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Sample records for integrated codes hedric

  1. Parameters used in the environmental pathways and radiological dose modules (DESCARTES, CIDER, and CRD codes) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1994-05-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site during the period of 1944 to 1992. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  2. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). This document contains information on parameters that are specific to the airborne release of the radionuclide iodine-131. Future versions of this document will include parameter information pertinent to other pathways and radionuclides.

  3. Integrated Codes for Estimating Environmental Accumulation and Individual Dose from Past Hanford Atmospheric Releases: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T. A.; Burnett, R. A.; Napier, B. A.; Reitz, N. A.; Shipler, D. B.

    1992-02-01

    Preliminary radiation doses were estimated and reported during Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. As the project has progressed, additional information regarding the magnitude and timing of past radioactive releases has been developed, and the general scope of the required calculations has been enhanced. The overall HEDR computational model for computing doses attributable to atmospheric releases from Hanford Site operations is called HEDRIC (Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes). It consists of four interrelated models: source term, atmospheric transport, environmental accumulation, and individual dose. The source term and atmospheric transport models are documented elsewhere. This report describes the initial implementation of the design specifications for the environmental accumulation model and computer code, called DESCARTES (Dynamic EStimates of Concentrations and Accumulated Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments), and the individual dose model and computer code, called CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides). The computations required of these models and the design specifications for their codes were documented in Napier et al. (1992). Revisions to the original specifications and the basis for modeling decisions are explained. This report is not the final code documentation but gives the status of the model and code development to date. Final code documentation is scheduled to be completed in FY 1994 following additional code upgrades and refinements. The user's guide included in this report describes the operation of the environmental accumulation and individual dose codes and associated pre- and post-processor programs. A programmer's guide describes the logical structure of the programs and their input and output files.

  4. Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    1987-01-01

    FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

  5. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  6. The Fireball integrated code package

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  7. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with anmore » input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.« less

  8. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald P.; Franke, Brian C.; Laub, Thomas W.

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  9. MINET (momentum integral network) code documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G J; Nepsee, T C; Guppy, J G

    1989-12-01

    The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs.

  10. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). This document contains information on parameters that are specific to the airborne release of the radionuclide iodine-131. Future versions of this document will include parameter information pertinent to other pathways and radionuclides.

  11. Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).

  12. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  13. Integrating Proactive Discipline Practices into Codes of Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Pamela; Theodos, Jennifer; Benner, Courtney; Bohanon-Edmonson, Hank

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advocate for proactive content in discipline codes of conduct. Proactive discipline codes integrate Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies (Sugai & Horner, 2002) and attend to the academic needs of students (McEvoy & Welker, 2000). Proactive discipline codes of conduct have meaningful participation by key…

  14. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  15. Code Division Multiple Access system candidate for integrated modular avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1991-02-01

    There are government and industry trends towards avionics modularity and integrated avionics. Key requirements implicit in these trends are suitable data communication concepts compatible with the integration concept. In this paper we explore the use ofCode Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques as an alternative to collision detection and collision avoidance multiple access techniques.

  16. Progress in Advanced Spray Combustion Code Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan

    1993-01-01

    A multiyear project to assemble a robust, muitiphase spray combustion code is now underway and gradually building up to full speed. The overall effort involves several university and government research teams as well as Rocketdyne. The first part of this paper will give an overview of the respective roles of the different participants involved, the master strategy, the evolutionary milestones, and an assessment of the state-of-the-art of various key components. The second half of this paper will highlight the progress made to date in extending the baseline Navier-Stokes solver to handle multiphase, multispecies, chemically reactive sub- to supersonic flows. The major hurdles to overcome in order to achieve significant speed ups are delineated and the approaches to overcoming them will be discussed.

  17. Radiation hydrodynamics integrated in the PLUTO code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Stefan M.; Stute, Matthias; Kley, Wilhelm; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Aims: The transport of energy through radiation is very important in many astrophysical phenomena. In dynamical problems the time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics have to be solved. We present a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics module specifically designed for the versatile magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PLUTO. Methods: The solver is based on the flux-limited diffusion approximation in the two-temperature approach. All equations are solved in the co-moving frame in the frequency-independent (gray) approximation. The hydrodynamics is solved by the different Godunov schemes implemented in PLUTO, and for the radiation transport we use a fully implicit scheme. The resulting system of linear equations is solved either using the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method (for testing purposes) or using matrix solvers that are available in the PETSc library. We state in detail the methodology and describe several test cases to verify the correctness of our implementation. The solver works in standard coordinate systems, such as Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical, and also for non-equidistant grids. Results: We present a new radiation-hydrodynamics solver coupled to the MHD-code PLUTO that is a modern, versatile, and efficient new module for treating complex radiation hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics. As test cases, either purely radiative situations, or full radiation-hydrodynamical setups (including radiative shocks and convection in accretion disks) were successfully studied. The new module scales very well on parallel computers using MPI. For problems in star or planet formation, we added the possibility of irradiation by a central source.

  18. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  19. CBP TOOLBOX VERSION 2.0: CODE INTEGRATION ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Flach, G.; BROWN, K.

    2013-06-01

    This report describes enhancements made to code integration aspects of the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox as a result of development work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in collaboration with Vanderbilt University (VU) in the first half of fiscal year 2013. Code integration refers to the interfacing to standalone CBP partner codes, used to analyze the performance of cementitious materials, with the CBP Software Toolbox. The most significant enhancements are: 1) Improved graphical display of model results. 2) Improved error analysis and reporting. 3) Increase in the default maximum model mesh size from 301 to 501 nodes. 4) The ability to set the LeachXS/Orchestra simulation times through the GoldSim interface. These code interface enhancements have been included in a new release (Version 2.0) of the CBP Toolbox.

  20. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R

    2007-06-11

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length. PMID:19547056

  1. Software Development Environment with Integrated Code Rocket Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Paterson, David; Spark, Alan; Yu, Bruce Guoxia

    2013-08-01

    The development of software for embedded systems such as spacecraft instruments, data processing or other on-board applications, faces a number of challenges not always fully met by many of the currently available software development environments. In this paper we describe a new suite of software tools, the STAR Software Development Environment (SSDE), which is intended to address many of these challenges, and which should simplify the development of software for spacecraft applications, and for other embedded environments. The SSDE includes Code Rocket, a code visualisation and documentation tool, which provides both pseudocode and flowchart editing facilities. These are fully integrated with the code editing and debugging features of the underlying integrated development environment (IDE).

  2. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  3. On optimization of integration properties of biphase coded signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Xiang, Jingcheng

    Within the context of the requirements for agile waveforms with a large compression ratio in biphase coded radars and on the basis of the characteristics of interpulse integration processing of radar signals, the study proposes two sequence optimization criteria which are suitable for radar processing patterns: interpulse waveform agility - pulse compression - FFT, and MTI - pulse compression - noncoherent integration. Applications of these criteria to optimizing sequences of length 127 are carried out. The output peak ratio of mainlobe to sidelobe (RMS) is improved considerably without a weighting network, while the autocorrelation and cross correlation profles of the sequences are very satisfactory. The RMS of coherent integration and noncoherent integration of eight sequences are 34.12 and 28.1 dB, respectively, when the return signals have zero Doppler shift. These values are about 12 and 6 dB higher than the RMS of single signals before integration.

  4. A versatile integrated block codes encoder-decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P. A.

    1989-12-01

    A new Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit which is designed to perform encoding and decoding of almost all Reed-Solomon and BCH codes (including generalized BCH) using symbol sizes from 1 to 8 bits. It is fully programmable by many standard microprocessors which consider it like any other more common co-processor. Its architecture allows a high bit rate and a great flexibility. The interfacing protocol is optimized for minimizing time constraint (mail boxes) and limiting programming effort: no advanced knowledge of codes is required to use it.

  5. Features and applications of the integrated composites analyzer (ICAN) code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginty, Carol A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal behavior of composite spacecraft antenna reflectors was investigated with the Integrated Composites Analyzer (ICAN) computer code. Parametric studies were conducted on the face sheets and honeycomb core which constitute the sandwich-type structures. Selected thermal and mechanical properties of the composite faces and sandwich structures are presented graphically as functions of varying fiber volume ratio, laminate configuration, fabrication factors, and environmental conditions.

  6. Second Generation Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Ginty, Carol A.; Sanfeliz, Jose G.

    1993-01-01

    This manual updates the original 1986 NASA TP-2515, Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Users and Programmers Manual. The various enhancements and newly added features are described to enable the user to prepare the appropriate input data to run this updated version of the ICAN code. For reference, the micromechanics equations are provided in an appendix and should be compared to those in the original manual for modifications. A complete output for a sample case is also provided in a separate appendix. The input to the code includes constituent material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, and laminate configuration. The code performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analyses, including the hygrothermal response of polymer-matrix-based fiber composites. The output includes the various ply and composite properties, the composite structural response, and the composite stress analysis results with details on failure. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be used efficiently as a self-contained package (or as a module) in complex structural analysis programs. The input-output format has changed considerably from the original version of ICAN and is described extensively through the use of a sample problem.

  7. An integrative approach to predicting the functional effects of non-coding and coding sequence variation

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hashem A.; Rogers, Mark F.; Gough, Julian; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Day, Ian N. M.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Technological advances have enabled the identification of an increasingly large spectrum of single nucleotide variants within the human genome, many of which may be associated with monogenic disease or complex traits. Here, we propose an integrative approach, named FATHMM-MKL, to predict the functional consequences of both coding and non-coding sequence variants. Our method utilizes various genomic annotations, which have recently become available, and learns to weight the significance of each component annotation source. Results: We show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms, CADD and GWAVA, when predicting the functional consequences of non-coding variants. In addition, FATHMM-MKL is comparable to the best of these algorithms when predicting the impact of coding variants. The method includes a confidence measure to rank order predictions. Availability and implementation: The FATHMM-MKL webserver is available at: http://fathmm.biocompute.org.uk Contact: H.Shihab@bristol.ac.uk or Mark.Rogers@bristol.ac.uk or C.Campbell@bristol.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25583119

  8. Documentation for RISKIN: A risk integration code for MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) output

    SciTech Connect

    Rollstin, J.A. ); Hong, Kou-John )

    1990-11-01

    This document has been prepared as a user's guide for the computer program RISKIN developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The RISKIN code generates integrated risk tables and the weighted mean risk associated with a user-selected set of consequences from up to five output files generated by the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Each MACCS output file can summarize the health and economic consequences resulting from up to 60 distinct severe accident source terms. Since the accident frequency associated with these source terms is not included as a MACCS input parameter a postprocessor is required to derived results that must incorporate accident frequency. The RISKIN code is such a postprocessor. RISKIN will search the MACCS output files for the mean and peak consequence values and the complementary cumulative distributive function (CCDF) tables for each requested consequence. Once obtained, RISKIN combines this data with accident frequency data to produce frequency weighted results. A postprocessor provides RISKIN an interface to the proprietary DISSPLA plot package. The RISKIN code has been written using ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 to maximize its portability.

  9. Mitigating ionospheric scintillation effects by integrating coding and interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Wai-Hung

    Since conventional interleaving cannot be effectively integrated into coded high data rate communications systems operating in slow and deep fading environments, a new adaptive approach to overcome the problem has been derived. This technique would enable the communications system to delete burst errors as well as to correct random errors. Therefore, it could minimize the effects of various interferences including jamming, antenna switching, and deep fading occurring in nuclear scintillation. In this paper, this new technique is introduced, and the performance of this new approach is illustrated.

  10. Committed to the Honor Code: An Investment Model Analysis of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Emily L.; Emery, Lydia F.; Le, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Educators worldwide face challenges surrounding academic integrity. The development of honor codes can promote academic integrity, but understanding how and why honor codes affect behavior is critical to their successful implementation. To date, research has not examined how students' "relationship" to an honor code predicts…

  11. Interfacing modules for integrating discipline specific structural mechanics codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endres, Ned M.

    1989-01-01

    An outline of the organization and capabilities of the Engine Structures Computational Simulator (Simulator) at NASA Lewis Research Center is given. One of the goals of the research at Lewis is to integrate various discipline specific structural mechanics codes into a software system which can be brought to bear effectively on a wide range of engineering problems. This system must possess the qualities of being effective and efficient while still remaining user friendly. The simulator was initially designed for the finite element simulation of gas jet engine components. Currently, the simulator has been restricted to only the analysis of high pressure turbine blades and the accompanying rotor assembly, although the current installation can be expanded for other applications. The simulator presently assists the user throughout its procedures by performing information management tasks, executing external support tasks, organizing analysis modules and executing these modules in the user defined order while maintaining processing continuity.

  12. Integration of the QMSFRG Database into the HZETRN Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Shavers, M. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate nuclear interaction data bases are needed for describing the transport of space radiation in matter including space craft structures, atmospheres, and tissues. Transport models support the identification and development of new material concepts for human and electronic part protection. Quantum effects are manifested in nuclear reactions in several ways including interference effects between terms in the multiple scattering series, the many-body nuclear wave functions (for e.g. the roles of shell structure and Fermi momentum) and nuclear clustering. The quantum multiple scattering fragmentation model (QMSFRG) is a comprehensive model for generating nuclear interaction databases for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) transport. Other nuclear databases including the NUCFRG model and Monte-Carlo simulation codes such as FLUKA, LAHET, HETC, and GEANT ignore quantum effects. These codes fail to describe many important features of nuclear reactions and are thus inaccurate for the evaluation of materials for radiation protection. Previously we have shown that quantum effects are manifested through constructive interference in forward production spectra, the effects of Fermi momentum on production spectra, cluster nuclei knockout, and the nuclear response function. Quantum effects are especially important for heavy ions with mass numbers less than 20 that dominate radiation transport in human tissues and for the materials that are expected to be superior in space radiation protection. We describe the integration of the QMSFRG model into the HZETRN transport code. Integration milestones include proper treatment of odd-even charge-mass effects in nuclear fragmentation and the momentum distribution of nucleon production from GCR primary heavy ions. We have also modified the two-body amplitudes in the model to include nuclear medium effects. In order to include a comprehensive description of the GCR isotopic composition in materials, we have described the isotopic composition

  13. Code System to Calculate Integral Parameters with Reaction Rates from WIMS Output.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-10-25

    Version 00 REACTION calculates different integral parameters related to neutron reactions on reactor lattices, from reaction rates calculated with WIMSD4 code, and comparisons with experimental values.

