energy and rely on traditional solid fuels such as firewood, cattle manure, and crop residues for meeting cooking and heating needs. Excessive use of such highly polluting resources creates serious environmental, social and public health issues. In this context, household digesters (which convert readily available feedstocks such as cattle manure, human excreta, and crop residues into biogas) have the potential to play a significant role in supplying methane as a clean, renewable energy resource for remote geographies. In addition to bioenergy production, the slurry generated from anaerobic digestion is rich in nutrients and can improve the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of soil when applied to agricultural land. This type of approach has the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously improving the quality of life. Despite a long history of research and innovation for the development and optimization of household digesters, little is known and has been reported for the application of these systems in decentralized communities. The primary purpose of this paper seeks to review the dearth of literature pertaining to small-scale anaerobic digesters in remote geographies and in regions where much of the world's population reside. PMID:24350427

  11. Historical U.S. cropland areas and the potential for bioenergy production on abandoned croplands.

    PubMed

    Zumkehr, A; Campbell, J E

    2013-04-16

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be driven by growing demand for food and biofuels. While these impacts have been explored using global gridded maps of croplands, such maps are based on relatively coarse spatial data. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories for the conterminous U.S. with a land-use model to develop historical gridded cropland areas for the years 1850-2000 and year 2000 abandoned cropland maps. While the historical cropland maps are consistent with generally accepted land-use trends, our U.S. abandoned cropland estimates of 68 Mha are as much as 70% larger than previous gridded estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. Renewed cultivation on the subset of abandoned croplands that have not become forests or urban lands represents one approach to mitigating the future expansion of agriculture. Potential bioenergy production from these abandoned lands using a wide range of biomass yields and conversion efficiencies has an upper-limit of 5-30% of the current U.S. primary energy demand or 4-30% of the current U.S. liquid fuel demand. PMID:23506118

  12. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  13. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G.; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P.; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R.; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  14. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  15. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  16. Decision support framework for evaluating the operational environment of forest bioenergy production and use: Case of four European countries.

    PubMed

    Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela; Kurttila, Mikko; Hujala, Teppo; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Leban, Vasja; Lindstad, Berit H; Peters, Dörte Marie; Rhodius, Regina; Solberg, Birger; Wirth, Kristina; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija; Krč, Janez

    2016-09-15

    Complex policy-making situations around bioenergy production and use require examination of the operational environment of the society and a participatory approach. This paper presents and demonstrates a three-phase decision-making framework for analysing the operational environment of strategies related to increased forest bioenergy targets. The framework is based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). Stakeholders of four case countries (Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) defined the factors that affect the operational environments, classified in four pre-set categories (Forest Characteristics and Management, Policy Framework, Technology and Science, and Consumers and Society). The stakeholders participated in weighting of SWOT items for two future scenarios with SMART technique. The first scenario reflected the current 2020 targets (the Business-as-Usual scenario), and the second scenario contained a further increase in the targets (the Increase scenario). This framework can be applied to various problems of environmental management and also to other fields where public decision-making is combined with stakeholders' engagement. The case results show that the greatest differences between the scenarios appear in Germany, indicating a notably negative outlook for the Increase scenario, while the smallest differences were found in Finland. Policy Framework was a highly rated category across the countries, mainly with respect to weaknesses and threats. Intensified forest bioenergy harvesting and utilization has potentially wide country-specific impacts which need to be anticipated and considered in national policies and public dialogue. PMID:27208996

  17. Bioenergy co-products derived from microalgae biomass via thermochemical conversion--life cycle energy balances and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H H; Koh, C Y; Shaik, M S; Sharratt, P N

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the potential to efficiently convert lipid-depleted residual microalgae biomass using thermochemical (gasification at 850 °C, pyrolysis at 550 °C, and torrefaction at 300 °C) processes to produce bioenergy derivatives was made. Energy indicators are established to account for the amount of energy inputs that have to be supplied to the system in order to gain 1 MJ of bio-energy output. The paper seeks to address the difference between net energy input-output balances based on a life cycle approach, from "cradle-to-bioenergy co-products", vs. thermochemical processes alone. The experimental results showed the lowest results of Net Energy Balances (NEB) to be 0.57 MJ/MJ bio-oil via pyrolysis, and highest, 6.48 MJ/MJ for gas derived via torrefaction. With the complete life cycle process chain factored in, the energy balances of NEBLCA increased to 1.67 MJ/MJ (bio-oil) and 7.01 MJ/MJ (gas). Energy efficiencies and the life cycle CO2 emissions were also calculated. PMID:23810951

  18. The Giant Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis var. Igniscum) as a new plant resource for biomass production for bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebzien, S.; Veste, M.; Fechner, H.; Koning, L.; Mantovani, D.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    The cultivation of bioenergy crop for energetic biomass production and biogas will increase in the next decades in Europe and the world. In Germany maize is the most commonly used energy crops for biogas. To optimize the sustainability of bioenergy crop production new land management systems and crop species are needed. Herbaceous perennials have a great potential to fulfill this requirement. A new species for bioenergy production is the Giant Knotweed or Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt ex Maxim., Fam. Polygonaceae) The knotweed is originated from Sakhalin, Korea and Japan .The plant is characterized by a high annual biomass production and can reach heights up to 3-4 m. As a new bioenergy crop the new cultivars IGNISCUM Basic (R) and IGNISCUM Candy (R) were cultured from the wild form and commercially used. Important is that both cultivars are not invasive. IGNISCUM Basic is used for combined heat and power plants. IGNISCUM Candy can be harvested 2-3 times during the growing season and the green biomass can be used for biogas production. Comprehensive test series are carried out to analyze the biogas. First results from lab investigations and experiments in biogas plants show that fresh matter of IGNISCUM Candy can well substitute maize as substrate in biogas power plants. Yields per hectare and the amount of biogas per ton of organic dry matter can be considered as almost equal to maize. Concerning the wooden biomass of IGNISCUM Basic values of combustion can be compared with wood chips from forest trees. For a sustainable and optimal production of biomass we develop cultivation technology for this species. Field experiments are arranged under different climatic and soil conditions across Germany from Schleswig-Holstein to southern Germany to investigate the plant growth and biomass production on the field scale. Physiological parameters are determined for the relations between growth stages, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and plant

  19. Stakeholder Database from the Center for Bioenergy Sustainability (Learn who the experts are)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) is a leading resource for dealing with the environmental impacts and the ultimate sustainability of biomass production for conversion to biofuels and bio-based products. Its purpose is to use science and analysis to understand the sustainability (environmental, economic, and social) of current and potential future bioenergy production and distribution; to identify approaches to enhance bioenergy sustainability; and to serve as an independent source of the highest quality data and analysis for bioenergy stakeholders and decision makers. ... On the operational level, CBES is a focal point and business-development vehicle for ORNL’s capabilities related to bioenergy sustainability and socioeconomic analyses. As such, it complements the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), also located at ORNL, which focuses on the problem of converting lignocellulosic biomass into reactive intermediaries necessary for the cellulosic biofuel industry. Together, these centers provide a strong integrating mechanism and business-development tool for ORNL's science and technology portfolio in bioenergy [taken and edited from http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/cbes/. The Stakeholder Database allows you to find experts in bioenergy by their particular type of expertise, their affiliations or locations, their specific research areas or research approaches, etc.

