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Sample records for integrated geophysical mapping

  1. Clay content mapping through integration of geophysical proximal and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnoli, Francesca; André, Frédéric; Grandjean, Gilles; Lambot, Sébastien; Ciampalini, Andrea; Moretti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Soil sustainable exploitation planning and land resource evaluation require up-to-date and accurate maps of soil properties. In that respect, geophysical techniques present particular interests given their non-invasiveness and their fast data acquisition capacity, which permit to characterize large areas with fine spatial and/or temporal resolutions. We investigated the relevancy of combining data from airborne hyperspectral (Hs), electromagnetic induction (EMI) and far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for mapping soil properties, in particular soil clay content, at the field scale. Data from the three techniques were acquired at a test site in Mugello (Italy) characterized by relatively strong spatial variations of soil texture. Soil samples were collected for determining actual clay contents. For the frequencies used in this study (200-2000 MHz), the GPR surface reflection is mainly determined by soil dielectric permittivity, itself primarily influenced by soil moisture. In contrast, EMI is mostly sensitive to soil electrical conductivity, which integrates several soil properties including in particular soil moisture and clay content. Taking advantage of the complementary information provided by the two instruments, the GPR and EMI data were combined and correlated to local ground-truth measurements of clay content to provide high-resolution clay content maps over the entire field area. Besides, a relationship was also observed between Hs data and clay content measurements, which permitted to produce a Hs-derived clay content map. EMI-GPR and Hs maps showed close spatial patterns and a relatively high correlation was observed between both clay content estimates, as well as between clay content estimates and ground-truth clay content measurements. Future analyses will entail more advanced Bayesian data fusion techniques for combining EMI-GPR and Hs information. These results demonstrated great promise for integrated, digital soil mapping applications.

  2. Mapping a near surface variable geologic regime using an integrated geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, N.T.; Sandberg, S.K.; Miller, P.; Powell, G.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated geophysical approach involving seismic, electromagnetic, and electrical methods was employed to map fluvial, colluvial and bedrock geology, to delineate bedrock channels, and to determine fracture and joint orientations that may influence migration of petroleum hydrocarbons at the Glenrock Oil Seep. Both P (primary)-wave and S (shear)-wave seismic refraction techniques were used to map the bedrock surface topography, bedrock minima, stratigraphic boundaries, and possible structure. S-wave data were preferred because of better vertical resolution due to the combination of slower velocities and lower frequency wave train. Azimuthal resistivity/EP (induced polarization) and azimuthal electromagnetics were used to determine fracture orientations and groundwater flow directions. Terrain conductivity was used to map the fluvial sedimentary sequences (e.g., paleochannel and overbank deposits) in the North Platte River floodplain. Conductivity measurements were also used to estimate bedrock depth and to assist in the placement and recording parameters of the azimuthal soundings. The geophysical investigation indicated that groundwater flow pathways were controlled by the fluvial paleochannels and bedrock erosional features. Primary groundwater flow direction in the bedrock and colluvial sediments was determined from the azimuthal measurements and confirmed by drilling to be N20-40W along the measured strike of the bedrock and joint orientations. Joint/fracture orientations were measured at N20-40W and N10-30E from the azimuthal data and confirmed from measurements at a bedrock outcrop south of the site. The bedrock has an apparent N10E anisotropy in the seismic velocity profiles on the old refinery property that closely match that of measured joint/fracture orientations and may have a minor effect on groundwater flow.

  3. Topsoil thickness mapping at watershed scale by integration of field survey, geophysics and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain Pascal; Lubczynski, Maciek

    2010-05-01

    The adequate parameterisation of near subsurface is a critical issue due to the large spatial variability of soil properties. Direct observations made by common invasive field sampling procedures through drilling and trench excavations can be complemented in an efficient way by non-invasive geophysical methods, improving spatial data coverage in cost and time efficient way. The geophysical methods measure a physical property of subsurface that is convertible into the parameter or variable of interest. Such conversion requires development of data integration method. In this study, we present a methodology of data integration to assess spatially the topsoil thickness at the watershed scale. To integrate the spatial variability of the soil characteristics, we used a combination of field survey, ground-geophysics, satellite and aerial imagery processing and statistical estimation techniques. The ground-geophysics was used to complement and extend the direct field observations of the topsoil thickness. The conversion of the geophysical data in topsoil thickness and the estimation of the topsoil thickness over the catchment were done through statistical methods that integrated auxiliary variables derived from the remote sensing imagery (soil and geomorphology classifications and terrain attributes). A simple and expedite soil classification based on multi-resolution segmentation of image objects and fuzzy logic was derived from a high-resolution multispectral QuickBird image combined with aerial photograph. Landform classes and terrain attributes were computed from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite. We applied this methodology to the Pisões catchment (~19 km2, Portugal) where the AB horizon, following the standard pedologic classification, is characterized by its high concentration in swelling clay. In the first step, we elaborated the sampling schema of the geophysical

  4. Integrated geophysical surveys for mapping lati-andesite intrusive bodies, Chino Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Sternberg, Ben K.; Hoffmann, John P.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2012-01-01

    Three different geophysical methods (magnetic, transient electromagnetic (TEM) and gravity) were used near Chino Valley, Arizona, USA in order to map a suspected lati-andesite intrusive body (plug) previously located by interpretation of aeromagnetic data. The magnetic and TEM surveys provided the best indication of the location and depth of the plug. The north-south spatial extent of this plug was estimated to be approximately 600 meters. The depth to the top of the plug was found from the TEM survey to be approximately 350 meters near the center of the survey. The location of the plug defined by the ground magnetic data is consistent with that from the TEM data. Gravity data mostly image the basin-basement interface with a small contribution from the plug of about 0.5 mGal. Results from this investigation can be used to help define the irregular subsurface topography caused by several intrusive lati-andesite plugs that could influence groundwater flow in the area.

  5. Mapping Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil by integrating geophysics, remote sensing and geological field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrades-Filho, Clódis de Oliveira; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego; Medeiros, Walter Eugênio; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Oliveira, Roberto Gusmão de

    2014-12-01

    Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits corresponding respectively to the Barreiras Formation and Post-Barreiras Sediments are abundant along the Brazilian coast. Such deposits are valuable for reconstructing sea level fluctuations and recording tectonic reactivation along the passive margin of South America. Despite this relevance, much effort remains to be invested in discriminating these units in their various areas of occurrence. The main objective of this work is to develop and test a new methodology for semi-automated mapping of Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil integrating geophysical and remote sensing data. The central onshore Paraíba Basin was selected due to the recent availability of a detailed map based on the integration of surface and subsurface geological data. We used airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e., potassium-K and thorium-Th concentration) and morphometric data (i.e., relief-dissection, slope and elevation) extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM) generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The procedures included: (a) data integration using geographic information systems (GIS); (b) exploratory statistical analyses, including the definition of parameters and thresholds for class discrimination for a set of sample plots; and (c) development and application of a decision-tree classification. Data validation was based on: (i) statistical analysis of geochemical and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data consisting of K and Th concentrations; and (ii) map validation with the support of a confusion matrix, overall accuracy, as well as quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment based on field points. The concentration of K successfully separated the sedimentary units of the basin from Precambrian basement rocks. The relief-dissection morphometric variable allowed the discrimination between the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras Sediments. In

  6. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.

    2015-12-01

    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  7. ELECTRE III: A knowledge-driven method for integration of geophysical data with geological and geochemical data in mineral prospectivity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Torabi, Seyed Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Hamzeh, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the application of a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) technique called ELECTRE III, which is well-known in operations research, to mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM), which involves representation and integration of evidential map layers derived from geological, geophysical, and geochemical geo-data sets. In a case study, thirteen evidential map layers are used for MPM in the area containing the Now Chun copper prospect in the Kerman province of Iran. The ELECTRE III technique was applied for MPM, and the outputs are validated using 3D models of Cu and Mo concentrations from 21 drill hole data. This proposed method shows high performance for MPM.

  8. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence

  9. Data Integration for Interpretation of Near-Surface Geophysical Tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2007-12-01

    Traditionally, interpretation of geophysical tomograms for geologic structure or engineering properties has been either qualitative, or based on petrophysical or statistical mapping to convert tomograms of the geophysical parameter (e.g., seismic velocity, radar velocity, or electrical conductivity) to some hydraulic parameter or engineering property of interest (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or shear strength). Standard approaches to petrophysical and statistical mapping do not account for variable geophysical resolution, and thus it is difficult to obtain reliable, quantitative estimates of hydrologic properties or to characterize hydrologic processes in situ. Recent research to understand the limitations of tomograms for quantitative estimation points to the need for data integration. We divide near-surface geophysical data integration into two categories: 'inversion-based' and 'post- inversion' approaches. The first category includes 'informed-inversion' strategies that integrate complementary information in the form of prior information; constraints; physically-based regularization or parameterization; or coupled inversion. Post-inversion approaches include probabilistic frameworks to map tomograms to models of engineering properties, while accounting for geophysical resolution, survey design, heterogeneity, and physical models for hydrologic processes. Here, we review recent research demonstrating the need for, and advantages of, data integration. We present examples of both inversion-based and post-inversion data integration to reduce uncertainty, improve interpretation of near-surface geophysical results, and produce more reliable predictive models.

  10. Integrated Research and Capacity Building in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Nyblade, A.

    2008-05-01

    There have been special opportunities over the past several years to improve the ways that newly-constructed geophysical observatories in Southeast Asia and the Americas are linked with educational and civil institutions. Because these opportunities have been only partially fulfilled, there remains the possibility that new networks will not fully address desired goals or even lose operational capabilities. In contrast, the AfricaArray project continues to progress towards goals for linkages among education, research, mitigation and observatories. With support from the Office of International Science and Education at the US National Science Foundation, we convened a workshop to explore lessons learned from the AfricaArray experience and their relevance to network development opportunities in other regions. We found closer parallels than we expected between geophysical infrastructure in the predominantly low income countries of Africa with low risk of geophysical disasters and the mostly middle-income countries of Southeast Asia and the Americas with high risk of geophysical disasters. Except in larger countries of South America, workshop participants reported that there are very few geophysicists engaged in research and observatory operations, that geophysical education programs are nearly non-existent even at the undergraduate university level, and that many monitoring agencies continue to focus on limited missions even though closer relationships researchers could facilitate new services that would make important contributions to disaster mitigation and sustainable operations. Workshop participants began discussing plans for international research collaborations that, unlike many projects of even the recent past, would include long-term capacity building and disaster mitigation among their goals. Specific project objectives would include national or regional hazard mapping, development of indigenous education programs, training to address the needs of local

  11. Geophysical mapping of variations in soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioane, Dumitru; Scradeanu, Daniel; Chitea, Florina; Garbacea, George

    2010-05-01

    The geophysical investigation of soil characteristics is a matter of great actuality for agricultural, hydrogeological, geotechnical or archaeological purposes. The geophysical mapping of soil quality is subject of a recently started scientific project in Romania: "Soil investigation and monitoring techniques - modern tools for implementing the precision agriculture in Romania - CNCSIS 998/2009". One of the first studied soil parameter is moisture content, in irrigated or non-irrigated agricultural areas. The geophysical techniques employed in two areas located within the Romanian Plain, Prahova and Buzau counties, are the following: - electromagnetic (EM), using the EM38B (Geonics) conductivity meter for getting areal distribution of electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility; - electric resistivity tomography (ERT), using the SuperSting (AGI) multi-electrode instrument for getting in-depth distribution of electric resistivity. The electric conductivity mapping was carried out on irrigated cultivated land in a vegetable farm in the Buzau county, the distribution of conductivity being closely related to the soil water content due to irrigation works. The soil profile is represented by a chernozem with the following structure: Am (0 - 40 cm), Bt (40-150 cm), Bt/C (150-170 cm), C (starting at 170 cm). The electromagnetic measurements showed large variations of this geophysical parameter within different cultivated sectors, ranging from 40 mS/m to 85 mS/m. The close association between conductivity and water content in this area is illustrated by such geophysical measurements on profiles situated at ca 50 m on non-irrigated land, displaying a mean value of 15 mS/m. This low conductivity is due to quite long time interval, of about three weeks, without precipitations. The ERT measurements using multi-electrode acquisition systems for 2D and 3D results, showed by means of electric resistivity variations, the penetration of water along the cultivated rows from the

  12. Geophysical mapping of solution and collapse dolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Karst rocks such as limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, or salt can be dissolved physically by water or chemically by water enriched with carbon dioxide. The dissolution driven by water flowing through the karst aquifer either occurs along fractures and bedding partings in telogenetic rocks, or within the primary interconnected pore space in eogenetic rocks. The enlargement of either fractures or pores by dissolution creates a large secondary porosity typical for karst rocks, which is often very heterogenously distributed and results in preferential flow pathes in the sub-surface, with cavities as large-scale end members of the sub-surface voids. Once the sub-surface voids enlarged by dissolution grow to a certain size, the overburden rock can become instable and voids and caves can collapse. Depending of the type of overburden, the collapse initiated at depth propagates towards the surface and finally results in a collapse structure, such as collapse dolines, sinkholes, and tiangkengs on the very large scale. We present results from geophysical surveys over existing karst structures based on gravimetric, electrical, and geomagnetical methods. We have chosen two types of dolines, solution and collapse dolines, to capture and compare the geophysical signals resulting from these karst structures. We compare and discuss our geophysical survey results with simplified theoretical models describing the evolution of the karst structure and three-dimensional structural models for the current situation derived for the different locations.