  14. Integrated photonic decoder with complementary code processing and balanced detection for two-dimensional optical code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, K; Okuno, M; Takahashi, H; Moriwaki, O

    2007-04-01

    We propose a novel integrated photonic decoder for two-dimensional (time spreading, wavelength hopping) optical code division multiple access. The decoder is composed of multiplexers-demultiplexers, variable delay lines, and a coupler, which processes complementary codes and utilizes balanced detection to reduce unwanted cross-correlation interference. We successfully carried out a 10 Gbit/s transmission that demonstrated its effectiveness. PMID:17339936

  15. A new 3-D integral code for computation of accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Kettunen, L.

    1991-01-01

    For computing accelerator magnets, integral codes have several advantages over finite element codes; far-field boundaries are treated automatically, and computed field in the bore region satisfy Maxwell's equations exactly. A new integral code employing edge elements rather than nodal elements has overcome the difficulties associated with earlier integral codes. By the use of field integrals (potential differences) as solution variables, the number of unknowns is reduced to one less than the number of nodes. Two examples, a hollow iron sphere and the dipole magnet of Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron, show the capability of the code. The CPU time requirements are comparable to those of three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element codes. Experiments show that in practice it can realize much of the potential CPU time saving that parallel processing makes possible. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Boltzmann Transport Code Update: Parallelization and Integrated Design Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.; Feldman, G. A.; Chokshi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The on going efforts at developing a web site for radiation analysis is expected to result in an increased usage of the High Charge and Energy Transport Code HZETRN. It would be nice to be able to do the requested calculations quickly and efficiently. Therefore the question arose, "Could the implementation of parallel processing speed up the calculations required?" To answer this question two modifications of the HZETRN computer code were created. The first modification selected the shield material of Al(2219) , then polyethylene and then Al(2219). The modified Fortran code was labeled 1SSTRN.F. The second modification considered the shield material of CO2 and Martian regolith. This modified Fortran code was labeled MARSTRN.F.

  17. Integration of the low-energy particle track simulation code in Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Pedro; Muñoz, Antonio; Moraleda, Montserrat; Gomez Ros, José María; Blanco, Fernando; Perez, José Manuel; García, Gustavo

    2015-08-01

    The Low-Energy Particle Track Simulation code (LEPTS) is a Monte Carlo code developed to simulate the damage caused by radiation at molecular level. The code is based on experimental data of scattering cross sections, both differential and integral, and energy loss data, complemented with theoretical calculations. It covers the interactions of electrons and positrons from energies of 10 keV down to 0.1 eV in different biologically relevant materials. In this article we briefly mention the main characteristics of this code and we present its integration within the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit.

  18. Accelerating execution of the integrated TIGER series Monte Carlo radiation transport codes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.M.; Hochstedler, R.D.

    1997-02-01

    Execution of the integrated TIGER series (ITS) of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport codes has been accelerated by modifying the FORTRAN source code for more efficient computation. Each member code of ITS was benchmarked and profiled with a specific test case that directed the acceleration effort toward the most computationally intensive subroutines. Techniques for accelerating these subroutines included replacing linear search algorithms with binary versions, replacing the pseudo-random number generator, reducing program memory allocation, and proofing the input files for geometrical redundancies. All techniques produced identical or statistically similar results to the original code. Final benchmark timing of the accelerated code resulted in speed-up factors of 2.00 for TIGER (the one-dimensional slab geometry code), 1.74 for CYLTRAN (the two-dimensional cylindrical geometry code), and 1.90 for ACCEPT (the arbitrary three-dimensional geometry code).

  19. SPACE code simulation of cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS integral test

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J.; Kim, K. D.

    2012-07-01

    SPACE code is a system analysis code for pressurized water reactors. This code uses a two-fluid and three-field model. For a few years, intensive validations have been performed to secure the prediction accuracy of models and correlations for two-phase flow and heat transfer. Recently, the code version 1.0 was released. This study is to see how well SPACE code predicts thermal hydraulic phenomena of an integral effect test. The target experiment is a cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS facility, which has the same two-loop features as APR1400. Predicted parameters were compared with experimental observations. (authors)

  20. A general multiblock Euler code for propulsion integration. Volume 3: User guide for the Euler code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. C.; Su, T. Y.; Kao, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    This manual explains the procedures for using the general multiblock Euler (GMBE) code developed under NASA contract NAS1-18703. The code was developed for the aerodynamic analysis of geometrically complex configurations in either free air or wind tunnel environments (vol. 1). The complete flow field is divided into a number of topologically simple blocks within each of which surface fitted grids and efficient flow solution algorithms can easily be constructed. The multiblock field grid is generated with the BCON procedure described in volume 2. The GMBE utilizes a finite volume formulation with an explicit time stepping scheme to solve the Euler equations. A multiblock version of the multigrid method was developed to accelerate the convergence of the calculations. This user guide provides information on the GMBE code, including input data preparations with sample input files and a sample Unix script for program execution in the UNICOS environment.

  1. Talking about Code: Integrating Pedagogical Code Reviews into Early Computing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Agrawal, Anukrati; Agarwal, Pawan

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the computing profession, there is good reason to provide students withmore opportunities to learn and practice those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward that end, we have developed an active learning approach for computing education called the "Pedagogical Code Review"…

  2. A Code of Ethics and Integrity for HRD Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Aragon, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rationale for a code of ethics and integrity in human resource development (HRD). Outlines the Academy of Human Resource Development's standards. Reviews ethical issues faced by the HRD profession. (SK)

  3. Development of an integrated thermal-hydraulics capability incorporating RELAP5 and PANTHER neutronics code

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.; Jones, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    Ensuring that safety analysis needs are met in the future is likely to lead to the development of new codes and the further development of existing codes. It is therefore advantageous to define standards for data interfaces and to develop software interfacing techniques which can readily accommodate changes when they are made. Defining interface standards is beneficial but is necessarily restricted in application if future requirements are not known in detail. Code interfacing methods are of particular relevance with the move towards automatic grid frequency response operation where the integration of plant dynamic, core follow and fault study calculation tools is considered advantageous. This paper describes the background and features of a new code TALINK (Transient Analysis code LINKage program) used to provide a flexible interface to link the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics code with the PANTHER neutron kinetics and the SIBDYM whole plant dynamic modelling codes used by Nuclear Electric. The complete package enables the codes to be executed in parallel and provides an integrated whole plant thermal-hydraulics and neutron kinetics model. In addition the paper discusses the capabilities and pedigree of the component codes used to form the integrated transient analysis package and the details of the calculation of a postulated Sizewell `B` Loss of offsite power fault transient.

  4. Experimental assessment of computer codes used for safety analysis of integral reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Falkov, A.A.; Kuul, V.S.; Samoilov, O.B.

    1995-09-01

    Peculiarities of integral reactor thermohydraulics in accidents are associated with presence of noncondensable gas in built-in pressurizer, absence of pumped ECCS, use of guard vessel for LOCAs localisation and passive RHRS through in-reactor HX`s. These features defined the main trends in experimental investigations and verification efforts for computer codes applied. The paper reviews briefly the performed experimental investigation of thermohydraulics of AST-500, VPBER600-type integral reactors. The characteristic of UROVEN/MB-3 code for LOCAs analysis in integral reactors and results of its verification are given. The assessment of RELAP5/mod3 applicability for accident analysis in integral reactor is presented.

  5. A System for Coding Integration and Differentiation Messages (SID): Operationalizing Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    A "System for coding Integration and Differentiation messages" in group communication (SID) was developed, based on the theoretical and empirical work of W. C. Schutz, W. Bennis and H. Shepard, and A. Koestler. In SID, integrating messages are defined as those dealing with material internal to the group and having positive affect, or internal with…

  6. Whose Code of Conduct Matters Most? Examining the Link between Academic Integrity and Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Although most colleges strive to nurture a culture of integrity, incidents of dishonest behavior are on the rise. This article examines the role student development plays in students' perceptions of academic dishonesty and in their willingness to adhere to a code of conduct that may be in sharp contrast to traditional integrity policies.

  7. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  8. Final Report. An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Andrew

    2013-12-30

    The DOE grant, “An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group,” to New Mexico State University created the Solar America Board for Codes and Standards (Solar ABCs). From 2007 – 2013 with funding from this grant, Solar ABCs identified current issues, established a dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzed appropriate activities to support the development of codes and standards that facilitated the installation of high quality, safe photovoltaic systems. Solar ABCs brought the following resources to the PV stakeholder community; Formal coordination in the planning or revision of interrelated codes and standards removing “stove pipes” that have only roofing experts working on roofing codes, PV experts on PV codes, fire enforcement experts working on fire codes, etc.; A conduit through which all interested stakeholders were able to see the steps being taken in the development or modification of codes and standards and participate directly in the processes; A central clearing house for new documents, standards, proposed standards, analytical studies, and recommendations of best practices available to the PV community; A forum of experts that invites and welcomes all interested parties into the process of performing studies, evaluating results, and building consensus on standards and code-related topics that affect all aspects of the market; and A biennial gap analysis to formally survey the PV community to identify needs that are unmet and inhibiting the market and necessary technical developments.

  9. Multigroup Neutron/Gamma-Ray Direct Integration Transport Code System for Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1980-10-15

    Version 00 PALLAS-2DCY-FX is a code for direct integration of the transport equation in two-dimensional (r,z) geometry. It solves the energy and angular-dependent Boltzmann transport equation with general anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry. Its principal applications are to neutron or gamma-ray transport problems in the forward mode. The code is particularly designed for and suited to the solution of deep penetration radiation transport problems with an external (fixed) source.

  10. Design and realization of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yanan; Cui, Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Ran; Liu, Xin

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the research activity at the Beijing institute of control engineering about the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor. The light system of the miniature coded sun sensor is composed with a semi-column silex glass, a cube silex with coded shape on the bottom and an integrative silicon battery with 14 cells. The sun line forms a light spot through the slit on light system on the coded plate. The sensor determines the orientation of sun through the position of light spot. With the limitation of the diameter of sun plate the accuracy of only 0.5° can be realized with 8-bit coarse code in FOV of 124°. To achieve high accuracy of 0.05° the subdivision technique must be adopted. The main scheme of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is integrating the light system and the signal processing circuits in one mechanical house, using FPGA to calculate the angle, generate the control signal of Multiplexer and AD and realize the function of UART, using flexibility board to connect analog board and digital board, using second power of the satellite, using RS422 interface to communicate with central computer. The performance of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is listed as below : FOV 124°x124°,accuracy 0.05°(3σ), resolution 14″, power consumption 0.5W,update rate 40Hz,mass 475g, designed life-time 15 years. It has been adopted in the new platform of Remote Sensing Satellite of CAST. The first flight will be at 2015.

  11. Code System to Calculate Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-02-18

    Version 04 IRRAS Version 4.16, the latest in a series (2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 4.15), is a program developed for the purpose of performing those functions necessary to create and analyze a complete Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This program includes functions to allow the user to create event trees and fault trees, to define accident sequences and basic event failure data, to solve system and accident sequence fault trees, to quantify cut sets, and to performmore » uncertainty analysis on the results. Also included in this program are features to allow the analyst to generate reports and displays that can be used to document the results of an analysis. Since this software is a very detailed technical tool, the user of this program should be familiar with PRA concepts and the methods used to perform these analyses. IRRAS Version 4.16 is the latest in the stand-alone IRRAS series (2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 4.15). Be sure to review the PSR-405/ SAPHIRE 7.06 package which was released in January 2000 and includes three programs: the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS), the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system, the Models And Results Database (MAR-D) system, and the Fault tree, Event tree and P&ID (FEP) editors.« less

  12. Fault tolerant VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration) design using error correcting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, C. R.; Lala, P. K.; Ali, A. M.; Ganguly, S.; Visweswaran, G. S.

    1989-02-01

    Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) provides the opportunity to design fault tolerant, self-checking circuits with on-chip, concurrent error correction. This study determines the applicability of a variety of error-detecting, error-correcting codes (EDAC) in high speed digital data processors and buses. In considering both microcircuit faults and bus faults, some of the codes examined are: Berger, repetition, parity, residue, and Modified Reflected Binary codes. The report describes the improvement in fault tolerance obtained as a result of implementing these EDAC schemes and the associated penalties in circuit area.

  13. Parieto-frontal coding of reaching: an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    Burnod, Y; Baraduc, P; Battaglia-Mayer, A; Guigon, E; Koechlin, E; Ferraina, S; Lacquaniti, F; Caminiti, R

    1999-12-01

    In the last few years, anatomical and physiological studies have provided new insights into the organization of the parieto-frontal network underlying visually guided arm-reaching movements in at least three domains. (1) Network architecture. It has been shown that the different classes of neurons encoding information relevant to reaching are not confined within individual cortical areas, but are common to different areas, which are generally linked by reciprocal association connections. (2) Representation of information. There is evidence suggesting that reach-related populations of neurons do not encode relevant parameters within pure sensory or motor "reference frames", but rather combine them within hybrid dimensions. (3) Visuomotor transformation. It has been proposed that the computation of motor commands for reaching occurs as a simultaneous recruitment of discrete populations of neurons sharing similar properties in different cortical areas, rather than as a serial process from vision to movement, engaging different areas at different times. The goal of this paper was to link experimental (neurophysiological and neuroanatomical) and computational aspects within an integrated framework to illustrate how different neuronal populations in the parieto-frontal network operate a collective and distributed computation for reaching. In this framework, all dynamic (tuning, combinatorial, computational) properties of units are determined by their location relative to three main functional axes of the network, the visual-to-somatic, position-direction, and sensory-motor axis. The visual-to-somatic axis is defined by gradients of activity symmetrical to the central sulcus and distributed over both frontal and parietal cortices. At least four sets of reach-related signals (retinal, gaze, arm position/movement direction, muscle output) are represented along this axis. This architecture defines informational domains where neurons combine different inputs. The position

  14. An Integrative Method for Identifying the Over-Annotated Protein-Coding Genes in Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia-Feng; Xiao, Ke; Jiang, Dong-Ke; Guo, Jing; Wang, Ji-Hua; Sun, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The falsely annotated protein-coding genes have been deemed one of the major causes accounting for the annotating errors in public databases. Although many filtering approaches have been designed for the over-annotated protein-coding genes, some are questionable due to the resultant increase in false negative. Furthermore, there is no webserver or software specifically devised for the problem of over-annotation. In this study, we propose an integrative algorithm for detecting the over-annotated protein-coding genes in microorganisms. Overall, an average accuracy of 99.94% is achieved over 61 microbial genomes. The extremely high accuracy indicates that the presented algorithm is efficient to differentiate the protein-coding genes from the non-coding open reading frames. Abundant analyses show that the predicting results are reliable and the integrative algorithm is robust and convenient. Our analysis also indicates that the over-annotated protein-coding genes can cause the false positive of horizontal gene transfers detection. The webserver of the proposed algorithm can be freely accessible from www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/RPGM. PMID:21903723

  15. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  16. Users Guide to SAMINT: A Code for Nuclear Data Adjustment with SAMMY Based on Integral Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C.; Arbanas, Goran

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to couple differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework. More specifically, the goal is to use the Generalized Linear Least Squares methodology employed in TSURFER to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation directly. Recognizing that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of the simple Bayesian updating carried out in SAMMY, the computer code SAMINT was created to help use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Minimal modifications of SAMMY are required when used with SAMINT to make resonance parameter updates based on integral experimental data.