  20. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass germplasm, indicated excellent potential to isolate parental

  1. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  2. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  3. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.

  4. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along themore » bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.« less

  5. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  6. Bioenergy as a biodiversity management tool and the potential of a mixed species feedstock for bioenergy production in Wales.

    PubMed

    Corton, John; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael; Donnison, Iain S; Fraser, Mariecia D

    2013-02-01

    A cutting management regime maintains high levels of biodiversity in semi-natural habitats across Europe. We utilise three years of annual yield data from Welsh semi-natural areas to calculate the mean feedstock production from cutting management to be 1.05×10(6) t DM annum(-1). Using formulae based upon Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel process models, we predict that 2.12×10(5) t of FT fuel annum(-1) could be produced. That represents 38% of the Welsh transport sector's green house gas (GHG) reduction target for 2020. Alternatively, predictive formulae reveal that methane yields from anaerobic digestion of the feedstock could reduce GHG emissions by 11% of the domestic sector's reduction target for 2020. Electricity generation from methane is also explored. The results presented encourage further investigation into the contribution of this resource to sustainable domestic energy supply. Furthermore, the proposed system would potentially protect a broad range of ecosystem services and maintain biodiversity. PMID:23238343

  7. Temporal soil organic carbon dynamics following land-use change for lignocellulosic bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClean, Gary; Rowe, Rebecca; Sohi, Saran; Heal, Kate

    2014-05-01

    As the demand for renewable energy crops increases to assist in reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the projected future expansion in bioenergy crop production is expected to cause significant land-use change (LUC). It has been reported that lignocellulosic crops such as Miscanthus and willow short rotation coppice (SRC) have the potential to mitigate CO2 emissions through fossil fuel replacement and by soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation following direct LUC. Many studies have been carried out with the purpose of measuring site-specific changes, however results are often mixed demonstrating both increasing and decreasing carbon (C) stocks over time. Such variation demonstrates the sensitivity of SOC to many factors such as climate, soil texture, previous land-use and initial SOC content. This study examined a chronosequence of ~100 Miscanthus and willow plantations established on arable and grassland across Britain to provide an improved understanding of general effects on temporal SOC dynamics during LUC. Soil was sampled at each site to a depth of 30 cm and SOC stocks assessed over a 14 year time period. For each of the 4 LUCs no significant differences were observed between measured C stocks after 14 years and expected baseline values for land under arable and grassland management. Evidence will be presented that shows in all cases a 0% change lies within the 95% confidence intervals indicating no true average increase or decrease can be reported for the first 14 years of establishment. Therefore we find no evidence to suggest a short term CO2 mitigation effect provided from SOC storage following the establishment of Miscanthus or willow on arable or grassland. However, longer term measurements are required to assess SOC dynamics beyond this initial period.

  8. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Post, Wilfred M; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, L.; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  9. Developing an Experimental Watershed for Monitoring the Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Marginal Lands of the Northeastern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. M.; Adler, P. R.; Kemanian, A. R.; Saha, D.; Montes, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern U.S. over 400,000 acres have been placed into conservation programs to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Most of this acreage is within the Chesepeake Bay watershed. Many of these acres may be suitable for raising second generation bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). Bioenergy production may provide a viable economic incentive to keep marginal lands in perennial crop production, and improve water quality. However, the environmental impacts and benefits of second generation bioenergy crop production are not well understood on marginal lands. We designed an experimental watershed to compare switchgrass and miscanthus production against typical conservation grasslands. The Mattern Watershed is a horseshoe shaped 1st order watershed located near Leck Kill, PA, and is representative of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. The upper portions of the watershed have been and are currently used for tillage corn and bean production. The lower portions of the watershed are excessively wet and have been in a conservation easement since 2005. In spring 2012 we planted eight 0.4 ha replicate plots of switchgrass (4 fertilized and 4 with no fertilizer) and four 0.4 ha plots of miscanthus into the lower portions of the watershed an additional four 0.4 ha plots were left in conservation grassland using a randomized block design. We compare biomass production, biomass elemental content, N2O emissions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater quality, surface runoff, and soil organic carbon in order to determine which treatment most effectively produces bioenergy feedstock, mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, and improves water quality. The experimental watershed will provide an unparalleled opportunity to verify and parameterize watershed, and bigeochemical models. Preliminary results suggest that early in the growing season cool season grasses minimized shallow groundwater NO3 and N2O

  10. Biofuels and bioenergy production from municipal solid waste commingled with agriculturally-derived biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA in partnership with Salinas Valley Solid Waste Authority (SVSWA) and CR3, a technology holding company from Reno, NV, has introduced a biorefinery concept whereby agriculturally- derived biomass is commingled with municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce bioenergy. This team, which originally...

  11. Carbon dioxide and water fluxes from switchgrass managed for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important bioenergy crop with the potential to provide a reliable supply of renewable energy while also removing CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestering it in the soil. The purpose of this study was to use micrometeorological techniques to quantify CO2 fluxes...

  12. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. PMID:20940036

  13. Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas.

    PubMed

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Ken M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Elisante, Emrode; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise and evaluate a wild inedible cassava species, Manihot glaziovii as feedstock for bioenergy production. Tubers obtained from 3 different areas in Tanzania were characterised and evaluated for bioethanol and biogas production. These bioenergy carriers were produced both separately and sequentially and their energy values evaluated based on these two approaches. Composition analysis demonstrated that M. glaziovii is a suitable feedstock for both bioethanol and biogas production. Starch content ranged from 77% to 81%, structural carbohydrates 3-16%, total crude protein ranged from 2% to 8%. Yeast fermentation achieved ethanol concentration of up to 85g/L at a fermentation efficiency of 89%. The fuel energy of the bioethanol and methane from flour-peels mix ranged from 5 to 13 and 11 to 14MJ/kgVS, respectively. Co-production of bioethanol and biogas in which the peels were added to the fermentation residue prior to anaerobic digestion produced maximum fuel energy yield of (15-23MJ/kgVS). PMID:25237774

