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Sample records for integrated blood bank

  1. Virtual blood bank

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  2. Virtual blood bank.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  3. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products. PMID:22727006

  4. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  5. Blood Banking in Living Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Song, YoungSeok; Keles, Hasan Onur; Matloff, Laura; Markel, Jordan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional cryopreservation techniques, it has not been incorporated into transfusion medicine mainly due to throughput challenges. Here, we present a scalable method that can vitrify red blood cells in microdroplets. This approach enables the vitrification of large volumes of blood in a short amount of time, and makes it a viable and scalable biotechnology tool for blood cryopreservation. PMID:21412411

  6. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  11. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

  12. Ethical considerations in umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan S; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant patients have the option at delivery of having their cord blood collected and stored for future use. At many hospitals, they have the option of donating their cord blood to the public banking system for future use by anyone who is an appropriate match (public banking). Patients also have the option of having their cord blood stored for a fee with a commercial/private company for future use within their family (private banking). Currently, private banking is not recommended by major obstetric and pediatric professional organizations. We applied current evidence of the risks and benefits of private and public cord blood banking and accepted ethical principles to answer the following two related questions: 1) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to comply with a request for private banking? and 2) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to routinely offer private banking to women who do not request it? The only situation where there is a known benefit to private banking is when public banking is not available and the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. We conclude that when presented with a request for private banking, obstetricians have an ethical obligation to explain the lack of proven benefit of this procedure. If the patient still requests private banking, it would be appropriate to comply, because there is minimal or no risk to the procedure. However, obstetricians are not ethically obligated to offer private banking, even when public banking is not available, except in the limited circumstance when the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. PMID:18165407

  13. Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M

    2011-11-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

  14. Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking

    PubMed Central

    Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

  15. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood

  16. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking. PMID:22558902

  17. Virtual blood banking in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Kwan, Angela M Y; Wong, Michael L G; Lam, Clarence C K; Yip, S C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To review our experience in virtual blood banking for intra-operative transfusion in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective study. SETTING. Three major acute hospitals and a specialised centre for joint replacement surgery with installation of an Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. PATIENTS. Patients undergoing surgery under anaesthesia and requiring intra-operative transfusion for the period from the implementation of the system in individual institutes (Queen Elizabeth Hospital: June 1997; Princess Margaret Hospital: May 2001; Queen Mary Hospital: October 2009; and Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital: December 2010) till September 2011. RESULTS. Under the system, 58 923 units of red cells were released intra-operatively for 18 264 patients (11% of the total number of blood units issued by the blood banks in these institutes during the study period). About 1% of them (613 units) entailed unmatched red cells given to 183 patients for emergency transfusions during surgery. The mean time required for the issue of the first unit of red cells was less than 1 minute. A total of 1231 units of red cells were returned unused after being released. Among them, 95 units were deemed unfit for re-issue because they had left the temperature-monitored blood storage refrigerators in the operating theatres for more than 30 minutes. There was no delay in transfusion or postponement of surgery due to problems or downtime of the Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. CONCLUSION. Our experience has shown that our virtual blood banking system was efficient and effective, and helped ensure that the right patient received the right amount of the right blood at the right time. The system can be implemented either locally in the same hospital with a central blood bank, or in a more remote and networked site without a nearby supporting blood bank. PMID:22865174

  18. Volume reduction in routine cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760

  19. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as “biological insurance” should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards. PMID:26779485

  20. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards. PMID:26779485

  1. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  2. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  3. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  4. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  5. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  6. 12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Reporting Requirements § 1281.23 Bank data integrity. (a) Certification. (1) The...

  7. 12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Reporting Requirements § 1281.23 Bank data integrity. (a) Certification. (1) The...

  8. 12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Reporting Requirements § 1281.23 Bank data integrity. (a) Certification. (1) The...

  9. 12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Reporting Requirements § 1281.23 Bank data integrity. (a) Certification. (1) The...

  10. Blood banking and transfusion medicine for the nephrologist.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Gay

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic Apheresis Medicine Services work closely with Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine Services (BBTMS). The BBTMS performs patient testing and provides blood components for patients undergoing therapeutic apheresis procedures. This article will provide an overview of blood component descriptions, patient testing, and blood component options and preparations for therapeutic apheresis procedures. PMID:22276991

  11. Fostering public cord blood banking and research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Rosario; Dalpe, Gratien; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-12-01

    In June 2013, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) established the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB) accessible to Canadian and international patients and researchers. The NPCBB promotes efforts that contribute to research and improved clinical care by making units not suitable for banking or transplantation available for research. In the context of the NPCBB of the CBS, this article will focus on the practical tools (e.g., consent protocols) developed to optimize umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and research while enabling ethical provenance of UCB stem cells. The Canadian approach represents an ideal model for comparison as it is a country in which the national public bank (and other regional/provincial public banks) coexists with private companies. PMID:24304072

  12. Court upholds $405,000 award against blood banking industry.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    The New Jersey Superior Court has ruled that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the nation's largest blood bank trade group, was negligent during the early 1980s when it recommended that blood banks not screen and test donors to reduce the chance of HIV contamination of the nation's blood supply. [Name removed], who received HIV-contaminated blood in 1984 as a result of a transfusion at St. Joseph's Hospital in Paterson, sued and reached out-of-court settlements with his doctors and the Bergen Community Blood Center, which provided the blood. Only the AABB suit proceeded to trial, with the jury finding that one-third of the damages were attributable to the AABB's actions. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested that blood banks might reduce the risk of AIDS entering the blood supply by using the surrogate hepatitis B test. The AABB, the American Red Cross, and the Council of Community Blood Centers recommended against testing, saying that evidence of transmission by blood was inconclusive and unproven. In March 1985, the AABB adopted the ELISA test. This is the first time the AABB has been held responsible; the AABB said it may appeal the decision. The court disagreed with AABB's claim that it was immune from liability because it was a charity, saying it also performs a critical governance function in respect of the operation of blood banks. The decision puts considerable liability for the U.S. cases of HIV contracted through tainted blood transfusions on the AABB. PMID:11362633

  13. Private cord blood banking: current use and clinical future.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Peter; McCauley, Catherina

    2009-09-01

    International private umbilical cord blood banking has expanded rapidly in recent years since the first cord blood transplant which was 20 years ago. Private companies offer parents the opportunity to store umbilical cord blood for the possible future use by their child or other family members. The private cord blood industry has been criticised by a number of professional bodies including the EU Ethics Committee, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the Royal College of Midwives and the US College of Paediatrics. This review presents the arguments from the opponents of private cord blood banking, and then makes the case for private cord banking based on the latest scientific and clinical evidence. PMID:19603288

  14. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  19. Blood banking and transfusion medicine for the apheresis medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Jeffus, Susanne; Wehrli, Gay

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a concise overview of blood banking and transfusion medicine (BBTM) for the therapeutic apheresis medicine practitioner. It addresses the complete pathway from blood donor qualification to blood collection, to processing and storing blood components, to patient testing, to ordering blood components for therapeutic apheresis (TA) procedures, to preparing the component for transfusion, and finally to transfusion. The nurses, technologists, and physicians orchestrate these activities in concert to best serve patients undergoing TA procedures. Enhancing knowledge of these processes may improve the quality of patient care and the utilization of blood products. PMID:22532095

  20. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  1. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  6. Can cord blood banks transform into induced pluripotent stem cell banks?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyan; Rao, Mahendra S

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the rapid evolution of clinically compliant protocols to generate such lines from a variety of tissue sources has raised the possibility that personalized medicine may be achievable in the near future. Several strategies to deliver iPSCs for iPSC-derived cell-based therapy have been proposed: one such model has been the cell-banking model, using processes developed by the cord blood industry. The cord blood industry has evolved primarily as a banking model in which units of cord blood harvested from discarded placenta are stored either in a public or a private cord blood bank for future use. The consideration of a cord blood--like banking model has been further spurred by the realization that this population of cells is an ideal starting sample to generate pluripotent cells. Spurred by these technological advances, major efforts are underway to develop a current Good Manufacturing Practice--compliant protocol to generate iPSCs from cord blood and to develop a haplobanking strategy. In this article, we discuss the issues that may affect such an effort. PMID:25770678

  7. Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

  8. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks

    PubMed Central

    Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Methods Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. Results When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long

  9. Knowledge about umbilical cord blood banking among Greek citizens

    PubMed Central

    Karagiorgou, Louiza Z.; Pantazopoulou, Maria-Nikoletta P.; Mainas, Nikolaos C.; Beloukas, Apostolos I.; Kriebardis, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood supplies in Greece are not sufficient to meet the high transfusion needs. This study was designed to determine Greeks’ opinion about umbilical cord blood, identify the reasons for the lack of motivation to donate umbilical cord blood and allow experts to establish better recruitment campaigns to enrich the donor pool. Materials and methods The attitudes and knowledge about umbilical cord blood of randomly selected Greek citizens (n=1,019) were assessed by means of a standardised anonymous questionnaire. The results were analysed using the χ2test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results Forty-eight percent of respondents knew about umbilical cord blood and had full knowledge about what storage/donation offers. Media (35%) and doctors (25%) were the main source of information. The information from the state was considered either inadequate or non-existent by 85% of the responders. Ninety-five percent of the people questioned would like further information regarding umbilical cord blood transplantation and umbilical cord blood storage/donation. Six percent of the respondents who had children and were in favour of umbilical cord blood transplantation, had stored/donated UCB. With regards to future decisions, 84% of the sample would store/donate umbilical cord blood, of whom 57% would keep the umbilical cord blood in a private bank. Discussion It was concluded that Greek citizens receive information about umbilical cord blood from both the state and advertising campaigns by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. A kind of cooperation between all hospitals and public umbilical cord blood banks would be advisable in order to facilitate access to umbilical cord blood donations. PMID:24120604

  10. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost

  11. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors. PMID:20101907

  12. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. PMID:26819256

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Adewumi, Aderemi O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment. PMID:25815046

  14. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment. PMID:25815046

  15. Blood safety and availability: continuing challenges in China's blood banking system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jing-Xing; Stevens, Lori; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Social and economic development, along with increased health care coverage, has caused a sharp increase in the clinical demand for blood in China. Whole blood collection has increased rapidly in the past decade but has failed to keep pace with the ever-increasing demand. Overall, the country's blood safety has been improved with 99% of whole blood donations collected from voluntary unpaid donors. However, the unmet clinical demand for blood and the increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis in the general population pose new challenges to China's blood banking system. To ensure a safe and adequate blood supply, continued efforts are required to recruit and retain a sufficient number of low-risk voluntary blood donors, improve donor prescreening and blood testing process, ease donor restrictions, and strengthen patient blood management. PMID:23710600

  16. [Hemovigilance: a joint responsibility of hospitals and blood banks].

    PubMed

    van Aken, W G

    2003-08-01

    The objective of haemovigilance, a set of surveillance procedures covering the complete transfusion chain, is to collect and assess information concerning unexpected and undesirable effects arising from the therapeutic use of labile blood products, and to prevent the recurrence of such incidents. A number of guidelines and directives from national and European health authorities require hospitals to institute a haemovigilance system. Preliminary data from one blood bank region in the Netherlands reveals the various types of transfusion reactions reported. The current haemovigilance systems still have some limitations. A considerable amount of time and effort will be needed for the benefits of haemovigilance to become apparent. PMID:12924077

  17. Applying principles of formulary management to blood banking.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Nancy L; Malone, Patrick M; Baltaro, Richard J; Malesker, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committee or its equivalent has been a long-standing committee of the medical staff in almost every institution. The P&T committee is typically defined as the body that recommends policy to the medical staff and the administration of the organization on matters related to the safe and therapeutic use of medications as well as other matters relating to medication use. The Food and Drug Administration definition of a drug includes blood and blood components, and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists guidelines suggest including blood derivatives in their definition of a drug. Clinicians and other health care providers have needed to become more familiar with blood and blood component therapy as more prescription blood products have become available. As such, the P&T committee could work collaboratively with blood bank personnel, who are experts in this area, to help ensure that blood derivative products undergo the same evidence-based formulary review process as other medications. PMID:23241034

  18. [Our experiences in the blood supply by means of a blood bank].

    PubMed

    Rajcić, E

    1975-01-01

    "GIVE US BLOOD TODAY, YOU'LL GET IT WHEN YOU NEED IT". Under this slogan the blood transfusion service gathers the blood donors offering, in return for the given blood the security that, any moment and in required quantities, the blood will be provided for every donor i.e. every member of any collective that acts on the request and "deposits" blood in so called blood banks", at least twice a year. Agitation among the prospective blood donors is completely confided to prominent people, social and medical workers, who do it permanently, and not from time to time, and who, if possible, are also blood donors, and owing to their own example, more convincing. The obligations between the blood transfusion service and "the investors" are regulated by oral agreement. It is noticed that the mutual moral obligation has more positive influence on the fulfillment of obligation than the administrative measure--a contract. According to this experience, individual work, a personal contact with prospective blood donors, and the feeling of personal security that is offered to them give the best results in motivating the people to become blood donors. PMID:1225312

  19. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study. PMID:22189177

  20. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  1. Bacteriological Safety of Blood Collected for Transfusion at University of Gondar Hospital Blood Bank, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices. PMID:23864956

  2. Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

  3. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  4. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  5. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  6. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  7. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  8. Blood-Banking Techniques for Plateletpheresis in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Sondeen, Jill L; Prince, Malcolm D; Polykratis, Irene A; Hernandez, Orlando; Torres-Mendoza, Jaime; Guzman, Rodolfo De; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    During the past several years, trauma resuscitation in human patients has evolved from decreased use of crystalloids to increased use of blood products. Of high interest is the role of platelets in trauma resuscitation. Because conducting prehospital resuscitation in human trauma patients is very difficult, swine are often the animal model of choice for such studies because their coagulation and hemodynamic systems are similar to those in humans. However, consistent production of sufficient swine platelets for such studies has not previously been achieved. We developed a method for producing swine platelets by using standard human techniques and equipment. We assessed pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, thromboelastography, and platelet aggregation over 5 d of storage to determine whether the swine platelet product met the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) standards for transfusion. Swine platelets met AABB standards at 24 h but not at later time points. In addition, we fluorescently labeled nonautologous platelets and then measured their percentage recovery over 5 h (the time used in subsequent experimental studies) when transfused into a recipient pig. We showed that 80% of the platelets stored for 24 h remained in the circulation and increased the recipient pigs’ thromboelastographic responses, indicating that the platelets were viable and active. Therefore, swine platelets stored for 24 h by using standard human products met the AABB criteria and were functional. PMID:24827574

  9. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. Methods Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. Results Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 108 and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 108, respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 105 nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. Conclusions A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count. PMID:22896763

  10. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count. PMID:22896763

  11. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value <0.05. Results Erythropoietin, when added to red blood cell units, has a half-life >6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  12. ACOG committee opinion number 399, February 2008: umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    2008-02-01

    Two types of banks have emerged for the collection and storage of umbilical cord blood--public banks and private banks. Public banks promote allogenic (related or unrelated) donation, analogous to the current collection of whole blood units in the United States. Private banks were initially developed to store stem cells from umbilical cord blood for autologous use (taken from an individual for subsequent use by the same individual) by a child if the child develops disease later in life. If a patient requests information on umbilical cord blood banking, balanced and accurate information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of public versus private banking should be provided. The remote chance of an autologous unit of umbilical cord blood being used for a child or a family member (approximately 1 in 2,700 individuals) should be disclosed. The collection should not alter routine practice for the timing of umbilical cord clamping. Physicians or other professionals who recruit pregnant women and their families for for-profit umbilical cord blood banking should disclose any financial interests or other potential conflicts of interest. PMID:18238991

  13. Cord blood collection for banking and the risk of maternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Amat, Lluís; Sabrià, Joan; Martínez, Eva; Rodríguez, Núria L; Querol, Sergio; Lailla, Josep M

    2011-09-01

    We determined the effect of cord blood collection before placental expulsion on postpartum maternal blood loss in a retrospective study between a group of cord blood donors and a group of non-donors. The study was conducted in a university hospital blood bank and obstetric services and included Spanish women entered in a European study project (EUPHRATES) and who had consented to donate cord blood for public banking purposes. We measured blood volume lost during delivery by a bag collection method, as well as the need for transfusion and postpartum anemia symptoms. Deliveries at which cord blood was collected presented a significant increase in blood loss (321 ± 273 vs. 255 ± 237 ml, p=0.02). Instrumental deliveries were associated with higher postpartum blood loss than spontaneous deliveries. Cord blood collection can increase intrapartum blood loss, especially at instrumental deliveries. Additional staff who handle the collection are required to allow the leading clinician to focus on maternal care. PMID:21564030

  14. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking. PMID:26665936

  15. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110--Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood...

  16. Low usage rate of banked sibling cord blood units in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with hematological malignancies: implications for directed cord blood banking policies.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Peristeri, Ioulia; Kitra, Vasiliki; Papassavas, Andreas C; Theodosaki, Maria; Petrakou, Eftichia; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Paisiou, Anna; Soldatou, Alexandra; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2011-02-15

    Directed sibling cord blood banking is indicated in women delivering healthy babies who already have a sibling with a disease that is potentially treatable with an allogeneic cord blood transplant. We evaluated the effectiveness of a national directed cord blood banking program in sibling HLA-identical stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies and the factors influencing the usage rate of the stored cord blood units. Fifty families were enrolled from which, 48 cord blood units were successfully collected and 2 collections failed due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. Among enrolled families 4 children needed transplantation; however, only one was successfully transplanted using the collected cord blood unit containing 2×10(7) nucleated cells/kg in conjunction with a small volume of bone marrow from the same HLA-identical donor. Two children received grafts from matched unrelated donors because their sibling cord blood was HLA-haploidentical, while the fourth one received bone marrow from his HLA-identical brother, since cord blood could not be collected due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. With a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-12) for the 9 remaining HLA-matched cord blood units, none from the prospective recipients needed transplantation. The low utilization rate of sibling cord blood in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematological malignant diseases necessitates the development of directed cord blood banking programs that limit long-term storage for banked cord blood units with low probability of usage such as non-HLA-identical or identical to patients who are in long-term complete remission. PMID:21095146

  17. Blood banking-induced alteration of red blood cell oxygen release ability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. Materials and methods RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. Results P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. Discussion RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3. PMID:26674824

  18. Architecture. Intermediate ThemeWorks. An Integrated Activity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kelly

    This resource book offers an activity bank of learning experiences related to the theme of architecture. The activities, which are designed for use with students in grades 4-6, require active engagement of the students and integrate language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and art experiences. Activities exploring the architectural…

  19. Are hybrid umbilical cord blood banks really the best of both worlds?

    PubMed

    Guilcher, Gregory M T; Fernandez, Conrad V; Joffe, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Since the first use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a medical therapy, the number of UCB banks worldwide has grown. Public UCB banks offer the option of altruistic donation, whereas private banks allow a product to be stored for the exclusive use of the paying client. With many more UCB products banked privately than publicly in countries such as the USA, hybrid models blending aspects of public and private banking have been proposed. One such bank is in operation in the UK. In this paper we review the hybrid UCB model and conclude that it offers limited benefit to the general public. Furthermore, compared with private banking, this model provides few advantages and potential disadvantages to private clients. PMID:24825373

  20. Obstetricians and their role in cord blood banking: promoting a public model.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Mary M; Delpapa, Ellen H

    2013-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood, the blood remaining in the umbilical cord at birth, can be collected at birth and be a source of stem cells for a patient in need of a bone marrow transplant. Obstetricians and other health care practitioners are recognized as a patient's primary source for medical information affecting the mother and her neonate and frequently are asked to provide education and guidance regarding options of private and public cord blood banking. As the use of cord blood continues to grow in medicine and research uncovers more potential for cord blood, cord blood banking has become an important resource. The Stem Cell Therapeutic and Research Act has provided funding to expand public banking initiatives in the United States and to create a more ethnically diverse inventory of units. Private storage is not advocated unless there is an identified need in the family such that banked cord blood would offer a benefit. A recent report outlined the challenges of increasing participation and inventory, particularly among minority groups. Obstetricians and other health care practitioners should have a primary role in efforts to increase awareness of umbilical cord blood donation and be involved in initiatives to expand current public banking activities. PMID:23635686

  1. Can Routine Commercial Cord Blood Banking Be Scientifically and Ethically Justified?

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background to the debate: Umbilical cord blood—the blood that remains in the placenta after birth—can be collected and stored frozen for years. A well-accepted use of cord blood is as an alternative to bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation to siblings or to unrelated recipients; women can donate cord blood for unrelated recipients to public banks. However, private banks are now open that offer expectant parents the option to pay a fee for the chance to store cord blood for possible future use by that same child (autologous transplantation.) PMID:15737000

  2. High quality cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices. The eight-year experience and current status of the national Swedish Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Frändberg, Sofia; Waldner, Berit; Konar, Jan; Rydberg, Lennart; Fasth, Anders; Holgersson, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The National Swedish Cord Blood Bank (NS-CBB) is altruistic and publicly funded. Herein we describe the status of the bank and the impact of delayed versus early clamping on cell number and volume. Cord Blood Units (CBUs) were collected at two University Hospitals in Sweden. Collected volume and nucleated cell content (TNC) were investigated in 146 consecutive Cord Blood (CB) collections sampled during the first quarter of 2012 and in 162 consecutive CB collections done in the first quarter of 2013, before and after clamping practices were changed from immediate to late (60 s) clamping. NS-CBB now holds close to 5000 units whereof 30 % are from non-Caucasian or mixed origins. Delayed clamping had no major effect on collection efficiency. The volume collected was slightly reduced (mean difference, 8.1 ml; 95 % CI, 1.3-15.0 ml; p = 0.02), while cell recovery was not (p = 0.1). The proportion of CBUs that met initial total TNC banking criteria was 60 % using a TNC threshold of 12.5 × 10(8), and 47 % using a threshold of 15 × 10(8) for the early clamping group and 52 and 37 % in the late clamping group. Following implementation of delayed clamping practices at NS-CBB; close to 40 % of the collections in the late clamping group still met the high TNC banking threshold and were eligible for banking, implicating that that cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices. PMID:27342904

  3. Benefits to blood banks of a sales and operations planning process.

    PubMed

    Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil

    2010-12-01

    A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line. PMID:21128950

  4. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. PMID:25687797

  5. Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States.

    PubMed

    Edwards, James M; Gilner, Jennifer B; Hernandez, Jose; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Heine, R Phillips

    2016-08-01

    To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007-2014. Nineteen maternal donors tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi parasites (0.04%). Because perinatal transmission of Chagas disease is associated with substantial illness, targeted prenatal programs should screen for this disease. PMID:27433974

  6. Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States

    PubMed Central

    Gilner, Jennifer B.; Hernandez, Jose; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Heine, R. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007–2014. Nineteen maternal donors tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi parasites (0.04%). Because perinatal transmission of Chagas disease is associated with substantial illness, targeted prenatal programs should screen for this disease. PMID:27433974

  7. Quality control measures in cord blood banking in India - critical appraisal and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anuradha; Singhania, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a potential source of primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) available for clinical application to reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients lacking conventional stem cell donors. In the last decade because the frequency of UCB stem cell transplantation has increased, the quality of UCB available in banks has become an important criterion for the success of any UCB stem cell transplant. Moreover, with the growing numbers of cord blood banks there is not only a need to improvise quality issues but to also develop a more homogenous approach in setting standards and regulations for assessing them. The present article provides an insight on the importance of cord blood banking in India and the impending requirement to provide clarity on certain issues regarding UCB banking. Furthermore, the article discusses about certain practical approaches which could perhaps be referred to as guidelines (and by no means be solely adopted as the only measures) by cord blood banks in India for establishing or maintaining a standard for quality control (QC) measures. PMID:24698987

  8. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  9. Survival of Treponema pallidum in banked blood for prevention of Syphilis transmission

    PubMed Central

    Adegoke, Adeolu O.; Akanni, Olufemi E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Every year, millions of people are exposed to avoidable, life-threatening risks through the trans-fusion of unsafe blood. Aim: To determine the survival time of Treponema pallidum in banked donor blood. Material and Methods: Two groups of male Wistar rats (group A and B) were inoculated intratesticularly with 0.5ml of artificially infected donor blood (final density of Nichols treponemes: 5×105 /ml) stored at 4°C for various periods of time. In group A, a pair each of the rats was injected every 12 hours, starting at 0 hr, up to a maximal storage time of 96 hr. In group B, the rats were injected after 72, 120, 192 and 336 hours of storage of the treponemes-blood mixture. Group C which is a control group was injected with blood only, while group D rats were injected with heat-killed treponemes suspended in blood every 12 hours. The detection of Treponema pallidum IgG/IgM was based on the principle of double antigen sandwich immunoassay, in which purified recombinant antigens are employed sufficiently to identify antibodies to Syphilis. The outcomes of interest included the proportion of Syphilis positive rats and the maximal survival hours of T. pallidum in banked blood. Results: 14 rats (77.8%) out of the 18 rats that were involved in group A developed orchitis and positive serology up to 72 hours of storage time, p<0.05. 2 rats (25%) in group B developed orchitis after 72hrs of storage time. All the 18 rats (100%) in the control group C and D showed neither clinical nor serological changes. Conclusion: It was concluded that the survival time of T. pallidum in banked donor blood lies between 72-120hrs in this study. Regardless of blood banking temperature, T. pallidum and other transfusion transmissible infections should be screened for prior to allogeneic transfusion. PMID:22540107

  10. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  11. Trust, Nostalgia and Narrative Accounts of Blood Banking in England in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Helen Wynne

    2010-01-01

    Historically, cultural accounts and descriptions of blood banking in Britain have been associated with notions of altruism, national solidarity and imagined community. While these ideals have continued to be influential, the business of procuring and supplying blood has become increasingly complex. Drawing on interview data with donors in one blood centre in England, this article reports that these donors tend not to acknowledge the complex dynamics of production and exchange in modern blood systems. This, it is argued, is congruent with nostalgic narratives in both popular and official accounts of blood services, which tend to bracket these important changes. A shift to a more open institutional narrative about modern blood services is advocated, as blood services face current and future challenges. PMID:20603307

  12. [The role of blood banks in bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Höcker, P; Wagner, A; Sklenar, G

    1991-01-01

    The transfusion service (TS) plays an important role in bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Many of the techniques and methods employed are also used in the daily work of a TS like tissue typing, apheresis techniques, handling of blood and its components under sterile conditions. In the pretransplantation phase the TS is responsible for the typing of recipient and presumptive donors, harvesting of autologous blood and selection of appropriate blood components. During BMT the TS can perform bone marrow harvesting, depletion of red cells in case of ABO-incompatibility and bone marrow manipulation when T-cell depletion or purging procedures are considered. Peripheral stem cell harvest by apheresis is also best performed by the TS experienced in such techniques. Storage of hematopoietic cells in liquid nitrogen and thawing are also techniques already used in most of the transfusion services. Post BMT, the support with blood components, irradiated and almost free of white cells to avoid TA-GVH and CMV-infection, is a major job of the TS. These facts demonstrate that a well organized transfusion service is a 'conditio sine qua non' for successful BMT. PMID:1725636

  13. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  14. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  15. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

  16. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  17. [Prevalence of human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Aché, A

    1993-01-01

    Primary investigations carried out in blood banks in Venezuela during the 1950s, indicated that overall seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 12% amongst blood donors. In Venezuela, blood donation is free. All public and private blood banks are controlled by the Ministry of Health. As from 1988 the ELISA technique was uniformly used in blood banks for the detection of T. cruzi infections. Annual median seroprevalence, between 1988 to 1992, was 1.20% (1.09-1.94%), with geographical variations between localities in several States. States with higher prevalence rates are located in the western and central part of Venezuela: Portuguesa, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes and Carabobo. Due to difficulties in obtaining incidence rates for Chagas disease, it seems proper to use prevalence rates due to its greater stability; and in the specific case of Venezuela, due to a lesser severity and a higher survival of this disease at present. Considering that there is little to be offered to the seropositive individual, repeatability is avowed for serological diagnosis. Specificity should be strived for in the light of lower prevalence rates at present. PMID:8115813

  18. Umbilical Cord Blood Banking for Transplantation in Morocco: Problems and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Mazini, Loubna; Matar, Nourredine; Bouhya, Said; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Since the success of the first umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation in a child with Fanconi anaemia in 1989, great interests have emerged for this source of stem cells. UCB provides an unlimited source of ethnically diverse stem cells and is an alternative for bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thus, UCB and manipulated stem cells are now collected and banked according to international accreditation standards for listing on registries allowing rapid search and accessibility worldwide. This work aims to identify problems limiting the creation of a Moroccan cord blood bank and to highlight opportunities and issues of a new legislation promoting additional applications of cell therapy. PMID:25705096

  19. Donating umbilical cord blood to a public bank or storing it in a private bank: knowledge and preference of blood donors and of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Pirrè, Guglielma; Valente, Elisabetta; Gesuiti, Paola; Corona, Francesca; Girelli, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Background. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women. Materials and methods. This study was conducted at the “Sapienza” University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women. Results. Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use. Discussion. The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and

  20. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Privacy Act regulations set forth in 45 CFR part 5b. ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE...