  17. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust facilitation effects were observed for semantic decision than for lexical decision, suggesting that lexical integration of signs and words within a code-blend occurs primarily at the semantic level, rather than at the level of form. Early bilinguals exhibited greater facilitation effects than late bilinguals for English (the dominant language) in the semantic decision task, possibly because early bilinguals are better able to process early visual cues from ASL signs and use these to constrain English word recognition. Comprehension facilitation via semantic integration of words and signs is consistent with co-speech gesture research demonstrating facilitative effects of gesture integration on language comprehension. PMID:26657077

  18. Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies.

  19. Integration of a supersonic unsteady aerodynamic code into the NASA FASTEX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A supersonic unsteady aerodynamic loads prediction method based on the constant pressure method was integrated into the NASA FASTEX system. The updated FASTEX code can be employed for aeroelastic analyses in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A brief description of the supersonic constant pressure panel method, as applied to lifting surfaces and body configurations, is followed by a documentation of updates required to incorporate this method in the FASTEX code. Test cases showing correlations of predicted pressure distributions, flutter solutions, and stability derivatives with available data are reported.

  20. Using Automated Code Generation to Support High Performance Extended MHD Integration in OpenGGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.

    2011-10-01

    Automatic code generation is a technique that takes the specification of an algorithm at a high abstraction level and turns it into a well-tuned computer code. For finite-volume / finite-difference based discretizations, this higher abstraction level can be a stencil computation. At the backend, the code generator features modules which generate optimal code for specific hardware architectures, for example conventional architectures (x86) using SIMD instructions (e.g. SSE2), or heterogeneous architectures like the Cell processor or GPGPUs. The definition of the computation is agnostic to the actual hardware used, as a high-performance implementation tailored to the specific architecture will be generated automatically. The OpenGGCM code, a global magnetosphere model, has been converted to use an automatically generated implementation of its magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) integrator. The new version enables us to take advantage of the Cell processor's computational capability and also shows performance improvements of up to 2.3× on a conventional Intel processor. The code generation approach also facilitated the recent extension of the MHD model to incorporate Hall physics.

  1. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  2. Predictive coding and multisensory integration: an attentional account of the multisensory mind

    PubMed Central

    Talsma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration involves a host of different cognitive processes, occurring at different stages of sensory processing. Here I argue that, despite recent insights suggesting that multisensory interactions can occur at very early latencies, the actual integration of individual sensory traces into an internally consistent mental representation is dependent on both top–down and bottom–up processes. Moreover, I argue that this integration is not limited to just sensory inputs, but that internal cognitive processes also shape the resulting mental representation. Studies showing that memory recall is affected by the initial multisensory context in which the stimuli were presented will be discussed, as well as several studies showing that mental imagery can affect multisensory illusions. This empirical evidence will be discussed from a predictive coding perspective, in which a central top–down attentional process is proposed to play a central role in coordinating the integration of all these inputs into a coherent mental representation. PMID:25859192

  3. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster. PMID:21747509

  4. Integrated Fuel-Coolant Interaction (IFCI 7.0) Code User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael F.

    1999-05-01

    The integrated fuel-coolant interaction (IFCI) computer code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) problem at large scale using a two-dimensional, three-field hydrodynamic framework and physically based models. IFCI will be capable of treating all major FCI processes in an integrated manner. This document is a description of IFCI 7.0. The user's manual describes the hydrodynamic method and physical models used in IFCI 7.0. Appendix A is an input manual provided for the creation of working decks.

  5. Integrated Fuel-Coolant Interaction (IFCI 6.0) code. User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Young, M.F.

    1994-04-01

    The integrated Fuel-Coolant interaction (IFCI) computer code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) problem at large scale using a two-dimensional, four-field hydrodynamic framework and physically based models. IFCI will be capable of treating all major FCI processes in an integrated manner. This document is a product of the effort to generate a stand-alone version of IFCI, IFCI 6.0. The User`s Manual describes in detail the hydrodynamic method and physical models used in IFCI 6.0. Appendix A is an input manual, provided for the creation of working decks.

  6. Codes of ethics and scientific integrity: what relevance to outcomes activities?

    PubMed

    Harris, M R

    1997-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses are involved in many activities that focus around "outcomes." As nurses participate in the public presentation of outcomes data and information, expectations for ethical and responsible behavior are heightened. This article examines dilemmas that exist for advanced practice nurses involved in outcomes activities within the context of the American Nurses Association code for nurses, the bioethics literature, and published guides to scientific integrity. Recommendations are made to address these dilemmas. PMID:9437918

  7. Explicit time-reversible orbit integration in Particle In Cell codes with static homogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patacchini, L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2009-04-01

    A new explicit time-reversible orbit integrator for the equations of motion in a static homogeneous magnetic field - called Cyclotronic integrator - is presented. Like Spreiter and Walter's Taylor expansion algorithm, for sufficiently weak electric field gradients this second order method does not require a fine resolution of the Larmor motion; it has however the essential advantage of being symplectic, hence time-reversible. The Cyclotronic integrator is only subject to a linear stability constraint ( ΩΔ t < π, Ω being the Larmor angular frequency), and is therefore particularly suitable to electrostatic Particle In Cell codes with uniform magnetic field where Ω is larger than any other characteristic frequency, yet a resolution of the particles' gyromotion is required. Application examples and a detailed comparison with the well-known (time-reversible) Boris algorithm are presented; it is in particular shown that implementation of the Cyclotronic integrator in the kinetic codes SCEPTIC and Democritus can reduce the cost of orbit integration by up to a factor of ten.

  8. Honor Codes and Other Contextual Influences on Academic Integrity: A Replication and Extension to Modified Honor Code Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Trevino, Linda Klebe; Butterfield, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influence of modified honor codes, an alternative to traditional codes that is gaining popularity on larger campuses. Also tested the model of student academic dishonesty previously suggested by McCabe and Trevino. Found that modified honor codes are associated with lower levels of student dishonesty and that the McCabe Trevino…

  9. Applicability of GALE-86 Codes to Integral Pressurized Water Reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This report describes work that Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is doing to assist the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of New Reactors (NRO) staff in their reviews of applications for nuclear power plants using new reactor core designs. These designs include small integral PWRs (IRIS, mPower, and NuScale reactor designs), HTGRs, (pebble-bed and prismatic-block modular reactor designs) and SFRs (4S and PRISM reactor designs). Under this specific task, PNNL will assist the NRC staff in reviewing the current versions of the GALE codes and identify features and limitations that would need to be modified to accommodate the technical review of iPWR and mPower® license applications and recommend specific changes to the code, NUREG-0017, and associated NRC guidance. This contract is necessary to support the licensing of iPWRs with a near-term focus on the B&W mPower® reactor design. While the focus of this review is on the mPower® reactor design, the review of the code and the scope of recommended changes consider a revision of the GALE codes that would make them universally applicable for other types of integral PWR designs. The results of a detailed comparison between PWR and iPWR designs are reported here. Also included is an investigation of the GALE code and its basis and a determination as to the applicability of each of the bases to an iPWR design. The issues investigated come from a list provided by NRC staff, the results of comparing the PWR and iPWR designs, the parameters identified as having a large impact on the code outputs from a recent sensitivity study and the main bases identified in NUREG-0017. This report will provide a summary of the gaps in the GALE codes as they relate to iPWR designs and for each gap will propose what work could be performed to fill that gap and create a version of GALE that is applicable to integral PWR designs.

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  11. Integrated TIGER Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-11-30

    Version: 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. The Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. The goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects onemore » of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 95. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.« less

  12. Integrated TIGER Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes System.

    SciTech Connect

    VALDEZ, GREG D.

    2012-11-30

    Version: 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. The Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. The goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 95. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.

  13. Leap frog integrator modifications in highly collisional particle-in-cell codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlikova, N.; Turner, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    Leap frog integration method is a standard, simple, fast, and accurate way to implement velocity and position integration in particle-in-cell codes. Due to the direct solution of kinetics of particles in phase space central to the particle-in-cell procedure, important information can be obtained on particle velocity distributions, and consequently on transport and heating processes. This approach is commonly associated with physical situations where collisional effects are weak, but can also be profitably applied in some highly collisional cases, such as occur in semiconductor devices and gaseous discharges at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we show that the implementation of the leap frog integration method in these circumstances can violate some of the assumptions central to the accuracy of this scheme. Indeed, without adaptation, the method gives incorrect results. We show here how the method must be modified to deal correctly with highly collisional cases.

  14. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  15. Self-stabilization techniques for intermediate power level in stacked-Vdd integrated circuits using DC-balanced coding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, Yusuke; Kubo, Naoya; Nishiyama, Tomofumi; Koizuka, Taiki; Alimudin, Mohammad; Rahmat, Amirul; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamanokuchi, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Two new parallel bus coding methods for generating a DC-balanced code with additional bits are proposed to achieve the self-stabilization of the intermediate power level in Stacked-Vdd integrated circuits. They contribute to producing a uniform switching current in parallel inputs and outputs (I/Os). Type I coding minimizes the difference in the number of switchings between the upper and lower CMOS I/Os by 8B/10B coding followed by toggle conversion. Type II coding, in which the multi-value running disparity control feature is integrated into the bus-invert coding, requires only one redundant bit for any wider bus. Their DC-balanced feature and the stability effect of the intermediate power level in the Stacked-Vdd structure were experimentally confirmed from the measurement results obtained from the developed test chips.

  16. IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures): Code development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Shiao, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology and attendant computer code have been developed and are described to computationally simulate the uncertain behavior of composite structures. The uncertain behavior includes buckling loads, stress concentration factors, displacements, stress/strain etc., which are the consequences of the inherent uncertainties (scatter) in the primitive (independent random) variables (constituent, ply, laminate and structural) that describe the composite structures. The computer code, IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures), can handle both composite mechanics and composite structures. Application to probabilistic composite mechanics is illustrated by its uses to evaluate the uncertainties in the major Poisson's ratio and in laminate stiffness and strength. IPACS application to probabilistic structural analysis is illustrated by its use to evaluate the uncertainties in the buckling of a composite plate, in the stress concentration factor in a composite panel and in the vertical displacement and ply stress in a composite aircraft wing segment.

  17. Simulation of Supersonic Jet Noise with the Adaptation of Overflow CFD Code and Kirchhoff Surface Integral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Caimi, Raoul; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An acoustic prediction capability for supersonic axisymmetric jets was developed on the basis of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NASA Langley Research Center. Reynolds-averaged turbulent stresses in the flow field are modeled with the aid of Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. Appropriate acoustic and outflow boundary conditions were implemented to compute time-dependent acoustic pressure in the nonlinear source-field. Based on the specification of acoustic pressure, its temporal and normal derivatives on the Kirchhoff surface, the near-field and the far-field sound pressure levels are computed via Kirchhoff surface integral, with the Kirchhoff surface chosen to enclose the nonlinear sound source region described by the CFD code. The methods are validated by a comparison of the predictions of sound pressure levels with the available data for an axisymmetric turbulent supersonic (Mach 2) perfectly expanded jet.

  18. Simulation of Jet Noise with OVERFLOW CFD Code and Kirchhoff Surface Integral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, M.; Caimi, R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic prediction capability for supersonic axisymmetric jets was developed on the basis of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NASA Langley Research Center. Reynolds-averaged turbulent stresses in the flow field are modeled with the aid of Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. Appropriate acoustic and outflow boundary conditions were implemented to compute time-dependent acoustic pressure in the nonlinear source-field. Based on the specification of acoustic pressure, its temporal and normal derivatives on the Kirchhoff surface, the near-field and the far-field sound pressure levels are computed via Kirchhoff surface integral, with the Kirchhoff surface chosen to enclose the nonlinear sound source region described by the CFD code. The methods are validated by a comparison of the predictions of sound pressure levels with the available data for an axisymmetric turbulent supersonic (Mach 2) perfectly expanded jet.

  19. Extension of the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) of electron-photon Monte Carlo codes to 100 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.G.

    1988-08-01

    Version 2.1 of the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) of electron-photon Monte Carlo codes was modified to extend their ability to model interactions up to 100 GeV. Benchmarks against experimental results conducted at 10 and 15 GeV confirm the accuracy of the extended codes. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Performance and optimization of direct implicit time integration schemes for use in electrostatic particle simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Morse, E.C.; Cohen, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    Implicit time integration schemes allow for the use of larger time steps than conventional explicit methods, thereby extending the applicability of kinetic particle simulation methods. This paper will describe a study of the performance and optimization of two such direct implicit schemes, which are used to follow the trajectories of charged particles in an electrostatic, particle-in-cell plasma simulation code. The direct implicit method that was used for this study is an alternative to the moment-equation implicit method. 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Associative memory of phase-coded spatiotemporal patterns in leaky Integrate and Fire networks.

    PubMed

    Scarpetta, Silvia; Giacco, Ferdinando

    2013-04-01

    We study the collective dynamics of a Leaky Integrate and Fire network in which precise relative phase relationship of spikes among neurons are stored, as attractors of the dynamics, and selectively replayed at different time scales. Using an STDP-based learning process, we store in the connectivity several phase-coded spike patterns, and we find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible, with transient or persistent replay activity induced by a brief signal. We introduce an order parameter to evaluate the similarity between stored and recalled phase-coded pattern, and measure the storage capacity. Modulation of spiking thresholds during replay changes the frequency of the collective oscillation or the number of spikes per cycle, keeping preserved the phases relationship. This allows a coding scheme in which phase, rate and frequency are dissociable. Robustness with respect to noise and heterogeneity of neurons parameters is studied, showing that, since dynamics is a retrieval process, neurons preserve stable precise phase relationship among units, keeping a unique frequency of oscillation, even in noisy conditions and with heterogeneity of internal parameters of the units. PMID:23053861

  2. Embedded Systems Hardware Integration and Code Development for Maraia Capsule and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carretero, Emmanuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of sending large spacecraft to orbit makes them undesirable for carrying out smaller scientific missions. Small spacecraft are more economical and can be tailored for missions where specific tasks need to be carried out, the Maraia capsule is such a spacecraft. Maraia will allow for samples of experiments conducted on the International Space Station to be returned to earth. The use of balloons to conduct experiments at the edge of space is a practical approach to reducing the large expense of using rockets. E-MIST is a payload designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. It can maintain science experiments in a controlled manner at the edge of space. The work covered here entails the integration of hardware onto each of the mentioned systems and the code associated with such work. In particular, the resistance temperature detector, pressure transducers, cameras, and thrusters for Maraia are discussed. The integration of the resistance temperature detectors and motor controllers to E-MIST is described. Several issues associated with sensor accuracy, code lock-up, and in-flight reset issues are mentioned. The solutions and proposed solutions to these issues are explained.

  3. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  4. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  5. Simulation study of HL-2A-like plasma using integrated predictive modeling code

    SciTech Connect

    Poolyarat, N.; Onjun, T.; Promping, J.