  13. Geophysical mapping of solution and collapse sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg

    2014-12-01

    Karst rocks such as limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, or salt can be dissolved physically by water or chemically by water enriched with carbon dioxide. The dissolution is driven by water flowing through the karst aquifer and either occurs along fractures and bedding partings in telogenetic rocks, or within the primary interconnected pore space in eogenetic rocks. The enlargement of either fractures or pores by dissolution creates a large secondary porosity typical of soluble rocks, which is often very heterogenously distributed and results in preferential flow paths in the sub-surface, with cavities as large-scale end members of the sub-surface voids. Once the sub-surface voids enlarged by dissolution grow to a certain size, the overburden rock can become unstable and voids and caves can collapse. Depending on the type of overburden, the collapse initiated at depth may propagate towards the surface and finally results at the surface as collapse sinkholes and tiangkengs on the very large scale. We present results from geophysical surveys over existing karst structures based on gravimetric, electrical, and geomagnetical methods. We have chosen two types of sinkholes, solution and collapse sinkholes, to capture and compare the geophysical signals resulting from these karst structures. We compare and discuss our geophysical survey results with simplified theoretical models describing the evolution of the karst structure, and we derive three-dimensional structural models of the current situation for the different locations with our numerical tool PREDICTOR.

  14. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  15. Integrating maps requires integrated data

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenbach, J.; Bentolila, S.

    1996-06-01

    The molecular genetics movement has proceeded admirably thanks to new technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing. However, the integration of mapping data has not yet been achieved. This article discussing several problem areas and serves as a reminder of the urgency of such concerns.

  16. Integrated geophysical and geomicrobial surveys, Chapare region, Sub-Andean Boliva

    SciTech Connect

    Widdoes, D.; Verteuil, N. de; Hitzman, D.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 4800 square kilometers of the Chapare region of Sub-Andean, Bolivia were surveyed in 1994 using combined 2-D seismic and geomicrobial surface geochemistry. The Microbial Oil Survey Technique, M.O.S.T., measures evidence of hydrocarbon microseepage by evaluating surface soils for butane associated microorganisms. Approximately 615 kilometers of seismic and over 2500 soil samples were collected for this integrated reconnaissance survey. Elevated microbial populations of these specific microorganisms indicate anomalous hydrocarbon microseepage is leaking from hydrocarbon accumulations. Integration of the geomicrobial data with geological and geophysical data was completed. Parallel seismic and microbial traverses revealed significant areas of structural targets. A portion of the frontier study area demonstrates strong hydrocarbon microseepage which aligns with geophysical targets. A fault system identified from seismic interpretation was also mapped by distinct microbial anomalies at the surface. Comparative profiles and survey maps link microbial anomalies with geological and geophysical targets.

  17. Integrated geophysical and geomicrobial surveys, Chapare region, Sub-Andean Boliva

    SciTech Connect

    Widdoes, D. ); Verteuil, N. de ); Hitzman, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 4800 square kilometers of the Chapare region of Sub-Andean, Bolivia were surveyed in 1994 using combined 2-D seismic and geomicrobial surface geochemistry. The Microbial Oil Survey Technique, M.O.S.T., measures evidence of hydrocarbon microseepage by evaluating surface soils for butane associated microorganisms. Approximately 615 kilometers of seismic and over 2500 soil samples were collected for this integrated reconnaissance survey. Elevated microbial populations of these specific microorganisms indicate anomalous hydrocarbon microseepage is leaking from hydrocarbon accumulations. Integration of the geomicrobial data with geological and geophysical data was completed. Parallel seismic and microbial traverses revealed significant areas of structural targets. A portion of the frontier study area demonstrates strong hydrocarbon microseepage which aligns with geophysical targets. A fault system identified from seismic interpretation was also mapped by distinct microbial anomalies at the surface. Comparative profiles and survey maps link microbial anomalies with geological and geophysical targets.

  18. Combination of Geophysical Methods to Support Urban Geological Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabàs, A.; Macau, A.; Benjumea, B.; Bellmunt, F.; Figueras, S.; Vilà, M.

    2014-07-01

    Urban geological mapping is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards. Geophysics can have a pivotal role to yield subsurface information in urban areas provided that geophysical methods are capable of dealing with challenges related to these scenarios (e.g., low signal-to-noise ratio or special logistical arrangements). With this principal aim, a specific methodology is developed to characterize lithological changes, to image fault zones and to delineate basin geometry in the urban areas. The process uses the combination of passive and active techniques as complementary data: controlled source audio-magnetotelluric method (CSAMT), magnetotelluric method (MT), microtremor H/V analysis and ambient noise array measurements to overcome the limitations of traditional geophysical methodology. This study is focused in Girona and Salt surrounding areas (NE of Spain) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth and the isopach maps of thickness of quaternary sediments) need to be resolved to carry out the 1:5000 urban geological mapping. These parameters can be estimated using this proposed methodology. (1) Acoustic impedance contrast between Neogene sediments and Paleogene or Paleozoic bedrock is detected with microtremor H/V analysis that provides the soil resonance frequency. The minimum value obtained is 0.4 Hz in Salt city, and the maximum value is the 9.5 Hz in Girona city. The result of this first method is a fast scanner of the geometry of basement. (2) Ambient noise array constrains the bedrock depth using the measurements of shear-wave velocity of soft soil. (3) Finally, the electrical resistivity models contribute with a good description of lithological changes and fault imaging. The conductive materials (1-100 Ωm) are associated with Neogene Basin composed by unconsolidated detrital sediments; medium resistive materials (100-400 Ωm) correspond to

  19. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  20. Integrated Geophysical Detection of DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Identification of subsurface organic contamination, particularly dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is one of the highest priorities - and among the most difficult - for remediation of numerous sites, including those of the DOD and DOE. Complex resistivity (CR) is the only geophysical method that has been demonstrated in the laboratory to have high sensitivity to organic compounds, by detecting responses indicative of clay-organic electrochemistry. However, direct detection of organics in the field has been elusive, in part due to the difficulty of obtaining robust measurements at very low contaminant levels in the presence of heterogeneous geological materials and cultural interference (such as metallic utilities and remediation plumbing). This project sought to improve the capability to detect DNAPL by (1) better geophysical imaging of geological pathways that control DNAPL movement and (2) direct detection by detailed comparison of CR lab to field data using this improved imaging. For the first goal, algorithms were developed for the joint tomographic imaging of seismic and resistivity data. The method requires that an empirical relationship can be established between seismic and resistivity; if values are ultimately tied to specific lithologies, then the final tomographic product can be an actual geological cross-section. Because shallow subsurface investigations are now commonly performed using a cone penetrometer (CPT) a new vibratory seismic source was developed to identify sites with clay-organic reactions measurable in the lab from core samples, perform reconnaissance field surveys, and proceed to detailed 2D or 3D cross-hole imaging.

  1. Integrated Geophysical Exploration Program at the Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W. Teplow

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the geophysical exploration program was to use an integrated suite of detailed geophysical surveys to locate and map commercially productive zones in the Rye Patch geothermal field. The focus of the surveys was the production zone in Well 44-28 located at a depth of 3400' below surface. The primary goal of the program was to map the extension of the specific producing feature in 44-28 so that step-out wells could be targeted accurately. The second goal of the program was to identify additional production drilling targets that may be hydrologically independent from the 44-28 zone. The geophysical program was designed to measure a range of physical rock characteristics including magnetic, electrical, density, and sonic properties. This was done to help overcome the limitations and ambiguities inherent to any particular geophysical method. The studies and methodologies employed in the Rye Patch geophysical program are discussed. This report presents the results and a discussion of those results from each of the surveys and studies performed. Correlations among the data sets and between the data sets and the known producing zones are discussed, and drilling targets are presented as the end product of the correlations observed in the geophysical and geologic data.

  2. Geological Mapping Using Legacy Geophysical Data in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D.; O'Donnell, J.; McLin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008-2011, Clark County, Building Department contracted with Optim to collect 10,700 Reflection Microtremor (ReMi) 600 ft seismic lines that cover most of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas and other outlying communities such as Moapa, Laughlin, Primm, and Coyote Spring. The County completed their goal of characterizing seismic susceptibility of the top 100 ft and the results are posted at http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/openweb/. The research question of the authors is: What additional geologic information can be inferred from the data, either through reprocessing, cross correlation of drill hole data or additional data collection? An advantage of geophysical data is that it can be reprocessed to provide additional insight into the local geologic setting. The interpretation is also improved if combined with drill hole data and / or hydrologic information. It should be noted that there is also legacy geophysical data in limited areas collected by the USGS, primarily in conjunction with water well drilling, where some of the ReMi seismic data was collected. An unexpected result of the ReMi survey was a clear delineation of current and paleo channels in Laughlin, Moapa, and Las Vegas. The geometry of the paleochanel, of the Colorado River, is well away from the current position. however the signal is very similar to modern streams such as the Muddy River. Although the surficial geologic mapping in Las Vegas Valley was very detailed, and importantly, was performed prior to development; the new geophysical data provides better details of the lithologic properties of the units. That is it may be an excellent basis for remapping for specific properties related to engineering and hydrologic modeling.

  3. Satellite imagery and airborne geophysics for geologic mapping of the Edembo area, Eastern Hoggar (Algerian Sahara)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamri, Takfarinas; Djemaï, Safouane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Zoheir, Basem; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Amara, Massinissa

    2016-03-01

    Satellite imagery combined with airborne geophysical data and field observations were employed for new geologic mapping of the Edembo area in the Eastern Hoggar (Tuareg Shield, Sahara). Multi-spectral band fusion, filtering, and transformation techniques, i.e., band combination, band-rationing and principal component analysis of ETM+ and ASTER data are used for better spectral discrimination of the different rocks units. A thematic map assessed by field data and available geologic information is compiled by supervised classification of satellite data with high overall accuracy (>90%). The automated extraction technique efficiently aided the detection of the structural lineaments, i.e., faults, shear zones, and joints. Airborne magnetic and Gamma-ray spectrometry data showed the pervasiveness of the large structures beneath the Paleozoic sedimentary cover and aeolian sands. The aeroradiometric K-range is used for discrimination of the high-K granitoids of Djanet from the peralumineous granites of Edembo, and to verify the Silurian sediments with their high K-bearing minerals. The new geological map is considered to be a high resolution improvement on all pre-existing maps of this hardly accessible area in the Tuareg Shield. Integration of the airborne geophysical and space-borne imagery data can hence provide a rapid means of geologically mapping areas hitherto poorly known or difficult to access.