  1. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Privacy Act regulations set forth in 45 CFR part 5b. ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE...

  2. 45 CFR 61.15 - How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank information. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.15 How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity...

  3. 45 CFR 61.15 - How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank information. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.15 How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity...

  4. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. Aim To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r’r’ (0.1%). Conclusion Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety. PMID:27437223

  5. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public ‘cord blood bank’, for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed. PMID:21666742

  6. Development of a customer service program in a large, multi-site blood bank.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D A; Goldman, R L

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) have been widely applied but not in the unique ambulatory care setting represented by Irwin Memorial Blood Centers (IMBC). The traditional definition of quality for blood banks has been concerned with the products offered to physicians, hospitals and patients. This program expanded the definition to include customer service. A Quality of Service Steering Committee (QSSC) identified the needs and requirements of Irwin's key customer groups as a first step in embarking on its Quality of Service Program (QSP). PMID:10166345

  7. Cord blood banking - bio-objects on the borderlands between community and immunity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nik; Williams, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become the focus of intense efforts to collect, screen and bank haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in hundreds of repositories around the world. UCB banking has developed through a broad spectrum of overlapping banking practices, sectors and institutional forms. Superficially at least, these sectors have been widely distinguished in bioethical and policy literature between notions of the 'public' and the 'private', the commons and the market respectively. Our purpose in this paper is to reflect more critically on these distinctions and to articulate the complex practical and hybrid nature of cord blood as a 'bio-object' that straddles binary conceptions of the blood economies. The paper draws upon Roberto Esposito's reflections on biopolitics and his attempt to transcend the dualistic polarisations of immunity and community, or the private and the public. We suggest that his thoughts on immunitary hospitality resonate with many of the actual features and realpolitik of a necessarily internationalised and globally distributed UCB 'immunitary regime'. PMID:26449725

  8. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  9. A brief history of the early years of blood transfusion at the Mayo Clinic: the first blood bank in the United States (1935).

    PubMed

    Moore, S Breanndan

    2005-07-01

    At the Mayo Clinic in 1914, Francis McGrath modified an existing aspiration-injection apparatus and adapted it for arm-to-arm blood transfusions. Separately, in 1919, both Pemberton and Sanford described in detail the Mayo Clinic experience with more than 1000 transfusions between January 1915 and January 1918. Most transfusions were by the indirect citrate method from freshly drawn blood. In 1935, John Lundy established a bank of refrigerated blood for transfusions at Mayo Clinic and reported on the activity in that and subsequent years. The functioning clinical blood bank established by Lundy at Mayo Clinic predated that of Bernard Fantus in Chicago by almost 2 years. PMID:16010654

  10. [Operating Procedure of Collection, Processing and Preservation of 3000 Units Umbilical Cord Blood in Shangdong Cord Blood Bank

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Li; Shen, Bai-Jun; Yan, Wen-Ying; Xu, Ri; Pan, Jie; Ma, Xiu-Feng; Song, Dao-Gang

    2001-06-01

    The experience with the umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells for unrelated transplantation from our 3 000 UCB storage was described. UCB, collected from closed blood bags, were mixed with hydroxyethyl starch for nucleated cell (NC) enrichment. After finishing CD34 analysis, culture of hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) assays, microbial culture, HLA Class I (A, B) serology and class II (DR) low resolution SSP typing, cord blood units are stored in the liquid nitrogen for clinical applicatoin. Cord blood contained an average of nuclear cell (NC) (1.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(9), CD34(+) cells (3.0 +/- 3.7) x 10(6), CFU-GM (1.1 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) and CFU-GEMM (1.1 +/- 1.2) x 10(6) for storage and the recovery rates were 91%, 88%, 85% and 82%, respectively. The recovery rates for red blood cell and Hb were (39 +/- 9)% and (40 +/- 8)%, respectively. The storage volume was (35.1 +/- 7.1) ml in a 50 ml storage bags. The mean time from collection to processing of 15 hours (range 4 - 24 hours) had no influence on cell viability. The cell viability before processing is more than 95% and 92% after UCB thawing. The recovery rates of NC, CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM post-thawing were 96%, 90% and 91%, respectively. There were no HIV antibody (HIVAb) positive in all of UCB units. For an incidence of processed samples, infection with syphilis, HBsAg, HBcAb, HCVAb, CMV, bacterial contamination and abnormal hemoglobin were 0.1%, 0.8%, 3.2%, 0.2%, 87.1%, 1.2% and 0.1%, respectively. More than 3 HLA loci matched can be found for random patients in our cord blood bank and 6 HLA loci matched have 5%. For transplantation with nucleated cell counts of > 2.7 x 10(7) cells/kg, our cord blood bank will be able to provide all of the umbilical cord blood stem cell samples for children and 50% of units can be used for some of adult recipients transplantation in the country. It is concluded that: (1) The large cord blood banking for 20 000 UCB storage is feasible in China. (2) Our system of whole

  11. Fibrin glue from stored human plasma. An inexpensive and efficient method for local blood bank preparation.

    PubMed

    Spotnitz, W D; Mintz, P D; Avery, N; Bithell, T C; Kaul, S; Nolan, S P

    1987-08-01

    European surgeons have used fibrin glue extensively during thoracic, cardiovascular, and general surgical operations. Until now, however, it has been available only as a commercial preparation made from pooled human plasma, and it has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States because of a high associated risk of hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Methods of obtaining fibrinogen, an essential component of fibrin glue, from cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma have been published recently. However, the cryoprecipitate method results in relatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, which can reduce glue effectiveness. The fresh frozen plasma method is more expensive and does not meet the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks for the "closed" system required for safe handling and management of blood component products. Both the cryoprecipitate and the fresh frozen plasma methods result in waste of unstable clotting factors. These factors are necessary to replace human plasma clotting deficiencies but are not necessary for the production of fibrin glue. The authors have developed an efficient, high-concentration blood bank method for producing and maintaining a local supply of a safer and less expensive but equally effective material derived from stored human plasma. This material is produced using approved blood bank techniques for a "closed" system in blood component production, thus reducing the risks of contamination and infection, and its fibrinogen concentration is higher than that of standard cryoprecipitate. The cost of 1 unit of this fibrin glue is comparable to that for 1 unit of cryoprecipitate and less than that for 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2440358

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women with regard to collection, testing and banking of cord blood stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Conrad V.; Gordon, Kevin; Hof, Michiel Van den; Taweel, Shaureen; Baylis, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood is used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disease. We sought to examine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cord blood banking, as their support is crucial to the success of cord blood transplant programs. Methods A questionnaire examining sociodemographic factors and women's attitudes to cord blood banking was developed on the basis of findings from 2 focus groups and a pilot study. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 women attending antenatal clinics at a regional women's hospital between April and July 2001. Results A total of 443 women (68%) responded. More than half of the women (307/438 or 70% [95% confidence interval, CI, 66% to 74%]) reported poor or very poor knowledge about cord blood banking. Many of the respondents (299/441 or 68% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) thought that physicians should talk to pregnant women about the collection of cord blood, and they wanted to receive information about this topic from health care professionals (290/441 or 66% [95% CI 61% to 70%]) or prenatal classes (308/441 or 70% [95% CI 65% to 74%]). Most of the women (379/442 or 86% [95% CI 82% to 89%]) would elect to store cord blood in a public bank, many citing altruism as the reason for this choice. A much smaller proportion (63/442 or 14% [95% CI 11% to 18%]) would elect private banking, indicating that this would be a good investment or that they would feel guilty if the blood had not been stored. Additional acceptable uses for cord blood included research (mentioned by 294/436 women or 67% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) and gene therapy (mentioned by 169/437 women or 39% [95% CI 34% to 43%]). Interpretation Most of the women in this study supported the donation of cord blood to public cord blood banks for potential transplantation and research. PMID:12642424

  13. Feasibility and cost-benefit of implementing pooled screening for HCVAg in small blood bank settings.

    PubMed

    Sarov, B; Novack, L; Beer, N; Safi, J; Soliman, H; Pliskin, J S; Litvak, E; Yaari, A; Shinar, E

    2007-12-01

    To examine the accuracy, feasibility and benefits of screening for hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVAg) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in pools. Many countries cannot afford to test blood donations for hepatitis C using molecular methods. Screening individual units using the ELISA HCVAg test is an acceptable, yet still expensive, alternative, especially for small blood bank settings. This study evaluated the option of screening for HCVAg in pools. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of HCVAg in pools of three and six antibody-negative samples were estimated and compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The feasibility and cost-benefit of the assay was assessed on 960 routine samples collected at a hospital blood bank in Gaza. Based on results for 50 PCR-positive pools and 50 and 110 PCR-negative pools of three and six, the Se of testing in pools of three and six samples is 80-82% [95% confidence interval (CI): 66.3-91.4] and Sp >or=98% (95% CI: 89.4-100.0) compared with PCR. The incidence of antigen in donors in Gaza was 0.1% (95% CI: 0-0.56). Cost analyses suggested significant benefits from implementing screening blood donations for HCVAg when the incidence rate is >4.2/10,000, leading to reduction in the expenditures needed to treat patients infected with HCV. The risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C in resource-deprived developing countries can be efficiently reduced by additional screening of antibody-negative blood donations for HCVAg in pools of six. PMID:17727618

  14. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanmukh R.; Naik, Rupal A.; Gupte, Snehlata C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cold agglutinins (CA) are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA) phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27), anti-i (53), anti-Pr (21) with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-PrFetal and anti-Pradult, respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62%) cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26%) cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60%) cases were anti-i and 7 (25%) cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered. PMID:26420932

  15. Directed sibling cord blood banking for transplantation: the 10-year experience in the national blood service in England.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Jon; Armitage, Sue; McDonald, Dorothy; Pamphilon, Derwood; Guttridge, Martin; Brown, Juliette; Green, Ann; Brown, Colin; Warwick, Ruth M; Lankester, Alan; Fehily, Deirdre; Contreras, Marcela; Navarrete, Cristina; Watt, Suzanne M

    2007-08-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Although UCB is often collected from unrelated donors, directed umbilical cord blood (DCB) from sibling donors also provides an important source of UCB for transplantation. This report summarizes the experience in collection, testing, storage, and transplantation of DCB units by the National Blood Service for England and North Wales over 10 years. Eligibility for collection was based on an existing sibling suffering from a disease that may be treated by stem cell transplantation or a family history that could result in the birth of a sibling with a disease that could be treated by stem cell transplantation. Collections were made on the provision that the sibling's clinician was willing to financially support the collection and to take responsibility for medical review of the mother and potential recipient. Given the high investment in UCB banking and the introduction of new regulations and mandatory licensing under the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive and those proposed in the U.S., this report details the procedures that we have used for DCB donations, the outcome data where donations have been used for transplantation, and it provides some timely recommendations for best practices. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17510215

  16. A Need for Renewed and Cohesive US Policy on Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood (CB) are used to treat more than 80 different diseases and are a standard treatment for many types of leukemias, lymphomas, myelodysplasias, and inherited immune system disorders. CB transplants have been carried out in humans for over 25 years, and hundreds of clinical trials are currently underway investigating CB's therapeutic potential for a wide range of disorders, including autism, diabetes, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury. Extensive storage facilities have been established in the United States and around the world to collect, test, and freeze CB for later use in medical procedures. However, a divide between two different banking models-public versus private-has emerged, presenting several policy challenges. While the Food and Drug Administration currently regulates CB storage and use in the United States, other state and federal guidelines on CB education, awareness, and ethical considerations remain variable, and no mandatory international guidelines exist. In addition, federal funding for an important CB collection initiative that specifically targets minority populations is set to expire by the end of FY2015. To help organize and coordinate efforts across the United States and other nations, policymakers should implement regulations for: high quality standards for both private and public CB banks, a commitment to ethical practices, and an investment in educational campaigns and training programs for all steps of the CB banking process. PMID:26239848

  17. Differences in quality between privately and publicly banked umbilical cord blood units: a pilot study of autologous cord blood infusion in children with acquired neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jessica; Allison, June; McLaughlin, Colleen; Sledge, Linda; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Wease, Stephen; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A pilot study was conducted to determine the safety and feasibility of intravenous administration of autologous umbilical cord blood (CB) in young children with acquired neurologic disorders. Most CB units (CBUs) were electively stored in private CB banks. Unlike public banks, which utilize specific criteria and thresholds for banking, private banks generally store all collected CBUs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS CBUs of eligible patients containing more than 1 × 107 cells/kg were shipped to Duke from the banks of origin after confirming identity by HLA typing. On the day of infusion, CBUs were thawed and washed in dextran-albumin and infused intravenously. Patients were medicated with acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and methylprednisolone before transfusion. Data regarding patients, infusions, and CBUs were collected retrospectively. Characteristics of CBUs were compared to existing data from CBUs publicly banked at the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank. RESULTS From March 2004 to December 2009, 184 children received 198 CB infusions. Three patients had infusion reactions, all responsive to medical therapy and stopping the infusion. Median precryopreservation volume (60 mL vs. 89 mL, p < 0.0001), total nucleated cell count (4.7 × 108 vs. 10.8 × 108, p < 0.0001), and CD34 count (1.8 × 106 vs. 3.0 × 106, p < 0.0001) were significantly lower than publicly stored CBUs. Postthaw sterility cultures were positive in 7.6% of infused CBUs. CONCLUSION IV infusion of autologous CB is safe and feasible in young children with neurologic injuries. Quality parameters of privately banked CBUs are inferior to those stored in public banks. If efficacy of autologous CB is established clinically, the quality of autologous units should be held to the same standards as those stored in public banks. PMID:20546200

  18. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above. PMID:22567418

  19. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection. PMID:26852659

  20. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  1. Integrative regulation of human brain blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Christopher K; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Fisher, Joseph A; Ainslie, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we review mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF), with specific focus on humans. We revisit important concepts from the older literature and describe the interaction of various mechanisms of cerebrovascular control. We amalgamate this broad scope of information into a brief review, rather than detailing any one mechanism or area of research. The relationship between regulatory mechanisms is emphasized, but the following three broad categories of control are explicated: (1) the effect of blood gases and neuronal metabolism on CBF; (2) buffering of CBF with changes in blood pressure, termed cerebral autoregulation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system in CBF regulation. With respect to these control mechanisms, we provide evidence against several canonized paradigms of CBF control. Specifically, we corroborate the following four key theses: (1) that cerebral autoregulation does not maintain constant perfusion through a mean arterial pressure range of 60–150 mmHg; (2) that there is important stimulatory synergism and regulatory interdependence of arterial blood gases and blood pressure on CBF regulation; (3) that cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular sensitivity to changes in arterial blood gases are not modulated solely at the pial arterioles; and (4) that neurogenic control of the cerebral vasculature is an important player in autoregulatory function and, crucially, acts to buffer surges in perfusion pressure. Finally, we summarize the state of our knowledge with respect to these areas, outline important gaps in the literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24396059

  2. Integrative regulation of human brain blood flow.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Fisher, Joseph A; Ainslie, Philip N

    2014-03-01

    Herein, we review mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF), with specific focus on humans. We revisit important concepts from the older literature and describe the interaction of various mechanisms of cerebrovascular control. We amalgamate this broad scope of information into a brief review, rather than detailing any one mechanism or area of research. The relationship between regulatory mechanisms is emphasized, but the following three broad categories of control are explicated: (1) the effect of blood gases and neuronal metabolism on CBF; (2) buffering of CBF with changes in blood pressure, termed cerebral autoregulation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system in CBF regulation. With respect to these control mechanisms, we provide evidence against several canonized paradigms of CBF control. Specifically, we corroborate the following four key theses: (1) that cerebral autoregulation does not maintain constant perfusion through a mean arterial pressure range of 60-150 mmHg; (2) that there is important stimulatory synergism and regulatory interdependence of arterial blood gases and blood pressure on CBF regulation; (3) that cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular sensitivity to changes in arterial blood gases are not modulated solely at the pial arterioles; and (4) that neurogenic control of the cerebral vasculature is an important player in autoregulatory function and, crucially, acts to buffer surges in perfusion pressure. Finally, we summarize the state of our knowledge with respect to these areas, outline important gaps in the literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24396059

  3. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as ‘adequate’ (≥80 points), ‘partially adequate’ (from 50 to 80 points), or ‘inadequate’ (<50 points). The following components were evaluated: ‘donor education’ (5 points), ‘clinical screening’ (40 points), ‘laboratory screening’ (40 points) and ‘hemovigilance’ (15 points). Results The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as ‘inadequate’ and five as ‘partially adequate’. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as ‘adequate’ in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. PMID:25453648

  4. Microfluidic evaluation of red cells collected and stored in modified processing solutions used in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Giebink, Adam; Spence, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The most recent American Association of Blood Banks survey found that 40,000 units of blood are required daily for general medicine, hematology/oncology, surgery, and for accident and trauma victims. While blood transfusions are an extremely important component of critical healthcare, complications associated with transfusion of blood components still exist. It is well-established that the red blood cell (RBC) undergoes many physical and chemical changes during storage. Increased oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation endproducts, and microparticle formation are all known to occur during RBC storage. Furthermore, it is also known that patients who receive a transfusion have reduced levels of available nitric oxide (NO), a major determinant in blood flow. However, the origin of this reduced NO bioavailability is not completely understood. Here, we show that a simple modification to the glucose concentration in the solutions used to process whole blood for subsequent RBC storage results in a remarkable change in the ability of these cells to stimulate NO. In a controlled in vitro microflow system, we discovered that storage of RBCs in normoglycemic versions of standard storage solutions resulted in RBC-derived ATP release values 4 weeks into storage that were significantly greater than day 1 release values for those RBCs stored in conventional solutions. During the same storage duration, microfluidic technologies enabled measurements of endothelium-derived NO that were stimulated by the ATP release from the stored RBCs. In comparison to currently accepted processing solutions, the NO production increased by more than 25% in the presence of the RBCs stored in the normoglycemic storage solutions. Control experiments using inhibitors of ATP release from the RBCs, or ATP binding to the endothelium, strongly suggest that the increased NO production by the endothelium is directly related to the ability of the stored RBCs to release ATP. We anticipate these

  5. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare...

  6. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare...

  7. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

  8. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (P<0.001). No difference was observed between TNC count and volume according to geographic origin. Our study shows that diverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities. PMID:25621799

  9. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  10. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  11. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  12. Potential use of blood bank platelet concentrates to accelerate wound healing of diabetic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Deok-Woo; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Hong, Yong-Taek; Woo, Hong-Suh; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Gottrup, Finn

    2007-11-01

    Many clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of platelet releasates on diabetic wound healing, but large volumes of blood must be aspirated from patients and a platelet separator is required. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of blood bank platelet concentrate (BBPC) for accelerating diabetic wound healing. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) contents in BBPC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in vitro, and the in vivo study involved comparing extents of wound healing in BBPC-treated and control groups using diabetic mouse wound models. In the in vitro study, 5.2 +/- 1.2 pg of PDGF-BB was found to be released by 1 million platelets in fresh BBPC, and adding thrombin to BBPC significantly increased the levels of PDGF-BB released. Our in vivo study in diabetic mice revealed that BBPC treatment greatly accelerated wound healing. Our results suggest that BBPC has potential to accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers. PMID:17992147

  13. Enabling Science Integration through the Marine Geoscience Data System Media Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Goehring, L.; Simms, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Marine Geoscience Data System Media Bank (http://media.marine-geo.org) was constructed to enable the sharing of high quality images, illustrations and animations among members of the science community and to provide a new forum for education and public outreach (EPO). The initial focus of Media Bank was to serve Ridge 2000 research and EPO efforts, but it was constructed as a flexible system that could accommodate media from other multidisciplinary marine geoscience research initiatives. Media Bank currently contains digital photographs, maps, 3-D visualizations, and video clips from the Ridge 2000 and MARGINS focus sites as well as the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. We actively seek contributions of other high quality marine geoscience media for inclusion in Media Bank. Media Bank is driven by a relational database backend, enabling image browsing, sorting by category, keyword search functionality, and the creation of media galleries. All media are accompanied by a descriptive figure caption that provides easy access to expert knowledge to help foster data integration across disciplines as well as EPO efforts. In addition to access to high quality media, Media Bank also provides basic metadata including geographic position, investigator name and affiliation, as well as copyright information, and links to references and relevant data sets. Since media are tied to geospatial coordinates, a map-based interface is also provided for access to media.

  14. Recombinant antigen-based enzyme immunoassay for screening of Treponema pallidum antibodies in blood bank routine.

    PubMed Central

    Zrein, M; Maure, I; Boursier, F; Soufflet, L

    1995-01-01

    This work reports a comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using two major Treponema pallidum recombinant antigens with a T. pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay and a nontreponemal Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) test. A total of 1,822 normal donor serum samples was tested for cardiolipin and T. pallidum antibodies, respectively, by the VDRL assay and EIA. Among these samples, 440 were further tested by TPHA technology. Four samples were found positive by EIA, while all were reported to be negative by both TPHA and VDRL routine assays. Subsequent testing of EIA-positive samples confirmed 100% (four of four samples) and 25% (one of four samples) positive results, respectively, by immunofluorescence assay and a Western blot (immunoblot) syphilis kit. The sensitivity of the recombinant EIA was estimated at virtually 100% with a reference panel of 50 syphilitic samples. According to this study, the newly developed EIA kit shows 100% sensitivity combined to a specificity greater than 99.8% for detecting treponemal immunoglobulin G antibodies in blood bank syphilis screening. PMID:7751351

  15. An integrated data envelopment analysis-artificial neural network approach for benchmarking of bank branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrollahpour, Elsa; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, Farhad; Zandieh, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency and quality of services are crucial to today's banking industries. The competition in this section has become increasingly intense, as a result of fast improvements in Technology. Therefore, performance analysis of the banking sectors attracts more attention these days. Even though data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a pioneer approach in the literature as of an efficiency measurement tool and finding benchmarks, it is on the other hand unable to demonstrate the possible future benchmarks. The drawback to it could be that the benchmarks it provides us with, may still be less efficient compared to the more advanced future benchmarks. To cover for this weakness, artificial neural network is integrated with DEA in this paper to calculate the relative efficiency and more reliable benchmarks of one of the Iranian commercial bank branches. Therefore, each branch could have a strategy to improve the efficiency and eliminate the cause of inefficiencies based on a 5-year time forecast.