  14. Effect of fertilization on N2O emissions from a marginal soil used for perennial grass bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Karim, Imtiaz; Mason, Cedric; Tadipatri, Dhanya; Cary, Ian; Crawford, Ryan; Hansen, Julie; Crawford, Jamie; Mayton, Hilary; Steenhuis, Tammo; Richards, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Marginal lands constitute the primary land base available for development of bioenergy feedstocks in New York and the northeastern USA. Many of these soils are marginal because seasonal wetness prevents profitable row crop cultivation, but they are potentially suitable for perennial bioenergy feedstocks like switchgrass. Using these frequently wet soils for bioenergy production has multiple environmental and socio-economic benefits, yet little is known about how sustainable this practice is regarding greenhouse gas emissions - particularly in relation to the application of fertilizers. In a 2.2-ha field study near Ithaca, NY, USA, we are therefore monitoring greenhouse gas production from marginal silty clay loam soils cultivated with switchgrass. Here, we present results of our 2013 monitoring campaign, in which we assessed the effect of surface-applied granular ammonium sulfate-fertilizer (0, 56 and 112 kg N/ha) on N2O emissions along a natural catena from organic matter-rich wet lowland soil to drier midslope and upslope soils with higher rock fragment content. Sampling was done at 1 /2-week intervals around fertilization in June extending to 3-week intervals around harvest in September, giving a total of 15 sampling events. Emissions were sampled in a factorial design using four replicate static chambers per plot, and soil moisture, soil temperature and perched water table depth was assessed likewise. As expected, N2O emissions increased with N-fertilizer application. This effect of fertilization was much stronger than the effect of soil type or slope position. The greatest N2O fluxes were observed a few days after fertilization; we will explore and present the effects of rainfall, air temperature, soil moisture and soil temperature as potential drivers of smaller peaks occurring post-fertilization. Since the non-fertilized plots had negligible N2O emissions while still producing switchgrass at 6 Mg/ha, unfertilized switchgrass production is naturally most

  15. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single-stage methanogenic process (HRT 15 d) under organic loading rate (OLR) 3 gVS/(L d). The two-stage process was still stable when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gVS/(Ld), while the single-stage process failed. The study further revealed that by changing the HRT(hydrogen):HRT(methane) ratio of the two-stage process from 3:12 to 1:14, 6.7%, more energy could be obtained. Microbial community analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were different in the hydrogen reactors (Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum-like species) and methane reactors (Clostridium thermocellum-like species). The changes of substrates and HRT did not change the dominant species. The archaeal community structures in methane reactors were similar both in single- and two- stage reactors, with acetoclastic methanogens Methanosarcina acetivorans-like organisms as the dominant species. PMID:21353538

  16. Modelling the ecological consequences of whole tree harvest for bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skår, Silje; Lange, Holger; Sogn, Trine

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy from biomass as a substitute to fossil fuels worldwide, and the Norwegian government plans to double the production of bioenergy to 9% of the national energy production or to 28 TWh per year by 2020. A large part of this increase may come from forests, which have a great potential with respect to biomass supply as forest growth increasingly has exceeded harvest in the last decades. One feasible option is the utilization of forest residues (needles, twigs and branches) in addition to stems, known as Whole Tree Harvest (WTH). As opposed to WTH, the residues are traditionally left in the forest with Conventional Timber Harvesting (CH). However, the residues contain a large share of the treés nutrients, indicating that WTH may possibly alter the supply of nutrients and organic matter to the soil and the forest ecosystem. This may potentially lead to reduced tree growth. Other implications can be nutrient imbalance, loss of carbon from the soil and changes in species composition and diversity. This study aims to identify key factors and appropriate strategies for ecologically sustainable WTH in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest stands in Norway. We focus on identifying key factors driving soil organic matter, nutrients, biomass, biodiversity etc. Simulations of the effect on the carbon and nitrogen budget with the two harvesting methods will also be conducted. Data from field trials and long-term manipulation experiments are used to obtain a first overview of key variables. The relationships between the variables are hitherto unknown, but it is by no means obvious that they could be assumed as linear; thus, an ordinary multiple linear regression approach is expected to be insufficient. Here we apply two advanced and highly flexible modelling frameworks which hardly have been used in the context of tree growth, nutrient balances and biomass removal so far: Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and

  17. Production and Use of Lipases in Bioenergy: A Review from the Feedstocks to Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bernardo Dias; de Castro, Aline Machado; Coelho, Maria Alice Zarur; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Lipases represent one of the most reported groups of enzymes for the production of biofuels. They are used for the processing of glycerides and fatty acids for biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) production. This paper presents the main topics of the enzyme-based production of biodiesel, from the feedstocks to the production of enzymes and their application in esterification and transesterification reactions. Growing technologies, such as the use of whole cells as catalysts, are addressed, and as concluding remarks, the advantages, concerns, and future prospects of enzymatic biodiesel are presented. PMID:21785707

  18. Integrated assessment of future land use in Brazil under increasing demand for bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstegen, Judith; van der Hilst, Floor; Karssenberg, Derek; Faaij, André

    2014-05-01

    Environmental impacts of a future increase in demand for bioenergy depend on the magnitude, location and pattern of the direct and indirect land use change of energy cropland expansion. Here we aim at 1) projecting the spatiotemporal pattern of sugar cane expansion and the effect on other land uses in Brazil towards 2030, and 2) assessing the uncertainty herein. For the spatio-temporal projection, four model components are used: 1) an initial land use map that shows the initial amount and location of sugar cane and all other relevant land use classes in the system, 2) an economic model to project the quantity of change of all land uses, 3) a spatially explicit land use model that determines the location of change of all land uses, and 4) various analysis to determine the impacts of these changes on water, socio-economics, and biodiversity. All four model components are sources of uncertainty, which is quantified by defining error models for all components and their inputs and propagating these errors through the chain of components. No recent accurate land use map is available for Brazil, so municipal census data and the global land cover map GlobCover are combined to create the initial land use map. The census data are disaggregated stochastically using GlobCover as a probability surface, to obtain a stochastic land use raster map for 2006. Since bioenergy is a global market, the quantity of change in sugar cane in Brazil depends on dynamics in both Brazil itself and other parts of the world. Therefore, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, MAGNET, is run to produce a time series of the relative change of all land uses given an increased future demand for bioenergy. A sensitivity analysis finds the upper and lower boundaries hereof, to define this component's error model. An initial selection of drivers of location for each land use class is extracted from literature. Using a Bayesian data assimilation technique and census data from 2007 to 2012 as

  19. Bioenergy Science Center KnowledgeBase

    DOE Data Explorer

    Syed, M. H.; Karpinets, T. V.; Parang, M.; Leuze, M. R.; Park, B. H.; Hyatt, D.; Brown, S. D.; Moulton, S. Galloway, M.D.; Uberbacher, E. C.

    The challenge of converting cellulosic biomass to sugars is the dominant obstacle to cost effective production of biofuels in s capable of significant enough quantities to displace U. S. consumption of fossil transportation fuels. The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) tackles this challenge of biomass recalcitrance by closely linking (1) plant research to make cell walls easier to deconstruct, and (2) microbial research to develop multi-talented biocatalysts tailor-made to produce biofuels in a single step. [from the 2011 BESC factsheet] The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) is a multi-institutional, multidisciplinary research (biological, chemical, physical and computational sciences, mathematics and engineering) organization focused on the fundamental understanding and elimination of biomass recalcitrance. The BESC Knowledgebase and its associated tools is a discovery platform for bioenergy research. It consists of a collection of metadata, data, and computational tools for data analysis, integration, comparison and visualization for plants and microbes in the center.The BESC Knowledgebase (KB) and BESC Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) enable bioenergy researchers to perform systemic research. [http://bobcat.ornl.gov/besc/index.jsp