  4. HydroImage: A New Software for HydroGeophysical and BioGeophysical Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suribhatla, R. M.; Mok, C. M.; Kaback, D.; Chen, J.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical and biogeophysical data integration have recently emerged as cost-effective and rapid techniques for improving subsurface characterization and monitoring. In a Bayesian framework for integration, borehole based data provide prior distribution and geophysical information serve as data to update the prior through likelihood functions obtained from petrophysical models between borehole and cross-well data. We present the application of a Windows-based software called HydroImage that uses this Bayesian framework for data integration and visualization. HydroImage can be used for geostatistical estimation, geophysical tomographic inversion, petrophysical model development, and Bayesian integration. We demonstrate HydroImage using three different field datasets to estimate different subsurface states or parameters. The first example combines wellbore flowmeter test data and crosshole seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to estimate hydraulic conductivity at the DOE Bacterial Transport Site in Oyster, Virginia. The second example focuses on using time-lapse radar data to estimate moisture content dynamics associated with a desiccation test performed to remediate the deep vadose zone in Hanford, Washington. The third example demonstrates the use of spectral induced polarization data to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of geochemical parameters that are indicative of the redox state of a contaminated aquifer.

  5. Big data integration for regional hydrostratigraphic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical models provide a way to evaluate groundwater systems, but determining the hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) used in devising these models remains subjective, nonunique, and uncertain. A novel geophysical-hydrogeologic data integration scheme is proposed to constrain the estimation of continuous HSUs. First, machine-learning and multivariate statistical techniques are used to simultaneously integrate borehole hydrogeologic (lithology, hydraulic conductivity, aqueous field parameters, dissolved constituents) and geophysical (gamma, spontaneous potential, and resistivity) measurements. Second, airborne electromagnetic measurements are numerically inverted to obtain subsurface resistivity structure at randomly selected locations. Third, the machine-learning algorithm is trained using the borehole hydrostratigraphic units and inverted airborne resistivity profiles. The trained machine-learning algorithm is then used to estimate HSUs at independent resistivity profile locations. We demonstrate efficacy of the proposed approach to map the hydrostratigraphy of a heterogeneous surficial aquifer in northwestern Nebraska.

  6. Integration of archaeological and geophysical surveys in Hierapolis of Phrygia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, G.; Leucci, G.

    2012-04-01

    An in-depth analysis of some areas in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine city of Hierapolis of Phrygia (south-western Turkey) has been carried out using high resolution geophysical methods integrated to the archaeological surveys in order to detect evidence of archaeological features buried under colluvial deposits and to acquire ew data of some sectors of the urban area. In particular, three areas were investigated in the northern, central and southern sectors of the ancient city: i) the Northern Agora, built in the 2nd century AD and sourrounded by three stoai and a basilica; ii) the Sanctuary of Apollo, in use during the Hellenistic and Roman Age; iii) some insulae with houses of the Roman and Byzantine periods, inside the orthogonal road network of the city. Geophysical data were collected in these areas of interest using different surveying methodologies, during different campaigns of activity of the Italian Archaeological Mission: electrical resistivity tomography, ground penetrating radar, magnetometry and GEM. In some cases, geophysical measurements were verified during subsequent archaeological excavations. Besides the important scientific implications, the integration of archaeological and geophysical surveys provided a useful tool for the knowledge of these large sectors of the city and the reconstruction of the ancient urban layout. All data collected were integrated in the digital archaeological map of Hierapolis, linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS), in order to contextualize the identified archaeological features in the ancient urban plan.

  7. Rejuvenating Pre-GPS era geophysical surveys using The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Stoddard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Old geophysical surveys [pre–Global Positioning System (GPS)] stand as valuable, largely untapped sources of scientific data. If data from these surveys were in a format that had reasonable accuracy, availability, and ease of access, they could be more widely used. In this paper, a pre-GPS survey is integrated into a modern geographic database, in this case, The National Map (TNM). The ultimate goal is to improve the accuracy, precision, provenance, and ease of access of the geospatial components of archived geophysical data. An unique set of data sources was assembled for this purpose. A comparison of these different data sources indicates that more than 80% of stations were positioned on The National Map within 15 m (horizontal) and 2 m (vertical) of the GPS-derived coordinates for each station within the survey. Although online database coordinate accuracy continues to improve, these results imply that web databases have already matured to a point where it is possible to integrate pre-GPS era survey coordinate data with reasonable positional accuracy.

  8. Integrated geophysical methods for studying the karst system of Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, Southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Pedrera, A.; Teixido, T.; Ruano, P.; Peña, J. A.; González-Castillo, L.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; López-Chicano, M.; Martín-Rosales, W.

    2014-08-01

    In this study we contrast the results of different geophysical methods in order to describe the karst system surrounding of the Gruta de las Maravillas cave (Aracena, Spain). A comprehensive study of the geophysical responses of the known cavity was carried out, after which several sections were studied to detect the karst architecture and cave continuity. To ensure precision, the inner 3D-topography of the cave was determined by classical geodetic techniques and a digital terrain model was performed with differential GPS. The microgravity method was used to obtain the residual gravity map of the entire study zone, whose minima could be related to caves. Then, the negative gravity anomalies were analyzed to plan several lines for implementing further geophysical methods: magnetic profiles (MP), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), 2D seismic prospection (refraction tomography and reflection sections) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The resulting models for each line explored were integrated with detailed geological maps to establish the unknown continuity of the caves. Finally, we discuss the suitability of each geophysical technique for cave detection in marble with sulfur host rock and propose the best procedures to constrain their geometries.

  9. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  10. Geophysical Applications in Mapping the Subsurface Structure of Archaeological Site at Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiai, Sarmiza M.; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Shyeh, S. K.; Saidin, Mohd Mokhtar

    2010-07-01

    Lembah Bujang is one of Peninsular Malaysia's most important areas for archaeology as excavations in this area have revealed many traces of Malaysia's prehistory. The site is one of the oldest known place human activities the Peninsula. The aim of this study is to map and understand the subsurface structure of the survey area which is one of the archaeologically interesting areas. Geophysical methods are used because it is nondestructive and do not disturb the site. The methods are relatively quick and the results are used as a guide for subsequent excavation work. So it can greatly help in setting the digging priorities as geophysical surveying can reveal, for instance, important subsurface features like monuments, tunnels, voids, or buried walls. The geophysical methods used in this study were the magnetic gradiometer, 2-D electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method. The integration of these three methods can be beneficial as each method has its strength and limitation. The specific area of study is in Sungai Batu and the results show that the sedimentation consists of sandy clay, alluvium and boulders with a depth of between 0 m to 15 m.

  11. An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, Nicolas O.; Keller, G. Randy

    2007-06-01

    The Kenyan part of the East African rift is among the most studied rift zones in the world. It is characterized by: (1) a classic rift valley, (2) sheer escarpments along the faulted borders of the rift valley, (3) voluminous volcanics that flowed from faults and fissures along the rift, and (4) axial and flank volcanoes where magma flow was most intense. In northern Kenya, the rift faults formed in an area where the lithosphere was weakened and stretched by Cretaceous-Paleogene extension, and in central and southern Kenya, it formed along old zones of weakness at the contact between the Archean Tanzania craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt. Recent geophysical investigations focused on the tectonic evolution of the East African rift and on exploration for geothermal energy in the southern portion of the Kenyan rift provide considerable information and insight on the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. In the north, a variety of other data exist. However, the lack of an integrated regional analysis of these data was the motivation for this study. Our study began with the collection and compilation of gravity data, and then we used the seismic refraction results from the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP), published seismic reflection data, aeromagnetic data, and geologic and drilling data as constraints in the construction of integrated gravity models. These models and gravity anomaly maps provide insight on spatial variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle structure. In addition, they show the distribution of basins and help characterize the distribution of magmatism along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Our main observations are the following: (1) the region of thinning and anomalous mantle widens northward in agreement with previous studies showing that the crust thins from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; (2) as observed in the south, gravity highs observed along the axis are due to mafic

  12. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  13. GeoMapApp: A Cross-Platform app for Geophysical Data Exploration and Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Apps that provide convenient, integrated access to a range of geophysical data have wide applicability in both research and teaching. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory provides casual and specialist users alike with intuitive access to hundreds of built-in geoscience data sets covering geophysics, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and cryospherics. Users can also import their own data tables, spreadsheets, shapefiles, grids, and images. Simple manipulation and analysis tools combined with layering capabilities and engaging visualisations provide a powerful app with which to explore and interrogate geoscience data in its proper geospatial context thus helping users to more easily gain deeper insight and understanding from real-world data. The backbone of GeoMapApp is a regularly-updated multi-resolution elevation base map covering the oceans and continents and includes measurements ranging from Space Shuttle terrestrial data to ultra-high-resolution surveys of coral reefs and seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Examples of built-in geophysical data sets include interactive earthquake locations and focal mechanism (CMT) solutions; underway cruise track profiles; plate tectonic velocities, seafloor crustal age and heat flow; multi-channel seismic reflection profiles; gravity, magnetic, and geoid anomalies; sidescan; subduction zone interface depths; and, EarthScope station locations. Dynamic links point to data sources and additional information. There are dedicated menus for GeoPRISMS, MARGINS, and Ridge2000 data sets. A versatile profiling tool provides instant access to data cross-sections, and contouring and 3-D views are also offered. Tabular data - both imported and built-in - can be displayed in a variety of ways and users can quickly select data points directly from the map. Layer opacity and on/off toggles allow easy data set

  14. Extending Geologic Map Units Beneath Cover Using Geophysical Textural Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Extending geologic mapping beneath alluvial or tectonically covered areas is a required step in resource assessment because most areas of exposed bedrock have been thoroughly explored. Geophysical survey data, particularly high resolution magnetic and gravity data, can be very useful in estimating the lithologies of covered areas by comparing textural measures of the data with those of areas of exposed (candidate) lithostratigraphic units (LU) nearby. Using possibility theory to combine and compare the various textural measures with those of the concealed area, candidate LUs can be ranked as to their likelihood of being the concealed lithology. These estimates can be carried out using profile or map (grid) data, or a combination of both. Textural measures (per unit area) that have proven useful for grid data are the distribution of anomaly amplitudes, frequency of extrema, the total Euclidean signal surface area, the ratio of ridges and troughs to the total number of extrema ("2-Dedness"), and the strike and dispersion of the horizontal gradient. These measures are computed in a window moving over the data grid. Window size is determined considering the minimum size of geologic features in a region, the observed variability of the candidate LUs, and the sample interval of the gridded data. Survey data for the candidate LUs must be upward continued to the approximate depth of cover before the comparative measures are computed. Normally the thickness of cover is estimated from gravity anomaly data. The various measures are converted from a normalized frequency distribution to a possibility membership function using a mathematical transformation. The measures for the candidate and concealed areas can then be compared using ordinary logical combinations that in general are additive rather than multiplicative so that error only grows additively. Possibility functions can automatically take into account errors from data uncertainty and lack of knowledge so that the

  15. A Multi - Disciplinary Approach Combining Geological, Geomorphological and Geophysical Data for Mapping the Susceptibility to Sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio; Quarta, Tatiana A. M.; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Salento region of southern Italy has a great number of active sinkholes, related to both natural and anthropogenic cavities. The presence of sinkholes is at the origin of several problems to the built-up environment, due to the increasing population growth and development pressures. In such a context, the detection of cavities, and therefore the assessment of the sinkhole hazard presents numerous difficulties. Multidisciplinary - approach, comprising geological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses, is therefore necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge of the complex phenomena in karstic areas. Geophysical methods can also be of great help to identify and map the areas at higher risk of collapse. In this case it is important to identify the features related to the underground voids, likely evolving to sinkholes, by contrasts in physical properties such as density, electrical resistivity, and so on, with the surrounding sediments. At the same time, identification of the presence of sinkholes by geophysical methods has to adapt to the different geological conditions, so that there is not the possibility to use the same techniques everywhere. At this aim, the present paper illustrates the advantages of integrating geological and geomorphological surveys with surface geophysical techniques such as seismic, geoelectrical and ground penetrating radar methods for the identification of sinkhole-prone areas. The present work illustrates the results concerning a sinkhole system at Nociglia (inland Salento, southeastern Italy) where the shallow phreatic speleogenesis operates close to the water table level with formation of karst conduits and proto-caves whose evolution occurs through successive roof collapse, formation of wide caverns and sinkhole development at the surface. All of this creates serious problems to the nearby infrastructures, including a province road that has often been threatened by the sinkhole development. Geological and geomorphological

  16. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking. PMID:15457790

  17. Linkage map integration

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.; Teague, J.; Morton, N.E.; Keats, B.J.