  16. Generating new blood flow: integrating developmental biology and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Krenning, Guido; Moonen, Jan-Renier A J; van Luyn, Marja J A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2008-11-01

    Vascular tissue engineering aims to restore blood flow by seeding artificial tubular scaffolds with endothelial and smooth muscle cells, thus creating bioartificial blood vessels. Herein, the progenitors of smooth muscle and endothelial cells hold great promise because they efficiently differentiate and harbor longevity. In this review, we describe a novel tissue engineering approach that uses current insights from developmental biology, that is, progenitor cell plasticity, and the latest advances in biomaterial design. We focus specifically on developmental processes that regulate progenitor cell (trans)differentiation and offer a platform for the integration of these molecular clues into biomaterial design. We propose a novel engineering paradigm for the creation of a small-diameter blood vessel wherein progenitor cell differentiation and tissue organization are instructed by the biomaterial solely. With this review, we emphasize the power of integrating developmental biology and material science for vascular tissue engineering. PMID:19345319

  17. Specificity of 136 patient's antibodies to human red blood cells in Dr. Max Peralta J Hospital Blood Bank 2004-February 2009.

    PubMed

    Cerdas-Quesada, César

    2010-04-01

    The development of alloantibodies and erythrocyte autoantibodies complicates transfusion therapy. The antibodies detection of potential clinical significance in 136 samples of Dr. Max Peralta J Hospital Blood Bank patients, Cartago, Costa Rica between 2004 and February, 2009 were evaluated. Transfusion of phenotypically matched blood for Rh and Kell systems proved to be effective in preventing alloimmunization because it been found in this study that there is good evidence that a high proportion of antibodies produced in response to transfusion are Rh and K specificity. PMID:20100667

  18. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, João E.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

  19. Integrated Framework for Information Security in Mobile Banking Service Based on Smart Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Nyuo; Chun, Myung Geun

    Since Apple launched the iPhone service in November 2009 in Korea, smartphone banking users are increasing dramatically, forcing lenders to develop new products to deal with such demand. The bank of korea took the lead in jointing together to create a mobile banking application that each bank can adapt for its own use. In providing smartphone services, it is of critical importance to take the proper security measures, because these services, while offering excellent mobility and convenience, can be easily exposed to various infringement threats. This paper proposes a security framework that should be taken into account by the joint smartphone-based mobile banking development project. The purpose of this paper lies in recognizing the value of smartphones as well as the security threats that are exposed when smartphones are introduced, and provides countermeasures against those threats, so that an integrated information security framework for reliable smartphone-based mobile financial services can be prepared, by explicitly presenting the difference between personal computers and smartphones from the perspective of security.

  20. Portable blood extraction device integrated with biomedical monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumpuang, S.; Horade, M.; Fujioka, K.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Painless and portable blood extraction device has been immersed in the world of miniaturization on bio-medical research particularly in manufacturing point-of-care systems. The fabrication of a blood extraction device integrated with an electrolyte-monitoring system is reported in this paper. The device has advantages in precise controlled dosage of blood extracted including the slightly damaged blood vessels and nervous system. The in-house blood diagnostic will become simple for the patients. Main components of the portable system are; the blood extraction device and electrolyte-monitoring system. The monitoring system consists of ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) for measuring the concentration level of minerals in blood. In this work, we measured the level of 3 ions; Na+, K+ and Cl-. The mentioned ions are frequently required the measurement since their concentration levels in the blood can indicate whether the kidney, pancreas, liver or heart is being malfunction. The fabrication of the whole system and experimentation on each ISM (Ion Sensitive Membrane) will be provided. Taking the advantages of LIGA technology, the 100 hollow microneedles fabricated by Synchrotron Radiation deep X-ray lithography through PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique have been consisted in 5x5 mm2 area. The microneedle is 300 μm in base-diameter, 500 μm-pitch, 800 μm-height and 50 μm hole-diameter. The total size of the blood extraction device is 2x2x2 cm 3. The package is made from a plastic socket including slots for inserting microneedle array and ISFET connecting to an electrical circuit for the monitoring. Through the dimensional design for simply handling and selection of disposable material, the patients can self-evaluate the critical level of the body minerals in anywhere and anytime.

  1. Banking Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) Stem Cells: Awareness, Attitude and Expectations of Potential Donors from One of the Largest Potential Repository (India)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deeksha

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of Umbilical Cord blood (UCB) stem cells is emerging as a non-invasive, efficacious alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, metabolic disorders and immune deficiencies. Aim of the present study was to determine the level of awareness about banking UCB among pregnant women in India. We also assessed patient perception for banking of UCB and explored the patient expectations of banking UCB in future. This is the first study to assess current attitudes, in a sample population of potential donors from one of the largest potential UCB repository (India). Obtaining this information may help optimize recruitment efforts and improve patient education. Material and Method Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 254 pregnant women in the final analysis. Results We established only 26.5% pregnant women in our study population knew what exactly is meant by UCB. A large proportion (55.1%) was undecided on whether they want to bank UCB or not. Women were more aware of the more advertised private cord blood banking compared to public banking. More than half of the pregnant women expected their obstetrician to inform them regarding UCB. One-third of the women in our population had undue expectations from banking of the UCB. Conclusion Obstetricians should play a more active role in explaining the patients regarding pros and cons of UCB banking. PMID:27228155

  2. Business on hope: a case study on private cord blood stem cell banking.

    PubMed

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2008-04-01

    Traditionally, medical practice has been recognized as one of the professional practices with high honors. The interaction between physicians and patients is to provide health care services without the profit orientation. In modernized economy and in today's world of business, the relationship between doctors and patients has been dramatically changed. This transformation is very obvious in the private sector. Health care providers sell their services. Patients have been approached as customers. Decisions to make an investment on new medical technologies or new services would accompany with careful consideration on cost-benefit ratio, on marketing and also on short and long term return of the investment. However most of the medical services available in the past were focusing on the "real" and "tangible" products. This means that the patients or the customers would obtain diagnosis, treatment, palliation or prevention for the fees they paid. They can at least obtain and can feel some direct or indirect health benefits from the services. With the advancement of science and technology, there is recently a new model of business that sells only the hope for future use. Private cord blood stem cell banking is a good example for this business model. Actually, business on hope is not the brand new business model. Insurance is a well-known classical prototype of business on hope. However, when this kind of business model is applied for medical services, there should be some precautions and also intervention including an oversight system from the government sector to make sure that all the information delivered to the clients and family is accurate and unbiased. From the public policy perspective, this business of hope should be appropriately regulated to preserve consumer rights while promoting the advancement of science and technology through sustainable business development. PMID:18556871

  3. Family directed umbilical cord blood banking for acute leukemia: usage rate in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Screnci, M; Murgi, E; Tamburini, A; Pecci, M R; Ballatore, G; Cusanno, A; Valle, V; Luciani, P; Corona, F; Girelli, G

    2015-04-01

    Family-directed umbilical cord blood (UCB) collection and banking is indicated in women delivering healthy babies who already have a member of their own family with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) transplantation (HSCT). The rapid availability of UCB is an important issue in HSCs procurement particularly for recipients with acute leukemia who urgently need HSCT. The aims of this study were to assess the usage rate of family UCB collections directed to patients with acute leukemia and to investigate the factors influencing the usage rate. A total of 113 families were enrolled, 118 UCB units were successfully collected and one collection failed due to emergency occurred during delivery. Among these, 7 collections were required for children who were in urgent need of a transplant: three HLA-matched units were successfully transplanted, respectively after 2, 5 and 6 months from collection; three collections resulted HLA-mismatched, while HLA-typing is pending for one unit. The remaining collections were mostly required for potential future use, among these units only one was transplanted in a HLA compatible sibling after 3 years and 4 months from collection. After a median time of storage of 8.5 years (range 0.1-20 years) a total of 4/118 (3.4 %) collection has been transplanted. During this time interval, considering only patients who have had the need of a transplant, the main factor influencing low utilization rate of UCB collections was due to HLA disparity, indeed among typed UCB unit mostly (77 %) resulted HLA mismatched with the intended recipient. PMID:25504378

  4. An experience of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue Innova) in a regional acute hospital.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuk Wah; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova) in a hospital blood bank by considering the performance and workflow as compared with manual methods. The turnaround time was found to be 45% faster than the manual method. The concordance rate was found to be 100% for both ABO/Rh(D) typing and antibody screening in both of the systems and there was no significant difference in detection sensitivity for clinically significant antibodies. The Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova automated blood banking system streamlined the routine pre-transfusion testing in hospital blood bank with high throughput, equivalent sensitivity and reliability as compared with conventional manual method. PMID:25863409

  5. NIR-integrating sphere spectroscopy to determine various blood properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Martina; Friebel, Moritz; Gersonde, Ingo H.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    Near infrared integrating sphere spectroscopy and chemometric multivariate calibration were applied to determine hematocrit (HCT) and oxygen saturation (O2Sat) of circulating human blood. The diffuse reflectance were measured and the partial least square method (PLS) was used for calibration considering different wavelength ranges. The HCT and the O2Sat could be predicted with a root mean square error (PRMSE) of 1.9% and 2.8% respectively, using PLS. Each parameter was adjusted to various levels, and three measurement series from blood of three different donors were carried out for the calibration with the PLS. The calibration includes changes in hemolysis and osmolarity as well as inter-individual differences in cell dimensions and hemoglobin content. Prediction of hemolysis was also possible for one blood sample with a PRMSE of 0.8%.

  6. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  7. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  8. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood. PMID:22094609

  9. Accuracy and cost-benefit of pooled versus singleton screening blood donations for anti-HIV: impact on different blood bank set-ups.

    PubMed

    Novack, Lena; Pliskin, Joseph S; Shinar, Eilat; Safi, Jamal; Sarov, Batia

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and cost-benefit of implementing a pooled screening procedure in blood banks in general and especially in developing countries. The sensitivity of pooled testing was found to be relatively high, with the lowest levels estimated at about 98% for pools consisting of three, six, and 12 samples. Screening in pools of up to 12 samples is expected to be economically beneficial in countries with HIV prevalence rates of 8-10%, which cannot afford the cost of care for an HIV-infected patient. PMID:17034705

  10. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north india

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348

  11. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA. PMID:23943126

  12. Integration and Modulation of Intercellular Signaling Underlying Blood Flow Control

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular resistance networks control tissue blood flow in concert with regulating arterial perfusion pressure. In response to increased metabolic demand, vasodilation arising in arteriolar networks ascends to encompass proximal feed arteries. By reducing resistance upstream, ascending vasodilation (AVD) increases blood flow into the microcirculation. Once initiated [e.g., through local activation of K+ channels in endothelial cells (ECs)], hyperpolarization is conducted through gap junctions along the endothelium. Via EC projections through the internal elastic lamina, hyperpolarization spreads into the surrounding smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) to promote their relaxation. Intercellular signaling through electrical signal transmission (i.e., cell-to-cell conduction) can thereby coordinate vasodilation along and among the branches of microvascular resistance networks. Perivascular sympathetic nerve fibers course through the adventitia and release norepinephrine to stimulate SMCs via α-adrenoreceptors to produce contraction. In turn, SMCs can signal ECs through MEGJs to activate K+ channels and attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction. Activation of K+ channels along the endothelium will dissipate electrical signal transmission and inhibit AVD, thereby restricting blood flow into the microcirculation while maintaining peripheral resistance and perfusion pressure. This review explores the origins and nature of intercellular signaling governing blood flow control in skeletal muscle with respect to the interplay between AVD and sympathetic innervation. Whereas these interactions are integral to physical daily activity and athletic performance, resolving the interplay between respective signaling events provides insight into how selective interventions can improve tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery during vascular disease. PMID:26368324

  13. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. PMID:23806567

  14. Integrated Nanoplasmonic Sensing for Cellular Functional Immunoanalysis Using Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanoplasmonic effects allow for label-free, real-time detection of biomolecule binding events on a nanostructured metallic surface with simple optics and sensing tunability. Despite numerous reports on LSPR bionanosensing in the past, no study thus far has applied the technique for a cytokine secretion assay using clinically relevant immune cells from human blood. Cytokine secretion assays, a technique to quantify intercellular-signaling proteins secreted by blood immune cells, allow determination of the functional response of the donor’s immune cells, thus providing valuable information about the immune status of the donor. However, implementation of LSPR bionanosensing in cellular functional immunoanalysis based on a cytokine secretion assay poses major challenges primarily owing to its limited sensitivity and a lack of sufficient sample handling capability. In this paper, we have developed a label-free LSPR biosensing technique to detect cell-secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in clinical blood samples. Our approach integrates LSPR bionanosensors in an optofluidic platform that permits trapping and stimulation of target immune cells in a microfluidic chamber with optical access for subsequent cytokine detection. The on-chip spatial confinement of the cells is the key to rapidly increasing a cytokine concentration high enough for detection by the LSPR setup, thereby allowing the assay time and sample volume to be significantly reduced. We have successfully applied this approach first to THP-1 cells and then later to CD45 cells isolated directly from human blood. Our LSPR optofluidics device allows for detection of TNF-α secreted from cells as few as 1000, which translates into a nearly 100 times decrease in sample volume than conventional cytokine secretion assay techniques require. We achieved cellular functional immunoanalysis with a minimal blood sample volume (3 μL) and a total assay time 3 times

  15. Using a technological community framework to manage new medical technologies. The case of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking.

    PubMed

    Rusinko, C A; Sesok-Pizzini, D A

    2003-01-01

    A technological community framework can be used to explain and manage new medical technologies. It describes emergence, commercialization, and standardization of an innovation or technology within the context of its whole network (or community) of stakeholders. This framework is used to illustrate the emergence, commercialization, and standardization of a relatively new medical technology--umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking. Umbilical cord blood may prove to be a source of stem cells for bone marrow transplant that is safer, more accessible, and less expensive than current sources of stem cells. The technological community framework can signal potential problems as the technology emerges, and help healthcare delivery systems and providers to effectively assess and manage the technology. The framework can also be applied to other medical technologies and innovations. PMID:14730796

  16. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion. PMID:23563364

  17. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  18. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  19. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  20. The Cord Blood Apgar: a novel scoring system to optimize selection of banked cord blood grafts for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Zhang, Lijun; Mendizabal, Adam; Wease, Stephen; Carter, Shelly; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Engraftment failure and delays, likely due to diminished cord blood unit (CBU) potency, remain major barriers to the overall success of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). To address this problem, we developed and retrospectively validated a novel scoring system, the Cord Blood Apgar (CBA), which is predictive of engraftment after UCBT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In a single-center retrospective study, utilizing a database of 435 consecutive single cord myeloablative UCBTs performed between January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008, precryopreservation and postthaw graft variables (total nucleated cell, CD34+, colony-forming units, mononuclear cell content, and volume) were initially correlated with neutrophil engraftment. Subsequently, based on the magnitude of hazard ratios (HRs) in univariate analysis, a weighted scoring system to predict CBU potency was developed using a randomly selected training data set and internally validated on the remaining data set. RESULTS The CBA assigns transplanted CBUs three scores: a precryopreservation score (PCS), a postthaw score (PTS), and a composite score (CS), which incorporates the PCS and PTS values. CBA-PCS scores, which could be used for initial unit selection, were predictive of neutrophil (CBA-PCS ≥ 7.75 vs. <7.75, HR 3.5; p < 0.0001) engraftment. Likewise, CBA-PTS and CS scores were strongly predictive of Day 42 neutrophil engraftment (CBA-PTS ≥ 9.5 vs. <9.5, HR 3.16, p < 0.0001; CBA-CS ≥ 17.75 vs. <17.75, HR 4.01, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION The CBA is strongly predictive of engraftment after UCBT and shows promise for optimizing screening of CBU donors for transplantation. In the future, a segment could be assayed for the PTS score providing data to apply the CS for final CBU selection. PMID:21810098

  1. 75 FR 26759 - Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...``Government agencies,'' as defined in section 1128E(g)(3) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320a-7e(g)(3)), that are not in compliance with the reporting requirements of the HIPDB will have their names published in a report on the HRSA and Data Bank Web sites (http:/ /www.hrsa.gov and http://www.npdb-hipdb.hrsa.gov) by July 1, 2010. This listing of non-compliant Government agencies will......

  2. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  3. Cord blood banking: regulations, ethics and practice in a disputed Italian case.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2012-01-01

    Current Italian regulations allow the free storage in public biobanks within the Italian National Health Service (SSN) of voluntarily donated cord blood, which can then be made available for transplantation in Italian and foreign patients. The same regulations allow the free storage of cord blood for directed use (in other words, for all cases in which it can be used for a family member suffering from a disease that can be cured through the use of hematopoietic stem cells) and in cases where a family runs a high risk of genetic disorders. This article briefly describes and discusses an episode involving an Italian hospital: an appeal by a woman led to a court provision imposing the collection and storage of a cord blood unit outside the conditions established by law. The provision aroused controversy and led to a series of inappropriate actions. PMID:22362241

  4. Blood transfusion safety: A study of adverse reactions at the blood bank of a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Gita; Gaur, Dushyant Singh; Kaur, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    Background: An adverse transfusion reaction (ATR) is an unfavorable reaction to the transfused unit, the severity of which may be different among individuals depending upon the type of reaction and the patient's susceptibility. Transfusion reactions may be immediate or delayed type depending on the onset and immune or nonimmune type depending on the pathogenesis. A study was conducted to study the frequency of various transfusion reactions and the associated morbidity. Materials and Methods: All ATRs occurring over a period of 3 years at a tertiary care health center were studied in detail according to the institute's protocol. Results: Of 38,013 units of blood and components that had been issued, 101 (0.2%) cases had an ATR. The most common reaction was allergic - 34/101 (33.6%) followed by febrile - 26/101 (25.7%). Other reactions included transfusion-related acute lung injury in 6/101 (5.9%) cases, and immune reactions were seen in 19/101 (18.8%) cases. Conclusion: Allergic and febrile reactions are most common and least harmful, but fatal reactions can also occur, and preventive measures must be taken to avoid such reactions. PMID:26682203

  5. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage

    PubMed Central

    Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions. PMID:26121269

  6. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions. PMID:26121269

  7. Rotary blood pump control using integrated inlet pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Cysyk, Joshua; Jhun, Choon-Sik; Newswanger, Ray; Weiss, William; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2011-01-01

    Due to improved reliability and reduced risk of thromboembolic events, continuous flow left ventricular assist devices are being used more commonly as a long term treatment for end-stage heart failure. As more and more patients with these devices are leaving the hospital, a reliable control system is needed that can adjust pump support in response to changes in physiologic demand. An inlet pressure sensor has been developed that can be integrated with existing assist devices. A control system has been designed to adjust pump speed based on peak-to-peak changes in inlet pressure. The inlet pressure sensor and control system have been tested with the HeartMate II axial flow blood pump using a mock circulatory loop and an active left ventricle model. The closed loop control system increased total systemic flow and reduced ventricular load following a change in preload as compared to fixed speed control. The increase in systemic flow occurred under all operating conditions, and maximum unloading occurred in the case of reduced ventricular contractility. PMID:22254326

  8. Local, integrated control of blood flow: Professor Tudor Griffith Memorial.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David H

    2013-11-01

    Professor Tudor Griffith was one of the founding members of the European Study Group on Cardiovascular Oscillations, and hosted the 1st ESGCO Conference in Cardiff, Wales in 2000. Tudor was a passionate scientist, who managed to combine his enthusiasm for vascular biology with his background in physics, to make key and insightful advances to our knowledge and understanding of the integrated vascular control mechanisms that co-ordinate blood flow in tissue perfusion. He had a particular interest in the endothelium, the monolayer of cells that lines the entire cardiovascular system and which is in prime position to sense a wide variety of modulatory stimuli, both chemical and mechanical. Over the last 20 years Tudor produced a series of research papers in which he used chaos theory to analyse the behaviour of arteries that underpins vasomotion. The research led to the development of mathematical models that were able to predict calcium oscillations in vascular smooth muscle with a view to predicting events in a complete virtual artery. This article will review the field in which he worked, with an obvious emphasis on his contribution. PMID:23522722

  9. Directed sibling donor cord blood banking for children with beta-thalassemia major in Greece: usage rate and outcome of transplantation for HLA-matched units.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Petrakou, Eftichia; Theodosaki, Maria; Kitra, Vasiliki; Peristeri, Ioulia; Vessalas, George; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Papassavas, Andreas C; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Several cord blood banks store cord blood units from healthy siblings of patients, who are candidates for stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the quality characteristics of 50 cord blood units collected from families with beta-thalassemia major and the outcome of subsequent stem cell transplantations during a 15-year period. All cord blood units were found suitable for banking based on a minimum net volume of 40 ml. The mean volume of the units was 98.9 ml; the mean total nucleated cell count (NC) was 7.8 x 10(8) and the mean CD34+ cell count was 2.8 x 10(6). Eight out of twelve HLA matched collections were released for transplantation. All but one recipient belonged to Pesaro II-III risk classes. Three patients received a cord blood graft with >5 x 10(7) NC/kg . One of them with Pesaro class I disease engrafted, whereas the other two who failed to engraft, were re-transplanted with bone marrow from the same donor later. Cord blood grafts containing NCs <4 x 10(7)/kg combined with reduced volume bone marrow from the same donor were used in all 5 remaining cases and stable engraftment was achieved. All patients survived, 7/8 thalassemia-free. Cord blood banking from healthy siblings of children with beta-thalassemia major can result in a successful transplantation in cases in which there is HLA compatibility. However, in high-risk patients, the use of combined cord blood and bone marrow grafts seems necessary in order to ensure stable engraftment, especially when cord blood unit cell counts are low. PMID:19931473

  10. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. PMID:24971040

  11. MethBank: a database integrating next-generation sequencing single-base-resolution DNA methylation programming data.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dong; Sun, Shixiang; Li, Rujiao; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays crucial roles during embryonic development. Here we present MethBank (http://dnamethylome.org), a DNA methylome programming database that integrates the genome-wide single-base nucleotide methylomes of gametes and early embryos in different model organisms. Unlike extant relevant databases, MethBank incorporates the whole-genome single-base-resolution methylomes of gametes and early embryos at multiple different developmental stages in zebrafish and mouse. MethBank allows users to retrieve methylation levels, differentially methylated regions, CpG islands, gene expression profiles and genetic polymorphisms for a specific gene or genomic region. Moreover, it offers a methylome browser that is capable of visualizing high-resolution DNA methylation profiles as well as other related data in an interactive manner and thus is of great helpfulness for users to investigate methylation patterns and changes of gametes and early embryos at different developmental stages. Ongoing efforts are focused on incorporation of methylomes and related data from other organisms. Together, MethBank features integration and visualization of high-resolution DNA methylation data as well as other related data, enabling identification of potential DNA methylation signatures in different developmental stages and accordingly providing an important resource for the epigenetic and developmental studies. PMID:25294826

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  13. Quality management series. How we implemented TQM in our laboratory and our blood bank.

    PubMed

    Beesley, J; Helton, H D; Merkley, A; Swalberg, E D

    1993-01-01

    Our experience in laboratory and blood services at LDS Hospital within Intermountain Health Care (IHC) is evidence that the theories behind total quality management (TQM) can be implemented into daily work. Some of the changes and results we have seen are increased employee accountability, paradigm shifts, process improvements, assessment using tools and measurement, increased customer and employee satisfaction, and cost savings. Some areas of the new TQM culture that we have focused on and made tremendous strides in are education in continuous quality improvement (CQI), CQI teams, quality councils, vision setting, self-managed work groups, change of management style, and celebrating success. We have learned that changes in culture take time and patience; managers must be willing to change their style; the CQI process and tools must be used; building trust and aligning values are important; education is key; making mistakes is how we learn; a customer focus is vital; significant change follows finding root causes; and we must just do it and not worry about all the little details. To make the change to a TQM culture, an organization must have faith in its employees, educate them, and be customer focused! PMID:10126513

  14. Scientific innovation's two Valleys of Death: how blood and tissue banks can help to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sean D A

    2014-12-01

    Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation's inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process. PMID:25457967

  15. Scientific Innovation's Two Valleys of Death: How Blood and Tissue Banks Can Help to Bridge the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sean D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation’s inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process. PMID:25457967

  16. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the reporting requirements established for the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) (See 45 CFR part... practitioners. Section 1128E of the Act also directs the Secretary to maintain a database of final...

  17. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the reporting requirements established for the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) (See 45 CFR part... into the HIPDB, NPDB, or both. (c) The regulations in this part set forth the reporting and...

  18. [Evolution of knowledge on blood and its movement. 1st Part. Integration of circulatory doctrine. Iatrophysics of blood].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    Under the light of the evolution of human knowledge, we present a short historic outline of the integrating steps of the blood circulation doctrine and its components, a starting point for ulterior studies on the function of blood in the economy of an organism. The different steps of the process leading to the integration and diffusion of the blood circulation doctrine are described. These go from the first descriptions of the heart structures by authors of the ancient world to the careful anatomical observations of Renaissance scientists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. Towards the middle of the sixteenth century, the first well-known descriptions of pulmonary circulation were made independently by Miguel Servet and Realdo Colombo. Later, William Harvey, based on the experimental quantitative method according to Galileo's thought, described and studied systemic circulation. The vicissitudes encountered by the circulation doctrine are also disclosed. At the beginning, this concept was rejected by the traditional milieu--such as the Sorbonne of Paris--, but was accepted by the young and innovative researchers in both England and Continental Europe. In the second half of the seventeenth century and the first half of the eighteenth, the blood circulation doctrine was finally accepted and spread throughout Europe and the American continent. Furthermore, this doctrine inspired the medical practice of intravenous injections and blood transfusions. Its evolution, as generally occurs in the evolution of scientific thinking, allowed to reject some believes deeply rooted in the doctrine's constituent structure, i.e., the Renaissance spell of circularity. PMID:15791915

  19. Development of an Integrated Hydrologic Model to Explore the Feasibility of Water Banking and Markets in the Southwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, R. C.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G.; Bassett, S.; Gupta, H.; Brookshire, D.