  20. The power of product integrity.

    PubMed

    Clark, K B; Fujimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    In the dictionary, integrity means wholeness, completeness, soundness. In products, integrity is the source of sustainable competitive advantage. Products with integrity perform superbly, provide good value, and satisfy customers' expectations in every respect, including such intangibles as their look and feel. Consider this example from the auto industry. In 1987, Mazda put a racy four-wheel steering system in a five-door family hatchback. Honda introduced a comparable system in the Prelude, a sporty, two-door coupe. Most of Honda's customers installed the new technology; Mazda's system sold poorly. Potential customers felt the fit--or misfit--between the car and the new component, and they responded accordingly. Companies that consistently develop products with integrity are coherent, integrated organizations. This internal integrity is visible at the level of strategy and structure, in management and organization, and in the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individual designers, engineers, and operators. Moreover, these companies are integrated externally: customers become part of the development organization. Integrity starts with a product concept that describes the new product from the potential customer's perspective--"pocket rocket" for a sporty, subcompact car, for example. Whether the final product has integrity will depend on two things: how well the concept satisfies potential customers' wants and needs and how completely the concept has been embodied in the product's details. In the most successful development organizations, "heavyweight" product managers are responsible for leading both tasks, as well as for guiding the creation of a strong product concept. PMID:10107956

  1. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  2. Increased lodging resistance in long-culm, low-lignin gh2 rice for improved feed and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Inoue, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Chisato; Nakaba, Satoshi; Funada, Ryo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Toyota, Koki; Motobayashi, Takashi; Vazirzanjani, Mehran; Tojo, Seishu; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Lignin modification has been a breeding target for the improvements of forage digestibility and energy yields in forage and bioenergy crops, but decreased lignin levels are often accompanied by reduced lodging resistance. The rice mutant gold hull and internode2 (gh2) has been identified to be lignin deficient. GH2 has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2 and encodes cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We developed a long-culm variety, 'Leaf Star', with superior lodging resistance and a gh phenotype similar to one of its parents, 'Chugoku 117'. The gh loci in Leaf Star and Chugoku 117 were localized to the same region of chromosome 2 as the gh2 mutant. Leaf Star had culms with low lignin concentrations due to a natural mutation in OsCAD2 that was not present in Chugoku 117. However, this variety had high culm strength due to its strong, thick culms. Additionally, this variety had a thick layer of cortical fiber tissue with well-developed secondary cell walls. Our results suggest that rice can be improved for forage and bioenergy production by combining superior lodging resistance, which can be obtained by introducing thick and stiff culm traits, with low lignin concentrations, which can be obtained using the gh2 variety. PMID:25298209

  3. Increased lodging resistance in long-culm, low-lignin gh2 rice for improved feed and bioenergy production

    PubMed Central

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Inoue, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Chisato; Nakaba, Satoshi; Funada, Ryo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Toyota, Koki; Motobayashi, Takashi; Vazirzanjani, Mehran; Tojo, Seishu; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Lignin modification has been a breeding target for the improvements of forage digestibility and energy yields in forage and bioenergy crops, but decreased lignin levels are often accompanied by reduced lodging resistance. The rice mutant gold hull and internode2 (gh2) has been identified to be lignin deficient. GH2 has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2 and encodes cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We developed a long-culm variety, ‘Leaf Star’, with superior lodging resistance and a gh phenotype similar to one of its parents, ‘Chugoku 117’. The gh loci in Leaf Star and Chugoku 117 were localized to the same region of chromosome 2 as the gh2 mutant. Leaf Star had culms with low lignin concentrations due to a natural mutation in OsCAD2 that was not present in Chugoku 117. However, this variety had high culm strength due to its strong, thick culms. Additionally, this variety had a thick layer of cortical fiber tissue with well-developed secondary cell walls. Our results suggest that rice can be improved for forage and bioenergy production by combining superior lodging resistance, which can be obtained by introducing thick and stiff culm traits, with low lignin concentrations, which can be obtained using the gh2 variety. PMID:25298209

  4. Integrity monitoring of IGS products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, James F.; Plag, H. -P.

    2005-01-01

    The IGS has successfully produced precise GPS and GLONASS transmitter parameters, coordinates of IGS tracking stations, Earth rotation parameters, and atmospheric parameters. In this paper we discuss the concepts of integrity monitoring, system monitoring, and performance assessment, all in the context of IGS products. We report on a recent survey of IGS product users, and propose an integrity strategy for the IGS.

  5. Modeling Bioenergy Feedstock Supply: Impacts of Temporal and Spatial Variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A theoretical model is constructed illustrating how transportation costs and spatial and temporal variability in feedstock production influence farm production practices and resulting impacts on bioenergy feedstock supply and the environment. The model is constructed for a bioenergy producer minimiz...

  6. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Biomass Program and its partners combine advanced analysis with applied research to understand and address the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of bioenergy production.

  7. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows. PMID:24069093

  8. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  9. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  10. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility. PMID:27090405

  11. Production of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) for bioenergy under organic versus inorganic fertilization in the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is being considered for use as a feedstock for the emerging bioenergy industry in the Southeast USA. However, research is needed to determine the most efficient and sustainable means of producing this crop for bioenergy in this region. Poultry litter is a...

  12. Productivity and water use efficiency of Agave americana in the first field trial as bioenergy feedstock on arid lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agave species are known as high-yielding crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, some of which have been grown commercially in the past and are recognized as potential bioenergy species for dry regions of the world. This study is the first field trial of Agave species for bioenergy in the United ...

  13. Novel approaches to microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation for bioenergy and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    Growing demand for energy and food by the global population mandates finding water-efficient renewable resources. Microalgae/cyanobacteria have shown demonstrated capacity to contribute to global energy and food security. Yet, despite proven process technology and established net energy-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness through co-product generation, microalgal biofuels are not a reality. This review outlines novel biofilm cultivation strategies that are water-smart, the opportunity for direct energy conversion via anaerobic digestion of N2-fixing cyanobacterial biomass and integrative strategies for microalgal biodiesel and/or biocrude production via supercritical methanol-direct transesterification and hydrothermal liquefaction, respectively. Additionally, fermentation of cyanobacterial biofilms could supply bioethanol to feed wet transesterification to biodiesel conversion for on-site use in remote locations. PMID:26953746

  14. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  15. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18-species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications of 56 kg N ha-1 in a field-scale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period. We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3- concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. Our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization. PMID:26991790

  16. Bioenergy: Potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Canadell, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this lecture we explain 1) the biochemical basis for photosynthesis and plant production and 2) the future demands on biomass for human use. Summing all physiological processes, the efficiency of converting solar energy into biomass is < 1.6% in the tropics, and between 0.4 and 0.8% for the temperate regions. In view of the present and future high demand on biomass for food, bioeconomics, fiber, construction material, only a relatively small fraction of plant production will be available for bioenergy. We estimate this fraction to be between 3 and 8% of the global energy demand by 2050. The contribution of bioenergy is at the higher end in tropical regions and in the less industrialized parts of the world, but may even be < 3% in industrialized nations.