    1996-08-15

    The algorithms that drive the map+ program for locus-oriented linkage mapping are presented. They depend on the enhanced location database program ldb+ to specify an initial comprehensive map that includes all loci in the summary lod file. Subsequently the map may be edited or order constrained and is automatically improved by estimating the location of each locus conditional on the remainder, beginning with the most discrepant loci. Operating characteristics permit rapid and accurate construction of linkage maps with several hundred loci. The map+ program also performs nondisjunction mapping with tests of nonstandard recombination. We have released map+ on Internet as a source program in the C language together with the location database that now includes the LODSOURCE database. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Mapping the geophysical bedrock of the Moesian Platform using H/V ratios and borehole data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinela Manea, Elena; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The strong effects at long periods observed in the extra-Carpathian area of Romania during large Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes were explained by the influence of both source mechanism and mechanical properties of the geological structure. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic velocities of the sediments are the primary responsible for the large amplification and long duration of the seismic records from the extra-Carpathian area during intermediate-depth earthquakes. The aim of this study is to map the geophysical bedrock of this area correlating and interpolating the results obtained from local resonance phenomena evaluation with the available surface geological data. The site was investigated through the computation of H/V spectral ratios from three-directional single station measurements of ambient vibration. The first step was to estimate the depth of the geophysical bedrock at all the Romanian seismic stations located in the extra-Carpathian area (velocity sensors) using the fundamental frequency retrieved from the H/V curves. In the second stage of the study all the relevant peaks from the H/V curves were interpreted in consonance with the available information of the geology. The geological data were obtained from the database developed in the national BIGSEES project by National Institute of Earth Physics. In this database are integrated all the geological, geophysical data from all the past projects, contracts, studies (as refraction, reflexion, etc.), geotechnical drillings and other information publicly available. The mapping of the geophysical bedrock was done interpolating the geological database and information gathered/resulted from H/V using a geographical informational system(GIS). The geology of this area displays very complex features as outcrops in small zones/lines/ near the Danube and then is gradually dipping to about 2 km depth in the N-NE. The depth of the bedrock is (nearly) constant around 100 m depth on the right side of

  19. Integrated Geophysical Analysis at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Mellors, R. J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We integrate magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), gravity, and seismic data to develop a unified and consistent model of the subsurface at the U20ak site on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada National Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The 1985 test, conducted in tuff at a depth of approximately 600 m did not collapse to the surface or produce a crater. The purpose of the geophysical measurements is to characterize the subsurface above and around the presumed explosion cavity. The magnetic data are used to locate steel borehole casings and pipes and are correlated with surface observations. The EM data show variation in lithology at depth and clear signatures from borehole casings and surface cables. The gravity survey detects a clear gravity low in the area of the explosion. The seismic data indicates shallow low velocity zone and indications of a deeper low velocity zones. In this study, we conduct 2D inversion of EM data for better characterization of site geology and use a common 3D density model to jointly interpret both the seismic and gravity data along with constraints on lithology boundaries from the EM. The integration of disparate geophysical datasets allows improved understanding of the non-prompt physical signatures of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). LLNL Release Number: LLNL-ABS-675677. The authors express their gratitude to the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, and the Comprehensive Inspection Technologies and UNESE working group, a multi-institutional and interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers. This work was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory under award number DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  20. An Integrated Geophysical study of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Doser, D. I.; Keller, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure, which is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. A considerable amount of oil exploration has been undertaken in the area and numerous studies have been published on the shallow (<10km depth) geology and geophysics of the region. In addition, over 6000 gravity measurements are available for the northern Libya region. We are using these data in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical control to construct a 3-D model of density/geology for northern Libya and surrounding regions. Knowing the surface geology and having a digital elevation model and observed gravity value at specified stations, we first calculate the gravity contribution for polygonal areas assuming infinite depth. We then calculate the gravitational contribution for the same polygonal area using the Paleozoic surface as the elevation, assuming uniform density for the volume of rocks below the Paleozoic surface. Subtracting the value calculated at the Paleozoic layer from the gravitational value at the surface yields a gravitational value matching that of the layer between the surface and the top of the Paleozoic layer. The same procedure is then repeated for the top of the Precambrian, the Moho, etc. The 3-D model will then be used to develop a regional velocity model that can be verified/modified by analysis of regional seismic waveform data we are collecting from earthquakes occurring within northern Libya. Northern Libya is the most seismologically active and highly faulted portion of the country. For this reason we have collected thirteen Landsat 5 satellite images covering the most seismically active and structurally significant regions of northeast and northwest Libya. The satellite images have been mosaicked using a seamless mosaicking technology based on ENVI's cutline feathering approached. The resulting mosaicked figures were then overlain with the previously mapped faults analyzed to identify the more recent

  1. AN INTEGRATED MAP FOR MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maize Mapping Project (MMP) is focused on developing genetic, physical, and database resources for the maize genome. A key resource being developed by the MMP is a well-integrated genetic and physical map that will expedite the identification of DNA sequences underlying key traits that have been...

  2. Detecting Buried Archaeological Remains by the Use of Geophysical Data Processing with 'Diffusion Maps' Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical methods are prompt, non-invasive and low-cost tool for quantitative delineation of buried archaeological targets. However, taking into account the complexity of geological-archaeological media, some unfavourable environments and known ambiguity of geophysical data analysis, a single geophysical method examination might be insufficient (Khesin and Eppelbaum, 1997). Besides this, it is well-known that the majority of inverse-problem solutions in geophysics are ill-posed (e.g., Zhdanov, 2002), which means, according to Hadamard (1902), that the solution does not exist, or is not unique, or is not a continuous function of observed geophysical data (when small perturbations in the observations will cause arbitrary mistakes in the solution). This fact has a wide application for informational, probabilistic and wavelet methodologies in archaeological geophysics (Eppelbaum, 2014a). The goal of the modern geophysical data examination is to detect the geophysical signatures of buried targets at noisy areas via the analysis of some physical parameters with a minimal number of false alarms and miss-detections (Eppelbaum et al., 2011; Eppelbaum, 2014b). The proposed wavelet approach to recognition of archaeological targets (AT) by the examination of geophysical method integration consists of advanced processing of each geophysical method and nonconventional integration of different geophysical methods between themselves. The recently developed technique of diffusion clustering combined with the abovementioned wavelet methods was utilized to integrate the geophysical data and detect existing irregularities. The approach is based on the wavelet packet techniques applied as to the geophysical images (or graphs) versus coordinates. For such an analysis may be utilized practically all geophysical methods (magnetic, gravity, seismic, GPR, ERT, self-potential, etc.). On the first stage of the proposed investigation a few tens of typical physical-archaeological models (PAM

  3. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  4. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2014-05-01

    paleotectonic criteria for oil and gas discovery in this region. Extensive geological-geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region, and a significant number of deep boreholes have been drilled. However integrated estimation of the deep structure of the hydrocarbon host deposits and their space-time evolution in terms of the modern geodynamics (first of all, plate tectonics: Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson, 1998; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002, 2006; Jimenez-Munt et al., 2003; Le Pichon and Kreemer, 2010), are comparatively recent (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011, 2012a; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014). We elucidate this geodynamic relationship by examining the structural floors within the following tectonic-geophysical zones: (1) regions of development of continental crust of the Nubian, Arabian and Sinai plates, (2) remaining oceanic crust of the eastern Mediterranean, and (3) the thinned continental crust of the terrane belt. A series of new gravity and magnetic maps developed by employing satellite and airborne data (as well their transformations) accompanied by tectonic schemes were constructed (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2014). These new maps are crucial to a better understanding of the dynamics of hydrocarbon basin formation within the continental and shelf depressions, as well as the deep depressions of the easternmost Mediterranean where gas deposits in zones of oceanic crust evolution have only recently (April 2013) begun to be exploited. Careful attention should be paid to the blocks of oceanic (basaltic) crust with reverse magnetization that were discovered (Ben-Avraham et al., 2002; Eppelbaum, 2006). This issue was very briefly (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2012a) explained as paleomagnetic Kiama zone of inverse polarity and demands separate consideration. An integrated magnetic-gravity-seismic analysis conducted along three interpretation profiles unambiguously indicates the presence of blocks of the Earth's crust with reverse

  5. Geochemistry and geophysics field maps used during the USGS 2011 field season in southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been studying a variety of geochemical and geophyscial assessment techniques for concealed mineral deposits. The 2011 field season for this project took place in southwest Alaska, northeast of Bristol Bay between Dillingham and Iliamna Lake. Four maps were created for the geochemistry and geophysics teams to use during field activities.

  6. 76 FR 19783 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... Committee will meet on June 22nd and June 23rd, 2011, in room 3A417 of the U.S. Geological Survey... the Director of the U.S. Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping......

  7. Geophysical investigation of subrosion processes - an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, Marion; Hupfer, Sarah; Kobe, Martin; Schneider-Löbens, Christiane; Wadas, Sonja; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion, i.e., leaching of readily soluble rocks mostly due to groundwater, is usually of natural origin but can be enhanced by anthropogenic interferences. In recent years, public awareness of subrosion processes in terms of the in parts catastrophic implications and incidences increased. Especially the sinkholes in Schmalkalden and Tiefenort (Germany) are - based on unforeseen collapse events and associated damage in 2010 - two dramatic examples. They illustrate that to date the knowledge of those processes and therefore the predictability of such events is insufficient. The complexity of the processes requires an integrated geophysical approach which investigates the interlinking of structure, hydraulics, solution processes, and mechanics. This finally contributes to a better understanding of the processes by reliable imaging and characterisation of subrosion structures. At LIAG an inter-sectional group is engaged in geophysical investigation of subrosion processes. The focus is application, enhancement and combination of various geophysical methods both at surface and in boreholes. This includes monitoring of (surface) deformation and variation of gravity as well as seismic, geoelectric and electromagnetic methods. Petrophysical investigations (with focus on spectral induced polarisation - SIP) are conducted to characterise the processes on pore scale. Numerical studies are applied to advance the understanding of void forming processes and the mechanical consequences in the dynamic interaction. Since March 2014, quarterly campaigns are conducted to monitor time-lapse gravity changes at 12 stations in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen. The standard deviations of the gravity differences between the survey points are low and the accompanying levelling locally shows continuous subsidence in the mm/year-range. Eight shear-wave reflection seismic profiles were surveyed in Bad Frankenhausen using a landstreamer and an electro-dynamic vibrator. This method is

  8. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  9. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del

    2014-09-01

    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  10. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  11. Integration of Geographic Information System frameworks into domain discretisation and meshing processes for geophysical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, A. S.; Avdis, A.; Hill, J.; Gorman, G. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    Computational simulations of physical phenomena rely on an accurate discretisation of the model domain. Numerical models have increased in sophistication to a level where it is possible to support terrain-following boundaries that conform accurately to real physical interfaces, and resolve a multiscale of spatial resolutions. Whilst simulation codes are maturing in this area, pre-processing tools have not developed significantly enough to competently initialise these problems in a rigorous, efficient and recomputable manner. In the relatively disjoint field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) however, techniques and tools for mapping and analysis of geographical data have matured significantly. If data provenance and recomputability are to be achieved, the manipulation and agglomeration of data in the pre-processing of numerical simulation initialisation data for geophysical models should be integrated into GIS. A new approach to the discretisation of geophysical domains is presented, and introduced with a verified implementation. This brings together the technologies of geospatial analysis, meshing and numerical simulation models. This platform enables us to combine and build up features, quickly drafting and updating mesh descriptions with the rigour that established GIS tools provide. This, combined with the systematic workflow, supports a strong provenance for model initialisation and encourages the convergence of standards.