    2005-12-01

    Researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) are conducting SAHRA-related research aimed at developing an integrated physical and engineering hydrologic model for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of water banking and markets in the Rio Grande watershed. The main components of the integrated model will include a detailed representation of system behavior in (1) headwater areas (snow accumulation and melt); (2) surface reservoirs and conveyance systems (operational surface reservoirs, river routing, and diversions/returns); (3) regional and near river aquifers; (4) agricultural demand and uses; and (5) urban and industrial demand and uses. Existing models of several of these components have been identified and will be included, to some degree, in the final integrated model (e.g., URGWOM, MMS-PRMS, and various USGS groundwater models). Coupling of existing and new models of each component to create the final completely integrated model requires a detailed understanding of the problem requirements (what questions are being asked) and the data (what information is available in the hydrologic data). Once developed and tested, the integrated model will be used with the economic "Market" model and "Behavior" model to investigate several water market and banking scenarios.

  20. Restoration of intracellular ATP production in banked red blood cells improves inducible ATP export and suppresses RBC-endothelial adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S.; Hanna, Gabi; Hendargo, Hansford C.

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion of banked red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Storage-induced alterations in RBC glycolytic flux, attenuated ATP export, and microvascular adhesion of transfused RBCs in vivo could contribute, but the underlying mechanisms have not been tested. We tested the novel hypothesis that improving deoxygenation-induced metabolic flux and the associated intracellular ATP generation in stored RBCs (sRBCs) results in an increased extracellular ATP export and suppresses microvascular adhesion of RBCs to endothelium in vivo following transfusion. We show deficient intracellular ATP production and ATP export by human sRBCs during deoxygenation (impairments ∼42% and 49%, respectively). sRBC pretreatment with a solution containing glycolytic intermediate/purine/phosphate precursors (i.e., “PIPA”) restored deoxygenation-induced intracellular ATP production and promoted extracellular ATP export (improvement ∼120% and 50%, respectively). In a nude mouse model of transfusion, adhesion of human RBCs to the microvasculature in vivo was examined. Only 2% of fresh RBCs (fRBCs) transfused adhered to the vascular wall, compared with 16% of sRBCs transfused. PIPA pretreatment of sRBCs significantly reduced adhesion to just 5%. In hypoxia, adhesion of sRBCs transfused was significantly augmented (up to 21%), but not following transfusion of fRBCs or PIPA-treated sRBCs (3.5% or 6%). Enhancing the capacity for deoxygenation-induced glycolytic flux within sRBCs increases their ability to generate intracellular ATP, improves the inducible export of extracellular anti-adhesive ATP, and consequently suppresses adhesion of stored, transfused RBCs to the vascular wall in vivo. PMID:25305182

  1. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices. PMID:23615067

  2. Mapping Depositional Facies on Great Bahama Bank: An Integration of Groundtruthing and Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariss, M.; Purkis, S.; Ellis, J. M.; Swart, P. K.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Great Bahama Bank (GBB) has been used in many models to illustrate depositional facies variation across flat-topped, isolated carbonate platforms. Such models have served as subsurface analogs at a variety of scales. In this presentation we have integrated Landsat TM imagery, a refined bathymetric digital elevation model, and seafloor sample data compiled into ArcGIS and analyzed with eCognition to develop a depositional facies map that is more robust than previous versions. For the portion of the GBB lying to the west of Andros Island, the facies map was generated by pairing an extensive set of GPS-constrained field observations and samples (n=275) (Reijmer et al., 2009, IAS Spec Pub 41) with computer and manual interpretation of the Landsat imagery. For the remainder of the platform, which lacked such rigorous ground-control, the Landsat imagery was segmented into lithotopes - interpreted to be distinct bodies of uniform sediment - using a combination of edge detection, spectral and textural analysis, and manual editing. A map was then developed by assigning lithotopes to facies classes on the basis of lessons derived from the portion of the platform for which we had rigorous conditioning. The new analysis reveals that GBB is essentially a very grainy platform with muddier accumulations only in the lee of substantial island barriers; in this regard Andros Island, which is the largest island on GBB, exerts a direct control over the muddiest portion of GBB. Mudstones, wackestones, and mud-rich packstones cover 7%, 6%, and 15%, respectively, of the GBB platform top. By contrast, mud-poor packstones, grainstones, and rudstones account for 19%, 44%, and 3%, respectively. Of the 44% of the platform-top classified as grainstone, only 4% is composed of 'high-energy' deposits characterized by the development of sandbar complexes. The diversity and size of facies bodies is broadly the same on the eastern and western limb of the GBB platform, though the narrower eastern

  3. Strategies for the transfusion of subjects with complex red cell immunisation: the Bank of rare blood donors of the Region of Lombardy

    PubMed Central

    Morelati, Fernanda; Arnaboldi, Piera; Barocci, Fiorella; Bodini, Umberto; Boiani, Elisa; Bresciani, Susanna; Cambiè, Giuseppe; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Cocco, Ernesto; Copeta, Alessandro; Crotti, Massimo; D’Agostino, Francesco; D’Agostino, Marco; Focchiatti, Valeria; Fonti, Elena; Galassi, Luigi; Gazzola, Giambattista; Gelpi, Luigi; Greppi, Noemi; Inghilleri, Giovanni Battista; Isernia, Paola; Manera, Maria Cristina; Marini, Mirella; Monti, Rosalia; Morales, Rino; Moroni, Gianalessandro; Morra, Enrica; Pau, Maria Paola; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Prati, Daniele; Revelli, Nicoletta; Rinaldini, Claudia; Rossi, Davide; Rossi, Fabio; Salvaneschi, Laura; Sciariada, Luca; Sergiacomo, Pierluigi; Tiburzi, Alessandra; Trotti, Roberta; Turdo, Rosalia; Velati, Claudio; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Vismara, Giuseppina; Vitali, Elisabetta; Marconi, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Selecting units of rare blood for transfusion to patients with complex immunisation is one of the most critical processes of a Transfusion Centre. In January 2005 the ‘Rare Blood Components Bank – Reference Centre of the Region of Lombardy’ w as established with the following goals: 1) identifying regional rare blood donors; 2) creating a regional registry of rare donors; 3) organising a regional bank of liquid and frozen rare blood units; 4) setting up a regional Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory (IRL) to type donors and resolve complex cases. Methods The key elements in establishing the Bank were periodic meetings organised by the directors and representatives of the regional Departments of Transfusion Medicine and Haematology (DTMH) and the institution of three working groups (informatics, regulations, finance). Results The regional IRL was set up, the relevant operating procedures were distributed region-wide, software features were defined and later validated upon activation, and the funds assigned were allocated to various cost items. The number and characteristics of the donors to be typed were identified and 14 regional DTMHs started to send samples. Overall, 20,714 donors were typed, for a total of 258,003 typings, and 2,880 rare donors were identified. Of these, 97% were rare donors because of combinations of antigens (2,139 negative for the S antigen and 659 negative for the s antigen) and 3% (n=82) because they were negative for high-frequency antigens. In the first 2 years of activity, the IRL carried out investigations of 140 complex cases referred from other Centres and distributed 2,024 units with rare phenotypes to 142 patients. Conclusions The main goal achieved in the first 24 months from the start of the project was to set up a regional network able to meet the transfusion needs of patients with complex immunisation. PMID:19204778

  4. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  5. Integrating Technology into Teacher Education: A Review of Bank Street's Project EXPERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marvin; Brunner, Cornelia

    This paper examines the Bank Street College of Education's efforts to infuse technology into all aspects of graduate teacher education. Entitled Project EXPERT (Expanding Educational Repertoire through Technology), the effort called for graduate school faculty to learn to use technology in their own classrooms and to redesign their courses,…

  6. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the reporting requirements established for the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) (See 45 CFR part...) Section 1128E of the Social Security Act (the Act) authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services... practitioners. Section 1128E of the Act also directs the Secretary to maintain a database of final...

  7. A Case Study: Using Integrated Approach to Design a Net-Zero Bank Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-26

    This paper describes a real life project conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and PNC Financial Services Group's design team. This is a demonstration project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Partnerships Program, the goal of which is to design and construct a new-zero energy bank branch in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

  8. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community. PMID:25665523

  9. Integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter designed to enable wafer-level packaging.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshinori; Goma, Masaki; Onoe, Atsushi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a new sensor structure for an integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter that consists of two silicon cavities with a PD and laser diode inside each cavity. A silicon lid formed with a converging microlens completes the package. This structure, which was achieved using micromachining techniques, features reduced optical power loss in the sensor, resulting in its small size and significantly low power consumption. Measurements using a model tissue blood flow system confirmed that the new sensor had high linearity and a wide dynamic range for measuring tissue blood flow. PMID:20199932

  10. Impact of preanalytical handling and timing for peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolation and RNA studies: the experience of the Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM).

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Ludovici, Giorgia; Leone, Barbara; Savonarola, Annalisa; Ialongo, Cristiano; Spila, Antonella; De Angelis, Francesco; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2012-01-01

    Multicenter studies and biobanking projects require blood transportation from the participating center to a central collection or diagnostic laboratory. The impact of time delays between venous blood collection and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolation prior to RNA extraction may affect the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids for genomic applications. Thus, standard operating procedure (SOP) optimization for the treatment of biological samples before RNA extraction is crucial in a biological repository. In order to define SOPs for whole blood preservation prior to RNA extraction, we sought to determine whether different blood storage times (0, 3, 6, 10, 24, and 30 hours) prior to PBMCs isolation and storage at -80°C, could affect the quality and quantity of extracted RNA. After spectrophotometric quantification, the quality and integrity of RNA were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, RNA integrity number and real time-PCR (RT-PCR).
Across the different time points we did not observe significant differences within the first 24 hours of blood storage at room temperature, while a significant loss in RNA yield and integrity was detected between 24 and 30 hours. We conclude that time delays before PBMCs isolation prior to RNA extraction may have a significant impact on downstream molecular biological applications. PMID:22562396

  11. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking. PMID:26030051

  12. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges.

    PubMed

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc

    2011-07-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients. PMID:21377319

  13. Generating a Non-Integrating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Bank from Urine-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yanting; Cai, Xiujuan; Wang, Linli; Liao, Baojian; Zhang, Hui; Shan, Yongli; Chen, Qianyu; Zhou, Tiancheng; Li, Xirui; Hou, Jundi; Chen, Shubin; Luo, Rongping; Qin, Dajiang; Pei, Duanqing; Pan, Guangjin

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and disease modeling. We describe here a practical method to generate human iPS cells from urine-derived cells (UCs) under feeder-free, virus-free, serum-free condition and without oncogene c-MYC. We showed that this approach could be applied in a large population with different genetic backgrounds. UCs are easily accessible and exhibit high reprogramming efficiency, offering advantages over other cell types used for the purpose of iPS generation. Using the approach described in this study, we have generated 93 iPS cell lines from 20 donors with diverse genetic backgrounds. The non-viral iPS cell bank with these cell lines provides a valuable resource for iPS cells research, facilitating future applications of human iPS cells. PMID:23940595

  14. Automated and integrated system for high-throughput DNA genotyping directly from blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Tan, H; Yeung, E S

    1999-03-15

    An automated and integrated system for DNA typing directly from blood samples has been developed. The multiplexed eight-array system is based on capillary microfluidics and capillary array electrophoresis. Three short-tandem-repeat loci, vWA, THO1, and TPOX, are coamplified simultaneously in a fused-silica capillary by a hot-air thermocycler. Blood is directly used as the sample for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) without any pretreatment. Modifications of standard protocols are necessary for direct PCR from blood. A programmable syringe pump plus a set of multiplexed liquid nitrogen freeze/thaw switching valves are employed for liquid handling in the fluid distribution network. The system fully integrates sample loading, PCR, addition of an absolute standard, on-line injection of sample and standards, separation and detection. The genotypes from blood samples can be clearly identified in eight parallel channels when the electropherograms are compared with that of the standard allelic ladder by itself. Regeneration and cleaning of the entire system prior to subsequent runs are also integrated into the instrument. The instrumentation is compatible with future expansion to hundreds of capillaries to achieve even higher throughput. PMID:10093495

  15. Cryopreservation of blood mononuclear leukocytes and stem cells suspended in a large fluid volume. A preclinical model for a blood stem cell bank.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, T M; Körbling, M; Calvo, W; Bruch, C; Herbst, E

    1977-09-29

    It was the purpose of this study to establish and evaluate a freezing-and-thawing method for preservation of hemopoietic stem cells from the peripheral blood. Blood leukocytes collected by means of an IBM Blood-Cell-Separator were frozen in plastic bags using 10% DMSO and controlled cooling rates. Thawing was performed rapidly, and DMSO was diluted and removed prior to the in-vitro and in-vivo assays. The mean recovery of mononuclear cells collected from 82 leukaphereses was 86%. To assess the recovery of cryopreserved hemopoietic stem cells, the soft agar culture method adapted for the dog was used. There was no significant difference in the CFUc recovery per 1 X 10(6) mononuclear cells or in per leukapheresis after different cryopreservation times (1--6 and 7--27 months). To evaluate the hemopoietic repopulation capability of cryopreserved blood stem cells, leukapheresis-derived leukocytes were transfused into 1200 R whole body x-irradiated dogs. The hemopoietic repopulation pattern at day 10 after transfusion of comparable numbers of fresh or frozen leukocytes was not significantly different, as measured in bone marrow smears and sections and by granulocyte concentration in the peripheral blood. PMID:912104

  16. [Banks of vascular homografts].

    PubMed

    Polvani, G L; Guarino, A; Pompilio, G; Parolari, A; Piccolo, G; Sala, A; Biglioli, P

    2001-01-01

    We define as Banking of the tissues all the procedures that include the finding, preparation, conservation and distribution of the homograft. The vascular homografts are taken and put into a solution of transportation at +4 degrees C and kept at this temperature till their arrival at the Bank. The following step is the dissection of the homograft which will have to be performed as quickly as possible at most 24 hours after the taking in conditions of maximum sterility. At the Italian Homograft Bank at Centro Cardiologico, the vascular homografts are kept at +4 degrees C for 96 hours on average with antibiotics. After a phase of sterilization at +4 degrees C the tissue is frozen according to a homogeneous and controlled thermic decrease and stored at -150 degrees C/-180 degrees C in fumes of liquid nitrogen till the moment of their employment allowing a long term conservation. The aim of all these procedures of cryopreservation is to keep the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. The thermic decrease of the tissues must occur so that to avoid all the damages of the cellular vitality and functionality and especially of the tissue structure in toto. In order to limitate these events some cryoprotector agents are employed because they reduce the concentration of the solutes, the cellular dehydration, the formation of micro-macro crystals. Another step to establish if the homograft is proper is the study of bacteriological and viral aspects. The viral screenings are performed on the donor's blood and the bacteriological tests are performed on the tissue and on the liquids. For each phase of the banking a series of information about the donor and about the tissues are recorded and filed both on paper and database so that to grant always a right conduct of the material. PMID:11552466

  17. Blood banks meet the paradox of Gabriel's Horn: what are the options to maintain supply as demand decreases?

    PubMed

    Beckman, N; Yazer, M; Land, K; Chesneau, S; Caulfield, J

    2016-06-01

    Blood services worldwide have observed a decline in the demand for red blood cells (RBC). Despite this general decline, the demand profile has changed significantly with the demand for O D negative RBCs being maintained; whereas B D positive and AB D positive RBC demand has been reduced. In 2015, the blood type O D negative was seen in 6·3% of the combined first time donors among the five American Blood Centres involved in this study and 7·4% of first time Australian donors in 2014/2015, whereas O D negative distributions accounted for 10·5% of all red cell units issued by the American centres and 13·9% by the Australian centres. Inventory can therefore be of sufficient overall quantity but may not be adequate for the demand for units with specific blood types. Recruitment of new donors may need to become more targeted and/or financial or inventory control measures could also be required to ensure inventory matches demand. Blood Services will need to consider the available options in order to ensure that sufficiency of supply is secure and the donor panel is optimised to meet the new demand paradigm. PMID:27138691

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells from small-volume umbilical cord blood units that do not qualify for the banking system.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Satoshi; Miura, Yasuo; Iwasa, Masaki; Fujishiro, Aya; Yao, Hisayuki; Miura, Masako; Fukuoka, Masaaki; Nakagawa, Yoko; Yokota, Asumi; Hirai, Hideyo; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Maekawa, Taira

    2015-08-01

    The clinical application of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) has been extensively explored. In this study, we examined the availability of freshly donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units that do not qualify for the Japanese banking system for transplantation because of their small volume as a source of MSCs. Forty-five UCB units were used. The median volume of each UCB unit and number of nucleated cells per unit were 40 mL and 5.39 × 10(8), respectively. MSCs were successfully isolated from 18 of 45 units (40 %). The MSC isolation rate was not affected by cell processing method or the interval between delivery and cell processing. The volume of the UCB unit and the mononuclear cell count were predictive factors of the MSC isolation rate. MSCs were effectively isolated by selecting UCB units with a volume of ≥54 mL and containing ≥1.28 × 10(8) mononuclear cells, yielding a MSC isolation rate of >70 %. UCB-derived MSCs were similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs in terms of their morphology, surface marker expression, and differentiation potential, apart from adipogenesis. Our data indicate that UCB units that are currently discarded due to inadequate volume should be reconsidered as a source of MSCs using the well-established UCB banking system. PMID:26121953

  19. An integrated microfluidic chip for immunomagnetic detection and isolation of rare prostate cancer cells from blood.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilsabzali, Hadi; Beischlag, Timothy V; Cox, Michael E; Dechev, Nikolai; Parameswaran, Ash M; Park, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    The quantitative and qualitative analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has the potential to improve the clinical management of several cancers, including prostate cancer. As such, there is much interest in the isolation of CTCs from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. We report the design, fabrication, and proof-of-principle testing of an integrated permalloy-based microfluidic chip for immunomagnetic isolation of blood-borne prostate cancer cells using an antibody targeting prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). The preliminary results using spiked blood samples indicate that the proposed device is consistently capable of isolating prostate cancer cells with high sensitivity (up to 98 %) at clinically relevant low concentrations (down to 20 cells/mL) and an acceptable throughput (100 μL/min). PMID:26876965

  20. Research and fabrication of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on µTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, De; Wei, Jianxia; Tong, Zhengrong; Chen, Caihe; Cui, Yuming; Xu, Kexin; Si, Qin; Li, Chao; Liu, Jie

    2007-01-01

    For simultaneously detecting multi-parameters of blood in the clinical diagnosis, the analysis apparatus should be smaller in size, more reliable and sensitive. So a kind of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on Micro Total Analysis System (μTAS) is presented. It provides modern bio-sensor prospect with a novel technology. A multi-parameters of blood analysis integration sensor is μTAS bio-sensor based on 4 groups of interdigital array (IDA)microelectrodes. The IDA microelectrodes are fabricated on glass substrates by photography, film deposition and other microfabrication techniques. Thin-film gold microelectrode with a thickness of 250nm is deposited on a chromium-adhesion layer. The finger microelectrode width and space are both 10μm. The work space is 2×2cm2. The concentration of Blood sugar, Total Cholesterol, Acetone body and Lactic acid is measured by detecting steady-state limiting currents in IDA microelectrodes modified with enzymes on the "generate-collect" mode. Blood distribution structure is designed and fabricated, to distribute blood and isolate reaction areas. By contrasting two kinds of process flow based on lift-off and etching, etching is adopted to preparation method of microelectrode. A multi-channel apparatus for current measurement is accompleted. The system characteristics of the bio-sensor are tested. The curve of the apparatus time to current response is achieved by testing on real-time. The relationships between parameter concentration and current are analyzed in detail. The experimental data indicates: current measurement dimension 0~40μA, certainty of measurement 0.1μA, the performances of the bio-sensor meets design requirement.

  1. Chronic systemic IL-1β exacerbates central neuroinflammation independently of the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Murta, Verónica; Farías, María Isabel; Pitossi, Fernando Juan; Ferrari, Carina Cintia

    2015-01-15

    Peripheral circulating cytokines are involved in immune to brain communication and systemic inflammation is considered a risk factor for flaring up the symptoms in most neurodegenerative diseases. We induced both central inflammatory demyelinating lesion, and systemic inflammation with an interleukin-1β expressing adenovector. The peripheral pro-inflammatory stimulus aggravated the ongoing central lesion independently of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. This model allows studying the role of specific molecules and cells (neutrophils) from the innate immune system, in the relationship between central and peripheral communication, and on relapsing episodes of demyelinating lesions, along with the role of BBB integrity. PMID:25595250

  2. Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Toward an Integrated Strategy. World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alberto; Mistiaen, Johan A.

    This report constitutes a step toward designing an integrated strategy for rural poverty reduction in Brazil. The report contains an updated and detailed profile of the rural poor in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil; identifies key components of rural poverty in those regions; and proposes a five-pronged strategic framework in which…

  3. Blood DNA Yield but Not Integrity or Methylation Is Impacted After Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Alexandre; De Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Betsou, Fay; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Collection of human whole blood for genomic DNA extraction is part of numerous clinical studies. Since DNA extraction cannot always be performed at the time of sample collection, whole blood samples may be stored for years before being processed. The use of appropriate storage conditions is then critical to obtain DNA in sufficient quantity and of adequate quality in order to obtain reliable results from the subsequent molecular biological analyses. In this study, EDTA whole blood samples were collected from 8 healthy volunteers, and different durations (up to 1 year) and temperatures (room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C) of storage were compared. The effect of the addition of a DNA preservative agent was also assessed before and after storage. DNA concentrations measured by UV spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry were used to calculate DNA extraction yields and double-strand DNA ratios. DNA integrity was controlled by agarose gel electrophoresis and long-range polymerase chain reaction. The impact of storage conditions on DNA methylation was also evaluated. Results showed that certain storage conditions have a significant impact on the DNA extraction yield but little or no effect on DNA integrity and methylation. Storage of EDTA blood at -80°C guarantees high-quality DNA with a good yield. Higher DNA extraction yields were obtained with the addition of a DNA preservative agent before thawing EDTA blood stored at -20°C or -80°C. Long-term storage at room temperature in the presence of a DNA preservative agent also appeared to be a reliable procedure. PMID:26812548

  4. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Vogler, Ingridt Hildegard; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Bortoliero, André Luis; Matsuo, Tiemi; Yuahasi, Kátia Kioko; Cancian, Sanderson Júnior; Koguichi, Roberto Setsuo

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II), serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8%) were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6%) for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6%) for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6%) was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6%) for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%), 441 (0.5%), 189 (0.2%), 464 (0.6%), and 473 (0.6%) samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive values for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion. PMID:12751318

  5. Rapid detection of single bacteria in unprocessed blood using Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Ku; Ali, M Monsur; Zhang, Kaixiang; Huang, Susan S; Peterson, Ellena; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Zhao, Weian

    2014-01-01

    Blood stream infection or sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with extremely high mortality, which is partly due to the inability to rapidly detect and identify bacteria in the early stages of infection. Here we present a new technology termed 'Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection' (IC 3D) that can selectively detect bacteria directly from milliliters of diluted blood at single-cell sensitivity in a one-step, culture- and amplification-free process within 1.5-4 h. The IC 3D integrates real-time, DNAzyme-based sensors, droplet microencapsulation and a high-throughput 3D particle counter system. Using Escherichia coli as a target, we demonstrate that the IC 3D can provide absolute quantification of both stock and clinical isolates of E. coli in spiked blood within a broad range of extremely low concentration from 1 to 10,000 bacteria per ml with exceptional robustness and limit of detection in the single digit regime. PMID:25391809

  6. Integration of Text- and Data-Mining Technologies for Use in Banking Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslankowski, Jacek

    Unstructured data, most of it in the form of text files, typically accounts for 85% of an organization's knowledge stores, but it's not always easy to find, access, analyze or use (Robb 2004). That is why it is important to use solutions based on text and data mining. This solution is known as duo mining. This leads to improve management based on knowledge owned in organization. The results are interesting. Data mining provides to lead with structuralized data, usually powered from data warehouses. Text mining, sometimes called web mining, looks for patterns in unstructured data — memos, document and www. Integrating text-based information with structured data enriches predictive modeling capabilities and provides new stores of insightful and valuable information for driving business and research initiatives forward.

  7. An integrated fiberoptic-microfluidic device for agglutination detection and blood typing.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Alexander, Stewart P

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, an integrated fiberoptic-microfluidic device for the detection of agglutination for blood type cross-matching has been described. The device consists of a straight microfluidic channel through with a reacted RBC suspension is pumped with the help of a syringe pump. The flow intersects an optical path created by an emitter-received fiber optic pair integrated into the microfluidic device. A 650 nm laser diode is used as the light source and a silicon photodiode is used to detect the light intensity. The spacing between the tips of the two optic fibers can be adjusted. When fiber spacing is large and the concentration of the suspension is high, scattering phenomenon becomes the dominant mechanism for agglutination detection while at low concentrations and small spacing, optointerruption becomes the dominant mechanism. An agglutination strength factor (ASF) is calculated from the data. Studies with a variety of blood types indicate that the sensing method correctly identifies the agglutination reaction in all cases. A disposable integrated device can be designed for future implementation of the method for near-bedside pre-transfusion check. PMID:18815884

  8. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  9. A piezoelectric micro control valve with integrated capacitive sensing for ambulant blood pressure waveform monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Wu, Kai; Brookhuis, Robert A.; van Houwelingen, Marc J.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-12-01

    We have designed and characterized a MEMS microvalve with built-in capacitive displacement sensing and fitted it with a miniature piezoelectric actuator to achieve active valve control. The integrated displacement sensor enables high bandwidth proportional control of the gas flow through the valve. This is an essential requirement for non-invasive blood pressure waveform monitoring based on following the arterial pressure with a counter pressure. Using the capacitive sensor, we demonstrate negligible hysteresis in the valve control characteristics. Fabrication of the valve requires only two mask steps for deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and one release etch.

  10. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation.