  17. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Surendran Nair, Sujith; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Post, W. M.; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, Lee R.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2012-03-15

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of renewable energy are making available critical information for the development, validation, and use of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been developed and validated for herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops adapted to arid lands. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane as plant function types at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). A model of biomass production in CAM plants has been developed (EPI), but lacks the sophistication of the other models. Except for CAM plants, all the models include representations of leaf area dynamics, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few of the models are capable of simulating soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle processes, making them especially useful for assessing environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the field-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. Similar to other process-based models, simulations are challenged by computing and data management issues and an integrated framework for model testing and inter-comparison is needed. Considerable work remains concerning the development of models for unconventional bioenergy crops like CAM plants, generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation, and development of an integrated framework for efficient execution of large-scale simulations for use in planning regional to global sustainable bioenergy production systems.

  18. GWPs and GTPs for forest bioenergy and products with global coverage at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbrets, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Bright, Ryan; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The effects on climate of various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be aggregated in common units through a variety of emission metrics. The Global Warming Potential (GWP), introduced by the IPCC in 1990, is based on the integrated radiative forcing of a pulse emission divided by an equivalent integration for the reference gas, usually CO2, at an arbitrary time horizon (TH). The Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) is the ratio between the temperature response to a GHG emission pulse at a certain point in time and the temperature response for a reference gas. Other metrics like the integrated GTP (iGTP), TEMP, and metrics embedding economic considerations or a dynamic, target-specific TH are used in the literature. Recent studies developed impulse response functions and emission metrics for CO2 emissions from biomass combustion or oxidation for applications in bioenergy and harvested wood products (HWP) analyses. As the resulting metrics depend on the resource turnover time and hence on site specific characteristics like the type of biomass species, local climate, site productivity and other factors, these metrics are today available only for a limited number of cases and selected locations. In this work, we provide spatially-explicit GWPs and GTPs for bioenergy and HWP sourced from renewable forests with a global coverage of forest areas at a resolution of 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees. The Global Forest Model (G4M) developed at IIASA is used to provide the mean annual increments (MAI), rotation periods and above ground carbon of the forests of the globe. G4M uses a dynamic Net Primary Production (NPP) model to simulate how growth rates are affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and CO2 concentrations. NPP post harvest dynamics are then modeled using tree-specific functions combined with the grid-specific MAI. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is exogenously modeled with the YASSO model. NPP and Rh are then combined in a Net Ecosystem

  19. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics. PMID:26939844

  20. Global bioenergy potentials from agricultural land in 2050: Sensitivity to climate change, diets and yields

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Bondeau, Alberte; Lauk, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Plutzar, Christoph; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the interrelations between agriculture, food, bioenergy, and climate change have to be better understood in order to derive more realistic estimates of future bioenergy potentials. This article estimates global bioenergy potentials in the year 2050, following a “food first” approach. It presents integrated food, livestock, agriculture, and bioenergy scenarios for the year 2050 based on a consistent representation of FAO projections of future agricultural development in a global biomass balance model. The model discerns 11 regions, 10 crop aggregates, 2 livestock aggregates, and 10 food aggregates. It incorporates detailed accounts of land use, global net primary production (NPP) and its human appropriation as well as socioeconomic biomass flow balances for the year 2000 that are modified according to a set of scenario assumptions to derive the biomass potential for 2050. We calculate the amount of biomass required to feed humans and livestock, considering losses between biomass supply and provision of final products. Based on this biomass balance as well as on global land-use data, we evaluate the potential to grow bioenergy crops and estimate the residue potentials from cropland (forestry is outside the scope of this study). We assess the sensitivity of the biomass potential to assumptions on diets, agricultural yields, cropland expansion and climate change. We use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL to evaluate possible impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and elevated CO2 on agricultural yields. We find that the gross (primary) bioenergy potential ranges from 64 to 161 EJ y−1, depending on climate impact, yields and diet, while the dependency on cropland expansion is weak. We conclude that food requirements for a growing world population, in particular feed required for livestock, strongly influence bioenergy potentials, and that integrated approaches are needed to optimize food and bioenergy supply

  1. Genetic modification of plant cell walls to enhance biomass yield and biofuel production in bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanting; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Sun, Dan; Wang, Youmei; Peng, Liangcai

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls represent an enormous biomass resource for the generation of biofuels and chemicals. As lignocellulose property principally determines biomass recalcitrance, the genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed as a powerful solution. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the effects of distinct cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, wall proteins) on the enzymatic digestibility of biomass under various physical and chemical pretreatments in herbaceous grasses, major agronomic crops and fast-growing trees. We also compare the main factors of wall polymer features, including cellulose crystallinity (CrI), hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara ratio, monolignol proportion and uronic acid level. Furthermore, the review presents the main gene candidates, such as CesA, GH9, GH10, GT61, GT43 etc., for potential genetic cell wall modification towards enhancing both biomass yield and enzymatic saccharification in genetic mutants and transgenic plants. Regarding cell wall modification, it proposes a novel groove-like cell wall model that highlights to increase amorphous regions (density and depth) of the native cellulose microfibrils, providing a general strategy for bioenergy crop breeding and biofuel processing technology. PMID:27269671

  2. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  3. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume. PMID:26819145

  4. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  5. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research. PMID:25813630

  6. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Perla, Dr. Donna; Lucier, Dr. Al

    2013-01-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives, including problems and opportunities in various bioenergy production pathways. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports, and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that nonscientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions and limitations should be clear. The scientists job is to analyze information in order to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which the

  7. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  8. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  9. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a feedstock by multiple harvests for sustainable bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum has become an important feedstock for bioethanol production. Total sugar yield and multiple harvests can directly affect ethanol production cost. Little is known about stem traits and multiple harvests that contribute to sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Stem traits were evaluated from 25 ...

  10. Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quan...

  11. Modeling water and soil quality environmental impacts associated with bioenergy crop production and biomass removal in the midwest usa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of corn stover or herbaceous crops such as switchgrass as feedstocks for bioenergy purposes has been shown to have significant benefits from energy and climate change perspectives. There is a potential, however, to adversely impact water and soil quality, especially in Midwestern USA sta...

  12. Effect of food wastewater on biomass production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Bae, Sunyoung; Ham, Jungyeob; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-03-01

    Effect of food wastewater (FW) on the biomass, lipid and carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-10%) of BBM either with FW or salt solution (NaCl) or sea water (SW) were evaluated. S. obliquus showed the highest growth (0.41 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (13.3 mg L(-1) day L(-1)), carbohydrate productivity (14.7 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) and nutrient removal (38.9 mg TN L(-1) and 12.1 mg TP L(-1)) with 1% FW after 6 days of cultivation. The FW promoted algal autoflocculation due to formation of inorganic precipitates at an alkali pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 8% with FW. Application of FW improved the growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and biomass recovery efficiency of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for cost effective production of microalgae biomass. PMID:25553643

  13. Biodiversity, productivity, and management of grasslands in northeastern USA for bioenergy on marginal cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation grasslands reduce soil loss, improve water quality, are important wildlife habitat, and have the potential to be a source of biomass for biofuel production. Although the importance of biodiversity to maximize biomass yield on degraded land has been described in experimental grasslands, ...