    2009-11-15

    Self-consistent simulations of HL-2A-like plasma are carried out using 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the core transport is predicted using the combination of Multi-mode (MMM95) anomalous core transport model and NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The evolution of plasma current, temperature and density is carried out. Consequently, the plasma current, temperature and density profiles, as well as other plasma parameters, are obtained as the predictions in each simulation. It is found that temperature and density profiles in these simulations are peak near the plasma center. In addition, the sawtooth period is studied using the Porcilli model and is found that before, during, and after the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) operation the sawtooth period are approximately the same. It is also observed that the mixing radius of sawtooth crashes is reduced during the ECRH operation.

  6. Integration Of SIMS Into A General Purpose IBA Data Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Alves, L. C.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Coad, P.; Widdowson, A.

    2011-06-01

    IBA techniques such as RBS, ERDA, NRA, or PIXE are highly complementary, and are often combined to maximize the extracted information. In particular, they have different sensitivities to various elements and probe different depth scales. The same is true for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), that can have much better detection limits for many species. Quantification of SIMS data normally requires careful calibration of the exact system being studied, and often the results are only semi-quantitative. Nevertheless, when SIMS is used together with other IBA techniques, it would be highly desirable to integrate the data analysis. We developed a routine to analyse SIMS data, and implemented it in NDF, a standard IBA data analysis code, that already supported RBS, ERDA, resonant and non-resonant NRA, and PIXE. Details of this new routine are presented in this work.

  7. A SPECTRAL APPROACH INTEGRATING FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC ANNOTATIONS FOR CODING AND NONCODING VARIANTS

    PubMed Central

    IONITA-LAZA, IULIANA; MCCALLUM, KENNETH; XU, BIN; BUXBAUM, JOSEPH

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, substantial effort has been put into the functional annotation of variation in human genome sequence. Such annotations can play a critical role in identifying putatively causal variants among the abundant natural variation that occurs at a locus of interest. The main challenges in using these various annotations include their large numbers, and their diversity. Here we develop an unsupervised approach to integrate these different annotations into one measure of functional importance (Eigen), that, unlike most existing methods, is not based on any labeled training data. We show that the resulting meta-score has better discriminatory ability using disease associated and putatively benign variants from published studies (in both coding and noncoding regions) compared with the recently proposed CADD score. Across varied scenarios, the Eigen score performs generally better than any single individual annotation, representing a powerful single functional score that can be incorporated in fine-mapping studies. PMID:26727659

  8. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the

  9. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, John C.

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peak function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time

  10. Investigation of a panel code for airframe/propeller integration analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Hess panel code was investigated as a procedure to predict the aerodynamic loading associated with propeller slipstream interference on the airframe. The slipstream was modeled as a variable onset flow to the lifting and nonlifting bodies treated by the code. Four sets of experimental data were used for comparisons with the code. The results indicate that the Hess code, in its present form, will give valid solutions for nonuniform onset flows which vary in direction only. The code presently gives incorrect solutions for flows with variations in velocity. Modifications to the code to correct this are discussed.

  11. Integrated Numerical Experiments (INEX) and the Free-Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Schmitt, M.J.; McKee, J.; Ostic, J.; Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The strong coupling of subsystem elements, such as the accelerator, wiggler, and optics, greatly complicates the understanding and design of a free electron laser (FEL), even at the conceptual level. Given the requirements for high-performance FELs, the strong coupling between the laser subsystems must be included to obtain a realistic picture of the potential operational capability. To address the strong coupling character of the FEL the concept of an Integrated Numerical Experiment (INEX) was proposed. Unique features of the INEX approach are consistency and numerical equivalence of experimental diagnostics. The equivalent numerical diagnostics mitigates the major problem of misinterpretation that often occurs when theoretical and experimental data are compared. The INEX approach has been applied to a large number of accelerator and FEL experiments. Overall, the agreement between INEX and the experiments is very good. Despite the success of INEX, the approach is difficult to apply to trade-off and initial design studies because of the significant manpower and computational requirements. On the other hand, INEX provides a base from which realistic accelerator, wiggler, and optics models can be developed. The Free Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC) includes models developed from INEX, provides coupling between the subsystems models and incorporates application models relevant to a specific trade-off or design study.

  12. Integrated Numerical Experiments (INEX) and the Free-Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thode, L. E.; Chan, K. C. D.; Schmitt, M. J.; McKee, J.; Ostic, J.; Elliott, C. J.; McVey, B. D.

    The strong coupling of subsystem elements, such as the accelerator, wiggler, and optics, greatly complicates the understanding and design of a free electron laser (FEL), even at the conceptual level. Given the requirements for high-performance FELs, the strong coupling between the laser subsystems must be included to obtain a realistic picture of the potential operational capability. To address the strong coupling character of the FEL the concept of an Integrated Numerical Experiment (INEX) was proposed. Unique features of the INEX approach are consistency and numerical equivalence of experimental diagnostics. The equivalent numerical diagnostics mitigates the major problem of misinterpretation that often occurs when theoretical and experimental data are compared. The INEX approach has been applied to a large number of accelerator and FEL experiments. Overall, the agreement between INEX and the experiments is very good. Despite the success of INEX, the approach is difficult to apply to trade-off and initial design studies because of the significant manpower and computational requirements. On the other hand, INEX provides a base from which realistic accelerator, wiggler, and optics models can be developed. The Free Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC) includes models developed from INEX, provides coupling between the subsystems models and incorporates application models relevant to a specific trade-off or design study.

  13. Temporal integration of multisensory stimuli in autism spectrum disorder: a predictive coding perspective.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason S; Langer, Anne; Kaiser, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a growing number of studies have examined the role of multisensory temporal integration in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some studies have used temporal order judgments or simultaneity judgments to examine the temporal binding window, while others have employed multisensory illusions, such as the sound-induced flash illusion (SiFi). The SiFi is an illusion created by presenting two beeps along with one flash. Participants perceive two flashes if the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two flashes is brief. The temporal binding window can be measured by modulating the SOA between the beeps. Each of these tasks has been used to compare the temporal binding window in people with ASD and typically developing individuals; however, the results have been mixed. While temporal order and simultaneity judgment tasks have shown little temporal binding window differences between groups, studies using the SiFi have found a wider temporal binding window in ASD compared to controls. In this paper, we discuss these seemingly contradictory findings and suggest that predictive coding may be able to explain the differences between these tasks. PMID:27324803

  14. XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Hook; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    An open source computer program has been developed to satisfy a need for simplified organization of structured input data for scientific simulation programs. Typically, such input data are parsed in from a flat American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text file into computational data structures. Also typically, when a graphical user interface (GUI) is used, there is a need to completely duplicate the input information while providing it to a user in a more structured form. Heretofore, the duplication of the input information has entailed duplication of software efforts and increases in susceptibility to software errors because of the concomitant need to maintain two independent input-handling mechanisms. The present program implements a method in which the input data for a simulation program are completely specified in an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based text file. The key benefit for XML is storing input data in a structured manner. More importantly, XML allows not just storing of data but also describing what each of the data items are. That XML file contains information useful for rendering the data by other applications. It also then generates data structures in the C++ language that are to be used in the simulation program. In this method, all input data are specified in one place only, and it is easy to integrate the data structures into both the simulation program and the GUI. XML-to-C is useful in two ways: 1. As an executable, it generates the corresponding C++ classes and 2. As a library, it automatically fills the objects with the input data values.

  15. Deterministic Multiaxial Creep and Creep Rupture Enhancements for CARES/Creep Integrated Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jadaan, Osama M.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep rupture regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep rupture life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep rupture criterion. However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of sum, temperature, time, and the current state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the current state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the current state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep rupture formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of Ns methodology and the

  16. Managing Widely Disparate Code Bases Through Automation of Continuous Integration and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Joshi, T.

    2013-12-01

    NASA EOSDIS tools, services, and service endpoints are widely dispersed across different sub-agencies and sub-organizations. Each of these entities has a different set of skills and widely varying codebases. Some produce sophisticated, well-tested, stable and deployable code, while others are struggling to meet stringent requirements with limited resources. This disparity makes the process of partnering with and deploying code onto the Earthdata platform (https://earthdata.nasa.gov) difficult, even at times impossible. The Earthdata Code Collaborative (ECC) is a project repository and code hosting facility that addresses this problem directly through a three-tiered approach: 1. Provide a standardized set of testing and automation tools for all hosted projects. 2. Regularly report on bugs and features as well as testing coverage and success through Web-based tools. 3. Directly pipeline projects from the ECC into the Earthdata production environment. This session will explain the architecture behind the ECC, including the custom software and 3rd party tools used. It will also detail the process by which decisions were and are being made to arrive at a fully-automated suite of tools and tests that allow any code base to quickly improve its quality and become a candidate for Earthdata inclusion. The session is oriented towards developers, managers, and team members involved in the process of developing, testing, deploying, and ensuring the quality of a code base, whether that code base be tens of millions of lines of code or simply hundreds.

  17. ITS Version 6 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2008-04-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of lineartime-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 90. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.

  18. Scanning for safety: an integrated approach to improved bar-code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Early, Cynde; Riha, Chris; Martin, Jennifer; Lowdon, Karen W; Harvey, Ellen M

    2011-03-01

    This is a review of lessons learned in the postimplementation evaluation of a bar-code medication administration technology implemented at a major tertiary-care hospital in 2001. In 2006, with a bar-code medication administration scan compliance rate of 82%, a near-miss sentinel event prompted review of this technology as part of an institutional recommitment to a "culture of safety." Multifaceted problems with bar-code medication administration created an environment of circumventing safeguards as demonstrated by an increase in manual overrides to ensure timely medication administration. A multiprofessional team composed of nursing, pharmacy, human resources, quality, and technical services formalized. Each step in the bar-code medication administration process was reviewed. Technology, process, and educational solutions were identified and implemented systematically. Overall compliance with bar-code medication administration rose from 82% to 97%, which resulted in a calculated cost avoidance of more than $2.8 million during this time frame of the project. PMID:21099677

  19. Generation of 238U Covariance Matrices by Using the Integral Data Assimilation Technique of the CONRAD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privas, E.; Archier, P.; Bernard, D.; De Saint Jean, C.; Destouche, C.; Leconte, P.; Noguère, G.; Peneliau, Y.; Capote, R.

    2016-02-01

    A new IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) aims to test, validate and improve the IRDF library. Among the isotopes of interest, the modelisation of the 238U capture and fission cross sections represents a challenging task. A new description of the 238U neutrons induced reactions in the fast energy range is within progress in the frame of an IAEA evaluation consortium. The Nuclear Data group of Cadarache participates in this effort utilizing the 238U spectral indices measurements and Post Irradiated Experiments (PIE) carried out in the fast reactors MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) and PHENIX (CEA Marcoule). Such a collection of experimental results provides reliable integral information on the (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. This paper presents the Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) technique of the CONRAD code used to propagate the uncertainties of the integral data on the 238U cross sections of interest for dosimetry applications.

  20. Creation of fully vectorized FORTRAN code for integrating the movement of dust grains in interplanetary environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colquitt, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The main objective is to improve the performance of a specific FORTRAN computer code from the Planetary Sciences Division of NASA/Johnson Space Center when used on a modern vectorizing supercomputer. The code is used to calculate orbits of dust grains that separate from comets and asteroids. This code accounts for influences of the sun and 8 planets (neglecting Pluto), solar wind, and solar light pressure including Poynting-Robertson drag. Calculations allow one to study the motion of these particles as they are influenced by the Earth or one of the other planets. Some of these particles become trapped just beyond the Earth for long periods of time. These integer period resonances vary from 3 orbits of the Earth and 2 orbits of the particles to as high as 14 to 13.

  1. A report-coding system for integration into a digital radiology department.

    PubMed

    Bramble, J M; Chang, C H; Martin, N L

    1989-05-01

    Report-coding systems allow the radiologist to generate a typewritten radiographic report with a computer. Typically, the report is generated by selecting bar codes, speaking key words, or selecting items on a screen. MAMM REPORT is a report-coding system for mammography, developed by radiologists, that runs on a microcomputer (Amiga, Commodore Co., West Chester, PA). MAMM REPORT speaks questions to the radiologist, who responds by pressing one of two buttons on a computer mouse, thus generating the report. MAMM REPORT allows labeling of digital images and reduction of data required to store the report in computer memory (data compression). Data compression is useful for improving computer operating speed. Digital image labeling and data compression facilitate use of MAMM REPORT on a future digital radiology workstation for an all-digital radiology department. Sixty mammographic reports, reviewed by a radiologist who is not a specialist in mammography, were entered into MAMM REPORT. The mammography specialists who dictated the original reports then judged whether the reports generated by MAMM REPORT would be acceptable replacements on the basis of descriptions of findings, diagnoses, and recommendations for further study. Data compression was measured by calculating the ratio of the number of bytes for storage of the reports in original form to a standard storage form (Huffman encoding) and to the MAMM REPORT coded form. All 60 coded reports were acceptable replacements for the original reports. For computer storage, MAMM REPORT produced a compression ratio of 135 to 1 and Huffman encoding, 1.1 to 1. Huffman encoding did not compress most reports because of their brevity. The results indicate that report coding can produce data compression of radiographic reports. The standard method of text storage, Huffman encoding, is not suitable for application to mammographic reports, which tend to be brief. PMID:2705345

  2. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust…

  3. Multigroup Three-Dimensional Direct Integration Method Radiation Transport Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1987-09-18

    Version 00 TRISTAN solves the three-dimensional, fixed-source, Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons or gamma rays in rectangular geometry. The code can solve an adjoint problem as well as a usual transport problem. TRISTAN is a suitable tool to analyze radiation shielding problems such as streaming and deep penetration problems.

  4. Development of integrated core disruptive accident analysis code for FBR - ASTERIA-FBR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizu, T.; Endo, H.; Tatewaki, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Shirakawa, N.