  11. Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Reveals Crosstalk Between Tumor Stroma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Lang; Wang, Dan; Wei, Na; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Cancer progression is driven not only by cancer cell intrinsic alterations and interactions with tumor microenvironment, but also by systemic effects. Integration of multiple profiling data may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of complex systemic processes. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of two public available microarray datasets for breast tumor stroma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, featuring integrated transcriptomics data, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein subcellular localization, to identify genes and biological pathways that contribute to dialogue between tumor stroma and the peripheral circulation. Genes of the integrin family as well as CXCR4 proved to be hub nodes of the crosstalk network and may play an important role in response to stroma-derived chemoattractants. This study pointed to potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target systemic signals travelling through the circulation and interdict tumor cell recruitment. PMID:27039717

  12. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  13. A novel integrated rotor of axial blood flow pump designed with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xue, Song; Gui, Xing-min; Sun, Han-song; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2007-07-01

    Due to the smaller size, smaller artificial surface, and higher efficiency, axial blood pumps have been widely applied in clinic in recent years. However, because of its high rotor speed, axial flow pump always has a high risk for hemolysis, which the red blood cells devastated by the shearing of tip clearance flow. We reported a novel design with the integrated blade-shroud structure that was expected to solve this problem by abolishing the radial clearance between blade and casing designed with the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the numerical simulation result of the newly designed structure showed an unexpected backflow (where flow velocity is reverse of the main flow direction) at the blade tip. In order to eliminate this backflow, four flow passes were attempted, and the expansion angles (which reflect the radial amplification of the flow pass, on the meridional section, and should be defined as the angle between the center line of the flow pass and the axial direction) of the blades of the integrated rotor are 0 degrees, 8 degrees, 15 degrees, and 20 degrees, respectively. In the CFD result, it could be easily found as the expansion angles increased, the backflow was restrained gradually, and was eliminated at last. After numerous "cut and try" circles, the pump model was finally optimized. The numerical simulation of this model also showed a stable hydraulic characteristic. PMID:17584484

  14. Modeling and analysis of a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model for a disturbance specialist plant and its seed bank.

    PubMed

    Eager, Eric Alan; Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    In many plant species dormant seeds can persist in the soil for one to several years. The formation of these seed banks is especially important for disturbance specialist plants, as seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Seed movement caused by disturbances affects the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which subsequently affect population dynamics. In this paper, we develop a stochastic integral projection model for a general disturbance specialist plant-seed bank population that takes into account both the frequency and intensity of random disturbances, as well as vertical seed movement and density-dependent seedling establishment. We show that the probability measures associated with the plant-seed bank population converge weakly to a unique measure, independent of initial population. We also show that the population either persists with probability one or goes extinct with probability one, and provides a sharp criteria for this dichotomy. We apply our results to an example motivated by wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) populations, and explore how the presence or absence of a "storage effect" impacts how a population responds to different disturbance scenarios. PMID:24916367

  15. About Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  16. Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Nkechi Rose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP. PMID:22517349

  17. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank — A Repository for Biomaterial and Data Used in Integrative and Systems Biology Modeling the Human Response to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Geraldine; Unger, Kristian; Krznaric, Marko; Galpine, Angela; Bethel, Jackie; Tomlinson, Christopher; Woodbridge, Mark; Butcher, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998. Thus far it is has collected biological samples from 3,861 individuals, and provided 27 research projects with 11,254 samples. The CTB was designed from its outset as a resource to promote the integration of research and clinical data to facilitate a systems biology approach to radiation related thyroid cancer. The project has therefore developed as a multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, dosimetrists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians and serves as a paradigm for tissue banking in the omics era. PMID:24704918

  18. Integrating Sphere Finger-Photoplethysmography: Preliminary Investigation towards Practical Non-Invasive Measurement of Blood Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Rolfe, Peter; Kiyohara, Daiki; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare conventional photoplethysmography (PPG) in a finger with PPG using an integrating sphere (ISPPG) to enhance scattered light collection. Two representative wavelengths were used; 1160 nm, a window through the absorption spectra of water and alcohol, and 1600 nm around where water absorption is high and there is an absorption peak of blood glucose. Simultaneous transmission-type measurements were made with conventional PPG and with ISPPG for each wavelength in the tips of index fingers of both hands in a total of 10 healthy young male and female volunteers (21.7 ± 1.6 years old). During a 5 min period in which subjects were in a relaxed state we determined the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and the PPG detectability (or sensitivity) by the two techniques. SNR during the test period was significantly higher with ISPPG as compared with conventional PPG, especially for the 1600 nm wavelength. PPG signals with 1600 nm could scarcely be detected by conventional PPG, while they could be detected with good sensitively by ISPPG. We conclude that under controlled conditions ISPPG has better SNR and higher sensitivity than conventional transmission PPG, especially in wavelength regions where water absorption is high but where there is potential for practical measurement of blood constituents including glucose. PMID:26636974

  19. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-05-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide targeted prenatal prophylaxis, thus avoiding unnecessary exposure to anti-D in pregnant women. The analytical aspect of noninvasive fetal RHD typing is very robust and accurate, and its routine utilization has demonstrated high sensitivities for fetal RHD detection. A high compliance with administering anti-D is essential for obtaining a clinical effect. Noninvasive fetal typing of RHC/c, RHE/e, and KEL may become more widely used in the future. PMID:24431264

  20. Numerical validation of MR-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yoshitsugu; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, Takashi; Isoda, Haruo

    2009-06-01

    This study proposes magnetic resonance (MR)-measurement-integrated (MR-MI) simulation, in which the difference between the computed velocity field and the phase-contrast MRI measurement data is fed back to the numerical simulation. The computational accuracy and the fundamental characteristics, such as steady characteristics and transient characteristics, of the MR-MI simulation were investigated by a numerical experiment. We dealt with reproduction of three-dimensional steady and unsteady blood flow fields in a realistic cerebral aneurysm developed at a bifurcation. The MR-MI simulation reduced the error derived from the incorrect boundary conditions in the blood flow in the cerebral aneurysm. For the reproduction of steady and unsteady standard solutions, the error of velocity decreased to 13% and to 22% in one cardiac cycle, respectively, compared with the ordinary simulation without feedback. Moreover, the application of feedback shortened the computational convergence, and thus the convergent solution and periodic solution were obtained within less computational time in the MR-MI simulation than that in the ordinary simulation. The dividing flow ratio toward the two outlets after bifurcation was well estimated owing to the improvement of computational accuracy. Furthermore, the MR-MI simulation yielded wall shear stress distribution on the cerebral aneurysm of the standard solution accurately and in detail. PMID:19350390

  1. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. PMID:27045129

  2. Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Support Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity via TGF-β Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Mitsuyo; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Liang, Anna C.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Suwa, Fumihiko; Taguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Ihara, Masafumi; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Trophic coupling between cerebral endothelium and their neighboring cells is required for the development and maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Here we report that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) secrete soluble factor TGF-β1 to support BBB integrity. Firstly, we prepared conditioned media from OPC cultures and added them to cerebral endothelial cultures. Our pharmacological experiments showed that OPC-conditioned media increased expressions of tight-junction proteins and decreased in vitro BBB permeability by activating TGB-β-receptor-MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Secondly, our immuno-electron microscopic observation revealed that in neonatal mouse brains, OPCs attach to cerebral endothelial cells via basal lamina. And finally, we developed a novel transgenic mouse line that TGF-β1 is knocked down specifically in OPCs. Neonates of these OPC-specific TGF-β1 deficient mice (OPC-specific TGF-β1 partial KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/wt mice or OPC-specific TGF-β1 total KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/flox mice) exhibited cerebral hemorrhage and loss of BBB function. Taken together, our current study demonstrates that OPCs increase BBB tightness by upregulating tight junction proteins via TGF-β signaling. Although astrocytes and pericytes are well-known regulators of BBB maturation and maintenance, these findings indicate that OPCs also play a pivotal role in promoting BBB integrity. PMID:25078775

  3. A miniaturized extracorporeal membrane oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump: preclinical in vivo testing.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Ruedger; Bensberg, Ralf; Arens, Jutta; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Henzler, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can achieve sufficient gas exchange in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. A highly integrated extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (HEXMO) was developed to reduce filling volume and simplify management. Six female pigs were connected to venovenous HEXMO with a total priming volume of 125 ml for 4 hours during hypoxemia induced by a hypoxic inspired gas mixture. Animals were anticoagulated with intravenous heparin. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined. One device failed at the magnetic motor coupling of the integrated diagonal pump. In the remaining five experiments, the oxygenation increased significantly (arterial oxygen saturation [SaO2] from 79 ± 5% before HEXMO to 92% ± 11% after 4 hours) facilitated by a mean oxygen transfer of 66 ± 29 ml/dl through the oxygenator. The CO2 elimination by the HEXMO reduced arterial PaCO2 only marginal. Extracorporeal blood flow was maintained at 32% ± 6% of cardiac output. Hemodynamic instability or hemolysis was not observed. The plasmatic coagulation was only mildly activated without significant platelet consumption. The HEXMO prototype provided sufficient gas exchange to prevent hypoxemia. This proof of concept study supports further development and design modifications to increase performance and to reduce coagulation activation for potential long-term application. PMID:21317635

  4. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 280 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:24217914

  5. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23193287

  6. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Clark, Karen; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 250 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:22144687

  7. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  8. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G N; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2010-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL(+/+) mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases

  9. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  10. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control of Secreted Factors for Blood Stem Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies. PMID:26348930

  11. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission of ... have the disease after all. Will the blood bank let me know if my blood tests positive ...

  12. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  13. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . PMID:26519398

  14. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L.; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R.; Davis, Matthew L.; Huang, Jason H.; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  15. Chemosensory function of amphibian skin: integrating epithelial transport, capillary blood flow and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, S D; Willumsen, N J

    2011-07-01

    Terrestrial anuran amphibians absorb water across specialized regions of skin on the posterioventral region of their bodies. Rapid water absorption is mediated by the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane of the outermost cell layer. Water moves out of the epithelium via aquaglyceroporins in the basolateral membrane and into the circulation in conjunction with increased capillary blood flow to the skin and aquaporins in the capillary endothelial cells. These physiological responses are activated by intrinsic stimuli relating to the animals' hydration status and extrinsic stimuli relating to the detection of osmotically available water. The integration of these processes has been studied using behavioural observations in conjunction with neurophysiological recordings and studies of epithelial transport. These studies have identified plasma volume and urinary bladder stores as intrinsic stimuli that activate the formation of angiotensin II (AII) to stimulate water absorption behaviour. The coordinated increase in water permeability and capillary blood flow appears to be mediated primarily by sympathetic stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors, although the neurohypopyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) may also play a role. Extrinsic stimuli relate primarily to the ionic and osmotic properties of hydration sources. Toads avoid NaCl solutions that have been shown to be harmful in acute exposure, approx. 200-250 mm. The avoidance is partially attenuated by amiloride raising the hypothesis that the mechanism for salt detection by toads resembles that for salt taste in mammals that take in water by mouth. In this model, depolarization of the basolateral membrane of taste cells is coupled to afferent neural stimulation. In toad skin we have identified innervation of skin epithelial cells by branches of spinal nerves and measured neural responses to NaCl solutions that elicit behavioural avoidance. These same concentrations produce depolarization of the

  16. DNA Banking

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.R. )

    1992-11-01

    The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

  17. Leptin Integrates Vertebrate Evolution: from Oxygen to the Blood-Gas Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Torday, J.S.; Powell, F.L.; Farmer, C.G.; Orgeig, S.; Nielsen, H.C.; Hall, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The following are the proceedings of a symposium held at the Second International Congress for Respiratory Science in Bad Honnef, Germany. The goals of the symposium were to delineate the blood-gas barrier phenotype across vertebrate species; to delineate the interrelationship between the evolution of the blood-gas barrier, locomotion and metabolism; to introduce the selection pressures for the evolution of the surfactant system as a key to understanding the physiology of the blood-gas barrier; to introduce the lung lipofibroblast and its product, leptin, which coordinately regulates pulmonary surfactant, type IV collagen in the basement membrane and host defense, as the cell-molecular site of selection pressure for the blood-gas barrier; to drill down to the gene regulatory network(s) involved in leptin signaling and the blood-gas barrier phenotype; to extend the relationship between leptin and the blood-gas-barrier to diving mammals. PMID:20096383

  18. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1994-09-01

    The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services for the scientific community. Besides handling direct submissions of sequence data from authors, GenBank also incorporates DNA sequences from all available public sources; an integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, also makes available data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents. MIDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences are also included as an additional source of biological annotation for sequence entries. GenBank supports distribution of the data via FTP, CD-ROM, and E-mail servers. Network server-client programs provide access to an integrated database for literature retrieval and sequence similarity searching. PMID:7937042

  19. Blood microcirculation monitoring by use of spatial filtering of time-integrated speckle patterns: potentialities to improve the depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Misnin, Alexander B.

    2001-06-01

    Statistical analysis of images of time-integrated dynamic speckle patterns is considered as the tool for diagnostics and imaging of in vivo tissue dynamics such as blood microcirculation in superficial layers of human tissues and organs. Basic approach for blood microcirculation monitoring using the contrast analysis of time-averaged speckle images is known as LASCA (Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis) technique. This paper presents the modified version of LASCA, which is based on application of the localized probe light source and the spatial filtration of analyzed speckle pattern in the object plane. Being compared with classical LASCA technique, this method has the certain disadvantage as the necessity of scanning procedure to provide the reconstruction of maps of blood microcirculation parameters, but it gives the additional possibilities for the analysis of depth distributions of these parameters. Theoretical background for the depth-resolved analysis of blood microcirculation parameters on the basis of the concept of effective optical path distributions for multiply scattered probe light is considered. The effect of non-zero residual contrast even in the case of large integration times is also discussed.

  20. Fetal Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells Collected At Term from HIV-1 Infected Women Harbor Transcriptionally Active Integrated Proviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    ELLIS, Jane E.; HAIR, Greg A.; LINDSAY, Michael K.; ANSARI, Aftab A.; SUNDSTROM, J. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine levels of intrauterine infection and transcriptional activity in cord blood mononuclear cells collected at term from fetuses born to HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Methods RNA and DNA were isolated from maternal placental tissues and fetal cord blood specimens obtained at term from HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART. Levels of integrated HIV provirus and mRNA transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. Results Detectable levels of transcriptionally active integrated provirus were present in approximately 27% of cord blood samples (n=22) collected from fetuses, born to HIV-positive mothers on HAART. Levels of HIV-p24 antigen in cultures detected in randomly selected cord blood samples confirmed the presence of inducible infectious virus. Conclusions These findings suggest that some fetuses from HIV-infected mothers on HAART who may present as HIV-negative infants postpartum, can harbor circulating leukocytes that are productively infected by intrauterine transmission (IUT) of HIV. PMID:17904964

  1. Sustained submaximal exercise does not alter the integrity of the lung blood-gas barrier in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S R; Schoene, R B; Henderson, W R; Spragg, R G; West, J B

    1998-04-01

    The extreme thinness of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier results in high mechanical stresses in the capillary wall when the capillary pressure rises during exercise. We have previously shown that, in elite cyclists, 6-8 min of maximal exercise increase blood-gas barrier permeability and result in higher concentrations of red blood cells, total protein, and leukotriene B4 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid compared with results in sedentary controls. To test the hypothesis that stress failure of the barrier only occurs at the highest level of exercise, we performed BAL in six healthy athletes after 1 h of exercise at 77% of maximal O2 consumption. Controls were eight normal nonathletes who did not exercise before BAL. In contrast with our previous study, we did not find higher concentrations of red blood cells, total protein, and leukotriene B4 in the exercising athletes compared with control subjects. However, higher concentrations of surfactant apoprotein A and a higher surfactant apoprotein A-to-phospholipid ratio were observed in the athletes performing prolonged exercise, compared with both the controls and the athletes from our previous study. These results suggest that, in elite athletes, the integrity of the blood-gas barrier is altered only at extreme levels of exercise. PMID:9516183

  2. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  3. Integration of Acoustic Radiation Force and Optical Imaging for Blood Plasma Clot Stiffness Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline W.; Perez, Matthew J.; Helmke, Brian P.; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood’s transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  4. Duke Data Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

  5. Permeability of ergot alkaloids across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and influence on the barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mulac, Dennis; Hüwel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Scope Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites of Claviceps spp. and they have been in the focus of research for many years. Experiments focusing on ergotamine as a former migraine drug referring to the ability to reach the brain revealed controversial results. The question to which extent ergot alkaloids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier is still not answered. Methods and results In order to answer this question we have studied the ability of ergot alkaloids to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in a well established in vitro model system using primary porcine brain endothelial cells. It could clearly be demonstrated that ergot alkaloids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in high quantities in only a few hours. We could further identify an active transport for ergometrine as a substrate for the BCRP/ABCG2 transporter. Investigations concerning barrier integrity properties have identified ergocristinine as a potent substance to accumulate in these cells ultimately leading to a weakened barrier function. Conclusion For the first time we could show that the so far as biologically inactive described 8-(S) isomers of ergot alkaloids seem to have an influence on barrier integrity underlining the necessity for a risk assessment of ergot alkaloids in food and feed. PMID:22147614

  6. George Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codispoti, L. A.

    This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

  7. An Integrated Platform for Isolation, Processing, and Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomic Profiling of Rare Cells in Whole Blood*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siyang; Plouffe, Brian D.; Belov, Arseniy M.; Ray, Somak; Wang, Xianzhe; Murthy, Shashi K.; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation and molecular characterization of rare cells (e.g. circulating tumor and stem cells) within biological fluids and tissues has significant potential in clinical diagnostics and personalized medicine. The present work describes an integrated platform of sample procurement, preparation, and analysis for deep proteomic profiling of rare cells in blood. Microfluidic magnetophoretic isolation of target cells spiked into 1 ml of blood at the level of 1000–2000 cells/ml, followed by focused acoustics-assisted sample preparation has been coupled with one-dimensional PLOT-LC-MS methodology. The resulting zeptomole detection sensitivity enabled identification of ∼4000 proteins with injection of the equivalent of only 100–200 cells per analysis. The characterization of rare cells in limited volumes of physiological fluids is shown by the isolation and quantitative proteomic profiling of first MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood as a model system and then two CD133+ endothelial progenitor and hematopoietic cells in whole blood from volunteers. PMID:25755294

  8. Donating Blood Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... more stringent donor deferral criteria in its Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) than those required or recommended by ... recommendations. When a blood bank incorporates a standard operating procedure, the FDA requires the blood center to ...

  9. Efforts in blood safety: Integrated approach for serological diagnosis of syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Sommese, Linda; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Capuano, Maria; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts in transfusion medicine are focused on improving blood safety as well as establishing effective and efficient diagnostic algorithms for donor screening. To date, syphilis is a transfusion-transmitted infection re-emerged in many countries as a public health threat especially among populations at specific risk. This task requires new diagnostic tools and hemovigilance programs. The current diagnostic methodologies are debated, since presenting limitations and unresolved issues with special regard to the clinical interpretation of serological patterns, especially in asymptomatic patients and in blood donors. Furthermore, the switch from the traditional to alternative diagnostic algorithms underlines the lack of a gold standard, which has not been supported by shared guidelines. Besides, a lot of ongoing clinical trials on the performance of diagnostic assays, on the serological response associated with different pharmacological treatments, as well as on the prevention programs are currently under investigation. Here, we review the recent literature about the diagnosis of syphilis especially for low-risk populations proposing the adoption of an algorithm for blood donor screening that should satisfy the need of increasing safety for transfusion-transmitted infections in the modern blood transfusion centers. PMID:27011666

  10. Efforts in blood safety: Integrated approach for serological diagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Sommese, Linda; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Capuano, Maria; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts in transfusion medicine are focused on improving blood safety as well as establishing effective and efficient diagnostic algorithms for donor screening. To date, syphilis is a transfusion-transmitted infection re-emerged in many countries as a public health threat especially among populations at specific risk. This task requires new diagnostic tools and hemovigilance programs. The current diagnostic methodologies are debated, since presenting limitations and unresolved issues with special regard to the clinical interpretation of serological patterns, especially in asymptomatic patients and in blood donors. Furthermore, the switch from the traditional to alternative diagnostic algorithms underlines the lack of a gold standard, which has not been supported by shared guidelines. Besides, a lot of ongoing clinical trials on the performance of diagnostic assays, on the serological response associated with different pharmacological treatments, as well as on the prevention programs are currently under investigation. Here, we review the recent literature about the diagnosis of syphilis especially for low-risk populations proposing the adoption of an algorithm for blood donor screening that should satisfy the need of increasing safety for transfusion-transmitted infections in the modern blood transfusion centers. PMID:27011666

  11. Integration of red cell genotyping into the blood supply chain: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A; Gottschall, Jerome L; Denomme, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Background When problems with compatibility arise, transfusion services often perform time-consuming serologic testing to locate antigen-negative red cell units for safe transfusion. New technologies enabled red cell genotyping for all clinically relevant blood group antigens. We performed mass-scale genotyping and provided access to a large red cell database to meet the demand for antigen-negative red cell units beyond ABO and Rh. Methods A red cell genotype database was established in 2010. Hospitals were given online access to a web-based antigen query portal in 2013 to find antigen-negative units in their inventories. Findings Genotype data were analyzed for 43,066 blood donors covering a set of 42 clinically relevant red cell antigens. Requests were filled for 5661 of 5672 patient encounters (99.8%) requiring antigen-negative red cell units in a multi-ethnic and multi-racial population. Red cell genotyping met the demand for antigen-negative blood in 5339 of 5672 (95%) patient encounters, while 333 remaining requests were filled using serologic data. In a pilot phase, seven community and rural transfusion services searched their local inventories using an online antigen query portal. Interpretation Red cell genotyping has the potential to transform the way antigen-negative red cell units are provided. An antigen query portal may reduce the need to ship blood or perform serologic screening. The wealth of genotype data, easily accessible online, facilitates the supply of affordable antigen-negative red cell units for patient safety. Physicians may recognize these new efficiencies for patient transfusion support. Funding BloodCenter of Wisconsin Diagnostic Laboratories Strategic Initiative and the NIH Clinical Center Intramural Research Program. PMID:26207259

  12. The Aachen MiniHLM--a miniaturized heart-lung machine for neonates with an integrated rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Arens, Jutta; Schnoering, Heike; Pfennig, Michael; Mager, Ilona; Vázquez-Jiménez, Jaime F; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-09-01

    The operation of congenital heart defects in neonates often requires the use of heart-lung machines (HLMs) to provide perfusion and oxygenation. This is prevalently followed by serious complications inter alia caused by hemodilution and extrinsic blood contact surfaces. Thus, one goal of developing a HLM for neonates is the reduction of priming volume and contact surface. The currently available systems offer reasonable priming volumes for oxygenators, reservoirs, etc. However, the necessary tubing system contains the highest volumes within the whole system. This is due to the use of roller pumps; hence, the resulting placement of the complete HLM is between 1 and 2 m away from the operating table due to connective tubing between the components. Therefore, we pursued a novel approach for a miniaturized HLM (MiniHLM) by integrating all major system components in one single device. In particular, the MiniHLM is a HLM with the rotary blood pump centrically integrated into the oxygenator and a heat exchanger integrated into the cardiotomy reservoir which is directly connected to the pump inlet. Thus, tubing is only necessary between the patient and MiniHLM. A total priming volume of 102 mL (including arterial filter and a/v line) could be achieved. To validate the overall concept and the specific design we conducted several in vitro and in vivo test series. All tests confirm the novel concept of the MiniHLM. Its low priming volume and blood contact surface may significantly reduce known complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates (e.g., inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome). PMID:20883389

  13. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  14. An intraventricular axial flow blood pump integrated with a bearing purge system.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kormos, R; Mori, T; Umezu, M; Kameneva, M; Antaki, J; Outa, E; Litwak, P; Kerrigan, J; Tomczak, J

    1995-01-01

    The future development of implantable axial flow blood pumps must address two major issues: mechanically induced hemolysis and shaft seal reliability. The recent revisions to our miniature intraventricular axial flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) were aimed particularly at addressing these concerns. To improve hemocompatibility, a new impeller has been designed according to the following criteria: 1) gradual pressure rise along the blade chord; 2) minimized local fluid acceleration to prevent cavitation; 3) minimum surface roughness; and 4) radius edges. Subsequent in vitro hemolysis tests conducted with bovine and ovine blood have demonstrated very low hemolysis (normalized index of hemolysis = 0.0051 +/- 0.0047 g/100 L) with this new impeller design. To address the need for a reliable seal, we have developed a purged seal system consisting of a miniature lip seal and ceramic pressure groove journal bearing that also acts as a purge pump. Several spiral grooves formed on the bearing surface provide viscous pumping of the purge fluid, generating more than 3,000 mmHg at 10,000 rpm. This purge flow flushes the lip seal and prevents blood backflow into the bearing. We have found this purge pump to offer several advantages because it is simple, compact, durable, does not require separate actuation, and offers a wide range of flow, depending upon the groove design. In vivo animal tests demonstrated the potential of the purged seal system. PMID:8573818

  15. Performance and storage integrity of dried blood spots for PCB, BFR and pesticide measurements.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2014-10-01

    Dried blood spots (DBSs) can provide accurate and valuable estimates of exposure to environmental toxicants, and the use of information derived from archived newborn DBSs has enormous potential to open up new research on the impacts of early chemical exposure on disease. Broad application of DBS for the purpose of quantitative exposure estimation requires robust and validated methods. This study investigates the suitability of DBS analyses for population studies of exposure to three chemical groups: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and chlorinated pesticides. It examines background (matrix) contamination, recovery and extraction variability, sensitivity, and storage stability. DBS samples prepared using 50 μL of adult blood were analyzed by GC/MS, and method performance was confirmed by using certified materials and paired DBS-blood samples from six volunteers. Several of the target compounds and their degradation products have not been previously measured in DBSs. All target compounds were detected in DBS samples collected from the volunteers. Sample DBS cards showed background contamination of several compounds. When stored at room temperature, target compounds, excluding PBDEs, were stable for up to one month. When refrigerated or frozen, stability was acceptable for all compounds up to one year, and multiyear storage appears acceptable at colder (e.g., -80°C) temperatures. Multicompartment models may be used to estimate or correct for storage losses. Considering concentrations of contaminants for adults and children reported in the literature, and experimental values of detection limits and background contamination, DBS samples are suitable for quantifying exposures to many PCBs, BFRs and persistent pesticides. PMID:25058892