  12. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  13. A new data logger for integrated geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazi, Massimo; Peluso, Rosario; Caputo, Antonio; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    GILDA digital recorder is a data logger developed at Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV). It provides excellent data quality with low power consumption and low production cost. It is widely used in the multi-parametric monitoring networks of Neapolitan volcanoes and Stromboli volcano. We have improved the characteristics of GILDA recorder to realize a robust user-oriented acquisition system for integrated geophysical monitoring. We have designed and implemented new capabilities concerning the use of the low rate channels to get data of environmental parameters of the station. We also improved the stand-alone version of the data logger. This version can be particularly useful for scientific experiments and to rapidly upgrade permanent monitoring networks. Furthermore, the local storage can be used as back-up for the monitoring systems in continuous transmission, in case of failure of the transmission system. Some firmware changes have been made in order to improve the performance of the instrument. In particular, the low rate acquisition channels were conditioned to acquire internal parameters of the recorder such as the temperature and voltage. A prototype of the new version of the logger is currently installed at Campi Flegrei for a experimental application. Our experiment is aimed at testing the new version of GILDA data logger in multi-board configuration for multiparametric acquisitions. A second objective of the experiment is the comparison of the recorded data with geochemical data acquired by a multiparametric geochemical station to investigate possible correlations between seismic and geochemical parameters. The target site of the experiment is "Bocca Grande" fumarole in Solfatara volcano. By exploiting the modularity of GILDA, for the experiment has been realized an acquisition system based on three dataloggers for a total of 12 available channels. One of GILDA recorders is the Master and the other two are Slaves. The Master is responsible for the initial

  14. Integrated Geophysical Survey on Deák Ferenc Sluice in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanli, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    ALI ISMET KANLI1*, G. TALLER2, Z. PRONAY2, P. TILDY2, P. NAGY3, E. TOROS2 *1Istanbul University, Turkey, kanli@istanbul.edu.tr, 2Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary,3MinGeo, Hungary The Ferenc Channel is one of the main irrigation and ship channel in south of Hungary, existing from 1801. The water level is controlled by the Deák Ferenc Sluice in the channel which was constructed in 1875. At that time, the sluice was unique in Europe with its two channels and brick-walls. The west channel was used for controlling the amount of water and the east channel was used for shipping. In the study, before starting to the restoration and reinforcement plannings at the sluice, non-destructive geophysical investigations were executed. In the first stage, ultra-high frequency seismic (80 kHz) and acoustic (5 kHz) investigations of the floor slab were carried out from a boat on the water level. Due to the water level was approximately 2 m, we could use the advantage of the water ensuring very good coupling with seismic sensors for high frequency seismic and acoustic measurements. In the second stage, resistivity measurements were carried out in the eastern part of the sluice which was used as the shipping channel. Three profiles were measured to map the resistivity distribution of the slab. In the third stage, for better understanding the stability conditions of the walls and easy to compare with the data of GPR measurements, the wall of the sluice were investigated by a simple seismic direct wave method using seismic P-waves for mapping seismic velocities. The last stage of the survey was the GPR measurements that were carried out both on the walls and on the slab of the sluice. During the investigation, the channels were empty and without water. The integrated survey and the interpretation of the results showed us that there were some faults, cracks and voids in the slab existed in the whole grossness of the slab and the brick walls were builded from inhomogenous

  15. Location and mapping of hydrologic regimes and thermal waters in Hawai'i: the use of electrical geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauahikaua, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Useful information on several different hydrologic regimes can be obtained using a combination of electrical geophysical surveys. Fresh-water lenses and laterally-confined aquifers can be located and mapped. However, more studies are required to evaluate the utility of geophysical methods for assessing perched aquifers.

  16. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2014-05-01

    paleotectonic criteria for oil and gas discovery in this region. Extensive geological-geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region, and a significant number of deep boreholes have been drilled. However integrated estimation of the deep structure of the hydrocarbon host deposits and their space-time evolution in terms of the modern geodynamics (first of all, plate tectonics: Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson, 1998; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002, 2006; Jimenez-Munt et al., 2003; Le Pichon and Kreemer, 2010), are comparatively recent (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011, 2012a; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014). We elucidate this geodynamic relationship by examining the structural floors within the following tectonic-geophysical zones: (1) regions of development of continental crust of the Nubian, Arabian and Sinai plates, (2) remaining oceanic crust of the eastern Mediterranean, and (3) the thinned continental crust of the terrane belt. A series of new gravity and magnetic maps developed by employing satellite and airborne data (as well their transformations) accompanied by tectonic schemes were constructed (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2014). These new maps are crucial to a better understanding of the dynamics of hydrocarbon basin formation within the continental and shelf depressions, as well as the deep depressions of the easternmost Mediterranean where gas deposits in zones of oceanic crust evolution have only recently (April 2013) begun to be exploited. Careful attention should be paid to the blocks of oceanic (basaltic) crust with reverse magnetization that were discovered (Ben-Avraham et al., 2002; Eppelbaum, 2006). This issue was very briefly (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2012a) explained as paleomagnetic Kiama zone of inverse polarity and demands separate consideration. An integrated magnetic-gravity-seismic analysis conducted along three interpretation profiles unambiguously indicates the presence of blocks of the Earth's crust with reverse

  17. Integrated Geophysical Tools for Sinkholes Study along the Dead Sea Shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A.; Akkawwi, E.; Abueadas, A.; Eppelbaum, L.; Keydar, S.; Medvedev, B.; Levi, E.; Ezersky, M.

    2012-04-01

    Identification of cavities, fractures and collapse zones is one of the most difficult subsurface investigations: it's like finding a real needle in the haystack. It is known today that Dead Sea sinkholes at the surface are caused by development of dissolution cavities forming in the salt layers located at a depth of 40-50meters from surface. Development of karstic cavities causes variations in properties and structure of both salt and its overlain sediments: density, porosity, electrical conductivity, seismic velocity etc. Fractures and faults are formed in the shallow subsurface. These variations in properties and structure can be detected by different geophysical instruments such as Seismic Refraction and Reflection methods, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Microgravity and Magnitometry etc. That is why variety of geophysical methods, which measured different physical parameter (changes in dielectric constant, Electrical resistivity, variations in bulk Density, and changes in velocity) for shallow and deep investigation nave been applied for sinkholes assessment and delineation. The integration of different geophysical studies has a capability of detecting geologic conditions including the continuity of the deeper strata, lateral variations in an unconformity, discontinuities, cavities, zones of paleo-sinkholes collapse and hydro geological conditions. All geophysical methods address geologic questions. With geophysical applications, a volume of the subsurface is measured. It is necessary to recognize the physical properties of the feature being measured as well as the effective volume of measurement in order to define survey objectives. Data from a wide variety of sources and measurements could be integrated to improve our understanding of site conditions and provide a powerful base of information in which to evaluate subsurface conditions, design and execute a remediation for the site and enable a reasonably accurate risk

  18. Ground Truth for Geological and Geophysical Mapping of New York Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W.; Ward, W. B.; Boyd, B.; Fleming, G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R.; Murphy, W.

    2005-05-01

    As part of the project to deepen the harbors of the Ports of New York, Newark, and Elizabeth to 50 feet, we are mapping the geology of New York and New Jersey harbor, particularly the eastern edge of the Newark Basin, with geophysical measurements and core borings. The results are geological cross-sections, stratigraphic columns, and geological maps with resolutions approaching 1 foot. Sonar images map the surface of the bottom. Multichannel and single-channel, reflection seismic methods penetrate the sediment and rock to 100 feet below mean low water (MLW). The subsurface materials include black silt, gray silt, gray sands, Pleistocene till, Pleistocene varves, Jurassic diabase, Triassic sands and shales, Ordovician serpentinite, Cambro-Ordovician schist. We measure formation properties including lateral extent, thickness, strike and dip, contamination, fracture density, and diggability. The range of compressional velocity among these materials is a factor of six. Fundamental axioms of mapping, causality, equipresence, and frame indifference require sampling by core borings. Sampling is straightforward yet rarely required. We calibrate the water column for bathymetric studies and the subsurface for geotechnical studies. We measure Blow counts (or drill rate) Recovery efficiency Lithological description Digital photographs Rock quality designation (RQD) Fractures per foot Ultrasonic compressional wave velocity Unconfined compressive strength The measurements provide Ground truth Stratigraphic calibration Velocity modeling for time-to-depth conversion Material for correlation and experimentation The acoustic properties of the materials involved vary as a function of season. A sensitive issue is stability of the sediments in the channel slope. We place the hundreds of core borings into a single reference frame with the geophysical measurements. The geological maps and cross-sections follow from the interpretation of the processed geophysical results.

  19. Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2013-04-01

    maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

  20. Geophysical mapping and subsurface injection for treatment of post-reclamation acid drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Plocus, V.G.; Rastogi, V.

    1997-12-31

    Post-reclamation acid discharge has haunted abandoned mine lands reclamation programs and the mining industry reclamation efforts. Many mine sites have been reclaimed, as mandated by regulations, but continue to generate acid. Such sites represent perpetual treatment problems for operators and, in the case of bond forfeitures or abandoned mine reclamation projects, they represent sources of perpetual surface and groundwater degradation. Post-reclamation discharge occurs when the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria, not destroyed prior to soil cover in the reclamation process, continue to thrive, even in a supposedly anaerobic environment. A post-reclamation remediation system utilizing subsurface injection of sodium hydroxide and an anionic surfactant offers a two phase integrated technologies approach. In Phase 1, the site is characterized by geophysical mapping with (1) electromagnetic terrain conductivity meters to determine locations of subsurface aquifers, and (2) proton processing magnetometers to delineate zones of pyritic oxidation in the subsurface environment. Infiltrometers are also used to determine permeability which influences pressure requirements and distance between wells. Site conditions and water analyses help quantify requirements for injection of sodium hydroxide and bactericide. Phase 2 involves drilling two sets of injection wells; the first into the acidified water table for injection of 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid water, and the second into the acid producing material for injection of a 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid salts, followed by a 2% solution of bactericide. The sodium hydroxide is injected to neutralize existing acid which prevents future acid generation. Results from a site in Pennsylvania, USA, which was treated in this manner are reported.

  1. Non-Bayesian Information Fusion for Integrating Hydrologic and Multiple Sets of Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, M. M.; Pinder, G. F.

    2005-12-01

    Combination of geological, geophysical and geohydrological data derived from disparate sources is a cost-effective and scientifically challenging approach to maximizing information on the subsurface. Existing studies have limitations in that no universal methods are available for converting geophysical attributes to geohydrological ones due to the inconsistency in the methods of geophysical data acquisition and interpretation and the fact that the complementary nature of the geophysical methods are not exploited. Indeed, there is no single geophysical method effective in most environmental and subsurface conditions, and all are strongly scenario-dependent. Thus it becomes essential to characterize the information that each individual geophysical method provides in combination. Our approach explicitly quantifies and integrates into the characterization process the insight of a geophysicist on i) the individual capabilities that geophysical methods have and ii) what the meaning of the data is that they produce when interpreted collectively. A model based upon the mathematics of fuzzy set theory based approximate reasoning and of belief theory is used address the following problems: 1) the use of geological and hydrogeological knowledge that relates geological conditions to hydrogeological attributes for the creation of site specific a priori conductivity field in the presence of a limited amount of borehole data 2) the use of geophysical knowledge in the solution of the `geophysical data interpretation' problem defined as the synthesis of data generated by several geophysical methods to infer the true conditions of the soil and 3) the use of the inferred soil information to condition the a priori conductivity field. The approach is demonstrated through an application using real site data.