    2012-07-01

    The evaluation of consequence at the severe accident is the most important as a safety licensing issue for the reactor core of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), since the LMFBR core is not in an optimum condition from the viewpoint of reactivity. This characteristics might induce a super-prompt criticality due to the core geometry change during the core disruptive accident (CDA). The previous CDA analysis codes have been modeled in plural phases dependent on the mechanism driving a super-prompt criticality. Then, the following event is calculated by connecting different codes. This scheme, however, should introduce uncertainty and/or arbitrary to calculation results. To resolve the issues and obtain the consistent calculation results without arbitrary, JNES is developing the ASTERIA-FBR code for the purpose of providing the cross-check analysis code, which is another required scheme to confirm the validity of the evaluation results prepared by applicants, in the safety licensing procedure of the planned high performance core of Monju. ASTERIA-FBR consists of the three major calculation modules, CONCORD, dynamic-GMVP, and FEMAXI-FBR. CONCORD is a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics calculation module with multi-phase, multi-component, and multi-velocity field model. Dynamic-GMVP is a space-time neutronics calculation module. FEMAXI-FBR calculates the fuel pellet deformation behavior and fuel pin failure behavior. This paper describes the needs of ASTERIA-FBR development, major module outlines, and the model validation status. (authors)

  5. Integrative Analysis of Normal Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Pushpinder; Zackaria, Sajna; Verma, Mohit; Gupta, Saurabh; Srivatsan, R; Chaudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Recently, large numbers of normal human tissues have been profiled for non-coding RNAs and more than fourteen thousand long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are found expressed in normal human tissues. The functional roles of these normal lincRNAs (nlincRNAs) in the regulation of protein coding genes in normal and disease biology are yet to be established. Here, we have profiled two RNA-seq datasets including cancer and matched non-neoplastic tissues from 12 individuals from diverse demography for both coding genes and nlincRNAs. We find 130 nlincRNAs significantly regulated in cancer, with 127 regulated in the same direction in the two datasets. Interestingly, according to Illumina Body Map, significant numbers of these nlincRNAs display baseline null expression in normal prostate tissues but are specific to other tissues such as thyroid, kidney, liver and testis. A number of the regulated nlincRNAs share loci with coding genes, which are either co-regulated or oppositely regulated in all cancer samples studied here. For example, in all cancer samples i) the nlincRNA, TCONS_00029157, and a neighboring tumor suppressor factor, SIK1, are both down regulated; ii) several thyroid-specific nlincRNAs in the neighborhood of the thyroid-specific gene TPO, are both up-regulated; and iii) the TCONS_00010581, an isoform of HEIH, is down-regulated while the neighboring EZH2 gene is up-regulated in cancer. Several nlincRNAs from a prostate cancer associated chromosomal locus, 8q24, are up-regulated in cancer along with other known prostate cancer associated genes including PCAT-1, PVT1, and PCAT-92. We observe that there is significant bias towards up-regulation of nlincRNAs with as high as 118 out of 127 up-regulated in cancer, even though regulation of coding genes is skewed towards down-regulation. Considering that all reported cancer associated lincRNAs (clincRNAs) are biased towards up-regulation, we conclude that this bias may be functionally relevant. PMID:25933431

  6. Benchmarking the OLGA lower-hybrid full-wave code for a future integration with ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Hillairet, J.; Urban, J.

    2014-02-01

    The ALOHA [1] code is frequently used as a standard to solve the coupling of lower hybrid grills to the plasma. To remove its limitations on the linear density profile, homogeneous magnetic field and the fully decoupled fast and slow waves in the determination of the plasma surface admittance, we exploit the recently developed efficient full wave code OLGA [2]. There is simple connection between these two codes, namely, the plasma surface admittances used in ALOHA-2D can be expressed as the slowly varying parts of the coupling element integrands in OLGA and the ALOHA coupling elements are then linear combinations of OLGA coupling elements. We developed AOLGA module (subset of OLGA) for ALOHA. An extensive benchmark has been performed. ALOHA admittances differ from AOLGA results mainly for N∥in the inaccessible region but the coupling elements differ only slightly. We compare OLGA and ALOHA for a simple 10-waveguide grill operating at 3.7 GHz and the linear density profile as it is used in ALOHA. Hence we can detect pure effects of fast and slow waves coupling on grill efficiency. The effects are weak for parameters near the optimum coupling and confirm the ALOHA results validity. We also compare the effect of the plasma surface density and the density gradient on the grill coupling determined by OLGA and ALOHA.

  7. Integral transport computation of gamma detector response with the CPM2 code

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.B. , Inc., Campbell, CA )

    1989-12-01

    CPM-2 Version 3 is an enhanced version of the CPM-2 lattice physics computer code which supports the capabilities to (1) perform a two-dimensional gamma flux calculation and (2) perform Restart/Data file maintenance operations. The Gamma Calculation Module implemented in CPM-2 was first developed for EPRI in the CASMO-1 computer code by Studsvik Energiteknik under EPRI Agreement RP2352-01. The gamma transport calculation uses the CPM-HET code module to calculate the transport of gamma rays in two dimensions in a mixed cylindrical-rectangular geometry, where the basic fuel assembly and component regions are maintained in a rectangular geometry, but the fuel pins are represented as cylinders within a square pin cell mesh. Such a capability is needed to represent gamma transport in an essentially transparent medium containing spatially distributed black'' cylindrical pins. Under a subcontract to RP2352-01, RPI developed the gamma production and gamma interaction library used for gamma calculation. The CPM-2 gamma calculation was verified against reference results generated by Studsvik using the CASMO-1 program. The CPM-2 Restart/Data file maintenance capabilities provide the user with options to copy files between Restart/Data tapes and to purge files from the Restart/Data tapes.

  8. NCAD, a database integrating the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-coded amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Revilla-López, Guillem; Torras, Juan; Curcó, David; Casanovas, Jordi; Calaza, M. Isabel; Zanuy, David; Jiménez, Ana I.; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Grodzinski, Piotr; Alemán, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Peptides and proteins find an ever-increasing number of applications in the biomedical and materials engineering fields. The use of non-proteinogenic amino acids endowed with diverse physicochemical and structural features opens the possibility to design proteins and peptides with novel properties and functions. Moreover, non-proteinogenic residues are particularly useful to control the three-dimensional arrangement of peptidic chains, which is a crucial issue for most applications. However, information regarding such amino acids –also called non-coded, non-canonical or non-standard– is usually scattered among publications specialized in quite diverse fields as well as in patents. Making all these data useful to the scientific community requires new tools and a framework for their assembly and coherent organization. We have successfully compiled, organized and built a database (NCAD, Non-Coded Amino acids Database) containing information about the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-proteinogenic residues determined by quantum mechanical calculations, as well as bibliographic information about their synthesis, physical and spectroscopic characterization, conformational propensities established experimentally, and applications. The architecture of the database is presented in this work together with the first family of non-coded residues included, namely, α-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids. Furthermore, the NCAD usefulness is demonstrated through a test-case application example. PMID:20455555

  9. From interdisciplinary to integrated care of the child with autism: the essential role for a code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Cox, David J

    2012-12-01

    To address the developmental deficits of children with autism, several disciplines have come to the forefront within intervention programs. These are speech-pathologists, psychologists/counselors, occupational-therapists/physical-therapists, special-education consultants, behavior analysts, and physicians/medical personnel. As the field of autism therapy moves toward a more comprehensive, holistic and interdisciplinary model, the complexity of an interdisciplinary service delivery model could pose significant challenges. The difficulty of carrying out this approach could lead to sub-par programs being established. With integration among the disciplines a necessity, the ethical principles and language common to all the contributing disciplines is argued as the appropriate integrating force. An outline of these principles and a draft code of ethics are offered to introduce high standards and expectations for all participating in such a program. PMID:22527703

  10. Numerical Prediction of the Performance of Integrated Planar Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells, with Comparisons of Results from Several Codes

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; B. A. Haberman; A. J. Marquis; C. M. Baca; D. Tripepi; P. Costamagna

    2008-06-01

    A numerical study of the thermal and electrochemical performance of a single-tube Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) has been performed. Results obtained from two finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes FLUENT and SOHAB and from a two-dimensional inhouse developed finite-volume GENOA model are presented and compared. Each tool uses physical and geometric models of differing complexity and comparisons are made to assess their relative merits. Several single-tube simulations were run using each code over a range of operating conditions. The results include polarization curves, distributions of local current density, composition and temperature. Comparisons of these results are discussed, along with their relationship to the respective imbedded phenomenological models for activation losses, fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. In general, agreement between the codes was within 15% for overall parameters such as operating voltage and maximum temperature. The CFD results clearly show the effects of internal structure on the distributions of gas flows and related quantities within the electrochemical cells.

  11. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  12. Integration of Multifidelity Multidisciplinary Computer Codes for Design and Analysis of Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.; Ozoroski, Lori P.; Fenbert, James W.; Shields, Elwood W.; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a conceptual level integrated process for design and analysis of efficient and environmentally acceptable supersonic aircraft. To overcome the technical challenges to achieve this goal, a conceptual design capability which provides users with the ability to examine the integrated solution between all disciplines and facilitates the application of multidiscipline design, analysis, and optimization on a scale greater than previously achieved, is needed. The described capability is both an interactive design environment as well as a high powered optimization system with a unique blend of low, mixed and high-fidelity engineering tools combined together in the software integration framework, ModelCenter. The various modules are described and capabilities of the system are demonstrated. The current limitations and proposed future enhancements are also discussed.

  13. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert's networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine. PMID:26958175

  14. Integration of Expressed Sequence Tag Data Flanking Predicted RNA Secondary Structures Facilitates Novel Non-Coding RNA Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M.; Price, Feodor D.; Muro, Enrique M.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  15. Integration of expressed sequence tag data flanking predicted RNA secondary structures facilitates novel non-coding RNA discovery.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Price, Feodor D; Muro, Enrique M; Rudnicki, Michael A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  16. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert’s networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine. PMID:26958175

  17. Modeling development of natural multi-sensory integration using neural self-organisation and probabilistic population codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Johannes; Dávila-Chacón, Jorge; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Humans and other animals have been shown to perform near-optimally in multi-sensory integration tasks. Probabilistic population codes (PPCs) have been proposed as a mechanism by which optimal integration can be accomplished. Previous approaches have focussed on how neural networks might produce PPCs from sensory input or perform calculations using them, like combining multiple PPCs. Less attention has been given to the question of how the necessary organisation of neurons can arise and how the required knowledge about the input statistics can be learned. In this paper, we propose a model of learning multi-sensory integration based on an unsupervised learning algorithm in which an artificial neural network learns the noise characteristics of each of its sources of input. Our algorithm borrows from the self-organising map the ability to learn latent-variable models of the input and extends it to learning to produce a PPC approximating a probability density function over the latent variable behind its (noisy) input. The neurons in our network are only required to perform simple calculations and we make few assumptions about input noise properties and tuning functions. We report on a neurorobotic experiment in which we apply our algorithm to multi-sensory integration in a humanoid robot to demonstrate its effectiveness and compare it to human multi-sensory integration on the behavioural level. We also show in simulations that our algorithm performs near-optimally under certain plausible conditions, and that it reproduces important aspects of natural multi-sensory integration on the neural level.

  18. INTEGRATING CLINICAL LABORATORY MEASURES AND ICD-9 CODE DIAGNOSES IN PHENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anurag; Leader, Joseph B; Verma, Shefali S; Frase, Alex; Wallace, John; Dudek, Scott; Lavage, Daniel R; Van Hout, Cristopher V; Dewey, Frederick E; Penn, John; Lopez, Alex; Overton, John D; Carey, David J; Ledbetter, David H; Kirchner, H Lester; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Pendergrass, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provide a comprehensive resource for discovery, allowing unprecedented exploration of the impact of genetic architecture on health and disease. The data of EHRs also allow for exploration of the complex interactions between health measures across health and disease. The discoveries arising from EHR based research provide important information for the identification of genetic variation for clinical decision-making. Due to the breadth of information collected within the EHR, a challenge for discovery using EHR based data is the development of high-throughput tools that expose important areas of further research, from genetic variants to phenotypes. Phenome-Wide Association studies (PheWAS) provide a way to explore the association between genetic variants and comprehensive phenotypic measurements, generating new hypotheses and also exposing the complex relationships between genetic architecture and outcomes, including pleiotropy. EHR based PheWAS have mainly evaluated associations with case/control status from International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) codes. While these studies have highlighted discovery through PheWAS, the rich resource of clinical lab measures collected within the EHR can be better utilized for high-throughput PheWAS analyses and discovery. To better use these resources and enrich PheWAS association results we have developed a sound methodology for extracting a wide range of clinical lab measures from EHR data. We have extracted a first set of 21 clinical lab measures from the de-identified EHR of participants of the Geisinger MyCodeTM biorepository, and calculated the median of these lab measures for 12,039 subjects. Next we evaluated the association between these 21 clinical lab median values and 635,525 genetic variants, performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for each of 21 clinical lab measures. We then calculated the association between SNPs from these GWAS passing our Bonferroni

  19. Investigation on Coding Method of Dental X-ray Image for Integrated Hospital Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Takashi; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    Recently, medical information system in dental field goes into digital system. In the system, X-ray image can be taken in digital modality and input to the system directly. Consequently, it is easy to combine the image data with alpha-numerical data which are stored in the conventional medical information system. It is useful to manipulate alpha-numerical data and image data simultaneously. The purpose of this research is to develop a new coding method for dental X-ray image. The method enables to reduce a disk space to store the images and transmit the images through Internet or LAN lightly. I attempt to apply multi-resolution analysis (wavelet transform) to accomplish the purpose. Proposed method achieves low bit-rate compared with conventional method.

  20. Hybrid information privacy system: integration of chaotic neural network and RSA coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Willey, Jeff; Lee, Ting N.; Szu, Harold H.

    2005-03-01

    Electronic mails are adopted worldwide; most are easily hacked by hackers. In this paper, we purposed a free, fast and convenient hybrid privacy system to protect email communication. The privacy system is implemented by combining private security RSA algorithm with specific chaos neural network encryption process. The receiver can decrypt received email as long as it can reproduce the specified chaos neural network series, so called spatial-temporal keys. The chaotic typing and initial seed value of chaos neural network series, encrypted by the RSA algorithm, can reproduce spatial-temporal keys. The encrypted chaotic typing and initial seed value are hidden in watermark mixed nonlinearly with message media, wrapped with convolution error correction codes for wireless 3rd generation cellular phones. The message media can be an arbitrary image. The pattern noise has to be considered during transmission and it could affect/change the spatial-temporal keys. Since any change/modification on chaotic typing or initial seed value of chaos neural network series is not acceptable, the RSA codec system must be robust and fault-tolerant via wireless channel. The robust and fault-tolerant properties of chaos neural networks (CNN) were proved by a field theory of Associative Memory by Szu in 1997. The 1-D chaos generating nodes from the logistic map having arbitrarily negative slope a = p/q generating the N-shaped sigmoid was given first by Szu in 1992. In this paper, we simulated the robust and fault-tolerance properties of CNN under additive noise and pattern noise. We also implement a private version of RSA coding and chaos encryption process on messages.