  16. Performance and Storage Integrity of Dried Blood Spots for PCB, BFR and Pesticide Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) can provide accurate and valuable estimates of exposure to environmental toxicants, and the use of information derived from archived newborn DBS information has enormous potential to open up new research on the impacts of early chemical exposure on disease. Broad application of DBS for the purpose of quantitative exposure estimation requires robust and validated methods. This study investigates the suitability of DBS analyses for population studies of exposure to three chemical groups: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and chlorinated pesticides. It examines background (matrix) contamination, recovery and extraction variability, sensitivity, and storage stability. DBS samples prepared using 50 μL of adult blood were analyzed by GC/MS, and method performance was confirmed by using certified materials and paired DBS-blood samples from six volunteers. Several of the target compounds and their degradation products have not been previously measured in DBS. All target compounds were detected in DBS samples collected from the volunteers. Sample DBS cards showed background contamination of several compounds. When stored at room temperature, target compounds, excluding PBDEs, were stable for up to one month. When refrigerated or frozen, stability was acceptable for all compounds up to one year, and multiyear storage appears acceptable at colder (e.g., −80 °C) temperatures. Multicompartment models may be used to estimate or correct for storage losses. Considering concentrations of contaminants for adults and children reported in the literature, and experimental values of detection limits and background contamination, DBS samples are suitable for quantifying exposures to many PCBs, BFRs and persistent pesticides. PMID:25058892

  17. Study of Estimation Method for Unsteady Inflow Velocity in Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic-Measurement-Integrated Blood Flow Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hiroko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Information on hemodynamics is essential for elucidation of mechanisms and development of novel diagnostic methods for circulatory diseases. Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation can correctly reproduce an intravascular blood flow field and hemodynamics by feeding back an ultrasonic measurement to the numerical blood flow simulation. In this method, it is critically important to give the correct cross-sectional average inflow velocity (inflow velocity) as the boundary condition. However, systematic study has not been done on the relative validity and effectiveness of existing inflow velocity estimation methods for various target flow fields. The aim of this study was to examine the existing methods systematically and to establish a method to accurately estimate inflow velocities for various vessel geometries and flow conditions in 2D-UMI simulations. A numerical experiment was performed for 2D-UMI simulation of blood flow models in a straight vessel with inflow velocity profiles symmetric and asymmetric to the vessel axis using existing evaluation functions based on Doppler velocity error for the inflow velocity estimation. As a result, it was clarified that a significantly large estimation error occurs in the asymmetric flow due to a nonfeedback domain near the downstream end of the calculation domain. Hence, a new inflow velocity estimation method of 2D-UMI simulation is proposed in which the feedback and evaluation domains are extended to the downstream end. Further numerical experiments of 2D-UMI simulation for two realistic vessel geometries of a healthy blood vessel and a stenosed one confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26241967

  18. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered. PMID:27026958

  19. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  20. The Effects of a High-Energy Diet on Hippocampal Function and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Zhang, Yanshu; Zheng, Wei; Davidson, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease are linked with intake of a Western Diet, characterized by high levels of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. In rats, these dietary components have been shown to disrupt hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, particularly those involving spatial memory. Using a rat model, the present research assessed the degree to which consumption of a high-energy (HE) diet, similar to those found in modern Western cultures, produces a selective impairment in hippocampal function as opposed to a more global cognitive disruption. Learning and memory performance was examined following 90-days consumption of an HE-diet in three nonspatial discrimination learning problems that differed with respect to their dependence on the integrity of the hippocampus. The results showed that consumption of the HE-diet impaired performance in a hippocampal-dependent feature negative discrimination problem relative to chow-fed controls, whereas performance was spared on two discrimination problems that do not rely on the hippocampus. To explore the mechanism whereby consuming HE-diets impairs cognitive function, we investigated the effect of HE-diets on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We found that HE-diet consumption produced a decrease in mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, particularly Claudin-5 and -12, in the choroid plexus and the BBB. Consequently, an increased blood-to-brain permeability of sodium fluorescein was observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum and prefrontal cortex following HE-diet access. There results indicate that hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to disruption by HE-diets, and this disruption may be related to impaired BBB integrity. PMID:20413889

  1. Improvement in the Diagnostic Evaluation of a Positive Fecal Occult Blood Test in an Integrated Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Bradford, Susan Carol; Zauber, Ann G.; Kessler, Larry G.; Feuer, Eric J.; Grossman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for fecal occult blood can be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality only if positive tests are appropriately followed up with complete diagnostic evaluation (i.e., colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy with double contrast barium enema) and treatment. Objectives To examine whether rates of complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) have improved over time after the implementation of tracking systems and physician guidelines within a large integrated health care organization. Research Design From 1993 to 2005, 8513 positive FOBTs were identified on 8291 enrollees aged 50–79 of a large health care system. Automated records were used to identify repeat FOBTs, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema within one year after the positive FOBT. National rates of complete diagnostic evaluation were estimated from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Results In this integrated health care organization, the percentage of positive FOBTs followed by complete diagnostic evaluation within one year increased from 57%–64% in 1993–1996 to 82%–86% from 2000–2005. Use of repeat FOBT following a positive FOBT decreased from 28–31% in 1993–1996 to 6–11% in 2000–2005. Based on the National Health Interview Survey, only 52% of positive FOBTs from 2000–2005 were followed by complete diagnostic evaluation nationally. Conclusions Adherence to recommendations for complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive FOBT has greatly improved over time in an integrated group medical practice. Through the use of tracking systems and screening guidelines, it may be possible to reach levels of follow-up that are comparable to those observed in randomized trials. PMID:18725839

  2. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  5. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  7. iSIMM (Integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins): Seismic Acquisition on the Faroes Shelf, Hatton Bank and adjacent Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B.; Kusznir, N.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Lunnon, Z.; Roberts, A. W.; Hurst, N.; Smith, L.; Parkin, C.; Surendra, A.; Davies, A.

    2002-12-01

    the integration of high-quality, long-offset streamer data with 4-component bottom recording on the OBS to allow imaging of the sub-basalt and deep underplated crust in this region. In the Hatton Bank region we deployed 89 4-component OBS and 1 vertical array along a 450 km dip line, running perpendicular to the continental margin from the centre of the Hatton-Rockall Basin across Hatton Bank into the oceanic South Iceland Basin, with two strike lines totalling 240 km length (one on the continental margin and one oceanic). MCS was acquired simultaneously with airgun shooting into the OBS, using the same 6,300 cubic inch airgun array with peak-pulse tuning. Excellent recordings of crustal and mantle arrivals were made to ranges in excess of 150 km. The vertical arrays were deployed to monitor the far-field waveforms, and to test theoretical modelling of the array signature. Gravity and magnetic data was acquired simultaneously with seismic data. The iSIMM project is supported by NERC, WesternGeco, 8 oil companies and DTI.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Former Commercial Plasma/Blood Donors in Rural Shanxi Province, China: The China Integrated Programs for Research on AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Han-zhu; Yang, Zhongmin; Shi, Xiaoming; Gao, Jianhua; Xu, Cuiling; Wang, Lan; Zhou, Kai; Cui, Yan; Zheng, Xiwen; Wu, Zunyou; Lu, Fan; Lai, Shenghan; Vermund, Sten H.; Shao, Yiming; Wang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Background Unsafe practices during illegal plasma donation in the late 1980s and early 1990s spread blood-borne infections in central China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 538 adult residents of 12 villages in rural Shanxi Province, where there had been an illegal commercial plasma-collection center, was conducted in 2003. Structured questionnaires were administered, and blood samples were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. Results HCV seroprevalence rates were 8.2% in all subjects, 27.7% in former commercial plasma/blood donors, and 2.6% in nondonors. Selling blood or plasma was the strongest independent predictor of HCV seropositivity (odds ratio [OR], 14.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1–31.6]). A history of blood transfusion was also independently associated with HCV seropositivity (OR, 8.3 [95% CI, 2.1–32.0]). Plasma donors had a higher risk of being HCV seropositive than did whole-blood donors (OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 2.9–20.9]), and female donors had a lower risk than did male donors (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.12–0.80]). The strength of the association between selling blood and HCV seropositivity was weaker when plasma donors were excluded (OR, 8.0 vs. 14.4). Conclusions Unsafe practices during illegal plasma donation led to a high risk of HCV seropositivity for donors during the 1980s and 1990s. Failure to screen for HCV increased the risk of seropositivity for transfusion recipients during this same period. China has taken steps to halt illegal plasma collection and to improve blood-banking methods. However, there will be an ongoing challenge to care for patients with HCV infection, even as its incidence decreases. PMID:16235166

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Blood Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury Through Production of the Soluble Factor TIMP3

    PubMed Central

    Menge, Tyler; Zhao, Yuhai; Zhao, Jing; Wataha, Kathryn; Geber, Michael; Zhang, Jianhu; Letourneau, Phillip; Redell, John; Shen, Li; Wang, Jing; Peng, Zhalong; Xue, Hasen; Kozar, Rosemary; Cox, Charles S.; Khakoo, Aarif Y.; Holcomb, John B.; Dash, Pramod K.; Pati, Shibani

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in multiple disease states associated with vascular instability including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) is identified as the soluble factor produced by MSCs that can recapitulate the beneficial effects of MSCs on endothelial function and blood brain barrier (BBB) compromise in TBI. Attenuation of TIMP3 expression in MSCs completely abrogates the effect of MSCs on BBB permeability and stability, while intravenous administration of rTIMP3 alone can inhibit BBB permeability in TBI. Our results demonstrate that MSCs increase circulating levels of soluble TIMP3, which inhibits VEGF-A induced breakdown of endothelial AJs in vitro and in vivo. These findings elucidate a clear molecular mechanism for the effects of MSCs on the BBB in TBI, and directly demonstrate a role for TIMP3 in regulation of BBB integrity. PMID:23175708

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. CpGAVAS, an integrated web server for the annotation, visualization, analysis, and GenBank submission of completely sequenced chloroplast genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The complete sequences of chloroplast genomes provide wealthy information regarding the evolutionary history of species. With the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, the number of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes is expected to increase exponentially, powerful computational tools annotating the genome sequences are in urgent need. Results We have developed a web server CPGAVAS. The server accepts a complete chloroplast genome sequence as input. First, it predicts protein-coding and rRNA genes based on the identification and mapping of the most similar, full-length protein, cDNA and rRNA sequences by integrating results from Blastx, Blastn, protein2genome and est2genome programs. Second, tRNA genes and inverted repeats (IR) are identified using tRNAscan, ARAGORN and vmatch respectively. Third, it calculates the summary statistics for the annotated genome. Fourth, it generates a circular map ready for publication. Fifth, it can create a Sequin file for GenBank submission. Last, it allows the extractions of protein and mRNA sequences for given list of genes and species. The annotation results in GFF3 format can be edited using any compatible annotation editing tools. The edited annotations can then be uploaded to CPGAVAS for update and re-analyses repeatedly. Using known chloroplast genome sequences as test set, we show that CPGAVAS performs comparably to another application DOGMA, while having several superior functionalities. Conclusions CPGAVAS allows the semi-automatic and complete annotation of a chloroplast genome sequence, and the visualization, editing and analysis of the annotation results. It will become an indispensible tool for researchers studying chloroplast genomes. The software is freely accessible from http://www.herbalgenomics.org/cpgavas. PMID:23256920

  12. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to obtain information from scientific literature concerning infusion pumps used in administering erythrocyte (red blood cells) and to evaluate the implications in the practical use of this equipment by nurses when conducting transfusions. Method: an integrative revision of the following scientific databases: Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, the Virtual Library for Health, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "infusion pumps", "blood transfusion", "transfused erythrocyte" and "hemolyis". There were no restrictions on the scope of the initial data and it was finalized in December 2014. 17 articles were identified in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: all of the publications included in the studies were experimental in vitro and covered the use of infusion pumps in transfusion therapy. A summary of the data was presented in a synoptic chart and an analysis of it generated the following categories: cellular damage and the infusion mechanism. Conclusion: infusion pumps can be harmful to erythrocytes based on the infusion mechanism that is used, as the linear peristaltic pump is more likely to cause hemolysis. Cellular damage is related to the plasmatic liberation of markers that largely dominate free hemoglobin and potassium. We reiterate the need for further research and technological investments to guide the development of protocols that promote safe practices and that can contribute to future clinical studies. PMID:27533272

  13. Numerical experiment of transient and steady characteristics of ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation in three-dimensional blood flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flows, feedback signals proportional to the difference of velocity vector optimally estimated from Doppler velocities are applied in the feedback domain to reproduce the flow field. In this paper, we investigated the transient and steady characteristics of UMI simulation by numerical experiment. A steady standard numerical solution of a three-dimensional blood flow in an aneurysmal aorta was first defined with realistic boundary conditions. The UMI simulation was performed assuming that the realistic velocity profiles in the upstream and downstream boundaries were unknown but that the Doppler velocities of the standard solution were available in the aneurysmal domain or the feedback domain by virtual color Doppler imaging. The application of feedback in UMI simulation resulted in a computational result approach to the standard solution. As feedback gain increased, the error decreased faster and the steady error became smaller, implying the traceability to the standard solution improves. The positioning of ultrasound probes influenced the result. The height less than or equal to the aneurysm seemed better choice for UMI simulation using one probe. Increasing the velocity information by using multiple probes enhanced the UMI simulation by achieving ten times faster convergence and more reduction of error. PMID:19011966

  14. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development. PMID:26523970

  15. Immune evasion by rabies viruses through the maintenance of blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Hooper, D Craig

    2008-10-01

    The attenuated rabies virus (RV) strain Challenge Virus Standard (CVS)-F3 and a highly pathogenic strain associated with the silver-haired bats (SHBRV) can both be cleared from the central nervous system (CNS) tissues by appropriate antiviral immune mechanisms if the effectors are provided access across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the case of SHBRV infection, antiviral immunity develops normally in the periphery but fails to open the BBB, generally resulting in a lethal outcome. To determine whether or not an absence in the CNS targeted immune response is associated with the infection with other pathogenic RV strains, we have assessed the development of immunity, BBB permeability, and immune cell infiltration into the CNS tissues of mice infected with a variety of RV strains, including the dog variants responsible for the majority of human rabies cases. We demonstrate that the lethal outcomes of infection with a variety of known pathogenic RV strains are indeed associated with the inability to deliver immune effectors across the BBB. Survival from infection with certain of these viruses is improved in mice prone to CNS inflammation. The results suggest that competition between the activity of the immune effectors reaching CNS tissues and the inherent pathological attributes of the virus dictates the outcome and that intervention to deliver RV-specific immune effectors into CNS tissues may have general therapeutic value in rabies. PMID:19016377

  16. N-WASP Is Required for Structural Integrity of the Blood-Testis Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka Wai; Li, Nan; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Snapper, Scott B.; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Schejter, Eyal D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) segregates the adluminal (apical) and basal compartments in the seminiferous epithelium, thereby creating a privileged adluminal environment that allows post-meiotic spermatid development to proceed without interference of the host immune system. A key feature of the BTB is its continuous remodeling within the Sertoli cells, the major somatic component of the seminiferous epithelium. This remodeling is necessary to allow the transport of germ cells towards the seminiferous tubule interior, while maintaining intact barrier properties. Here we demonstrate that the actin nucleation promoting factor Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) provides an essential function necessary for BTB restructuring, and for maintaining spermatogenesis. Our data suggests that the N-WASP-Arp2/3 actin polymerization machinery generates branched-actin arrays at an advanced stage of BTB remodeling. These arrays are proposed to mediate the restructuring process through endocytic recycling of BTB components. Disruption of N-WASP in Sertoli cells results in major structural abnormalities to the BTB, including mis-localization of critical junctional and cytoskeletal elements, and leads to disruption of barrier function. These impairments result in a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, underscoring the critical involvement of the somatic compartment of the seminiferous tubules in germ cell maturation. PMID:24967734

  17. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema. PMID:25725349

  18. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Brian P.; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L.; Lew, Erin D.; Lazear, Helen M.; Gorman, Matthew J.; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands, Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and down-regulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl but not Tyro3 exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with IFN-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development. PMID:26523970

  19. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks in Australia.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    In Australia, there are six Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories providing bacterial and fungal bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal samples sent from 10 tissue banks. Musculoskeletal swab and/or tissue biopsy samples are collected at the time of allograft retrieval and sent to bacteriology laboratories for bioburden testing, in some cases requiring interstate transport. Bacteria and fungi may be present within the allograft at the time of retrieval or contaminated from an external source. The type of organism recovered will determine if the allograft is rejected for transplant, which may include all allografts from the same donor. Bacteriology staff also provides unpaid support of tissue banks through meeting involvement, consultations, licence-related activities, validations and research funded by their organisation and not part of any contractual agreement. Bacteriology laboratories and tissue banks must be compliant to the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice - Human Blood and Tissues and regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Clinical bacteriology laboratories also require mandatory accreditation to Standards Australia International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 15189:2009 medical laboratories - particular requirements for quality and competence, and may also attain Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems certification. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks are integral partners in providing safe allograft musculoskeletal tissue for transplant. PMID:22882601

  20. Bryostatin-1 Restores Blood Brain Barrier Integrity following Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Smith, Kelly E; Turner, Ryan C; Alkon, Daniel L; Tan, Zhenjun; Naser, Zachary J; Knotts, Chelsea M; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2015-12-01

    Recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have accounted for an estimated 270,000 blast exposures among military personnel. Blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the 'signature injury' of modern warfare. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following blast TBI can lead to long-term and diffuse neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigate for the first time the role of bryostatin-1, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, in ameliorating BBB breakdown. Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. We utilized a clinically relevant and validated blast model to expose animals to moderate blast exposure. Groups included: control, single blast exposure, and single blast exposure + bryostatin-1. Bryostatin-1 was administered i.p. 2.5 mg/kg after blast exposure. Evan's blue, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to assess injury. Evan's blue binds to albumin and is a marker for BBB disruption. The single blast exposure caused an increase in permeability compared to control (t = 4.808, p < 0.05), and a reduction back toward control levels when bryostatin-1 was administered (t = 5.113, p < 0.01). Three important PKC isozymes, PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε, were co-localized primarily with endothelial cells but not astrocytes. Bryostatin-1 administration reduced toxic PKCα levels back toward control levels (t = 4.559, p < 0.01) and increased the neuroprotective isozyme PKCε (t = 6.102, p < 0.01). Bryostatin-1 caused a significant increase in the tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, and occludin through modulation of PKC activity. Bryostatin-1 ultimately decreased BBB breakdown potentially due to modulation of PKC isozymes. Future work will examine the role of bryostatin-1 in preventing chronic neurodegeneration following repetitive neurotrauma. PMID:25301233

  1. Integrated genome-scale analysis of the transcriptional regulatory landscape in a blood stem/progenitor cell model.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicola K; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Hannah, Rebecca; Sánchez Castillo, Manuel; Schütte, Judith; Ladopoulos, Vasileios; Mitchelmore, Joanna; Goode, Debbie K; Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Moignard, Victoria; Wilkinson, Adam C; Jimenez-Madrid, Isabel; Kinston, Sarah; Spivakov, Mikhail; Fraser, Peter; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-03-31

    Comprehensive study of transcriptional control processes will be required to enhance our understanding of both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Modern sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to generate genome-scale expression and histone modification profiles, transcription factor (TF)-binding maps, and also comprehensive chromatin-looping information. Many of these technologies, however, require large numbers of cells, and therefore cannot be applied to rare hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. The stem cell factor-dependent multipotent progenitor cell line HPC-7 represents a well-recognized cell line model for HSPCs. Here we report genome-wide maps for 17 TFs, 3 histone modifications, DNase I hypersensitive sites, and high-resolution promoter-enhancer interactomes in HPC-7 cells. Integrated analysis of these complementary data sets revealed TF occupancy patterns of genomic regions involved in promoter-anchored loops. Moreover, preferential associations between pairs of TFs bound at either ends of chromatin loops led to the identification of 4 previously unrecognized protein-protein interactions between key blood stem cell regulators. All HPC-7 data sets are freely available both through standard repositories and a user-friendly Web interface. Together with previously generated genome-wide data sets, this study integrates HPC-7 data into a genomic resource on par with ENCODE tier 1 cell lines and, importantly, is the only current model with comprehensive genome-scale data that is relevant to HSPC biology. PMID:26809507

  2. Microbial contamination of peripheral blood and bone marrow hematopoietic cell products and environmental contamination in a stem cell bank: a single-center report.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska-Skrzypczak, M; Bembnista, E; Kubiak, A; Matuszak, P; Schneider, A; Komarnicki, M

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) are frequently used for autologous and allogenic transplantations. Establishing quality control at appropriate steps of the stem cell preparation process is crucial for a successful transplantation. Microbial contamination of haematopoietic stem cells is rare but could cause a potentially mortal complication of a stem cells transplantation. We investigated the microbiological contamination of PB (291 donations) and BM (39 donations) products. Microbial cultures of 330 donations between January 2012 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed after the collection and preparation steps. The microbiological analysis was performed with an automated system. Hematopoietic stem cells were processed in a closed system. Additionally, in this report the environment of the working areas of stem cell preparation was monitored. We analyzed microbial contamination of the air in a class I laminar air flow clean bench at the time of preparation and in the laboratory once per month. We reported 9 (2.73%) contaminated HSC products. The most frequent bacteria isolated from PB and BM products were Bacillus species. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Micrococcus species were the most frequent micro-organisms detected in the air microbial control. Microbial control results are necessary for the safety of hematopoietic stem cell products transplantation. Microbial control of hematopoietic stem cell products enables an early contamination detection and allows for knowledgeable decision making concerning either discarding the contaminated product or introducing an efficient antibiotic therapy. Each step of cell processing may cause a bacterial contamination. A minimum of manipulation steps is crucial for increasing the microbial purity of the transplant material. Also, the air contamination control is essential to ensure the highest quality standards of HSC products preparation. PMID:25380939

  3. Candidate gene networks and blood biomarkers of methamphetamine-associated psychosis: an integrative RNA-sequencing report.