  14. Characterization of some useful traits in sweet sorghum for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple yearly harvests can increase crop productivity but the crop may encounter different environmental challenges (such as early-spring cold or late-fall frost) depending on cultivation zones. Sweet sorghum as a feedstock may be planted early to get a double harvest or be rotated with sugarcane ...

  15. Assessing Production and Ecosystem Function for Grain and Bioenergy Feedstock Crops Across Variable Soil Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some soils in the U.S. Midwest region have been especially negatively impacted by grain cropping. The result has been lost productivity and diminished resiliency for ecosystem function. Of note are the degraded soils of the Midwest classed as “claypan soils.” These soils are disproportionate sources...

  16. Translational Genomics for Bioenergy Production from Fuelstock Grasses: Maize as the Model Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meeting U.S. and world energy needs using biofuels rests on our ability to improve grasses that use the efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway in which carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms sustain high biomass production, particularly when water is limiting. Today two C4 grasses yield substantial e...

  17. Production of napiergrass as a bioenergy feedstock under organic versus inorganic fertilization in the Southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is a high-yielding perennial biomass crop that is well adapted to the Southeast USA where poultry litter is readily available. This research was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient utilization of napiergrass fertilized with either poultry li...

  18. Sustainable bioenergy production in the Chesapeake Bay agricultural landscape: potential and peril

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current focus on corn-based ethanol production, while it has stimulated the farm economy through increased prices for grain crops, risks unsustainable side effects associated with increased pollution by nutrients, sediments, and pesticides, increased irrigation demands, and conversion of critica...

  19. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi; Fulbright, Scott P; Zeng, Xiaowei; Yates, Tracy; Wardle, Greg; Chisholm, Stephen T; Xu, Jian; Lammers, Peter

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  20. Carbon Fluxes And Yield Of Bioenergy Sorghum In An Extreme Desert Production Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantz, D. A.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, D.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon accumulation and agronomic yield of tropical C4 grasses are high under irrigated conditions in low desert, western U.S. production areas. These are candidate production systems for purpose-grown biofuel feedstocks. Here we report fluxes of carbon at leaf and canopy scales, along with above-ground biomass yield, in an irrigated, fertilized field (5.26 ha) in the low desert (Imperial Valley) of California. This is an uncommonly productive but environmentally extreme growth environment with typical Tsoil > 55 C and Tair > 42 C during the growing season. We monitored a single field under fallow conditions, followed by planting, growth, harvest, and re-growth from stubble of Sorghum bicolor. Carbon accumulation is one aspect of our developing sustainability metric that characterizes land use conversion to biofuel production. Following 96 days of growth from seed, the canopy was harvested by cutting at 15 cm above the soil surface, yielding 33.8 ± 2.4 dry ton/ha. Over the growth period this represents 35 g m-2 day-1 of average dry matter accumulation, including the cool early season. A second and third cutting are anticipated during the production year suggesting annualized yields more typical of tropical than temperate environments. Tower fluxes of C obtained by eddy covariance suggest maximal rates of C accumulation increased with temperature and canopy development from -17 μmol m-2 s-1 in March to -57 μmol m-2 s-1 in July. Leaf level C assimilation in July exceeded 40 μmol m-2 s-1 in sunlit leaves. Neither EC nor leaf level photosynthetic measurements indicated inhibition of carbon assimilation by the prevailing high temperatures, although it is anticipated that low temperatures will terminate the season. As with unmanaged systems in this environment, fluxes are highly sensitive to pulsed water availability, in this case through irrigation. These data will be used to constrain process models of canopy response to these unusual environmental conditions, in

  1. Modeling Pollinator Community Response to Contrasting Bioenergy Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ashley B.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  2. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ashley B; Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  3. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Kai; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Kuo, Jing T; Shaw, Dai-Gee; You, Yii-Der; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2009-03-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The corresponding yields of gas products (excluding nitrogen) from rice straw are 30.7, 56.6, 62.5 and 66.5wt.% with respect to the original dried sample and the corresponding specific heating values gained from gas products are about 4548, 4284, 4469 and 4438kcalkg(-1), respectively, for the said cases. The corresponding combustible portions remained in the solid residues are about 64.7, 35, 28.2 and 23.5wt.% with specific heating values of 4106, 4438, 4328 and 4251kcalkg(-1) with respective to solid residues, while that in the original dried sample is 87.2wt.% with specific heating value of 4042kcalkg(-1). The results indicated that the amount of combustibles converted into gas products increases with increasing plateau temperature. The kinetic model employed to describe the pyrolytic conversion of rice straw at constant temperatures agrees well with the experimental data. The best curve fittings render the frequency factor of 5759.5s(-1), activation energy of 74.29kJ mol(-1) and reaction order of 0.5. Data and information obtained are useful for the future design and operation of pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma. PMID:19046633

  4. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-11-15

    Ammonia and sulfate, which are prevalent pollutants in agricultural and industrial wastewaters, can cause serious inhibition in several biological treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical approach termed bipolar bioelectrodialysis was developed to recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g NH4(+)-N/m(2)/d and 18.9 g SO4(2-)/m(2)/d were obtained, resulting in a Coulombic and current efficiencies of 23.6% and 77.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, H2 production of 0.29 L/L/d was achieved. Gas recirculation at the cathode increased the nitrogen and sulfate fluxes by 2.3 times. The applied voltage, initial (NH4)2SO4 concentrations and coexistence of other ions were affecting the system performance. The energy balance revealed that net energy (≥ 16.8 kWh/kg-N recovered or ≥ 4.8 kWh/kg-H2SO4 recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). Furthermore, the applicability of bipolar bioelectrodialysis was successfully demonstrated with cattle manure. The results provide new possibilities for development of cost-effective technologies, capable of waste resources recovery and renewable energy production. PMID:26318650

  5. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  6. Bioenergy production via microbial conversion of residual oil to natural gas.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    World requirements for fossil energy are expected to grow by more than 50% within the next 25 years, despite advances in alternative technologies. Since conventional production methods retrieve only about one-third of the oil in place, either large new fields or innovative strategies for recovering energy resources from existing fields are needed to meet the burgeoning demand. The anaerobic biodegradation of n-alkanes to methane gas has now been documented in a few studies, and it was speculated that this process might be useful for recovering energy from existing petroleum reservoirs. We found that residual oil entrained in a marginal sandstone reservoir core could be converted to methane, a key component of natural gas, by an oil-degrading methanogenic consortium. Methane production required inoculation, and rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.40 micromol/day/g core (or 11 to 31 micromol/day/g oil), with yields of up to 3 mmol CH(4)/g residual oil. Concomitant alterations in the hydrocarbon profile of the oil-bearing core revealed that alkanes were preferentially metabolized. The consortium was found to produce comparable amounts of methane in the absence or presence of sulfate as an alternate electron acceptor. Cloning and sequencing exercises revealed that the inoculum comprised sulfate-reducing, syntrophic, and fermentative bacteria acting in concert with aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Collectively, the cells generated methane from a variety of petroliferous rocks. Such microbe-based methane production holds promise for producing a clean-burning and efficient form of energy from underutilized hydrocarbon-bearing resources. PMID:18378655