  1. INTEGRATING CLINICAL LABORATORY MEASURES AND ICD-9 CODE DIAGNOSES IN PHENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anurag; Leader, Joseph B.; Verma, Shefali S.; Frase, Alex; Wallace, John; Dudek, Scott; Lavage, Daniel R.; Van Hout, Cristopher V.; Dewey, Frederick E.; Penn, John; Lopez, Alex; Overton, John D.; Carey, David J.; Ledbetter, David H.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provide a comprehensive resource for discovery, allowing unprecedented exploration of the impact of genetic architecture on health and disease. The data of EHRs also allow for exploration of the complex interactions between health measures across health and disease. The discoveries arising from EHR based research provide important information for the identification of genetic variation for clinical decision-making. Due to the breadth of information collected within the EHR, a challenge for discovery using EHR based data is the development of high-throughput tools that expose important areas of further research, from genetic variants to phenotypes. Phenome-Wide Association studies (PheWAS) provide a way to explore the association between genetic variants and comprehensive phenotypic measurements, generating new hypotheses and also exposing the complex relationships between genetic architecture and outcomes, including pleiotropy. EHR based PheWAS have mainly evaluated associations with case/control status from International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) codes. While these studies have highlighted discovery through PheWAS, the rich resource of clinical lab measures collected within the EHR can be better utilized for high-throughput PheWAS analyses and discovery. To better use these resources and enrich PheWAS association results we have developed a sound methodology for extracting a wide range of clinical lab measures from EHR data. We have extracted a first set of 21 clinical lab measures from the de-identified EHR of participants of the Geisinger MyCode™ biorepository, and calculated the median of these lab measures for 12,039 subjects. Next we evaluated the association between these 21 clinical lab median values and 635,525 genetic variants, performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for each of 21 clinical lab measures. We then calculated the association between SNPs from these GWAS passing our Bonferroni

  2. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of

  3. Simulation of planar integrated photonics devices with the LLNL time- domain finite-difference code suite

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Kallman, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    Interest has recently grown in applying microwave modeling techniques to optical circuit modeling. One of the simplest, yet most powerful, microwave simulation techniques is the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FDTD). In this technique, the differential form of the time-domain Maxwell's equations are discretized and all derivatives are approximated as differences. Minor algebraic manipulations on the resulting equations produces a set of update equations that produce fields at a given time step from fields at the previous time step. The FDTD algorithm, then, is quite simple. Source fields are launched into the discrete grid by some means. The FDTD equations advance these fields in time. At the boundaries of the grid, special update equations called radiation conditions are applied that approximate a continuing, infinite space. Because virtually no assumptions are made in the development of the FDTD method, the algorithm is able to represent a wide-range of physical effects. Waves can propagate in any direction, multiple reflections within structures can cause resonances, multiple modes of various polarizations can be launched, each of which may generate within the device an infinite spectrum of bound and radiation modes. The ability to model these types of general physical effects is what makes the FDTD method interesting to the field of optics. In this paper, we discuss the application of the finite-difference time-domain technique to integrated optics. Animations will be shown of the simulations of a TE coupler, TM grating, and a TE integrated detector. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Two-Dimensional Integral Reacting Computer Code for Multiple Phase Flows

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-05-05

    ICRKFLO solves conservation equations for gaseous species, droplets, and solid particles of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by ellipitic-type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation for a three-phase reacting flow. Associated sub-models include integral combustion, two-parameter turbulence, particle melting and evaporation, droplet evaporation, and interfacial submodels. An evolving integral reaction submodel, originally designed for ICOMFLO2 to solve numerical stabilitymore » problems associated with Arrhenius type differential reaction submodels, was expanded and enhanced to handle petroleum cracking applications. A two-parameter turbulence submodel accounts for droplet and particle dispersion by gas phase turbulence with feedback effects on the gas phase. The evaporation submodel treats not only particle evaporation but the droplet size distribution shift caused by evaporation. Interfacial submodels correlate momentum and energy transfer between phases. Three major upgrades, adding new capabilities and improved physical modeling, were implemnted in IRCKFLO Version 2.0. They are :(1) particle-particle and particle wall interactions; (2) a two-step process for computing the reaction kinetics for a very large number of chemical reactions within a complex non-isothermal hydrodynamic flow field; and (3) a sectional coupling method combined with a triangular blocked cell technique for computing reacting multiphase flow systems of complex geometry while preserving the advantages of grid orthogonality.« less

  5. Evaluation of Monte Carlo Electron-Transport Algorithms in the Integrated Tiger Series Codes for Stochastic-Media Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Brian C.; Kensek, Ronald P.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2014-06-01

    Stochastic-media simulations require numerous boundary crossings. We consider two Monte Carlo electron transport approaches and evaluate accuracy with numerous material boundaries. In the condensed-history method, approximations are made based on infinite-medium solutions for multiple scattering over some track length. Typically, further approximations are employed for material-boundary crossings where infinite-medium solutions become invalid. We have previously explored an alternative "condensed transport" formulation, a Generalized Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck GBFP method, which requires no special boundary treatment but instead uses approximations to the electron-scattering cross sections. Some limited capabilities for analog transport and a GBFP method have been implemented in the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) codes. Improvements have been made to the condensed history algorithm. The performance of the ITS condensed-history and condensed-transport algorithms are assessed for material-boundary crossings. These assessments are made both by introducing artificial material boundaries and by comparison to analog Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Integration of the DRAGON5/DONJON5 codes in the SALOME platform for performing multi-physics calculations in nuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Alain

    2014-06-01

    We are presenting the computer science techniques involved in the integration of codes DRAGON5 and DONJON5 in the SALOME platform. This integration brings new capabilities in designing multi-physics computational schemes, with the possibility to couple our reactor physics codes with thermal-hydraulics or thermo-mechanics codes from other organizations. A demonstration is presented where two code components are coupled using the YACS module of SALOME, based on the CORBA protocol. The first component is a full-core 3D steady-state neuronic calculation in a PWR performed using DONJON5. The second component implement a set of 1D thermal-hydraulics calculations, each performed over a single assembly.

  7. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with general

  8. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with general

  9. Automated model integration at source code level: An approach for implementing models into the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Kumar, S.; Nearing, G. S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Geiger, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Model integration bridges the data flow between modeling frameworks and models. However, models usually do not fit directly into a particular modeling environment, if not designed for it. An example includes implementing different types of models into the NASA Land Information System (LIS), a software framework for land-surface modeling and data assimilation. Model implementation requires scientific knowledge and software expertise and may take a developer months to learn LIS and model software structure. Debugging and testing of the model implementation is also time-consuming due to not fully understanding LIS or the model. This time spent is costly for research and operational projects. To address this issue, an approach has been developed to automate model integration into LIS. With this in mind, a general model interface was designed to retrieve forcing inputs, parameters, and state variables needed by the model and to provide as state variables and outputs to LIS. Every model can be wrapped to comply with the interface, usually with a FORTRAN 90 subroutine. Development efforts need only knowledge of the model and basic programming skills. With such wrappers, the logic is the same for implementing all models. Code templates defined for this general model interface could be re-used with any specific model. Therefore, the model implementation can be done automatically. An automated model implementation toolkit was developed with Microsoft Excel and its built-in VBA language. It allows model specifications in three worksheets and contains FORTRAN 90 code templates in VBA programs. According to the model specification, the toolkit generates data structures and procedures within FORTRAN modules and subroutines, which transfer data between LIS and the model wrapper. Model implementation is standardized, and about 80 - 90% of the development load is reduced. In this presentation, the automated model implementation approach is described along with LIS programming

  10. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  11. Mercury + VisIt: Integration of a Real-Time Graphical Analysis Capability into a Monte Carlo Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J; Joy, K I

    2009-03-09

    Validation of the problem definition and analysis of the results (tallies) produced during a Monte Carlo particle transport calculation can be a complicated, time-intensive processes. The time required for a person to create an accurate, validated combinatorial geometry (CG) or mesh-based representation of a complex problem, free of common errors such as gaps and overlapping cells, can range from days to weeks. The ability to interrogate the internal structure of a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) geometry, prior to running the transport calculation, can improve the user's confidence in the validity of the problem definition. With regard to the analysis of results, the process of extracting tally data from printed tables within a file is laborious and not an intuitive approach to understanding the results. The ability to display tally information overlaid on top of the problem geometry can decrease the time required for analysis and increase the user's understanding of the results. To this end, our team has integrated VisIt, a parallel, production-quality visualization and data analysis tool into Mercury, a massively-parallel Monte Carlo particle transport code. VisIt provides an API for real time visualization of a simulation as it is running. The user may select which plots to display from the VisIt GUI, or by sending VisIt a Python script from Mercury. The frequency at which plots are updated can be set and the user can visualize the simulation results as it is running.

  12. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  13. ITS version 5.0 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2004-06-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state of the art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent couple electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2)multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, and (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes. Moreover the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  14. A 2×2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuanquan; Ji, Xinming; Ou, Haiyan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2×2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m. The proposed imaging system not only overcomes the limitation of bandwidth existing in LEDs, but also can reject the second-order nonlinearity distortion. It turned out to be very promising to use integrated antennas in the VLC system in the future.

  15. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  16. Design and Simulation of Material-Integrated Distributed Sensor Processing with a Code-Based Agent Platform and Mobile Multi-Agent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  17. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi

    2014-01-01

    Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively. PMID:25132849

  18. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  19. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  20. Integrated modelling of toroidal rotation with the 3D non-local drift-kinetic code and boundary models for JT-60U analyses and predictive simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashi, N.; Kamiya, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Nakata, M.; Ide, S.; Urano, H.

    2015-07-01

    The integrated simulation framework for toroidal momentum transport is developed, which self-consistently calculates the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), the radial electric field {{E}r} and the resultant toroidal rotation {{V}φ} together with the scrape-off-layer (SOL) physics-based boundary model. The coupling of three codes, the 1.5D transport code TOPICS, the three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium code VMEC and the 3D δ f drift-kinetic equation solver FORTEC-3D, makes it possible to calculate the NTV due to the non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic field caused by toroidal field coils. Analyses reveal that the NTV significantly influences {{V}φ} in JT-60U and {{E}r} holds the key to determine the NTV profile. The sensitivity of the {{V}φ} profile to the boundary rotation necessitates a boundary condition modelling for toroidal momentum. Owing to the high-resolution measurement system in JT-60U, the {{E}r} gradient is found to be virtually zero at the separatrix regardless of toroidal rotation velocities. Focusing on {{E}r} , the boundary model of toroidal momentum is developed in conjunction with the SOL/divertor plasma code D5PM. This modelling realizes self-consistent predictive simulations for operation scenario development in ITER.

  1. Practical applications of digital integrated circuits. Part 2: Minimization techniques, code conversion, flip-flops, and asynchronous circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Here, the 7400 line of transistor to transistor logic (TTL) devices is emphasized almost exclusively where hardware is concerned. However, it should be pointed out that the logic theory contained herein applies to all hardware. Binary numbers, simplification of logic circuits, code conversion circuits, basic flip-flop theory, details about series 54/7400, and asynchronous circuits are discussed.

  2. iTOUGH2-IFC: An Integrated Flow Code in Support of Nagra's Probabilistic Safety Assessment:--User's Guide and Model Description

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, Stefan A.

    2009-01-02

    This document describes the development and use of the Integrated Flow Code (IFC), a numerical code and related model to be used for the simulation of time-dependent, two-phase flow in the near field and geosphere of a gas-generating nuclear waste repository system located in an initially fully water-saturated claystone (Opalinus Clay) in Switzerland. The development of the code and model was supported by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen, Switzerland. Gas generation (mainly H{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) may affect repository performance by (1) compromising the engineered barriers through excessive pressure build-up, (2) displacing potentially contaminated pore water, (3) releasing radioactive gases (e.g., those containing {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H), (4) changing hydrogeologic properties of the engineered barrier system and the host rock, and (5) altering the groundwater flow field and thus radionuclide migration paths. The IFC aims at providing water and gas flow fields as the basis for the subsequent radionuclide transport simulations, which are performed by the radionuclide transport code (RTC). The IFC, RTC and a waste-dissolution and near-field transport model (STMAN) are part of the Integrated Radionuclide Release Code (IRRC), which integrates all safety-relevant features, events, and processes (FEPs). The IRRC is embedded into a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) computational tool that (1) evaluates alternative conceptual models, scenarios, and disruptive events, and (2) performs Monte-Carlo sampling to account for parametric uncertainties. The preliminary probabilistic safety assessment concept and the role of the IFC are visualized in Figure 1. The IFC was developed based on Nagra's PSA concept. Specifically, as many phenomena as possible are to be directly simulated using a (simplified) process model, which is at the core of the IRRC model. Uncertainty evaluation (scenario uncertainty

  3. New integrated Monte Carlo code for the simulation of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images for metrology in microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgüsatiroglu, Emre; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Ciappa, Mauro; Pfäffli, Paul; Bomholt, Lars

    2014-04-01

    A new Monte Carlo code is presented that includes among others definition of arbitrary geometries with sub-nanometer resolution, high performance parallel computing capabilities, trapped charge, electric field calculation, electron tracking in electrostatic field, and calculation of 3D dose distributions. These functionalities are efficiently implemented thanks to the coupling of the Monte Carlo simulator with a TCAD environment. Applications shown are the synthesis of SEM linescans and images that focus on the evaluation of the impact of proximity effects and self charging on the quantitative extraction of critical dimensions in dense photoresist structures.

  4. Evaluation of the heat transfer module (FAHT) of Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal And Structural Integrated Code (FANTASTIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyhani, Majid

    1989-01-01

    The heat transfer module of FANTASTIC Code (FAHT) is studied and evaluated to the extend possible during the ten weeks duration of this project. A brief background of the previous studies is given and the governing equations as modeled in FAHT are discussed. FAHT's capabilities and limitations based on these equations and its coding methodology are explained in detail. It is established that with improper choice of element size and time step FAHT's temperature field prediction at some nodes will be below the initial condition. The source of this unrealistic temperature prediction is identified and a procedure is proposed for avoiding this phenomenon. It is further shown that the proposed procedure will converge to an accurate prediction upon mesh refinement. Unfortunately due to lack of time FAHT's ability to accurately account for pyrolysis and surface ablation has not been verified. Therefore, at the present time it can be stated with confidence that FAHT can accurately predict the temperature field for a transient multi-dimensional, orthotropic material with directional dependence, variable property, with nonlinear boundary condition. Such a prediction will provide an upper limit for the temperature field in an ablating decomposing nozzle liner. The pore pressure field, however, will not be known.

  5. Towards a Local Integration of Theories: Codes and Praxeologies in the Case of Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Uwe; Barbe, Joaquim; Espinoza, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a "language of description" that facilitates an integrated analysis of classroom video data in terms of the quality of the teaching-learning process and the students' access to valued forms of mathematical knowledge. Our research setting is the introduction of software for teachers for improving the mathematical…

  6. Integrated multi-scale simulations of drift-wave turbulence: coupling of two kinetic codes XGC1 and XGCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Salomon; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock; Hesthaven, Jan; Choi, Jong; Zhang, Fan; Parashar, Manish

    2015-11-01

    A novel technique for acceleration of gyrokinetic total f particle simulations in diverted geometry has been developed, based on the XGC1 code and its axisymmetric version XGCa. Both XGC1 and XGCa calculate particle motion in a 5-dimensional (5D) phase space, but while XGC1 is equipped with a full turbulence solver, XGCa has an axisymmetric Poisson solver and is generally used for the simulation of neoclassical transport. Here, acceleration in transport calculations is achieved through relaxed constraints on numerical requirements in XGCa, such as mesh resolution and total number of markers. Coupled simulations have been performed for ITG turbulence, where long-term evolution is obtained by periodically calling XGC1 to obtain turbulence-driven transport while evolving the neoclassical equilibrium with XGCa. We present results from simulations with long-term evolution of the microscopic plasma state while using this technique in the presence of sources and sinks. We also introduce in-memory techniques used in the coupling between the fine-scale and coarse models, applicable for massively parallel simulations of long term evolution of kinetic plasma equilibria in the presence of turbulent and neoclassical transport processes. SciDAC Center for Edge Physics Simulation.