    PubMed

    Breen, M S; Uhlmann, A; Nday, C M; Glatt, S J; Mitt, M; Metsalpu, A; Stein, D J; Illing, N

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation, course and treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-associated psychosis (MAP) are similar to that observed in schizophrenia (SCZ) and subsequently MAP has been hypothesized as a pharmacological and environmental model of SCZ. However, several challenges currently exist in diagnosing MAP accurately at the molecular and neurocognitive level before the MAP model can contribute to the discovery of SCZ biomarkers. We directly assessed subcortical brain structural volumes and clinical parameters of MAP within the framework of an integrative genome-wide RNA-Seq blood transcriptome analysis of subjects diagnosed with MAP (N=10), METH dependency without psychosis (MA; N=10) and healthy controls (N=10). First, we identified discrete groups of co-expressed genes (that is, modules) and tested them for functional annotation and phenotypic relationships to brain structure volumes, life events and psychometric measurements. We discovered one MAP-associated module involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis downregulation, enriched with 61 genes previously found implicated in psychosis and SCZ across independent blood and post-mortem brain studies using convergent functional genomic (CFG) evidence. This module demonstrated significant relationships with brain structure volumes including the anterior corpus callosum (CC) and the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, a second MAP and psychoticism-associated module involved in circadian clock upregulation was also enriched with 39 CFG genes, further associated with the CC. Subsequently, a machine-learning analysis of differentially expressed genes identified single blood-based biomarkers able to differentiate controls from methamphetamine dependents with 87% accuracy and MAP from MA subjects with 95% accuracy. CFG evidence validated a significant proportion of these putative MAP biomarkers in independent studies including CLN3, FBP1, TBC1D2 and ZNF821 (RNA degradation), ELK3 and SINA3 (circadian clock) and PIGF and

  4. Fibroblast growth factors preserve blood-brain barrier integrity through RhoA inhibition after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Krafft, Paul R; Ma, Qingyi; Rolland, William B; Caner, Basak; Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Le, Mai; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) maintain and promote vascular integrity; however whether FGFs protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unexplored. In this present study, we hypothesized that exogenous FGF administration attenuates brain injury after ICH, specifically by preserving endothelial adherens junctions, therefore reducing vasogenic brain edema and attenuating neurofunctional deficits in mice subjected to experimental ICH. Acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) at 0.5 h after intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase (cICH) or autologous whole blood (bICH). Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor PD173074 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 were additionally administered with FGF2. The selective Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 was independently administered at 0.5 h after cICH. Brain water content and neurofunctional deficits were evaluated at 24 and 72h after ICH induction. Evans blue extravasation as well as Western blot analysis for the quantification of activated FGFR, Akt, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and adherens junction proteins (p120-catenin, β-catenin and VE-cadherin) were conducted at 72 h post-cICH. FGF treatment reduced perihematomal brain edema and improved neurofunctional deficits at 72 h after experimental ICH (p<0.05, compared to vehicle); however, FGFR and PI3K inhibition reversed these neuroprotective effects. Exogenous FGF2 increased activated FGFR, Akt, and Rac1 but reduced activated RhoA protein expression at 72 h after cICH (p<0.05, compared to vehicle), which was reversed by FGFR and PI3K inhibition. Y27632 treatment reduced brain injury at 72 h after cICH (p<0.05, compared to vehicle) and increased the expression of catenins (p120-catenin,

  5. Emerging Role for Use of Liposomes in the Biopreservation of Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Holovati, Jelena L.; Acker, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biopreservation is the process of maintaining the integrity and functionality of cells held outside the native environment for extended storage times. The development of red blood cell (RBC) biopreservation techniques that maintain in vitro RBC viability and function represents the foundation of modern blood banking. The biopreservation of RBCs for clinical use can be categorized based on the techniques used to achieve biologic stability, including hypothermic storage and cryopreservation. This review will examine the emerging role of liposomes in the RBC biopreservation, including the incorporation of liposomes into RBC membranes as an effective approach for minimizing RBC hypothermic storage membrane lesion and use of liposomes as a permeabilization strategy for the intracellular accumulation of novel intracellular cryoprotectants. Integration of current biopreservation research with blood banking practices offers enormous potential for future improvements of safety and efficacy of RBC transfusion. PMID:21566711

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human astrocytes disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity by a gap junction-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Eugenin, Eliseo A; Clements, Janice E; Zink, M Christine; Berman, Joan W

    2011-06-29

    HIV infection of the CNS is an early event after primary infection, resulting in neurological complications in a significant number of individuals despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). The main cells infected with HIV within the CNS are macrophages/microglia and a small fraction of astrocytes. The role of these few infected astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS has not been examined extensively. Here, we demonstrate that few HIV-infected astrocytes (4.7 ± 2.8% in vitro and 8.2 ± 3.9% in vivo) compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. This BBB disruption is due to endothelial apoptosis, misguided astrocyte end feet, and dysregulation of lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase, BK(Ca) channels, and ATP receptor activation within astrocytes. All of these alterations in BBB integrity induced by a few HIV-infected astrocytes were gap junction dependent, as blocking these channels protected the BBB from HIV-infected astrocyte-mediated compromise. We also demonstrated apoptosis in vivo of BBB cells in contact with infected astrocytes using brain tissue sections from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques as a model of neuroAIDS, suggesting an important role for these few infected astrocytes in the CNS damage seen with HIV infection. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of bystander BBB toxicity mediated by low numbers of HIV-infected astrocytes and amplified by gap junctions. This mechanism of toxicity contributes to understanding how CNS damage is spread even in the current ART era and how minimal or controlled HIV infection still results in cognitive impairment in a large population of infected individuals. PMID:21715610

  7. Altered Expression of ZO-1 and ZO-2 in Sertoli Cells and Loss of Blood-Testis Barrier Integrity in Testicular Carcinoma In Situ1

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Cornelia; Weigel, Roswitha; Hembes, Tanja; Lauke-Wettwer, Heidrun; Kliesch, Sabine; Bergmann, Martin; Brehm, Ralph H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the noninvasive precursor of most human testicular germ cell tumors. In normal seminiferous epithelium, specialized tight junctions between Sertoli cells constitute the major component of the blood-testis barrier. Sertoli cells associated with CIS exhibit impaired maturation status, but their functional significance remains unknown. The aim was to determine whether the blood-testis barrier is morphologically and/or functionally altered. We investigated the expression and distribution pattern of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens (ZO) 1 and 2 in normal seminiferous tubules compared to tubules showing CIS. In normal tubules, ZO-1 and ZO-2 immunostaining was observed at the blood-testis barrier region of adjacent Sertoli cells. Within CIS tubules, ZO-1 and ZO-2 immunoreactivity was reduced at the blood-testis barrier region, but spread to stain the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Western blot analysis confirmed ZO-1 and ZO-2, and their respective mRNA were shown by RT-PCR. Additionally, we assessed the functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier by lanthanum tracer study. Lanthanum permeated tight junctions in CIS tubules, indicating disruption of the blood-testis barrier. In conclusion, Sertoli cells associated with CIS show an altered distribution of ZO-1 and ZO-2 and lose their blood-testis barrier function. PMID:17217619

  8. Current preclinical studies on neuroinflammation and changes in blood-brain barrier integrity by MDMA and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Esther; Urrutia, Andrés; Green, A Richard; Colado, M Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential in the maintenance of brain homeostasis both by preserving normal brain functioning and also by protecting the brain from exposure to a range of potentially harmful substances. This review presents some of the evidence of BBB disruption following exposure to the substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH), two drugs of abuse which are widely consumed recreationally by younger sectors of the population. Both MDMA and METH have been shown to produce disruption of the BBB as reflected by IgG extravasation and Evans Blue leakage. In particular, METH decreases the expression of basal lamina proteins associated with an increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity. These changes in BBB integrity appear to be related to MDMA-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) JNK1/2. The consequences of the disruption in the BBB by these two drugs remain to be established, but there is evidence in the literature that, at least in the case of METH, increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity may be related to increased behavioural sensitization and reward perhaps because of the modification of the passage of the drug into the CNS. In addition, the high incidence of AIDS-related neurologic disease in METH users may also be related to increased entry into the brain of virally derived neurotoxic products. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24594477

  9. Lack of effect of topically applied nicotine on pial arteriole diameter and blood-brain barrier integrity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Schilling, L; Bultmann, A; Wahl, M

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, the vasomotor effects of nicotine, its interaction with local chemical factors and norepinephrine, and its effects on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were investigated. Using perivascular microapplication, 10(-6) M nicotine was found not to exert a vasomotor effect by itself or to modify the vasodilating effect of an increase in perivascular H+, K+ and adenosine concentration. The constrictor effect of a decrease in H+, K+ or an increase in norepinephrine concentration in the perivascular space was also not altered by 10(-6) M nicotine, indicating a lack of interaction between nicotine and the compounds tested. Using cortical superfusion and intravital fluorescence microscopy nicotine (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) was also found not to affect the diameter of pial arteries during superfusion periods of 30 min each. The integrity of BBB could be demonstrated in time-matched solvent controls over 3 h using intravenously-infused FITC-labelled dextran (MW 70,000) as tracer. During cortical superfusion with 10(-7) to 10(-5) M nicotine the permeability of the BBB was not increased compared with the time-matched controls. However, during superfusion with 10(-4) and 10(-3) M nicotine, tracer extravasation could be quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The extravasation index (EI) increased by up to eight times. These data indicate that only toxic concentrations of nicotine increase BBB permeability to FITC-dextran 70,000. PMID:1521035

  10. [Syphilis and blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Serrano, J

    1991-06-01

    Along 17 years (1973-1989), syphilis screening has been performed on 146,355 blood units in the author's blood bank. A total number of 143 positive results (confirmed by MHA-TP) was registered, which means an incidence of 0.097%. Of the total number of blood units, 31,529 came from professional donors, 51 of them (0.16%) being positive, while of the 114,826 blood units from voluntary donors 92 were positive (0.08%). With respect to voluntary donations, the highest incidence of positive reactions was found between 1980 and 1982, but this period registered also the highest number of blood units studied. Along this 17 year period 8 patients have received blood products with positive syphilis test. They were transfused on urgent request with fresh blood or platelet concentrates, the transfusion being performed before knowing the results of the screening for syphilis. No special measures were taken in 2 such cases, who died shortly after the transfusion on account of their disease. Two other were treated with penicillin at the time of transfusion. The remaining four patients received preventive penicillin. Even taking into account that positive screening tests are uncommon amongst blood donors, and that only under special circumstances the patients receiving contaminated blood may develop the illness, it seems advisable for every blood bank to perform the screening for syphilis on every blood donation. PMID:1948541

  11. Chronic type 2 diabetes reduces the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by reducing tight junction proteins in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Yim, Hee Sun; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dae Won; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and tight junction markers in the rat hippocampus. Forty-week-old diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty, ZDF) rats and littermate control (Zucker lean control, ZLC) rats were used in this study. We evaluated the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by measuring sodium fluorescein extravasation and blood vessel ultrastructure. In addition, tight junction markers, such as zona occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5, were quantified by western blot analysis. ZDF rats showed significantly increased sodium fluorescein leakage in the hippocampus. Tight junction markers, such as occludin and claudin-5, were significantly decreased in the hippocampi of ZDF rats compared to those of ZLC rats. In addition, ZDF rats showed ultrastructural changes with phagocytic findings in the blood vessels. These results suggest that chronic untreated diabetes impairs the permeability of the hippocampal blood-brain barrier by down-regulating occludin and claudin-5, indicating that chronic untreated diabetes may cause hippocampus-dependent dysfunction. PMID:26876499

  12. Volatile Anesthetics Influence Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity by Modulation of Tight Junction Protein Expression in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaible, Eva-Verena; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Hedrich, Jana; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Engelhard, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be important to elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ) such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 (cl5) play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane on in-vitro BBB integrity was investigated by quantification of the electrical resistance (TEER) in murine brain endothelial monolayers and neurovascular co-cultures of the BBB. Secondly brain edema and TJ expression of ZO-1 and cl5 were measured in-vivo after exposure towards volatile anesthetics in native mice and after controlled cortical impact (CCI). In in-vitro endothelial monocultures, both anesthetics significantly reduced TEER within 24 hours after exposure. In BBB co-cultures mimicking the neurovascular unit (NVU) volatile anesthetics had no impact on TEER. In healthy mice, anesthesia did not influence brain water content and TJ expression, while 24 hours after CCI brain water content increased significantly stronger with isoflurane compared to sevoflurane. In line with the brain edema data, ZO-1 expression was significantly higher in sevoflurane compared to isoflurane exposed CCI animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed disruption of ZO-1 at the cerebrovascular level, while cl5 was less affected in the pericontusional area. The study demonstrates that anesthetics influence brain edema formation after experimental TBI. This effect may be attributed to modulation of BBB permeability by differential TJ protein expression. Therefore, selection of anesthetics may influence the barrier function and introduce a strong bias in experimental research on pathophysiology of BBB dysfunction. Future research is required to investigate adverse or

  13. Pentylentetrazole-induced loss of blood-brain barrier integrity involves excess nitric oxide generation by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Danjo, Sonoko; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Masatomo; Nakamura, Yu; Itoh, Kouichi

    2013-09-12

    Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major pathophysiological consequences of epilepsy. The increase in the permeability caused by BBB failure is thought to contribute to the development of epileptic outcomes. We developed a method by which the BBB permeability can be demonstrated by gadolinium-enhanced T1 weighted imaging (GdET1WI). The present study examined the changes in the BBB permeability in mice with generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) induced by acute pentylentetrazole (PTZ) injection. At 15min after PTZ-induced GCS, the BBB temporarily leaks BBB-impermeable contrast agent into the parenchyma of the diencephalon, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice, and the loss of BBB integrity was gradually recovered by 24h. The temporary BBB failure is a critical link to the glutamatergic activities that occur following the injection of PTZ. PTZ activates the glutamatergic pathway via the NMDA receptor, then nitric oxide (NO) is generated by NMDA receptor-coupled neuronal NO synthase (nNOS). To examine the influence of nNOS-derived NO induced by PTZ on the increases of the BBB permeability, GdET1WI was performed using conventional nNOS gene-deficient mice with or without PTZ injection. The failure of the BBB induced by PTZ was completely protected by nNOS deficiency in the brain. These results suggest that nNOS-derived excess NO in the glutamatergic pathway plays a key role in the failure of the BBB during PTZ-induced GCS. The levels of NO synthetized by nNOS in the brain may represent an important target for the future development of drugs to protect the BBB. PMID:23831997

  14. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  15. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  16. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  17. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  18. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  19. Error detection and reduction in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Motschman, T L; Moore, S B

    1996-12-01

    Error management plays a major role in facility process improvement efforts. By detecting and reducing errors, quality and, therefore, patient care improve. It begins with a strong organizational foundation of management attitude with clear, consistent employee direction and appropriate physical facilities. Clearly defined critical processes, critical activities, and SOPs act as the framework for operations as well as active quality monitoring. To assure that personnel can detect an report errors they must be trained in both operational duties and error management practices. Use of simulated/intentional errors and incorporation of error detection into competency assessment keeps employees practiced, confident, and diminishes fear of the unknown. Personnel can clearly see that errors are indeed used as opportunities for process improvement and not for punishment. The facility must have a clearly defined and consistently used definition for reportable errors. Reportable errors should include those errors with potentially harmful outcomes as well as those errors that are "upstream," and thus further away from the outcome. A well-written error report consists of who, what, when, where, why/how, and follow-up to the error. Before correction can occur, an investigation to determine the underlying cause of the error should be undertaken. Obviously, the best corrective action is prevention. Correction can occur at five different levels; however, only three of these levels are directed at prevention. Prevention requires a method to collect and analyze data concerning errors. In the authors' facility a functional error classification method and a quality system-based classification have been useful. An active method to search for problems uncovers them further upstream, before they can have disastrous outcomes. In the continual quest for improving processes, an error management program is itself a process that needs improvement, and we must strive to always close the circle of quality assurance. Ultimately, the goal of better patient care will be the reward. PMID:8974205

  20. Integration of Genome-Wide SNP Data and Gene-Expression Profiles Reveals Six Novel Loci and Regulatory Mechanisms for Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Frank; Holdt, Lesca M.; Gross, Arnd; Teren, Andrej; Tönjes, Anke; Becker, Susen; Krohn, Knut; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Scholz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Profiling amino acids and acylcarnitines in whole blood spots is a powerful tool in the laboratory diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Emerging data suggests that altered blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines are also associated with common metabolic diseases in adults. Thus, the identification of common genetic determinants for blood metabolites might shed light on pathways contributing to human physiology and common diseases. We applied a targeted mass-spectrometry-based method to analyze whole blood concentrations of 96 amino acids, acylcarnitines and pathway associated metabolite ratios in a Central European cohort of 2,107 adults and performed genome-wide association (GWA) to identify genetic modifiers of metabolite concentrations. We discovered and replicated six novel loci associated with blood levels of total acylcarnitine, arginine (both on chromosome 6; rs12210538, rs17657775), propionylcarnitine (chromosome 10; rs12779637), 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (chromosome 21; rs1571700), stearoylcarnitine (chromosome 1; rs3811444), and aspartic acid traits (chromosome 8; rs750472). Based on an integrative analysis of expression quantitative trait loci in blood mononuclear cells and correlations between gene expressions and metabolite levels, we provide evidence for putative causative genes: SLC22A16 for total acylcarnitines, ARG1 for arginine, HLCS for 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine, JAM3 for stearoylcarnitine via a trans-effect at chromosome 1, and PPP1R16A for aspartic acid traits. Further, we report replication and provide additional functional evidence for ten loci that have previously been published for metabolites measured in plasma, serum or urine. In conclusion, our integrative analysis of SNP, gene-expression and metabolite data points to novel genetic factors that may be involved in the regulation of human metabolism. At several loci, we provide evidence for metabolite regulation via gene-expression and observed overlaps with GWAS

  1. Discrepancy in ABO blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Noman; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Ahmed, Zulfiqar

    2013-08-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. PMID:23930880

  2. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines. PMID:24899337

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of a computerized blood order "consultation" system.

    PubMed

    Lepage, E F; Gardner, R M; Laub, R M; Jacobson, J T

    1991-01-01

    To optimize blood ordering and accurately assess transfusion practice, in 1987, an "on line" computerized, knowledge-based, blood order critiquing system was integrated into the HELP Hospital Information System (HIS) at LDS Hospital. Evaluations of the computerized ordering system demonstrated its benefits and limitations on transfusion practice. Based on this experience, a second generation blood ordering system using a consultation mode was developed. A pilot test of this blood order consultant system, using historical data in the HELP system's database, was performed. This pilot test demonstrated that the consultation system provided accurate recommendations for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet orders. Comparing the appropriateness of blood orders with the recommendations made by the director of the blood bank, the orders recommended by the computer "consultant" agreed 95.5% of the time. The computer consultation system also recommended fewer RBC units for transfusion. Preliminary results obtained using the consultant approach suggest that we may be able to simplify blood ordering practice and also reduce the number of units of blood products ordered. Based on these findings we are now preparing to compare the "critiquing" and "consultation" approaches using a clinical trial. PMID:1807617

  4. Wildlife biomaterial banking in Africa for now and the future.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Paul; Kotze, Antoinette

    2006-08-01

    The Wildlife Biological Resource Centre (wBRC) together with its partners in BioBank SA, have created a Biological Resource Bank (BRB) that is dedicated to the acquisition, processing, banking, using and provision of biomaterials to the scientific and conservation industry that are viable, diverse and representative of southern Africa's wildlife populations. Banked biomaterials include tissue such as muscle, kidney, fat, liver, embryos, fibroblast cultures, blood, sperm, hair, egg shells and other tissue, fluids and cells. Biomaterials are made available for research, biodiversity conservation and biotechnology development. Biomaterials are used in many disciplines, including genetics, reproduction, nutrition, and disease studies. Biomaterials from selected species are also useful for the detection and monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants and other potentially harmful substances found in the environment. Biomaterials are made available to third parties with prior consent from the biomaterials "owner" and only after the signing of a customised Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) or Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The training of staff from National and Provincial Game Reserves, Zoological Gardens, Animal Breeders and laboratories is carried out on a regular basis with the aim of securing good quality biomaterials. Sampling kits are made available to persons tasked with the collection of wildlife biomaterials. The Biobank SA consortium acts as an integrated resource centre linking partner collections. The consortium's operational arm, namely wBRC, is active in the development of relevant policy, regulations and legislation pertaining to biomaterials, including Access and Benefit Sharing systems. The main sponsor of the project is the Department of Science and Technology, National Government of South Africa. PMID:16896459

  5. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    PubMed

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers. PMID:10124146

  6. Preventing banking and check fraud.

    PubMed

    Sagner, J S

    1994-11-01

    Most banking fraud involves disbursement activity which, by its nature, necessitates access to an organization's bank account. Banking fraud can be prevented by employing several internal controls and by using various banking products. PMID:10146100

  7. Lead risk assessment for children in Hungary by predicting their blood lead levels using US EPA integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, M A; Horváth, A

    1999-08-01

    The US EPA integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK 0.99d) lead exposure for children was validated, updated, and applied to predict mean blood lead levels based on lead uptake from multiple sources and provide assessment of risk. Surveys were carried out around houses in a polluted area (Heves, Hungary) in 1995. The collected data from that area have shown very high levels of lead in soil. In some cases the level of lead in soil has reached more than 1000 times the allowable limit value used (100 mg/kg) in Hungary. Moreover, the concentration of lead in air was measured and the concentration of lead in air varied from 0.05-1.83 micrograms/m3. The environmental data within the community were used to predict the children blood lead levels and to compare the observed estimates with the other predicted ones. The age of the investigated group of children varied from 0-60 months. The estimated blood lead levels have illustrated variation according to age, sex, and the specific site. It can be concluded from this study that the model can be used on a wide range to give us an excellent picture for site cleanup, to decision makers, and finally to use the environmental data to predict blood lead level for the community or population. Results of several validation exercises utilizing the IEUBK model comparing predicted and measured blood lead levels with international guidelines and the percent of risk of exceeding a specific blood lead level (i.e., 10 micrograms/dl) are presented in this paper. PMID:10499150

  8. High-Throughput Screening for Identification of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Enhancers: A Drug Repurposing Opportunity to Rectify Vascular Amyloid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface that maintains brain homeostasis and protects it from free entry of chemicals, toxins, and drugs. The barrier function of the BBB is maintained mainly by capillary endothelial cells that physically separate brain from blood. Several neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are known to disrupt BBB integrity. In this study, a high-throughput screening (HTS) was developed to identify drugs that rectify/protect BBB integrity from vascular amyloid toxicity associated with AD progression. Assessing Lucifer Yellow permeation across in-vitro BBB model composed from mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) grown on 96-well plate inserts was used to screen 1280 compounds of Sigma LOPAC®1280 library for modulators of bEnd3 monolayer integrity. HTS identified 62 compounds as disruptors, and 50 compounds as enhancers of the endothelial barrier integrity. From these 50 enhancers, 7 FDA approved drugs were identified with EC50 values ranging from 0.76-4.56 μM. Of these 7 drugs, 5 were able to protect bEnd3-based BBB model integrity against amyloid toxicity. Furthermore, to test the translational potential to humans, the 7 drugs were tested for their ability to rectify the disruptive effect of Aβ in the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Only 3 (etodolac, granisetron, and beclomethasone) out of the 5 effective drugs in the bEnd3-based BBB model demonstrated a promising effect to protect the hCMEC/D3-based BBB model integrity. These drugs are compelling candidates for repurposing as therapeutic agents that could rectify dysfunctional BBB associated with AD. PMID:27392852

  9. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  10. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  11. Umbilical cord cell banking-implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Jennifer . E-mail: gunning@cf.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  12. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  13. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity. PMID:26578854

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and the blood-testis barrier integrity in the seminiferous epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Pearl P. Y.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    In the seminiferous epithelium, Eps8 is localized to actin-based cell junctions at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) in stage V–VI tubules but is considerably diminished in stage VIII tubules. Eps8 down-regulation coincides with the time of BTB restructuring and apical ES disassembly, implicating the role of Eps8 in cell adhesion. Its involvement in Sertoli-germ cell adhesion was substantiated in studies using an in vivo animal model by treating rats with 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzy)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide (adjudin) to induce anchoring junction restructuring, during which Eps8 disappeared at the apical ES before germ cell departure. In Sertoli cell cultures with established permeability barrier mimicking the BTB in vivo, the knockdown of Eps8 by RNAi led to F-actin disorganization and the mislocalization of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, suggesting the function of Eps8 in maintaining BTB integrity. In vivo knockdown of Eps8 in the testis caused germ cell sloughing and BTB damage, concomitant with occludin mislocalization, further validating that Eps8 is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and BTB integrity in the seminiferous epithelium.—Lie, P. P. Y., Mruk, D. D., Lee, W. M., Cheng, C. Y. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and the blood-testis barrier integrity in the seminiferous epithelium. PMID:19293393

  15. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  16. A microfluidic device integrating dual CMOS polysilicon nanowire sensors for on-chip whole blood processing and simultaneous detection of multiple analytes.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Da-Han; Wang, I-Shun; Lin, Jiun-Rue; Yang, Chao-Han; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chih-Ting; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2016-08-01

    The hemoglobin-A1c test, measuring the ratio of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to hemoglobin (Hb) levels, has been a standard assay in diabetes diagnosis that removes the day-to-day glucose level variation. Currently, the HbA1c test is restricted to hospitals and central laboratories due to the laborious, time-consuming whole blood processing and bulky instruments. In this paper, we have developed a microfluidic device integrating dual CMOS polysilicon nanowire sensors (MINS) for on-chip whole blood processing and simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The micromachined polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic device consisted of a serpentine microchannel with multiple dam structures designed for non-lysed cells or debris trapping, uniform plasma/buffer mixing and dilution. The CMOS-fabricated polysilicon nanowire sensors integrated with the microfluidic device were designed for the simultaneous, label-free electrical detection of multiple analytes. Our study first measured the Hb and HbA1c levels in 11 clinical samples via these nanowire sensors. The results were compared with those of standard Hb and HbA1c measurement methods (Hb: the sodium lauryl sulfate hemoglobin detection method; HbA1c: cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography) and showed comparable outcomes. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the efficacy of the MINS device's on-chip whole blood processing followed by simultaneous Hb and HbA1c measurement in a clinical sample. Compared to current Hb and HbA1c sensing instruments, the MINS platform is compact and can simultaneously detect two analytes with only 5 μL of whole blood, which corresponds to a 300-fold blood volume reduction. The total assay time, including the in situ sample processing and analyte detection, was just 30 minutes. Based on its on-chip whole blood processing and simultaneous multiple analyte detection functionalities with a lower sample volume requirement and shorter process time, the MINS device can be

  17. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  18. The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Separović, J; Hanzevacki, M; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklić, P; Stancić-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Jelovac, N; Marović, A

    1997-07-30

    -arginine were combined. In summary, BPC 157 could interfere with the effects of NO on both gastric mucosal integrity and blood pressure maintenance in a specific way, especially with L-arginine, having a more prominent and/or particularly different effect from that of NO. PMID:9298922

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  20. Chronic type 2 diabetes reduces the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by reducing tight junction proteins in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    YOO, Dae Young; YIM, Hee Sun; JUNG, Hyo Young; NAM, Sung Min; KIM, Jong Whi; CHOI, Jung Hoon; SEONG, Je Kyung; YOON, Yeo Sung; KIM, Dae Won; HWANG, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia on the integrity of the blood–brain barrier and tight junction markers in the rat hippocampus. Forty-week-old diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty, ZDF) rats and littermate control (Zucker lean control, ZLC) rats were used in this study. We evaluated the integrity of the blood–brain barrier by measuring sodium fluorescein extravasation and blood vessel ultrastructure. In addition, tight junction markers, such as zona occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5, were quantified by western blot analysis. ZDF rats showed significantly increased sodium fluorescein leakage in the hippocampus. Tight junction markers, such as occludin and claudin-5, were significantly decreased in the hippocampi of ZDF rats compared to those of ZLC rats. In addition, ZDF rats showed ultrastructural changes with phagocytic findings in the blood vessels. These results suggest that chronic untreated diabetes impairs the permeability of the hippocampal blood–brain barrier by down-regulating occludin and claudin-5, indicating that chronic untreated diabetes may cause hippocampus-dependent dysfunction. PMID:26876499

  1. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h. PMID:26710344

  2. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

  3. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  4. Label-free impedance detection of cancer cells from whole blood on an integrated centrifugal microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Glennon, Thomas; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J; Ducrée, Jens

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical Lab-on-a-Disc (eLoaD) platform for the automated quantification of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) from whole blood is reported. This centrifugal microfluidic system combines complex sample handling, i.e., blood separation and cancer cell extraction from plasma, with specific capture and sensitive detection using label-free electrochemical impedance. Flow control is facilitated using rotationally actuated valving strategies including siphoning, capillary and centrifugo-pneumatic dissolvable-film (DF) valves. For the detection systems, the thiol-containing amino acid, L-Cysteine, was self-assembled onto smooth gold electrodes and functionalized with anti-EpCAM. By adjusting the concentration of buffer electrolyte, the thickness of the electrical double layer was extended so the interfacial electric field interacts with the bound cells. Significant impedance changes were recorded at 117.2 Hz and 46.5 Hz upon cell capture. Applying AC amplitude of 50 mV at 117.2 Hz and open circuit potential, a minimum of 214 captured cells/mm(2) and 87% capture efficiency could be recorded. The eLoaD platform can perform five different assays in parallel with linear dynamic range between 16,400 and (2.6±0.0003)×10(6) cancer cells/mL of blood, i.e. covering nearly three orders of magnitude. Using the electrode area of 15.3 mm(2) and an SKOV3 cell radius of 5 µm, the lower detection limit is equivalent to a fractional surface coverage of approximately 2%, thus making eLoaD a highly sensitive and efficient prognostic tool that can be developed for clinical settings where ease of handling and minimal sample preparation are paramount. PMID:25613813