  2. Creating a system for the geological exploitation of satellite images: Automatic mapping and geophysical data comparison. [in the Pyrenees and Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braconne, S.; Cavalier, M.; Dubesset, M.; Guillemot, J.; Guy, M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for integrating satellite images into a geophysical data interpretation system. Aspects of the method include: an attempt to automatically interpret images by structural, mainly topological, methods for the mapping of geological contours; an analysis of the position relation of the contours gives a skeleton stratigraphy (order of succession); and a system combining some of the extracted elements with geographic data to make an objective search for an interpretation hypothesis. Some examples are presented.

  3. Dynamic EMI sensor platform for digital geophysical mapping and automated clutter rejection for CONUS and OCONUS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudato, Stephen J.; Schultz, Gregory; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of new advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor surveys at sites containing unexploded ordnance (UXO) and explosive remnants of war (ERW) is an effective method for accurate mapping and for discriminating clutter from targets of interest. We present development and integration of a next generation advanced EMI sensor onto a cart-based sensing platform to combine the mapping capability of previous digital geophysical survey instruments with the high-resolution discrimination capability of advanced characterization arrays. The EMI sensor employs a multi-axis receiver configuration to produce data sufficient for anomaly discrimination. We discuss platform design and development, data acquisition and post-processing software development, and results from field tests demonstrating the detection and discrimination capability of the cart-based system. Platform development and design focused on navigation and EMI sensor integration onto a custom, low-noise, metal-free platform. Data acquisition is via an Android application with emphasis on ease-of-use and real-time quality control (QC) of collected data. Post-processing methods emphasize QC, inversion-based anomaly location estimation, and automated or supervised polarizability-based discrimination methods to produce a prioritized dig list. Integration of the detection, clutter rejection and QC methods into the post-processing software module reduces the time required between sensor data collection and generation of a prioritized dig list. System concept of operations (CONOPs), data collection, QC, data processing procedures, and performance against various clutter objects and targets of interest will also be discussed.

  4. Facilitating Scientific Collaboration and Education with Easy Access Web Maps Using the AGAP Antarctic Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Science and science education benefit from easy access to data yet often geophysical data sets are large, complex and difficult to share. The difficulty in sharing data and imagery easily inhibits both collaboration and the use of real data in educational applications. The dissemination of data products through web maps serves a very efficient and user-friendly method for students, the public and the science community to gain insights and understanding from data. Few research groups provide direct access to their data, let alone map-based visualizations. By building upon current GIS infrastructure with web mapping technologies, like ArcGIS Server, scientific groups, institutions and agencies can enhance the value of their GIS investments. The advantages of web maps to serve data products are many; existing web-mapping technology allows complex GIS analysis to be shared across the Internet, and can be easily scaled from a few users to millions. This poster highlights the features of an interactive web map developed at the Polar Geophysics Group at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University that provides a visual representation of, and access to, data products that resulted from the group's recently concluded AGAP project (http://pgg.ldeo.columbia.edu). The AGAP project collected more than 120,000 line km of new aerogeophysical data using two Twin Otter aircrafts. Data included ice penetrating radar, magnetometer, gravimeter and laser altimeter measurements. The web map is based upon ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, which is a configurable client application built on the ArcGIS API for Flex that works seamlessly with ArcGIS Server 10. The application can serve a variety of raster and vector file formats through the Data Interoperability for Server, which eliminates data sharing barriers across numerous file formats. The ability of the application to serve large datasets is only hindered by the availability of appropriate hardware. ArcGIS is a proprietary

  5. Integrating hydrologic and geophysical data to constrain coastal surficial aquifer processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Fulton, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, repeated, coincident geophysical surveys and extensive hydrologic studies in shallow monitoring wells have been used to study static and dynamic processes associated with surface water-groundwater interaction at a range of spatial scales at the estuarine and ocean boundaries of an undeveloped, permeable barrier island in the Georgia part of the U.S. South Atlantic Bight. Because geophysical and hydrologic data measure different parameters, at different resolution and precision, and over vastly different spatial scales, reconciling the coincident data or even combining complementary inversion, hydrogeochemcial analyses and well-based groundwater monitoring, and, in some cases, limited vegetation mapping to demonstrate the utility of an integrative, multidisciplinary approach for elucidating groundwater processes at spatial scales (tens to thousands of meters) that are often difficult to capture with traditional hydrologic approaches. The case studies highlight regional aquifer characteristics, varying degrees of lateral saltwater intrusion at estuarine boundaries, complex subsurface salinity gradients at the ocean boundary, and imaging of submarsh groundwater discharge and possible free convection in the pore waters of a clastic marsh. This study also documents the use of geophysical techniques for detecting temporal changes in groundwater salinity regimes under natural (not forced) gradients at intratidal to interannual (1998-200 Southeastern U.S.A. drought) time scales.

  6. A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.; Beaty, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    In this abstract we propose an integrated strategy for the geophysical exploration of Mars that we believe represents the fastest, most cost-effective, and technically capable approach to identifying the state and distribution of subsurface water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  8. Non-integrability vs. integrability in pentagram maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khesin, Boris; Soloviev, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    We revisit recent results on integrable cases for higher-dimensional generalizations of the 2D pentagram map: short-diagonal, dented, deep-dented, and corrugated versions, and define a universal class of pentagram maps, which are proved to possess projective duality. We show that in many cases the pentagram map cannot be included into integrable flows as a time-one map, and discuss how the corresponding notion of discrete integrability can be extended to include jumps between invariant tori. We also present a numerical evidence that certain generalizations of the integrable 2D pentagram map are non-integrable and present a conjecture for a necessary condition of their discrete integrability.

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  11. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Techniques and Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Langford, R. P.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the karst aquifer. We have used geophysical techniques, combined with geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our initial work has focused on a 700 m by 700 m region surrounding the springs. We conducted a series of ground conductivity surveys with follow-up DC resistivity surveys (Wenner array vertical electrical soundings and a pole- pole survey) to determine variations in soil grain size and moisture content. Surface geologic mapping was used to identify a series of Holocene terraces and valleys that incise the terraces. Our combined results suggest that northwest-southeast and north-south trending fractures and dissolution features control regional water flow. Relict spring valleys are found to the west of the present springs. A pole-pole survey conducted around the perimeter of the springs suggests main water flow into the springs occurs from the northwest. We plan to complete a precision gravity survey in September and October 2007 to map bedrock topography and determine its relation to structural and dissolution features. Ground penetrating radar data will be collected on the northwestern side of the springs in an attempt to better delineate structures controlling inflow into the springs.

  12. Geophysical mapping of oyster habitats in a shallow estuary; Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Edmiston, H. Lee; Stevenson, William R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents high-resolution geophysical data, interpretive maps, and a preliminary discussion about the oyster habitat and estuary-floor geology within Apalachicola Bay, Florida (fig. 1). During two research cruises, conducted in 2005 and 2006, approximately 230 km² of the bay floor were surveyed using interferometric-bathymetry, sidescan-sonar, and chirp seismic-reflection techniques. The research was conducted as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was established in 1979 to provide opportunities for long-term monitoring and research to provide a basis for more informed coastal management decisions for this estuary. Apalachicola Bay is the largest oyster fishery in Florida (Whitfield and Beaumariage, 1977), and the primary objective of this program is to develop a suite of maps that define oyster habitat distribution and estuary-floor geology within the bay. The resulting maps will assist in effective management of oyster resources and provide a reference geologic framework for future scientific and applied research.

  13. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River

  14. Integrated Geophysical Characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, M. W.; Yeck, W. L.; Nealy, J. L.; Hayes, G. P.; Barnhart, W. D.; Benz, H.; Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    On September 16th, 2015, an Mw 8.3 earthquake (USGS moment magnitude) ruptured offshore of central Chile, 50 km west of the city of Illapel and 200 km north of Santiago. The earthquake occurred just north of where the Juan Fernandez Ridge enters the subduction zone. In this study, we integrate multiple seismic and geodetic datasets, including multiple-event earthquake relocations; moment tensors of the Illapel mainshock, aftershocks, and prior regional seismicity; finite fault models (FFMs) of the mainshock rupture; subduction zone geometry; Coulomb stress transfer calculations; and co-seismic GPS offsets and InSAR images. These datasets allow us to (a) assess the context of the Illapel earthquake sequence with respect to historical seismicity in central Chile; (b) constrain the relationship between subduction geometry and the kinematic characteristics of the earthquake sequence; and (c) understand the distribution of aftershocks with respect to the rupture zone. Double source W-phase moment tensor analysis indicates the Illapel mainshock rupture began as a smaller Mw ~7.2 thrusting event before growing into a great-sized Mw 8.3 earthquake. Relocated aftershock seismicity is concentrated around the main region of slip, and few aftershocks occur on the megathrust shallower than ~15 km, despite the FFM indicating slip near the trench. This distribution is consistent with the aftershock behavior following the 2010 Maule and 2014 Iquique earthquakes: aftershocks primarily surround the rupture zones and are largely absent from regions of greatest slip. However, in contrast to the recent 2014 Iquique and 2010 Maule events, which ruptured in regions of the Chilean subduction zone that had not had large events in over a century, this earthquake occurred in a section of the subduction zone that hosted a large earthquake as recently as 1943, as well as earlier significant events in 1880 and 1822. At this section of the subduction zone, in addition to the impinging Juan

  15. Using ground-based geophysics to rapidly and accurately map sub-surface acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Triantafilis, John; Johnston, Scott; Nhan, Terence; Page, Donald; Wege, Richard; Hirst, Phillip; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These soils can be environmentally hazardous due to their high acidity and large pool of potentially mobile metals. The floodplains are characterised by high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. On coastal floodplains, ASS are of moderate to high salinity, with salts derived mainly from either connate marine sources or oxidation of biogenic sulfides and the subsequent increases in soluble ions (e.g. SO42-) and acidity that follow oxidation. Enhanced acidity also increases the mobilisation of pH-sensitive trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni and contributes to increasing apparent salinity. Ground-based geophysics using electromagnetic (EM) induction techniques have been used successfully and extensively to rapidly map soils for salinity management and precision agriculture. EM induction techniques measure apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), which is a function of salinity, clay content, water content, soil mineralogy and temperature to determine the spatial distribution of sub-surface conductivity. In this study, we used ECa as a proxy to map the surface and sub-surface spatial distribution of ASS and associated acidic groundwater. Three EM instruments were used, EM38, DUALEM-421 and EM34, which focus on different depth layers, in a survey of a coastal floodplain in eastern Australia. The EM surveys were calibrated with limited soil sampling and analysis (pH, EC, soluble and exchangeable salts and metals, particle size and titratable actual acidity (TAA)). Using fuzzy k-means clustering analysis, the EM38 and elevation data, from a digital elevation model, clearly identified three classes in the near-surface (0-2m) layers: i) levee soils, ii) fluvial sediment capping and iii) ASS (Fig. 4). Increasing the number of classes did not alter the classes identified. Joint inversion of the DUALEM-421 and EM34 data also identified

  16. Visual integration of multi-displicinary datasets for the geophysical analysis of tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. M.; Dingler, J. A.; Brothers, D.; Kent, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    Within the scientific community, there is a growing emphasis on interdisciplinary analyses to gain a more complete understanding of how entire earth systems function. Challenges of this approach include integrating the numerous, and often disparate, datasets, while also presenting the integrated data in a manner comprehensible to a wide range of scientists. Three- and four-dimensional visualization is quickly becoming the primary tool for facilitating these challenges. We frequently utilize the modular methodology of the IVS Fledermaus visualization software package to enhance our ability to better understand various geophysical datasets and the tectonic processes occurring within their respective systems. A main benefit of this software is that it allows us to generate individual visual objects from geo-referenced datasets and then combine them to form interactive, multi-dimension visual scenes. Additionally, this visualization process is advantageous to interdisciplinary analyses because: 1) the visual objects are portable across scenes, 2) they can be easily exchanged between scientists to build new user-specific scenes, and 3) both the objects or scenes can be viewed using the full software package or the free viewer, iView3D, on any modern computer operating system (i.e., Mac OSX, Windows, Linux). Here we present examples of Fledermaus and how we have used visualization to better "see" oceanic, coastal, and continental tectonic environments. In one visualization, bathymetric, petrologic and hydrothermal vent information from a spreading system in the Lau back-arc basin is integrated with multichannel seismic (MCS) data to ascertain where the subduction zone influences begin strongly shaping the character of the spreading ridge. In visualizations of coastal environments, we combine high-resolution seismic CHIRP data with bathymetry, side-scan and MCS data, Landsat images, geological maps, and earthquake locations to look at slope stability in the Santa Barbara

  17. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  18. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Lara De; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system

  19. Study of shallow low-enthalpy geothermal resources using integrated geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics: Maps, Integrators and Solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-10-01

    For many physical systems of interest in various disciplines, the solution to nonlinear differential equations describing the physical systems can be generated using maps, symplectic integrators and solitons. We discuss these methods and apply them for various examples.