  7. Simulation of planar integrated photonics devices with the LLNL time-domain finite-difference code suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, R.; Hawkins, R. J.; Kallman, J. S.

    1991-04-01

    Interest has recently grown in applying microwave modeling techniques to optical circuit modeling. One of the simplest, yet most powerful, microwave simulation techniques is the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FDTD). In this technique, the differential form of the time-domain Maxwell's equations are discretized and all derivatives are approximated as differences. Minor algebraic manipulations on the resulting equations produces a set of update equations that produce fields at a given time step from fields at the previous time step. The FDTD algorithm, then, is quite simple. Source fields are launched into the discrete grid by some means. The FDTD equations advance these fields in time. At the boundaries of the grid, special update equations called radiation conditions are applied that approximate a continuing, infinite space. Because virtually no assumptions are made in the development of the FDTD method, the algorithm is able to represent a wide-range of physical effects. Waves can propagate in any direction, multiple reflections within structures can cause resonances, multiple modes of various polarizations can be launched, each of which may generate within the device an infinite spectrum of bound and radiation modes. The ability to model these types of general physical effects is what makes the FDTD method interesting to the field of optics. In this paper, we discuss the application of the finite-difference time-domain technique to integrated optics. Animations will be shown of the simulations of a TE coupler, TM grating, and a TE integrated detector.

  8. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  9. Code System to Calculate Neutron and Gamma-Ray Skyshine Doses Using the Integral Line-Beam Method.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-16

    Version 03 This package includes the SKYNEUT 1.1, SKYDOSE 2.3, MCSKY 2.3 and SKYCONES 1.1 codes plus the DLC-188/SKYDATA library to form a comprehensive system for calculating skyshine doses. See the author's web site for related information: http://athena.mne.ksu.edu/~jks/ SKYNEUT evaluates the neutron and neutron-induced secondary gamma-ray skyshine doses from an isotropic, point, neutron source collimated by three simple geometries: an open silo, a vertical black (perfectly absorbing) wall, and a rectangular building. The source maymore » emit monoenergetic neutrons or neutrons with an arbitrary multigroup spectrum of energies. SKYDOSE evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated by three simple geometries: (1) a source in a silo, (2) a source behind an infinitely long, vertical, black wall, and (3) a source in a rectangular building. In all three geometries an optional overhead slab shield may be specified. MCSKY evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated into either a vertical cone (i.e., silo geometry) or into a vertically oriented structure with an N-sided polygon cross section. An overhead laminate shield composed of two different materials is assumed, although shield thicknesses of zero may be specified to model an unshielded SKYSHINE source. SKYCONES evaluates the skyshine doses produced by a point neutron or gamma-photon source emitting, into the atmosphere, radiation that is collimated into an upward conical annulus between two arbitrary polar angles. The source is assumed to be axially (azimuthally) symmetric about a vertical axis through the source and can have an arbitrary polyenergetic spectrum. Nested contiguous annular cones can thus be used to represent the energy and polar-angle dependence of a skyshine source emitting radiation into the atmosphere.« less

  10. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  11. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert; McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  12. A statistical framework to predict functional non-coding regions in the human genome through integrated analysis of annotation data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongshi; Hu, Yiming; Sun, Jiehuan; Cheng, Yuwei; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying functional regions in the human genome is a major goal in human genetics. Great efforts have been made to functionally annotate the human genome either through computational predictions, such as genomic conservation, or high-throughput experiments, such as the ENCODE project. These efforts have resulted in a rich collection of functional annotation data of diverse types that need to be jointly analyzed for integrated interpretation and annotation. Here we present GenoCanyon, a whole-genome annotation method that performs unsupervised statistical learning using 22 computational and experimental annotations thereby inferring the functional potential of each position in the human genome. With GenoCanyon, we are able to predict many of the known functional regions. The ability of predicting functional regions as well as its generalizable statistical framework makes GenoCanyon a unique and powerful tool for whole-genome annotation. The GenoCanyon web server is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu. PMID:26015273

  13. iMir: An integrated pipeline for high-throughput analysis of small non-coding RNA data obtained by smallRNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative and quantitative analysis of small non-coding RNAs by next generation sequencing (smallRNA-Seq) represents a novel technology increasingly used to investigate with high sensitivity and specificity RNA population comprising microRNAs and other regulatory small transcripts. Analysis of smallRNA-Seq data to gather biologically relevant information, i.e. detection and differential expression analysis of known and novel non-coding RNAs, target prediction, etc., requires implementation of multiple statistical and bioinformatics tools from different sources, each focusing on a specific step of the analysis pipeline. As a consequence, the analytical workflow is slowed down by the need for continuous interventions by the operator, a critical factor when large numbers of datasets need to be analyzed at once. Results We designed a novel modular pipeline (iMir) for comprehensive analysis of smallRNA-Seq data, comprising specific tools for adapter trimming, quality filtering, differential expression analysis, biological target prediction and other useful options by integrating multiple open source modules and resources in an automated workflow. As statistics is crucial in deep-sequencing data analysis, we devised and integrated in iMir tools based on different statistical approaches to allow the operator to analyze data rigorously. The pipeline created here proved to be efficient and time-saving than currently available methods and, in addition, flexible enough to allow the user to select the preferred combination of analytical steps. We present here the results obtained by applying this pipeline to analyze simultaneously 6 smallRNA-Seq datasets from either exponentially growing or growth-arrested human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, that led to the rapid and accurate identification, quantitation and differential expression analysis of ~450 miRNAs, including several novel miRNAs and isomiRs, as well as identification of the putative mRNA targets of

  14. Integrative analysis of next generation sequencing for small non-coding RNAs and transcriptional regulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSS) are pre-leukemic disorders with increasing incident rates worldwide, but very limited treatment options. Little is known about small regulatory RNAs and how they contribute to pathogenesis, progression and transcriptome changes in MDS. Methods Patients' primary marrow cells were screened for short RNAs (RNA-seq) using next generation sequencing. Exon arrays from the same cells were used to profile gene expression and additional measures on 98 patients obtained. Integrative bioinformatics algorithms were proposed, and pathway and ontology analysis performed. Results In low-grade MDS, observations implied extensive post-transcriptional regulation via microRNAs (miRNA) and the recently discovered Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNA). Large expression differences were found for MDS-associated and novel miRNAs, including 48 sequences matching to miRNA star (miRNA*) motifs. The detected species were predicted to regulate disease stage specific molecular functions and pathways, including apoptosis and response to DNA damage. In high-grade MDS, results suggested extensive post-translation editing via transfer RNAs (tRNAs), providing a potential link for reduced apoptosis, a hallmark for this disease stage. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed important regulatory roles for MDS linked miRNAs and TFs, and strengthened the biological significance of miRNA*. The "RNA polymerase II promoters" were identified as the tightest controlled biological function. We suggest their control by a miRNA dominated feedback loop, which might be linked to the dramatically different miRNA amounts seen between low and high-grade MDS. Discussion The presented results provide novel findings that build a basis of further investigations of diagnostic biomarkers, targeted therapies and studies on MDS pathogenesis. PMID:21342535

  15. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  16. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  17. Noiseless Coding Of Magnetometer Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses application of noiseless data-compression coding to digitized readings of spaceborne magnetometers for transmission back to Earth. Objective of such coding to increase efficiency by decreasing rate of transmission without sacrificing integrity of data. Adaptive coding compresses data by factors ranging from 2 to 6.

  18. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  19. Speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  20. Integrated Analysis of the Roles of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Sheep (Ovis aries) Skin during Initiation of Secondary Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbin; Guo, Jian; Feng, Ruilin; Niu, Chune; Sun, Xiaoping; Yang, Bohui

    2016-01-01

    Initiation of hair follicle (HF) is the first and most important stage of HF morphogenesis. However the precise molecular mechanism of initiation of hair follicle remains elusive. Meanwhile, in previous study, the more attentions had been paid to the function of genes, while the roles of non-coding RNAs (such as long noncoding RNA and microRNA) had not been described. Therefore, the roles of long noncoding RNA(LncRNA) and coding RNA in sheep skin during the initiation of sheep secondary HF were integrated and analyzed, by using strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq).A total of 192 significant differentially expressed genes were detected, including 67 up-regulated genes and 125 down-regulated genes between stage 0 and stage 1 of HF morphogenesis during HF initiation. Only Wnt2, FGF20 were just significant differentially expressed among Wnt, Shh, Notch and BMP signaling pathways. Further expression profile analysis of lncRNAs showed that 884 novel lncRNAs were discovered in sheep skin expression profiles. A total of 15 lncRNAs with significant differential expression were detected, 6 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. Among of differentially expressed genes and LncRNA, XLOC002437 lncRNA and potential target gene COL6A6 were all significantly down-regulated in stage 1. Furthermore, by using RNAhybrid, XLOC005698 may be as a competing endogenous RNA ‘‘sponges” oar-miR-3955-5p activity. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that the significantly enriched pathway was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) pathway (corrected P-value < 0.05), indicating that PPAR pathway is likely to play significant roles during the initiation of secondary HF.Results suggest that the key differentially expressed genes and LncRNAs may be considered as potential candidate genes for further study on the molecular mechanisms of HF initiation, as well as supplying some potential values for understanding human hair disorders. PMID:27276011

  1. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  2. Fatigue analysis codes for WECS components

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.; Naassan, K.A.

    1987-10-01

    This Manuscript discusses two numerical techniques, the LIFE and the LIFE2 codes, that analyze the fatigue life of WECS components. The LIFE code is a PC-compatible Basic code that analyzes the fatigue life of a VAWT component. The LIFE2 code is a PC-compatible Fortran code that relaxes the rather restrictive assumptions of the LIFE code and permits the analysis of the fatigue life of all WECS components. Also, the modular format of the LIFE2 code permits the code to be revised, with minimal effort, to include additional analysis while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the use of the codes, an example problem is presented. 10 refs.

  3. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  4. Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.

  5. ITS version 5.0 :the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/Photon monte carlo transport codes with CAD geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2005-09-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  6. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated

  7. USING CODE-PSID TO COORDINATE THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SUSTAINABLE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EL CONVENTO, HONDURAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through the use of CODE-PSI’s feedback process in the communities of Lagunitas and La Fortuna, EWB-LC determined that the water system built in Lagunitas may not be sustainable because of the financial constraints village...

  8. Non-Book Materials Cataloguing Rules. Integrated Code of Practice and Draft Revision of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules British Text Part III. Working Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Educational Technology, London (England).

    A comprehensive set of rules having the widest practical utility in all types of organizations engaged in the collection and use of nonbook materials is proposed. Since this code is also offered as a draft revision to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR), it is correlated to the AACR and, when appropriate, provides reference to it. The…

  9. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  10. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  11. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  12. Generic reactive transport codes as flexible tools to integrate soil organic matter degradation models with water, transport and geochemistry in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Diederik; Gérard, Fréderic; Mayer, Uli; Simunek, Jirka; Leterme, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    A large number of organic matter degradation, CO2 transport and dissolved organic matter models have been developed during the last decades. However, organic matter degradation models are in many cases strictly hard-coded in terms of organic pools, degradation kinetics and dependency on environmental variables. The scientific input of the model user is typically limited to the adjustment of input parameters. In addition, the coupling with geochemical soil processes including aqueous speciation, pH-dependent sorption and colloid-facilitated transport are not incorporated in many of these models, strongly limiting the scope of their application. Furthermore, the most comprehensive organic matter degradation models are combined with simplified representations of flow and transport processes in the soil system. We illustrate the capability of generic reactive transport codes to overcome these shortcomings. The formulations of reactive transport codes include a physics-based continuum representation of flow and transport processes, while biogeochemical reactions can be described as equilibrium processes constrained by thermodynamic principles and/or kinetic reaction networks. The flexibility of these type of codes allows for straight-forward extension of reaction networks, permits the inclusion of new model components (e.g.: organic matter pools, rate equations, parameter dependency on environmental conditions) and in such a way facilitates an application-tailored implementation of organic matter degradation models and related processes. A numerical benchmark involving two reactive transport codes (HPx and MIN3P) demonstrates how the process-based simulation of transient variably saturated water flow (Richards equation), solute transport (advection-dispersion equation), heat transfer and diffusion in the gas phase can be combined with a flexible implementation of a soil organic matter degradation model. The benchmark includes the production of leachable organic matter

  13. Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

  14. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  15. Study Drugs and Academic Integrity: The Role of Beliefs about an Academic Honor Code in the Prediction of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use for Academic Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…

  16. IMP: A performance code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    IMP (Integrated Mission Program) is a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth, Moon, or Mars missions. The profile is user controlled through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. A Fehlberg 7/13 Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step size control is used to numerically integrate the differential equations of motion (DEQ) of three spacecraft, a main, a target, and an observer. Through selection, the DEQ's include guided thrust, oblate gravity, atmosphere drag, solar pressure, and Moon gravity effects. Guide parameters for thrust events and performance parameters of velocity changes (Delta-V) and propellant usage (maximum of five systems) are developed as needed. Print, plot, summary, and debug files are output.

  17. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  18. Integrated long non-coding RNA analyses identify novel regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Chen, Junjie; Qian, Wenyi; Kang, Jiang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lei; Qiao, Li; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fatal lung disease characterized by aberrant accumulation of fibroblast population and deposition of extra cellular matrix. Increasing evidence support that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells is a critical process in the pathogenesis of IPF. Although delivery of bleomycin to induce acute lung injury is the most well-studied animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, there is considerable interest to pursue other models to understand the common and/or specific pathological mechanisms. In this study, we established a mouse model of pulmonary injury and progressive interstitial fibrosis via intraperitoneal injection of paraquat, a widely used herbicide known to cause pulmonary fibrosis in human. Using transcriptome sequencing and microarray analysis, we profiled expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and identified 513 up-regulated and 204 down-regulated lncRNAs in paraquat-induced fibrotic lung tissues. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed lncRNAs are implicated in cell differentiation, epithelium morphogenesis and wound healing, pathways closely associated with EMT. Furthermore, we identified the evolutionally conserved target genes of two up-regulated lncRNAs, uc.77 and 2700086A05Rik, as Zeb2 and Hoxa3, respectively, both of which are important modulators of EMT. Consistently, overexpression of uc.77 or 2700086A05Rik in human lung epithelial cells induced EMT as demonstrated by changes in gene and protein expression of various EMT markers and cell morphology. Collectively, our results uncovered a crucial role of lncRNA in the regulation of EMT during lung fibrosis and provide potential avenues for the discovery of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets for IPF. PMID:26824344

  19. All-optical code-division multiple-access applications: 2(n) extended-prime codes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J G; Kwong, W C; Mann, S

    1997-09-10

    A new family of 2(n) codes, called 2(n) extended-prime codes, is proposed for all-optical code-division multiple-access networks. Such 2(n) codes are derived from so-called extended-prime codes so that their cross-correlation functions are not greater than 1, as opposed to 2 for recently proposed 2(n) prime codes. As a result, a larger number of active users can now be supported by the new codes for a given bit-error rate than can be by 2(n) prime codes, while power-efficient, waveguide-integrable all-serial coding and correlating configurations proposed for the 2(n) prime codes can still be employed. PMID:18259529

  20. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  1. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  2. Compressed image transmission based on fountain codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaji; Wu, Xinhong; Jiao, L. C.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over wireless channel. In the scheme, fountain codes are integrated into bit-plane coding for channel coding. Compared to traditional erasure codes for error correcting, such as Reed-Solomon codes, fountain codes are rateless and can generate sufficient symbols on the fly. Two schemes, the EEP (Equal Error Protection) scheme and the UEP (Unequal Error Protection) scheme are described in the paper. Furthermore, the UEP scheme performs better than the EEP scheme. The proposed scheme not only can adaptively adjust the length of fountain codes according to channel loss rate but also reconstruct image even on bad channel.