  7. Carbon debt of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands converted to bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ilya; Zenone, Terenzio; Jasrotia, Poonam; Chen, Jiquan; Hamilton, Stephen K; Robertson, G Philip

    2011-08-16

    Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn-soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e)·ha(-1) that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn-soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion. PMID:21825117

  8. Carbon debt of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands converted to bioenergy production

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Ilya; Zenone, Terenzio; Jasrotia, Poonam; Chen, Jiquan; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn–soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)·ha−1 that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N2O and CH4 fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO2e·ha−1 if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO2e·ha−1 on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn–soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion. PMID:21825117

  9. Microfabricated devices in microbial bioenergy sciences.

    PubMed

    Han, Arum; Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; Kim, Hyun Soo; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Microbes provide a platform for the synthesis of clean energy from renewable resources. Significant investments in discovering new microbial systems and capabilities, discerning the molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial bioenergy production, and optimizing existing microbial bioenergy systems have been made. However, further development is needed to achieve the economically feasible large-scale production of value-added energy products. Microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems provide cost- and time-efficient opportunities for analyzing microbe-mediated bioenergy synthesis. Here, we review developments in the application of lab-on-a-chip systems to the bioenergy sciences. We focus on systems that support the analysis of microbial generation of bioelectricity, biogas, and liquid transportation fuels. We conclude by suggesting possible future directions. PMID:23453527

  10. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  11. Reconstitution of supramolecular organization involved in energy metabolism at electrochemical interfaces for biosensing and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Roger, M; de Poulpiquet, A; Ciaccafava, A; Ilbert, M; Guiral, M; Giudici-Orticoni, M T; Lojou, E

    2014-02-01

    How the redox proteins and enzymes involved in bioenergetic pathways are organized is a relevant fundamental question, but our understanding of this is still incomplete. This review provides a critical examination of the electrochemical tools developed in recent years to obtain knowledge of the intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer processes involved in metabolic pathways. Furthermore, better understanding of the electron transfer processes associated with energy metabolism will provide the basis for the rational design of biotechnological devices such as electrochemical biosensors, enzymatic and microbial fuel cells, and hydrogen production factories. Starting from the redox complexes involved in two relevant bacterial chains, i.e., from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus and the acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, examination of protein-protein interactions using electrochemistry is first reviewed, with a focus on the orientation of a protein on an electrochemical interface mimic of a physiological interaction between two partners. Special attention is paid to current research in the electrochemistry of essential membrane proteins, which is one mandatory step toward the understanding of energy metabolic pathways. The complex and challenging architectures built to reconstitute a membrane-like environment at an electrode are especially considered. The role played by electrochemistry in the attempt to consider full bacterial metabolism is finally emphasized through the study of whole cells immobilized at electrodes as suspensions or biofilms. Before the performances of biotechnological devices can be further improved to make them really attractive, questions remain to be addressed in this particular field of research. We discuss the bottlenecks that need to be overcome in the future. PMID:24292430

  12. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Driever, Steven M.; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock’s and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses. PMID:26860066

  13. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  14. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies. PMID:21142063

  15. An Assessment of Bio-Energy Crops Use in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Khanna, M.; Barman, R.; Yang, X.; Dhungana, B.; Chen, X.

    2007-12-01

    Growing concern about climate change and energy security has led to increasing interest in developing domestically available renewable energy sources for meeting the electricity, heating and fuel needs in the United States. Illinois has a significant potential to grow perennial grasses that can provide bio-energy. Two perennial grasses, Switchgrass and Miscanthus, have been identified as among the best choices for low input bio-energy production in the US and Europe. The purpose of this talk is two fold. First, we will examine the optimal areas in Illinois to locate perennial grasses as feedstocks. These areas will be determined based on biophysical conditions (such as heterogeneity in soil quality and climatic factors) and costs of production and costs of land that differ across locations. Second, we will determine the CO2 mitigation benefits to be provided by bioenergy crops, both in the form of soil carbon sequestration and displacement of carbon emissions from gasoline. This analysis will be undertaken using detailed GIS data on soil quality, climate and land use for 0.1deg by 0.1deg grid cells in Illinois. This data will be used together with the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), a terrestrial ecosystem model, to estimate the yields of Switchgrass and Miscanthus as well as their potential to sequester carbon in the soil. Yield for row crops will be based on historical data and will be used to determine the opportunity cost of converting land currently under corn and soybean production to perennial grasses. Costs of production for the alternative crops here include expenses incurred by farmers on fertilizer inputs, machinery, harvesting and transportation and will be used to determine the profitability of alternative land uses in each grid cell. The framework developed here will be used to examine the optimal locations to grow bio-energy crops to achieve various carbon mitigation targets cost-effectively.

  16. Stream Health Sensitivity to Landscape Changes due to Bioenergy Crops Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadhashemi, A.; Einheuser, M. D.; Woznicki, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for bioenergy has increased due to uncertainty in oil markets, environmental concerns, and expected increases in energy consumption worldwide. To develop a sustainable biofuel production strategy, the adverse environmental impacts of bioenergy crops expansion should be understood. To study the impact of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health, the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to predict macroinvertebrate and fish stream health measures. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family Index of Biological Integrity (Family IBI), and Number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT taxa) were used as macroinvertebrate measures, while the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) was used for fish. A high-resolution biophysical model built using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to obtain water quantity and quality variables for input into the ANFIS stream health predictive models. Twenty unique crop rotations were developed to examine impacts of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health in the Saginaw Bay basin. Traditional intensive row crops generated more pollution than current landuse conditions, while second-generation biofuel crops associated with less intensive agricultural activities resulted in water quality improvement. All three macroinvertebrate measures were negatively impacted during intensive row crop productions but improvement was predicted when producing perennial crops. However, the expansion of native grass, switchgrass, and miscanthus production resulted in reduced IBI relative to first generation row crops. This study demonstrates that ecosystem complexity requires examination of multiple stream health measures to avoid potential adverse impacts of landuse change on stream health.

  17. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose

  18. Soil carbon changes for bioenergy crops.

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, D.

    2004-04-22

    Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, biobased products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of the soil carbon (C) sequestration for bioenergy crops (switchgrass, poplars, and willows) in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model (Wang 1999) by using the latest results reported in the literature and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Because soil carbon sequestration for bioenergy crops can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cellulosic ethanol, it is important to periodically update the estimates of soil carbon sequestration from bioenergy crops as new and better data become available. We used the three-step process described below to conduct our study.

  19. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy (2015)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua; Li, Changzhu

    2015-10-01

    Research and industrial application of bioenergy have developed quickly with the systematic and multifocal trends in recent years. The 4th International Conference on Biomass Energy Technologies-8th World Bioenergy Symposium (ICBT-WBS 2014) and Joint Biomass Energy Symposium of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES) were held in Changsha, China, 17-19 October, 2014, with American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), Biomass Energy Innovation Alliance, European Biomass Industry Association, AIChE and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This special issue on bioenergy is based on selected excellent papers from the submissions, together with free submissions. The special issue consists of reviews and original papers, mainly involving the aspects closely related to the bioenergy and related fields, including resource analyses, pretreatment, fuel/chemicals production, byproduct disposal and strategy investigation. PMID:26964331

  20. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  1. Double- and relay-cropping oilseed and biomass crops for sustainable energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy production requires strategic integration of biofuel crops into modern cropping systems. Double- and relay-cropping can offer a means of increasing production efficiency to boost profits and provide environmental benefits through crop diversific...