  5. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function. PMID:23999527

  6. Integrating Factor Analysis and a Transgenic Mouse Model to Reveal a Peripheral Blood Predictor of Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transgenic mouse tumor models have the advantage of facilitating controlled in vivo oncogenic perturbations in a common genetic background. This provides an idealized context for generating transcriptome-based diagnostic models while minimizing the inherent noisiness of high-throughput technologies. However, the question remains whether models developed in such a setting are suitable prototypes for useful human diagnostics. We show that latent factor modeling of the peripheral blood transcriptome in a mouse model of breast cancer provides the basis for using computational methods to link a mouse model to a prototype human diagnostic based on a common underlying biological response to the presence of a tumor. Methods We used gene expression data from mouse peripheral blood cell (PBC) samples to identify significantly differentially expressed genes using supervised classification and sparse ANOVA. We employed these transcriptome data as the starting point for developing a breast tumor predictor from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by using a factor modeling approach. Results The predictor distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals in a cohort of patients independent from that used to build the factors and train the model with 89% sensitivity, 100% specificity and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 using Youden's J-statistic to objectively select the model's classification threshold. Both permutation testing of the model and evaluating the model strategy by swapping the training and validation sets highlight its stability. Conclusions We describe a human breast tumor predictor based on the gene expression of mouse PBCs. This strategy overcomes many of the limitations of earlier studies by using the model system to reduce noise and identify transcripts associated with the presence of a breast tumor over other potentially confounding factors. Our results serve as a proof-of-concept for using an animal model to develop a

  7. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  8. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  9. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  10. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  11. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  12. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  13. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  14. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  15. BDB: biopanning data bank

    PubMed Central

    He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Liuyang; Zhang, Huixiong; Liu, Zechun; He, Qiang; Han, Ke; Ru, Beibei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Rao, Nini; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The BDB database (http://immunet.cn/bdb) is an update of the MimoDB database, which was previously described in the 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database issue. The rebranded name BDB is short for Biopanning Data Bank, which aims to be a portal for biopanning results of the combinatorial peptide library. Last updated in July 2015, BDB contains 2904 sets of biopanning data collected from 1322 peer-reviewed papers. It contains 25 786 peptide sequences, 1704 targets, 492 known templates, 447 peptide libraries and 310 crystal structures of target-template or target-peptide complexes. All data stored in BDB were revisited, and information on peptide affinity, measurement method and procedures was added for 2298 peptides from 411 sets of biopanning data from 246 published papers. In addition, a more professional and user-friendly web interface was implemented, a more detailed help system was designed, and a new on-the-fly data visualization tool and a series of tools for data analysis were integrated. With these new data and tools made available, we expect that the BDB database would become a major resource for scholars using phage display, with improved utility for biopanning and related scientific communities. PMID:26503249

  16. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance. PMID:8538304

  17. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  18. Central integration and neural control of blood pressure during the cold pressor test: a comparison between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sara S; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with hypertension and sympathetic overactivity are at risk for cardiovascular events. Renin inhibitors are new while thiazide diuretics are first-class drugs used for treatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of treatment with aliskiren (ALSK) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) would alter blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) indices in older mild hypertensives during a cold pressor test (CPT). We hypothesized that the ALSK group would demonstrate a blunted response compared to HCTZ. Nineteen (9 men, 10 women) subjects performed a CPT pre- and post treatment where heart rate (HR), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and MSNA were measured. Blood samples were withdrawn for assessment of renal-adrenal hormones. Both medications lowered ambulatory SBP and DBP (P < 0.05). Direct renin tended to be higher in the ALSK group after treatment (P = 0.081). Aldosterone was higher in the HCTZ group after treatment (P < 0.001). As expected, both groups showed increases in HR, SBP, DBP, and MSNA during the CPT (all P < 0.05). All cardiovascular and MSNA responses were similar pre- and post treatment in both groups (peak CPT SBP: 26 ± 10 vs. 17 ± 21 and 21 ± 20 vs. 29 ± 15 mmHg for pre vs. post for HCTZ and ALSK, respectively; peak CPT MSNA burst frequency: 13 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 11 and 11 ± 17 vs. 6 ± 13 bursts/min; all P > 0.05). Treatment with these antihypertensive medications lowered BP but was not successful in lowering the responsiveness to the CPT. PMID:26465969

  19. Central integration and neural control of blood pressure during the cold pressor test: a comparison between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Sara S; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-09-14

    Individuals with hypertension and sympathetic overactivity are at risk for cardiovascular events. Renin inhibitors are new while thiazide diuretics are first-class drugs used for treatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of treatment with aliskiren (ALSK) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) would alter blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) indices in older mild hypertensives during a cold pressor test (CPT). We hypothesized that the ALSK group would demonstrate a blunted response compared to HCTZ. Nineteen (9 men, 10 women) subjects performed a CPT pre- and post treatment where heart rate (HR), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and MSNA were measured. Blood samples were withdrawn for assessment of renal-adrenal hormones. Both medications lowered ambulatory SBP and DBP (P < 0.05). Direct renin tended to be higher in the ALSK group after treatment (P = 0.081). Aldosterone was higher in the HCTZ group after treatment (P < 0.001). As expected, both groups showed increases in HR, SBP, DBP, and MSNA during the CPT (all P < 0.05). All cardiovascular and MSNA responses were similar pre- and post treatment in both groups (peak CPT SBP: 26 ± 10 vs. 17 ± 21 and 21 ± 20 vs. 29 ± 15 mmHg for pre vs. post for HCTZ and ALSK, respectively; peak CPT MSNA burst frequency: 13 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 11 and 11 ± 17 vs. 6 ± 13 bursts/min; all P > 0.05). Treatment with these antihypertensive medications lowered BP but was not successful in lowering the responsiveness to the CPT. PMID:26465969

  20. American Association of Tissue Banks

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the Gift of Cells and Tissues Tissue Bank Specialist Certification AATB offers a program for Certification ... AATB conferences, workshops, webinars & CTBS Exam prep >> Accredited Bank Search AATB's Accreditation Program ensures that tissue-banking ...

  1. iBank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  2. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  3. 12 CFR 1282.65 - Enterprise data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enterprise data integrity. 1282.65 Section 1282.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Reporting Requirements § 1282.65 Enterprise data integrity. (a) Certification. (1)...

  4. 12 CFR 1282.65 - Enterprise data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enterprise data integrity. 1282.65 Section 1282.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Reporting Requirements § 1282.65 Enterprise data integrity. (a) Certification.—(1)...

  5. 12 CFR 1282.65 - Enterprise data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise data integrity. 1282.65 Section 1282.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Reporting Requirements § 1282.65 Enterprise data integrity. (a) Certification. (1)...

  6. 12 CFR 1282.65 - Enterprise data integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise data integrity. 1282.65 Section 1282.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Reporting Requirements § 1282.65 Enterprise data integrity. (a) Certification.—(1)...

  7. The World Bank and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In September 1989 the World Bank set out a three-year agenda for action to combat environmental degradation. The main goal of this agenda has been the integration of environmental concerns into the Bank's development work. This report- the Bank's first annual report on the environment - reviews progress in this area during fiscal 1990 (July 1989 - June 1990). Environmental concerns were addressed in Bank operations during FY90 through country-focused environmental strategy work, policy and research activities, and lending operations. Five problem areas required special attention: destruction of natural habitats; land degradation; degradation and depletion of fresh water resources; urban, industrial, and agricultural pollution; and degradation of the global commons' through, for example, atmospheric and marine pollution. The book describes not only the Bank's successes in its environmental work but also the problems it has encountered. It raises important questions about whether real progress can be made by the Bank if inadequate resources are devoted to supervision, project monitoring, and environmental regulation.

  8. AUDIT OF BLOOD REQUISITION.

    PubMed

    Deb, P; Swarup, D; Singh, M M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2793 requisition forms received by the blood banks of a Service zonal hospital, between June 1995 and December 1999, were analysed. 1697 (60.71%) forms were demand for single unit blood. Blood was collected against only 1099 forms (39.34%) out of which 713 (64.88%) were single unit issue. Urgency of requirement and blood group of patients was omitted in 56% cases. 104 forms were received without mention of the indications for transfusion. History of previous transfusion and pregnancy/HDN were omitted in 25.1% and 37.38% cases respectively. At an average 14.61% of the total collection was discarded. Of the 292 units discarded, 242 units were due to non utilisation. A transfusion committee should be established in all hospitals with a licensed blood bank. It should constitute definite objectives and conduct regular audits (prospective audit, concurrent review or retrospective review), in order to achieve utmost efficiency and numerous benefits, in terms of workload, cost, errors, risks of transfusion and ultimately increased customer satisfaction. It should strive to abolish single unit and inappropriate transfusion, and advocate autologous transfusion. PMID:27365575

  9. 77 FR 9137 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank. (1.) The Health Care Quality Improvement Act of... 401-432 of the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 and section 1921 of the Social Security Act... the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act), Public Law 111-148....

  10. Management of the inpatient canine blood donor.

    PubMed

    Hohenhaus, A E

    1992-12-01

    The availability of inpatient blood donors as a source for transfusion allows flexibility that is lacking in an outpatient program. Choosing the appropriate dog as a donor is essential to the success of a hospital blood bank. Once a dog becomes a blood donor, routine physical and clinicopathologic examinations are necessary to monitor the animal's health and to ensure the quality of blood products. PMID:1472767

  11. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

  12. Integrating Cell Phone Imaging with Magnetic Levitation (i-LEV) for Label-Free Blood Analysis at the Point-of-Living.

    PubMed

    Baday, Murat; Calamak, Semih; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-03-01

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive, and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use, and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system is presented in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis is introduced. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, it is shown that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single-cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications. PMID:26523938

  13. The effects of superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP on the altered blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental preeclampsia with or without seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Arican, Nadir; Kucuk, Mutlu; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kalayci, Rivaze; Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-05-14

    We investigated the effects of a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in experimental preeclampsia symptoms induced by N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in pregnant rats. To show the functional and morphological alterations in BBB integrity, quantitative analysis of sodium fluorescein (NaFlu) extravasation, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic assessment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability were performed. Varying degrees of proteinuria were seen and arterial blood pressure increased in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). MnTMPyP pretreatment and convulsive PTZ challenge significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of occludin in hippocampal capillaries in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). BBB permeability to NaFlu significantly increased in pregnant rats treated with l-NAME plus PTZ (p<0.01), but MnTMPyP pretreatment did not significantly decrease NaFlu penetration into the brain parenchyma in these animals. Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in the capillary endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of pregnant rats treated with l-NAME and l-NAME plus PTZ with the abundance being more in the latter group. MnTMPyP pretreatment caused a marked reduction in the frequency of HRP reaction product containing vesicles in both experimental settings. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that MnTMPyP plays an important role in limiting the enhanced vesicle-mediated transcellular transport in BBB endothelium in a rat model of preeclampsia and the differences in the way of transports of NaFlu and HRP might be responsible for the different effects of MnTMPyP on the BBB permeability to these two tracers. PMID:24680906

  14. 12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the...

  15. 12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the...

  16. 12 CFR 1271.41 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank employees. 1271.41 Section 1271.41 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES Authority for Bank Assistance of the Resolution Funding...

  17. 12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the...

  18. 12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the...

  19. Melatonin promotes blood-brain barrier integrity in methamphetamine-induced inflammation in primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jumnongprakhon, Pichaya; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Tocharus, Chainarong; Tocharus, Jiraporn

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone and has high potent of antioxidant that is widely reported to be active against methamphetamine (METH)-induced toxicity to neuron, glial cells, and brain endothelial cells. However, the role of melatonin on the inflammatory responses which are mostly caused by blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment by METH administration has not been investigated. This study used the primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) to determine the protective mechanism of melatonin on METH-induced inflammatory responses in the BBB via nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling. Herein, we demonstrated that melatonin reduced the level of the inflammatory mediators, including intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM)-1, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) caused by METH. These responses were related to the decrease of the expression and translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2. In addition, melatonin promoted the antioxidant processes, modulated the expression and translocation of Nrf2, and also increased the level of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γ-GCLC), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) through NOX2 mechanism. In addition, we found that the protective role of melatonin in METH-induced inflammatory responses in the BBB was mediated through melatonin receptors (MT1/2). We concluded that the interaction of melatonin with its receptor prevented METH-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing the NF-κB signaling and promoting the Nrf2 signaling before BBB impairment. PMID:27268413

  20. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  1. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  2. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  3. Integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiling in blood reveals candidate biomarkers associated with endurance exercise in the horse.

    PubMed

    Mach, Núria; Plancade, Sandra; Pacholewska, Alicja; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Rivière, Julie; Moroldo, Marco; Vaiman, Anne; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Beinat, Marine; Nevot, Alizée; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive response to extreme endurance exercise might involve transcriptional and translational regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform an integrated analysis of the blood transcriptome and miRNome (using microarrays) in the horse before and after a 160 km endurance competition. A total of 2,453 differentially expressed genes and 167 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified when comparing pre- and post-ride samples. We used a hypergeometric test and its generalization to gain a better understanding of the biological functions regulated by the differentially expressed microRNA. In particular, 44 differentially expressed microRNAs putatively regulated a total of 351 depleted differentially expressed genes involved variously in glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrion biogenesis, and immune response pathways. In an independent validation set of animals, graphical Gaussian models confirmed that miR-21-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-505-5p are candidate regulatory molecules for the adaptation to endurance exercise in the horse. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a comprehensive, integrated overview of the microRNA-mRNA co-regulation networks that may have a key role in controlling post-transcriptomic regulation during endurance exercise. PMID:26960911

  4. Integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiling in blood reveals candidate biomarkers associated with endurance exercise in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Núria; Plancade, Sandra; Pacholewska, Alicja; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Rivière, Julie; Moroldo, Marco; Vaiman, Anne; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Beinat, Marine; Nevot, Alizée; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive response to extreme endurance exercise might involve transcriptional and translational regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform an integrated analysis of the blood transcriptome and miRNome (using microarrays) in the horse before and after a 160 km endurance competition. A total of 2,453 differentially expressed genes and 167 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified when comparing pre- and post-ride samples. We used a hypergeometric test and its generalization to gain a better understanding of the biological functions regulated by the differentially expressed microRNA. In particular, 44 differentially expressed microRNAs putatively regulated a total of 351 depleted differentially expressed genes involved variously in glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrion biogenesis, and immune response pathways. In an independent validation set of animals, graphical Gaussian models confirmed that miR-21-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-505-5p are candidate regulatory molecules for the adaptation to endurance exercise in the horse. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a comprehensive, integrated overview of the microRNA-mRNA co-regulation networks that may have a key role in controlling post-transcriptomic regulation during endurance exercise. PMID:26960911

  5. Transport of Poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and their influence on barrier integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Ralf; Cramer, Sandra; Huewel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles may be promising drug carriers. {yields} Influence of PBCA nanoparticles on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. {yields} PBCA nanoparticles lead to a reversible disruption of the BBB in vitro after 4 h. {yields} Potential application as time-dependent and specific opener of the BBB. -- Abstract: In previous studies it was shown that polysorbate 80(PS80)-coated poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA-NP) are able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and in vivo. In order to explore and extend the potential applications of PBCA-NP as drug carriers, it is important to ascertain their effect on the BBB. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of PS80-coated PBCA-NP on the BBB integrity of a porcine in vitro model. This has been investigated by monitoring the development of the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after the addition of PBCA-NP employing impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the integrity of the BBB in vitro was verified by measuring the passage of the reference substances {sup 14}C-sucrose and FITC-BSA after addition of PBCA-NP. In this study we will show that the application of PS80-coated PBCA-NP leads to a reversible disruption of the barrier after 4 h. The observed disruption of the barrier could also be confirmed by {sup 14}C-sucrose and FITC-BSA permeability studies. Comparing the TEER and permeability studies the lowest resistances and maximal values for permeabilities were both observed after 4 h. These results indicate that PS80-coated PBCA-NP might be suitable for the use as drug carriers. The reversible disruption also offers the possibility to use these particles as specific opener of the BBB. Instead of incorporating the therapeutic agents into the NP, the drugs may cross the BBB after being applied simultaneously with the PBCA-NP.

  6. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  7. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the way you normally talk or behave Fainting spells Seizures (for the first time) SCREENING FOR ... drawn are slight, but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the ...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL..., Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards (1) The depositary bank...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL..., Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards (1) The depositary bank...

  15. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office...

  16. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office...

  17. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY... of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director,...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit associations. 614.4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... chartered territory—Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations,...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit associations. 614.4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... chartered territory—Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations,...

  20. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  1. [Donation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Ladrón Llorente, Yolanda; Rández Alvero, Mónica; Carrascosa Ridruejo, Ana Isabel; Bregua García, Judith; Blanco Sotés, Carmelo; Calavia Lacarra, Jesús

    2004-06-01

    The donation of blood by means of aphaeresis by means of a cellular separator is a procedure through which one obtains blood components in the most efficient manner, yielding the best quality in the final product although this procedure requires special characteristics on behalf of the donor and consequently has a higher cost. The authors have analyzed the characteristics of 81 donors who used this procedure and who voluntarily came to our blood bank over a 17 month period from January 2002 until May 2003; 287 such procedures were carried out. The quality of the product obtained, as a benefit for the possible receptor, compensates the greater dedication by the donor and the high cost of this technique. PMID:15315098

  2. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  3. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  4. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  5. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  6. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  7. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  8. The organization of tissue banking in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Galea, G

    2012-11-01

    Tissue banking in Scotland has developed significantly over the past 20 years or so. The range of issues procured has increased and so have their numbers. Initially, bone from live donors was the only tissue banked; later, tissues from multiorgan donors were procured; this was finally followed by the collection of tissues from donors following cardiac death. Bones, tendons, heart valves and skin are the main tissue types collected, stored and issued for clinical use. Much of our activity is based on identification of donors in two major accident and emergency departments followed by retrievals that take place in a dedicated mortuary by fully-trained staff. Tissues are released according to clinical need for Scottish patients and beyond. All of the tissue banking activity in Scotland takes place within the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, which is the preferred provider of tissues for Scottish patients. There is very close cooperation between our teams, the transplant teams and other clinical colleagues, including pathologists and anatomical technicians. The achievements in issue banking in Scotland are outlined along with the main clinical indications of the tissue procured. Diversification is now taking place into cellular therapy with the establishment of an islet processing programme and cell culturing techniques. The future is very exciting. PMID:23138581

  9. MMP-9 gene silencing by a Quantum Dot-siRNA nanoplex delivery to maintain the integrity of the blood brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bonoiu, Adela; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Ye, Ling; Kumar, Rajiv; Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Reynolds, Jessica L; Sykes, Donald E; Imperiale, Marco A; Bergey, Earl J.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2009-01-01

    The matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, are involved in the neuroinflammation processes leading to disrupting of the blood brain barrier (BBB), thereby exacerbating neurological diseases such as HIV-1 AIDS dementia and cerebral ischemia. Nanoparticles have been proposed to act as non-viral gene delivery vectors and have great potential for therapeutic applications in several disease states. In this study, we evaluated the specificity and efficiency of quantum dot (QD) complexed with MMP-9-siRNA (nanoplex) in downregulating the expression of MMP-9 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB. We hypothesize that silencing MMP-9 gene expression in BMVECs and other cells such as leukocytes may help prevent breakdown of the BBB and inhibit subsequent invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by infected and inflammatory cells. Our results show that silencing of MMP-9 gene expression resulted in the upregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen I, IV, V and a decrease in endothelial permeability, as reflected by reduction of transendothelial resistance across the BBB in a well validated in-vitro BBB model. MMP-9 gene silencing also resulted in an increase in expression of the gene tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). This indicates the importance of a balance between the levels of MMP-9 and its natural inhibitor TIMP-1 in maintaining the basement membrane integrity. These studies promise the application of a novel nanoparticle based siRNA delivery system in modulating the MMP-9 activity in BMVECs and other MMP-9 producing cells. This will prevent neuroinflammation and maintain the integrity of the BBB. PMID:19477169

  10. Development of tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  11. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... typing. The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type ... ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: Anti-A serum, you have type A blood Anti-B serum, you have type B blood Both anti-A and ...

  12. Plunder of Human Blood Leukocytes Containing Ingested Material, by Other Leukocytes: Where Is the Fusagen That Allows Preservation of Membrane Integrity and Motile Function?

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; Chevance de Boisfleury, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In studying phagocytosis of zymosan particles by human blood monocytes in phase-contrast videomicroscopy, we found that monocytes loaded with zymosan particles became chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) which closed on them and purloined their particle content. This despoliation usually occurred in monocytes that had begun to swell—prefiguring their death. The violent seizure of their contents by the aggressing PMN often tore the monocytes apart. However, some apparently healthy monocyte survived the removal of zymosan content by PMN or, more commonly, its removal by another monocyte. PMN—a much hardier cell in slide preparations—that were similarly loaded with zymosan particles, also attracted PMN. The latter could remove zymosan from the target cell without killing it. Thus, leukocytes were sacrificing significant portions of themselves without losing residual membrane integrity and motile function. Their behavior with respect to other particles (e.g., bacteria) will be of interest. We suggest that the membrane fusagen resides in the inner membrane leaflets when they are brought together in an extreme hourglass configuration. This event may be similar to the fragmentation of erythrocytes into intact pieces, the formation of cytokineplasts, the rear extrusion of content by migrating cells on surfaces, and the phagocytic process itself. PMID:23840370

  13. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking. PMID:25535413

  14. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  15. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  16. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  17. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  18. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  19. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  20. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  1. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ... your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which ...

  2. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not there are certain proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells. Blood is often ... There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If ...

  3. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

  4. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:2041806

  5. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  6. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply. PMID:27001366

  7. [Usefulness of the integration between the values of the 1-hour blood xylose test and the hydrogen breath-test after xylose oral load for the indirect evaluation of mucosa damage].

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, M G; Lambertini, A; Romeo, N; Albini, P; Pozzi, M

    1985-01-01

    Considering 50 children affected by sub-acute gastrointestinal diseases by severe growth disorders, we have compared the "one-hour blood xylose test" with the "xylose and lactose H2 breath test, looking for a relationship with the duodeno-jejunal mucosal damage. Finally the integration between the "one hour blood xylose test" and the "xylose H2 breath test" may be useful in order to compare more exactly the results of both xylose tests with the mucosal damage. Lactose H2 breath test seems less reliable for our purposes because of the possible presence of children with lactase deficiences, hardly comparable with the mucosal damage. PMID:4094911

  8. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  9. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  10. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  11. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  12. Electronic Load Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic load-bank circuit provides pulsed or continuous low-resistance load to imitate effect of short circuit on Ni/H2 or other electrochemical power cells. Includes safety/warning feature and taps for measurement of cell-output voltage and current.

  13. The Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Helen M.; Westbrook, John; Feng, Zukang; Gilliland, Gary; Bhat, T. N.; Weissig, Helge; Shindyalov, Ilya N.; Bourne, Philip E.

    2000-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource. PMID:10592235

  14. Banking & Financial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

    This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

  15. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  16. The Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.

    The Educational Opportunity Bank (EOB) has received short shrift among educators and many objections have been raised to establishing it. Among these are the workability of the plan, the problem for women borrowers, and the creation of a new force--student financial power - in opposition to the influence of the Federal Government. Though…

  17. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  18. 76 FR 53474 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 76 FR 24489 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 76 FR 29751 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 75 FR 4394 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  2. 75 FR 43164 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  3. 75 FR 28616 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  4. 75 FR 14596 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  5. 75 FR 60125 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  6. 75 FR 19974 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  7. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 76 FR 9350 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 75 FR 50764 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  10. 77 FR 35386 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 75 FR 13762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  12. 75 FR 38524 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  13. 76 FR 45572 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 76 FR 8739 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 75 FR 49934 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  16. 77 FR 14015 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 76 FR 26728 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 49795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 80051 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 77 FR 53887 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 75 FR 62820 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 75 FR 12544 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  3. 75 FR 21628 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  4. 77 FR 21561 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 76 FR 14010 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 76 FR 65727 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 77 FR 55214 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 75 FR 20598 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  9. 76 FR 63620 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 77 FR 2063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 76 FR 20669 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 77 FR 2293 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 77 FR 19665 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 20643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 36189 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 75 FR 33810 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  17. 75 FR 77876 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 75 FR 39016 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  19. 75 FR 33306 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  20. 78 FR 46583 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 78 FR 55716 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 75 FR 67969 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 76 FR 10595 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 77 FR 9250 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 75 FR 12240 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  6. 76 FR 23599 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 76 FR 10899 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 61960 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 77 FR 4323 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 76 FR 40730 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 75 FR 54148 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  12. 78 FR 5442 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 75 FR 10484 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  14. 75 FR 9414 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  15. 77 FR 67816 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 75 FR 70262 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 75 FR 53968 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  18. 77 FR 74482 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 14301 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 76 FR 19099 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 75 FR 5322 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  2. 78 FR 43203 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 77 FR 63832 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 35032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 71793 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 75 FR 51814 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  7. 76 FR 75882 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 75 FR 71130 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 76 FR 53899 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 75 FR 26961 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  11. 78 FR 37222 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 78 FR 22879 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 77 FR 42312 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 75 FR 1621 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  15. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 21367 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  18. 78 FR 19268 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 76 FR 41259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 68073 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...