  3. OVERAERO-MPI: Parallel Overset Aeroelasticity Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1999-01-01

    An overset modal structures analysis code was integrated with a parallel overset Navier-Stokes flow solver to obtain a code capable of static aeroelastic computations. The new code was used to compute the static aeroelastic deformation of an arrow-wing-body geometry and a complex, full aircraft configuration. For the simple geometry, the results were similar to the results obtained with the ENSAERO code and the PVM version of OVERAERO. The full potential of this code suite was illustrated in the complex, full aircraft computations.

  4. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  5. Multiplier Architecture for Coding Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Multipliers based on new algorithm for Galois-field (GF) arithmetic regular and expandable. Pipeline structures used for computing both multiplications and inverses. Designs suitable for implementation in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. This general type of inverter and multiplier architecture especially useful in performing finite-field arithmetic of Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes and of some cryptographic algorithms.

  6. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  7. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  9. PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

  10. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue. PMID:26633789

  11. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  12. Production code control system for hydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D.M.

    1997-08-18

    We describe how the Production Code Control System (pCCS), written in Perl, has been used to control and monitor the execution of a large hydrodynamics simulation code in a production environment. We have been able to integrate new, disparate, and often independent, applications into the PCCS framework without the need to modify any of our existing application codes. Both users and code developers see a consistent interface to the simulation code and associated applications regardless of the physical platform, whether an MPP, SMP, server, or desktop workstation. We will also describe our use of Perl to develop a configuration management system for the simulation code, as well as a code usage database and report generator. We used Perl to write a backplane that allows us plug in preprocessors, the hydrocode, postprocessors, visualization tools, persistent storage requests, and other codes. We need only teach PCCS a minimal amount about any new tool or code to essentially plug it in and make it usable to the hydrocode. PCCS has made it easier to link together disparate codes, since using Perl has removed the need to learn the idiosyncrasies of system or RPC programming. The text handling in Perl makes it easy to teach PCCS about new codes, or changes to existing codes.

  13. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  14. Spaceflight Validation of Hzetrn Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    HZETRN is being developed as a fast deterministic radiation transport code applicable to neutrons, protons, and multiply charged ions in the space environment. It was recently applied to 50 hours of IMP8 data measured during the August 4, 1972 solar event to map the hourly exposures within the human body under several shield configurations. This calculation required only 18 hours on a VAX 4000 machine. A similar calculation using the Monte Carlo method would have required two years of dedicated computer time. The code has been benchmarked against well documented and tested Monte Carlo proton transport codes with good success. The code will allow important trade studies to be made with relative ease due to the computational speed and will be useful in assessing design alternatives in an integrated system software environment. Since there are no well tested Monte Carlo codes for HZE particles, we have been engaged in flight validation of the HZETRN results. To date we have made comparison with TEPC, CR-39, charge particle telescopes, and Bonner spheres. This broad range of detectors allows us to test a number of functions related to differing physical processes which add to the complicated radiation fields within a spacecraft or the human body, which functions can be calculated by the HZETRN code system. In the present report we will review these results.

  15. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  16. Preliminary blade design using integrated computer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Arve

    1988-12-01

    Loads on the root of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor blade were analyzed. A design solution for the root area is presented. The loads on the blades are given by different load cases that are specified. To get a clear picture of the influence of different parameters, the whole blade is designed from scratch. This is only a preliminary design study and the blade should not be looked upon as a construction reference. The use of computer programs for the design and optimization is extensive. After the external geometry is set and the aerodynamic loads calculated, parameters like design stresses and laminate thicknesses are run through the available programs, and a blade design optimized on basis of facts and estimates used is shown.

  17. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  18. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  19. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  20. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  1. FLOWTRAN-TF code benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A description of the code is given by Flach et al. (1990). This report provides benchmarking results for the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit (Smith et al., 1990a; 1990b). Individual constitutive relations are benchmarked in Sections 2 through 5 while in Sections 6 and 7 integral code benchmarking results are presented. An overall assessment of FLOWTRAN-TF for its intended use in computing the ECS power limit completes the document.

  2. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  3. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  4. Binary primitive alternant codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helgert, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    In this note we investigate the properties of two classes of binary primitive alternant codes that are generalizations of the primitive BCH codes. For these codes we establish certain equivalence and invariance relations and obtain values of d and d*, the minimum distances of the prime and dual codes.

  5. Algebraic geometric codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  6. Code Samples Used for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    The following sections are included: * MathematicaⓇ Code * Generic Chaotic Simulator * Vector Differential Operators * NLS Explorer * 2C++ Code * C++ Lambda Functions for Real Calculus * Accelerometer Data Processor * Simple Predictor-Corrector Integrator * Solving the BVP with the Shooting Method * Linear Hyperbolic PDE Solver * Linear Elliptic PDE Solver * Method of Lines for a Set of the NLS Equations * C# Code * Iterative Equation Solver * Simulated Annealing: A Function Minimum * Simple Nonlinear Dynamics * Nonlinear Pendulum Simulator * Lagrangian Dynamics Simulator * Complex-Valued Crowd Attractor Dynamics * Freeform Fortran Code * Lorenz Attractor Simulator * Complex Lorenz Attractor * Simple SGE Soliton * Complex Signal Presentation * Gaussian Wave Packet * Hermitian Matrices * Euclidean L2-Norm * Vector/Matrix Operations * Plain C-Code: Levenberg-Marquardt Optimizer * Free Basic Code: 2D Crowd Dynamics with 3000 Agents

  7. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  8. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  9. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  10. Roanoke College Student Conduct Code 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanoke Coll., VA.

    This Roanoke College (Virginia) 1990-91 conduct code manual is intended for distribution to students. A reproduction of the Academic Integrity and Student Conduct Code Form which all students must sign leads off the document. A section detailing the student conduct code explains the delegation of authority within the institution and describes the…

  11. Fast transform decoding of nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Cheung, K.-M.; Reed, I. S.; Shiozaki, A.

    1989-01-01

    A Reed-Solomon (RS) code is considered to be a special case of a redundant residue polynomial (RRP) code, and a fast transform decoding algorithm to correct both errors and erasures is presented. This decoding scheme is an improvement of the decoding algorithm for the RRP code suggested by Shiozaki and Nishida, and can be realized readily on very large scale integration chips.

  12. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  13. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan. Draft for Peer Review: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  14. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  15. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  16. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  17. Speech coding research at Bell Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Bishnu S.

    2001-05-01

    The field of speech coding is now over 70 years old. It started from the desire to transmit voice signals over telegraph cables. The availability of digital computers in the mid 1960s made it possible to test complex speech coding algorithms rapidly. The introduction of linear predictive coding (LPC) started a new era in speech coding. The fundamental philosophy of speech coding went through a major shift, resulting in a new generation of low bit rate speech coders, such as multi-pulse and code-excited LPC. The semiconductor revolution produced faster and faster DSP chips and made linear predictive coding practical. Code-excited LPC has become the method of choice for low bit rate speech coding applications and is used in most voice transmission standards for cell phones. Digital speech communication is rapidly evolving from circuit-switched to packet-switched networks to provide integrated transmission of voice, data, and video signals. The new communication environment is also moving the focus of speech coding research from compression to low cost, reliable, and secure transmission of voice signals on digital networks, and provides the motivation for creating a new class of speech coders suitable for future applications.

  18. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  19. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  20. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  1. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  2. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  3. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  4. Color code identification in coded structured light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Youfu; Zhu, Limin

    2012-08-01

    Color code is widely employed in coded structured light to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of objects. Before determining the correspondence, a very important step is to identify the color code. Until now, the lack of an effective evaluation standard has hindered the progress in this unsupervised classification. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the benchmark to explore the new frontier. Two basic facets of the color code identification are discussed, including color feature selection and clustering algorithm design. First, we adopt analysis methods to evaluate the performance of different color features, and the order of these color features in the discriminating power is concluded after a large number of experiments. Second, in order to overcome the drawback of K-means, a decision-directed method is introduced to find the initial centroids. Quantitative comparisons affirm that our method is robust with high accuracy, and it can find or closely approach the global peak. PMID:22859022

  5. The NESSUS finite element code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.

  6. MHDust: A 3-fluid dusty plasma code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    MHDust is a next generation 3-fluid magnetized dusty plasma code, treating the inertial dynamics of both the dust and ion components. Coded in ANSI C, the numerical method employs Leap-Frog and Dufort-Frankel integration schemes. Features include: nonlinear collisional terms, quasi-neutrality or continuity based electron densities, and dynamical dust charge number. Tests of wave-mode propagation (Acoustic and Electromagnetic) allow a comparison to linear wave mode theory. Additional nonlinear phenomena are presented including magnetic reconnection and shear-flow instabilities. Relevant parameters for the space environment are considered, allowing a comparison to be made with previous dusty plasma codes (DENISIS). The utility of the code is expanded through the possibility of small dust mass. This allows MH- Dust to be used as a 2-ion plasma code. MHDust considerably expands the range of numerical investigations into nonlinear phenomena in the field of astrophysical dusty plasmas.

  7. Code of ethics for dental researchers.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for Dental Research, in 2009, adopted a code of ethics. The code applies to members of the association and is enforceable by sanction, with the stated requirement that members are expected to inform the association in cases where they believe misconduct has occurred. The IADR code goes beyond the Belmont and Helsinki statements by virtue of covering animal research. It also addresses issues of sponsorship of research and conflicts of interest, international collaborative research, duty of researchers to be informed about applicable norms, standards of publication (including plagiarism), and the obligation of "whistleblowing" for the sake of maintaining the integrity of the dental research enterprise as a whole. The code is organized, like the ADA code, into two sections. The IADR principles are stated, but not defined, and number 12, instead of the ADA's five. The second section consists of "best practices," which are specific statements of expected or interdicted activities. The short list of definitions is useful. PMID:25951679

  8. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  9. Incorporating Manual and Autonomous Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    1998-01-01

    Code can be generated manually or using code-generated software tools, but how do you interpret the two? This article looks at a design methodology that combines object-oriented design with autonomic code generation for attitude control flight software. Recent improvements in space flight computers are allowing software engineers to spend more time engineering the applications software. The application developed was the attitude control flight software for an astronomical satellite called the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP). The MAP flight system is being designed, developed, and integrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The MAP controls engineers are using Integrated Systems Inc.'s MATRIXx for their controls analysis. In addition to providing a graphical analysis for an environment, MATRIXx includes an autonomic code generation facility called AutoCode. This article examines the forces that shaped the final design and describes three highlights of the design process: (1) Defining the manual to autonomic code interface; (2) Applying object-oriented design to the manual flight code; (3) Implementing the object-oriented design in C.

  10. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  11. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  12. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read frommore » files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.« less

  13. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.

  14. Visual analysis of code security

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John R; Radwan, Hassan; Halseth, Lenny

    2010-01-01

    To help increase the confidence that software is secure, researchers and vendors have developed different kinds of automated software security analysis tools. These tools analyze software for weaknesses and vulnerabilities, but the individual tools catch different vulnerabilities and produce voluminous data with many false positives. This paper describes a system that brings together the results of disparate software analysis tools into a visual environment to support the triage and exploration of code vulnerabilities. Our system allows software developers to explore vulnerability results to uncover hidden trends, triage the most important code weaknesses, and show who is responsible for introducing software vulnerabilities. By correlating and normalizing multiple software analysis tools' data, the overall vulnerability detection coverage of software is increased. A visual overview and powerful interaction allows the user to focus attention on the most pressing vulnerabilities within huge volumes of data, and streamlines the secure software development workflow through integration with development tools.

  15. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problemsmore » and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.« less

  16. Development of probabilistic multimedia multipathway computer codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Biwer, B. M.; Cheng, J.-J.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Mo, T.; Abu-Eid, R.; Thaggard, M.; Sallo, A., III.; Peterson, H., Jr.; Williams, W. A.; Environmental Assessment; NRC; EM

    2002-01-01

    The deterministic multimedia dose/risk assessment codes RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD have been widely used for many years for evaluation of sites contaminated with residual radioactive materials. The RESRAD code applies to the cleanup of sites (soils) and the RESRAD-BUILD code applies to the cleanup of buildings and structures. This work describes the procedure used to enhance the deterministic RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes for probabilistic dose analysis. A six-step procedure was used in developing default parameter distributions and the probabilistic analysis modules. These six steps include (1) listing and categorizing parameters; (2) ranking parameters; (3) developing parameter distributions; (4) testing parameter distributions for probabilistic analysis; (5) developing probabilistic software modules; and (6) testing probabilistic modules and integrated codes. The procedures used can be applied to the development of other multimedia probabilistic codes. The probabilistic versions of RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes provide tools for studying the uncertainty in dose assessment caused by uncertain input parameters. The parameter distribution data collected in this work can also be applied to other multimedia assessment tasks and multimedia computer codes.

  17. Adaptive entropy coded subband coding of images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Modestino, J W

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output indexes of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ over the subbands, many different types of SBC schemes can be derived within the generic 2-D ECSBC framework. Among these, the authors concentrate on three representative types of 2-D ECSBC schemes and provide relative performance evaluations. They also describe an adaptive buffer instrumented version of 2-D ECSBC, called 2-D ECSBC/AEC, for use with fixed-rate channels which completely eliminates buffer overflow/underflow problems. This adaptive scheme achieves performance quite close to the corresponding ideal 2-D ECSBC system. PMID:18296138

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    PubMed

    Elder, D

    1984-06-01

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward. PMID:6748695

  20. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  1. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  2. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  3. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  4. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  5. What Colleges Teach Students about Moral Responsibility? Putting the Honor Back in Student Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuss, Elizabeth M.

    A consideration of college honor codes examines why academic integrity is one of the most effective vehicles for teaching about moral responsibility, how honor codes are distinguished from codes of conduct, how students reason about academic integrity issues, the role of penalties and punishments, and steps campuses can take. A discussion of the…

  6. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  7. Expander chunked codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  8. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  9. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  10. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.