  1. Constraining kimberlite geology through integration of geophysical, geological and geochemical methods: A case study of the Mothae kimberlite, northern Lesotho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M.; Nowicki, T.; van Coller, B.; Mukodzani, B.; Siemens, K.; Hetman, C.; Webb, K.; Gurney, J.

    2009-11-01

    The Cretaceous Mothae kimberlite is located in northern Lesotho on the southeast margin of the Kaapvaal craton. Historical work suggests that Mothae has a low average diamond grade of ~ 3 cpht and the economic viability therefore depends on the presence of large, high quality (and thus value) diamonds as does that of the nearby Letseng Diamond Mine. Defining such a diamond population requires a very large and representative bulk sample. The near surface geology of the Mothae kimberlite was investigated using ground geophysical surveys, pit mapping, petrography, measurements of the mantle components and whole rock compositions. Integration of data from these different approaches clearly defines the outline of the kimberlite at the surface and permits definition, with varying confidence levels, of at least six geologically distinct domains within the body. The domains are defined primarily on the basis of variations in the relative abundances of certain mantle-derived minerals extracted from exploratory pit samples, supported to varying extents by geophysically-defined zones, variations in kimberlite type (established petrographically) and variations in whole rock composition. The domains are interpreted to reflect the presence of multiple phases of volcaniclastic kimberlite each with a potentially different diamond content. The map of the near surface geology constructed on the basis of the work described in this paper provides a valuable framework for planning of further drilling and sampling work aimed at constraining the diamond resource at Mothae. This study illustrates the value of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to understanding the geology of a complex kimberlite body during the early stages of evaluation.

  2. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  3. The hydrocarbon accumulations mapping in crystalline rocks by mobile geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, A.

    2013-05-01

    Sedimentary-migration origin theory of hydrocarbons dominates nowadays. However, a significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits were discovered in the crystalline rocks, which corroborates the theory of non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. During the solving of problems of oil and gas exploration in crystalline rocks and arrays so-called "direct" methods can be used. These methods include geoelectric methods of forming short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF) and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS) (FSPEF-VERS express-technology). Use of remote Earth sounding (RES) methods is also actual. These mobile technologies are extensively used during the exploration of hydrocarbon accumulations in crystalline rocks, including those within the Ukrainian crystalline shield. The results of explorations Four anomalous geoelectric zones of "gas condensate reservoir" type were quickly revealed as a result of reconnaissance prospecting works (Fig. 1). DTA "Obukhovychi". Anomaly was traced over a distance of 4 km. Approximate area is 12.0 km2. DTA"Korolevskaya". Preliminary established size of anomalous zone is 10.0 km2. The anomalous polarized layers of gas and gas-condensate type were determined. DTA "Olizarovskaya". Approximate size of anomaly is about 56.0 km2. This anomaly is the largest and the most intense. DTA "Druzhba". Preliminary estimated size of anomaly is 16.0 km2. Conclusions Long experience of a successful application of non-classical geoelectric methods for the solving of variety of practical tasks allow one to state their contribution to the development of a new paradigm of geophysical researches. Simultaneous usage of the remote sensing data processing and interpretation method and FSPEF and VERS technologies can essentially optimize and speed up geophysical work. References 1. S.P. Levashov. Detection and mapping of anomalies of "hydrocarbon deposit" type in the fault zones of crystalline arrays by geoelectric methods. / S.P. Levashov, N.A. Yakymchuk, I

  4. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  5. The typology of Irish hard-rock aquifers based on an integrated hydrogeological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Pilatova, Katarina; Flynn, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater flow in hard-rock aquifers is strongly controlled by the characteristics and distribution of structural heterogeneity. A methodology for catchment-scale characterisation is presented, based on the integration of complementary, multi-scale hydrogeological, geophysical and geological approaches. This was applied to three contrasting catchments underlain by metamorphic rocks in the northern parts of Ireland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, UK). Cross-validated surface and borehole geophysical investigations confirm the discontinuous overburden, lithological compartmentalisation of the bedrock and important spatial variations of the weathered bedrock profiles at macro-scale. Fracture analysis suggests that the recent (Alpine) tectonic fabric exerts strong control on the internal aquifer structure at meso-scale, which is likely to impact on the anisotropy of aquifer properties. The combination of the interpretation of depth-specific hydraulic-test data with the structural information provided by geophysical tests allows characterisation of the hydrodynamic properties of the identified aquifer units. Regionally, the distribution of hydraulic conductivities can be described by inverse power laws specific to the aquifer litho-type. Observed groundwater flow directions reflect this multi-scale structure. The proposed integrated approach applies widely available investigative tools to identify key dominant structures controlling groundwater flow, characterising the aquifer type for each catchment and resolving the spatial distribution of relevant aquifer units and associated hydrodynamic parameters.

  6. A general framework of TOPSIS method for integration of airborne geophysics, satellite imagery, geochemical and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the promising application of three variants of TOPSIS method (namely the conventional, adjusted and modified versions) as a straightforward knowledge-driven technique in multi criteria decision making processes for data fusion of a broad exploratory geo-dataset in mineral potential/prospectivity mapping. The method is implemented to airborne geophysical data (e.g. potassium radiometry, aeromagnetic and frequency domain electromagnetic data), surface geological layers (fault and host rock zones), extracted alteration layers from remote sensing satellite imagery data, and five evidential attributes from stream sediment geochemical data. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt in Kerman province at the SE of Iran that is embedded in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage arc (UDMA) is chosen to integrate broad evidential layers in the region of prospect. The studied area has high potential of ore mineral occurrences especially porphyry copper/molybdenum and the generated mineral potential maps aim to outline new prospect zones for further investigation in future. Two evidential layers of the downward continued aeromagnetic data and its analytic signal filter are prepared to be incorporated in fusion process as geophysical plausible footprints of the porphyry type mineralization. The low values of the apparent resistivity layer calculated from the airborne frequency domain electromagnetic data are also used as an electrical criterion in this investigation. Four remote sensing evidential layers of argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations were extracted from ASTER images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry type deposits, whilst the ETM+ satellite imagery data were used as well to map iron oxide layer. Since potassium alteration is generally the mainstay of porphyry ore mineralization, the airborne potassium radiometry data was used. The geochemical layers of Cu/B/Pb/Zn elements and the first component of PCA

  7. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  8. Application of Near-Surface Geophysical Techniques for Earthquake Microzonation Mapping in the Ottawa, Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, H.; Motazedian, D.; Hunter, J. A.; Pugin, A.; Brooks, G.; Pyne, M.; Pullan, S.; Khaheshi-Banab, K.

    2009-05-01

    Earthquake Microzonation maps of the Ottawa area have been developed by a combined team of researchers from the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Carleton University. The city of Ottawa has an areal extent of 2796 square kilometers, consisting of three basic geological/geotechnical units: bedrock outcrop (15%), a thin veneer of glacial deposits (30%) and thick post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments (Champlain Sea) known locally as the Leda Clay (55%). Following the guidelines of the current National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), soil classification zones were established according to the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) which are based on shear wave velocity measurements of the upper 30m of soil/rock and are related to ground-motion amplification. For adequate characterization of the soil properties, geophysical data were collected at 680 surface refraction-reflection sites, 35 MASW sites, 31 borehole geophysical sites, and 185 passive soil resonance sites. Twenty-five line-km of high resolution Minivib Landstreamer shear wave reflection were collected in areas of complex bedrock topography. In addition, a borehole database compiled from existing water-well and geotechnical drilling consisting of approximately 32000 borings from previous GSC work was converted into the three major geotechnical units and assigned shear wave velocity-depth functions to each borehole site based on an inverse distance weighting algorithm of adjacent shear wave measurement sites. We have found extremely low shear wave velocities associated with the post-glacial sediments (˜150m/s), and extremely high shear wave velocities associated with the competent Paleozoic or PreCambrian bedrock (˜2800 m/s), yielding very large seismic impedance ratios. Within the city limits we have shown that all six NEHRP zones occur, and that changes between solid rock (NERHP zone A) and very soft soil (NEHRP zone E or F) can occur within a lateral distance of a few hundred

  9. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  10. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Kristina; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  11. Outcome mapping for health system integration

    PubMed Central

    Tsasis, Peter; Evans, Jenna M; Forrest, David; Jones, Richard Keith

    2013-01-01

    Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. PMID:23526058

  12. Outcome mapping for health system integration.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Evans, Jenna M; Forrest, David; Jones, Richard Keith

    2013-01-01

    Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. PMID:23526058

  13. Mapping mine tailings using airborne geophysical and hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jiali

    Mine tailings are the waste products from mining operations. Most mine tailings contain a considerable amount of reactive sulphides which can cause acid mine drainage (AMD) when exposed to air and water. AMD constitutes a threat both to the environment and to public health. Increased awareness of AMD has led to growing activities in mine-tailing monitoring and reclamation worldwide. Mining companies in Canada are required to provide information to provincial governments about their waste disposal and control activities. There is an urgent need to develop new automated ways to provide information on short- to long-term evolution of tailings, thus enabling the mining companies to monitor their tailings more effectively. The overall goal of the thesis is to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing and geophysical techniques for mapping variations within and immediately outside of the tailings. Data used for this study are from three sources: airborne geophysical data, hyperspectral casi and Probe-1 data, and field data. This study has contributed to both the remote sensing data analysis techniques and the understanding of mine-tailing surface and subsurface processes. Specifically, this study has the following important findings: (1) Airborne magnetic and electromagnetic data can provide information regarding the subsurface distribution of mine tailings on the basis of sulphide mineral content. A procedure has been developed in this study to use these data sources for rapidly surveying large tailings areas. This procedure can minimize expenditures for mining companies when designing remedial plans for the closure of the mines. This study has also identified regions of enhanced conductivity that extend beyond the tailing containment area. This information indicates seepage pathways, and is important for monitoring the effectiveness of tailing containment structures. (2) High-spatial-resolution hyperspectral casi (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imagery

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  15. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stewart, John H.; Hendricks, J.D.; Rowan, L.C.; Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Choteau 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean

    1981-01-01

    The Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle in northwest Montana was studied by an interdisciplinary research team in order to appraise its mineral resource and hydrocarbon potential The appraisal is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource appraisal. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle.

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  18. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Medford 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Blakely, R.J.; Johnson, M.G.; Page, N.J.; Peterson, J.A.; Singer, D.A.; Whittington, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in southern Oregon and northern California was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  19. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  20. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  1. The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) Project: Investigating Exposed Middle Crust Through Geological Mapping, Drilling and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Lorenz, H.; Berthet, T.; Hedin, P.; Gee, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    to a varying degree. An integrated structural interpretation based on surface geological mapping, results from the COSC-1 borehole and high quality geophysics will be presented.