  2. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities. PMID:23122416

  3. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly concentrated protein co-product

  4. Development of sustainable, native grass-based bioenergy production systems in the prairie region of Minnesota: Biomass production and plant community response to fertilizer and harvest treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native perennial plants are emerging as an alternative, low-carbon, bioenergy feedstock. Land restored from crop monocultures to diverse, native plantings has the potential to provide a host of ecological services, as well as farm income. However, best management practices for maintaining a diverse,...

  5. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  6. Simulating and evaluating best management practices for integrated landscape management scenarios in biofuel feedstock production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2015-09-08

    Sound crop and land management strategies can maintain land productivity and improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural crop and feedstock production. With this study, it evaluates a strategy of incorporating landscape design and management concepts into bioenergy feedstock production. It examines the effect of land conversion and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on water quality (nutrients and suspended sediments) and hydrology. The strategy was applied to the watershed of the South Fork Iowa River in Iowa, where the focus was on converting low-productivity land to provide cellulosic biomass and implementing riparian buffers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) wasmore » employed to simulate the impact at watershed and sub-basin scales. The study compared the representation of buffers by using trapping efficiency and area ratio methods in SWAT. Landscape design and management scenarios were developed to quantify water quality under (i) current land use, (ii) partial land conversion to switchgrass, and (iii) riparian buffer implementation. Results show that implementation of vegetative barriers and riparian buffer can trap the loss of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and sediment significantly. The effect increases with the increase of buffer area coverage. Implementing riparian buffer at 30 m width is able to produce 4 million liters of biofuels. When low-productivity land (15.2% of total watershed land area) is converted to grow switchgrass, suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrate loadings are reduced by 69.3%, 55.5%, 46.1%, and 13.4%, respectively. The results highlight the significant role of lower-productivity land and buffers in cellulosic biomass and provide insights into the design of an integrated landscape with a conservation buffer for future bioenergy feedstock production.« less

  7. Simulating and evaluating best management practices for integrated landscape management scenarios in biofuel feedstock production

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2015-09-08

    Sound crop and land management strategies can maintain land productivity and improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural crop and feedstock production. With this study, it evaluates a strategy of incorporating landscape design and management concepts into bioenergy feedstock production. It examines the effect of land conversion and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on water quality (nutrients and suspended sediments) and hydrology. The strategy was applied to the watershed of the South Fork Iowa River in Iowa, where the focus was on converting low-productivity land to provide cellulosic biomass and implementing riparian buffers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to simulate the impact at watershed and sub-basin scales. The study compared the representation of buffers by using trapping efficiency and area ratio methods in SWAT. Landscape design and management scenarios were developed to quantify water quality under (i) current land use, (ii) partial land conversion to switchgrass, and (iii) riparian buffer implementation. Results show that implementation of vegetative barriers and riparian buffer can trap the loss of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and sediment significantly. The effect increases with the increase of buffer area coverage. Implementing riparian buffer at 30 m width is able to produce 4 million liters of biofuels. When low-productivity land (15.2% of total watershed land area) is converted to grow switchgrass, suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrate loadings are reduced by 69.3%, 55.5%, 46.1%, and 13.4%, respectively. The results highlight the significant role of lower-productivity land and buffers in cellulosic biomass and provide insights into the design of an integrated landscape with a conservation buffer for future bioenergy feedstock production.

  8. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; Weston, David; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C.; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul E.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Guo, Hao -Bo; Nair, Sujithkumar S.; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W. M.; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A.; Petereit, Juli; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L.; Ceusters, John; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-Garcia, Casandra; Andrade, Jose Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltran, Juan D.; Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F.; Aguilar, Cristobal N.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.

  9. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; et al

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAMmore » crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.« less

  10. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management. PMID:26153373

  11. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  12. Vector Product and an Integrable Dynamical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willi-Hans, Steeb; Yorick, Hardy; Igor, Tanski

    2011-12-01

    We study an autonomous system of first order ordinary differential equations based on the vector product. We show that the system is completely integrable by constructing the first integrals. The connection with Nambu mechanics is established. The extension to higher dimensions is also discussed.

  13. IGCC power plant integrated to a Finnish pulp and paper mill: IEA bioenergy techno-economic analysis activity. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Koljonen, T.; Solantausta, Y.; Salo, K.; Horvath, A.

    1999-02-01

    This site-specific study describes the technical and economic feasibility of a biomass gasification combined cycle producing heat and power for a typical Finish pulp and paper mill. The aim is to replace an old bark boiler by an IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) to enhance the economy and environmental performance of the power plant. The IGCC feasibility study is conducted for a pulp and paper industrial plant because of its suitable infrastructure for IGCC and a large amount of wood waste available at the site. For comparison, the feasibility of an IGCC integrated to a pulp mill is also assessed. The operation and design of the IGCC concept is based on a 20 MW(e) gas turbine (MW151). The heat of gas turbine exhaust gas is utilized in a HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) of two pressure levels to generate steam for the pulp and paper mill and the steam turbine. The IGCC power plant operates in condensing mode. The techno-economic assessment of the biomass IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill or a pulp mill indicated that the IGCC will be competitive compared to the conventional bark boiler steam cycle. The IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill was slightly more economical than the IGCC pulp mill integration.

  14. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Allen; Dale, Virginia H; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Garten Jr, Charles T; Kline, Keith L; Jager, Yetta; Mulholland, Patrick J; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  15. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary object...

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  20. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  1. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  2. Association of Bio-energy Processing-Induced Protein Molecular Structure Changes with CNCPS-Based Protein Degradation and Digestion of Co-products in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-25

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a model to predict Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) protein degradation and digestion based on protein molecular structure changes induced by bio-energy processing in different types of co-products (CoPR, CoPC, CoPS = co-products from bioprocessing of rapeseed, canola seed, and soybean, respectively). The results showed that the inherent structure changes induced by the processing had a close relationship with CNCPS predicted protein degradable, undegradable, and digestible contents. The amide I to II ratio and α-helix to β-sheet ratio could be used to predict total degradable protein (R(2) = 0.99, RSD = 0.84, P < 0.001). Total CNCPS intestinal digestible protein could be predicted by protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 0.33, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the processing-induced protein molecular structure changes were highly linked to protein nutritive value of the co-products and could be used as predictors for CNCPS protein degradation and digestion in dairy cattle. PMID:27112731

  3. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. PMID:23576836

  4. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated robotic molecular biology platform for bioenergy applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-based clones to expres...

  5. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  6. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W. . Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  8. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin L

    2011-06-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels. PMID:21774412

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.