  2. Radon potential determination by a combination of geological mapping, geochemistry, groundwater investigations and airborne geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Motschka, K.; Ahl, A.; Slapansky, P.; Finger, F.; Alletsgruber, I.; Gasser, V.; Supper, R.; Bieber, G.

    2009-04-01

    During the nineties comprehensive Radon investigations were carried out in Austria to determine the Radon exposure of the population (Ditto et al., 1999, Friedmann et al.,1997 and Friedmann et al., 2007). Friedmann (2007, p 16-17) came to the result that indoor measurements can be better used than geological methods to pinpoint areas with a high Radon hazard. Contrary to this conclusion, in the current presentation we intend to show that geological factors are the most important parameters for Radon potential evaluation and we demonstrate a new mapping method for determining the spatial distribution of the Radon potential by means of geological and airborne geophysical investigations. Within the last years, several test sites in the southern Bohemian Massive were investigated. Based on large scaled geological maps different types of Granites were analysed on Uranium content. Furthermore, in order to obtain the spatial distribution of Uranium, close-meshed airborne radiometric mapping was carried out. Additionally, ground water samples were analysed to derive representative Radon concentrations for the pore volume within the different Granite types. Final results concluded that there is a significant correlation between the Uranium content of the geological subsurface and the Radon concentration in the ground water (SCHUBERT et al., 2003, ALLETSGRUBER, 2007). As a consequence airborne radiometric mapping could be used as an effective tool to derive quick and detailed information on spatial distribution of the Radon potential. Furthermore this methodology could contribute to identify potential Radon hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Uranium data coverage in high resolution. I. Alletsgruber(2007): Radongehalte in Grundwässern des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich). Geologische und hydrogeologische Faktoren. - diploma thesis, Univ. Salzburg. PT M. Ditto, W. Fimml, V. Karg, M. Korner, J. Weisz (1999): Radon-222 im Grundwasser

  3. An integrated assessment of seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using geophysical, geochemical, and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nur Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, geophysics, geochemistry, and geostatistical techniques were integrated to assess seawater intrusion in Kapas Island due to its geological complexity and multiple contamination sources. Five resistivity profiles were measured using an electric resistivity technique. The results reveal very low resistivity <1 Ωm, suggesting either marine clay deposit or seawater intrusion or both along the majority of the resistivity images. As a result, geochemistry was further employed to verify the resistivity evidence. The Chadha and Stiff diagrams classify the island groundwater into Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Na-HCO3, and Na-Cl water types, with Ca-HCO3 as the dominant. The Mg(2+)/Mg(2+)+Ca(2+), HCO3 (-)/anion, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-), Na(+)/Cl(-), and SO4 (2-)/Cl(-) ratios show that some sampling sites are affected by seawater intrusion; these sampling sites fall within the same areas that show low-resistivity values. The resulting ratios and resistivity values were then used in the geographical information system (GIS) environment to create the geostatistical map of individual indicators. These maps were then overlaid to create the final map showing seawater-affected areas. The final map successfully delineates the area that is actually undergoing seawater intrusion. The proposed technique is not area specific, and hence, it can work in any place with similar completed characteristics or under the influence of multiple contaminants so as to distinguish the area that is truly affected by any targeted pollutants from the rest. This information would provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge of the current situation and will serve as a guide and standard in water research for sustainable management plan. PMID:24532282

  4. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  5. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to be related to locations of major and minor faults, at higher elevations, and regions where gravity anomaly values were between - 125 mGal and 0 mGal. These findings support earlier hypotheses that the western shield uplift was related to Cenozoic volcanism. At the harrat (volcanic field)-scale, higher vent density regions are related to both elevation and gravity anomaly values. A by-product of this work is the collection of existing data on the volcanism across Saudi Arabia, with all vent locations provided herein, as well as updated maps for Harrats Kura, Khaybar, Ithnayn, Kishb, and Rahat. This work also highlights the potential dangers of assuming relationships between observed data and the occurrence of a natural phenomenon without quantitative assessment or proper consideration of the effects of data resolution.

  6. An integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation to characterize a fractured-rock aquifer, Norwalk, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.; Savino, D.M.; Haeni, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation at the Norden Systems, Inc. site in Norwalk, Connecticut, where chlorinated solvents have contaminated a fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole, borehole-to-borehole, surface-geophysical, and hydraulic methods were used to characterize the site bedrock lithology and structure, fractures, and transmissive zone hydraulic properties. The geophysical and hydraulic methods included conventional logs, borehole imagery, borehole radar, flowmeter under ambient and stressed hydraulic conditions, and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity soundings. Integrated interpretation of geophysical logs at borehole and borehole-to-borehole scales indicates that the bedrock foliation strikes northwest and dips northeast, and strikes north-northeast to northeast and dips both southeast and northwest. Although steeply dipping fractures that cross-cut foliation are observed, most fractures are parallel or sub-parallel to foliation. Steeply dipping reflectors observed in the radar reflection data from three boreholes near the main building delineate a north-northeast trending feature interpreted as a fracture zone. Results of radar tomography conducted close to a suspected contaminant source area indicate that a zone of low electromagnetic (EM) velocity and high EM attenuation is present above 50 ft in depth - the region containing the highest density of fractures. Flowmeter logging was used to estimate hydraulic properties in the boreholes. Thirty-three transmissive fracture zones were identified in 11 of the boreholes. The vertical separation between transmissive zones typically is 10 to 20 ft. Open-hole and discrete-zone transmissivity was estimated from heat-pulse flowmeter data acquired under ambient and stressed conditions. The open-hole transmissivity ranges from 2 to 86 ft2/d. The estimated transmissivity of individual transmissive zones ranges from 0.4 to 68 ft2/d. Drawdown monitoring

  7. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains. PMID:21901310

  8. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River

  9. Gulf Coast Subsidence: Integration of Geodesy, Geophysical Modeling, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; Chapman, B. D.; Deese, R.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Jones, C. E.; Kent, J. D.; Liu, Z.; Lohman, R.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The vulnerability of the US Gulf Coast has received increased attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Agencies responsible for the long-term protection of lives and infrastructure require precise estimates of future subsidence and sea level rise. A quantitative, geophysically based methodology can provide such estimates by incorporating geological data, geodetic measurements, geophysical models of non-elastic mechanical behavior at depth, and geographically comprehensive deformation monitoring made possible with measurements from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). To be effective, results must be available to user agencies in a format suitable for integration within existing decision-support processes. Work to date has included analysis of historical and continuing ground-based geodetic measurements. These reveal a surprising degree of complexity, including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered for hurricane protection planning of New Orleans and other coastal communities (http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pdf/hps_verticalsettlement.pdf) as well as Louisiana's coastal restoration strategies (http://www.coast2050.gov/2050reports.htm) (Dokka, 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008). Traditional geodetic measurements provide precise information at single points, while InSAR observations provide geographically comprehensive measurements of surface deformation at lower vertical precision. Available InSAR data sources include X-, C- and L-band satellite, and NASA/JPL airborne UAVSAR L-band data. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. For example, the shorter wavelength C-band data decorrelates over short time periods requiring more elaborate time-series analysis techniques, with which we've had some success. Meanwhile, preliminary analysis of limited L-Band ALOS/PALSAR satellite data show promise

  10. Time-lapse integrated geophysical imaging of magmatic injections and fluid-induced fracturing causing Campi Flegrei 1983-84 Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical precursors measured during Unrest episodes are a primary source of geophysical information to forecast eruptions at the largest and most potentially destructive volcanic calderas. Despite their importance and uniqueness, these precursors are also considered difficult to interpret and unrepresentative of larger eruptive events. Here, we show how novel geophysical imaging and monitoring techniques are instead able to represent the dynamic evolution of magmatic- and fluid-induced fracturing during the largest period of Unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy (1983-1984). The time-dependent patterns drawn by microseismic locations and deformation, once integrated by 3D attenuation tomography and absorption/scattering mapping, model injections of magma- and fluid-related materials in the form of spatially punctual microseismic bursts at a depth of 3.5 km, west and offshore the city of Pozzuoli. The shallowest four kilometres of the crust work as a deformation-based dipolar system before and after each microseismic shock. Seismicity and deformation contemporaneously focus on the point of injection; patterns then progressively crack the medium directed towards the second focus, a region at depths 1-1.5 km south of Solfatara. A single high-absorption and high-scattering aseismic anomaly marks zones of fluid storage overlying the first dipolar centre. These results provide the first direct geophysical signature of the processes of aseismic fluid release at the top of the basaltic basement, producing pozzolanic activity and recently observed via rock-physics and well-rock experiments. The microseismicity caused by fluids and gasses rises to surface via high-absorption north-east rising paths connecting the two dipolar centres, finally beingq being generally expelled from the maar diatreme Solfatara structure. Geophysical precursors during Unrest depict how volcanic stress was released at the Campi Flegrei caldera during its period of highest recorded seismicity

  11. Integrated geophysical and LIDAR surveys at the archaeological site of Ancient Epomanduodurum, Mandeure-Mathay (Doubs, Eastern France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivet, M.; Bossuet, G.; Laplaige, C.

    2009-04-01

    For several years, some integrated geophysical studies were carried out at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. It's a site of a major scientific interest for understanding the territorial structure of earliest agglomerations in the Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered as the second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins are extended moreover 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the river. The first "well-organized" research done on the site goes back as far as the end of the 18th Century. However, it is only round the beginning of the 19th century that major constructions such as the theatre (1820) and the sanctuary (1880) were uncovered. The status and the influence of Latenian sanctuary, located in the centre part of a great monumental complex of Early Augustan period, played probably an important role in the emergence of this foreground agglomeration. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and no invasive geophysical methods have been performed on large scale both on the terrace and in the floodplain. Automatic Resistivity Profiling (ARP) and magnetic mapping were taken in grids covering respective areas of 60 and 40 hectares. Ground penetrating radar was occasionally used to confirm the detection of specific anthropogenic anomalies

  12. Determinant Expressions for Discrete Integrable Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    Explicit formulas for several discrete integrable maps with periodic boundary condition are obtained, which give the sequential time developments in a form of the quotient of successive determinants of tri-diagonal matrices. We can expect that such formulas make the corresponding numerical simulations simple and stable. The cases of discrete Lotka-Volterra and discrete KdV equations are demonstrated by using the common algorithm computing determinants of tri-diagonal matrices.

  13. Integrating Databases with Maps: The Delivery of Cultural Data through TimeMap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    TimeMap is a unique integration of database management, metadata and interactive maps, designed to contextualise and deliver cultural data through maps. TimeMap extends conventional maps with the time dimension, creating and animating maps "on-the-fly"; delivers them as a kiosk application or embedded in Web pages; links flexibly to detailed…

  14. Integrated remote sensing, geological and geophysical data processing and analysis for hydrocarbon prospection in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G.; Filho, A.P.; Crosta, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive basaltic lava flows of the Serra Geral Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in the upper portions of the Parana sedimentary basin, are a severe obstacle for hydrocarbon prospecting. Its thickness and physical characteristics make difficult the general application of conventional geophysical methods. In order to overcome this problem a research program was developed for PETROBRAS in order to obtain the maximum geological information from remote sensing data and integrate it with field and geophysical data. Automated analysis of LANDSAT data with visual inspection of LANDSAT and SLAR imagery resulted in a large amount of lithological and structural information, which were integrated with geological and geophysical data for the selection of target areas for future investigation.

  15. Geophysical data integration and conditional uncertainty analysis on hydraulic conductivity estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Carlson, D.A.; Willson, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Integration of various geophysical data is essential to better understand aquifer heterogeneity. However, data integration is challenging because there are different levels of support between primary and secondary data needed to be correlated in various ways. This study proposes a geostatistical method to integrate the hydraulic conductivity measurements and electrical resistivity data to better estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. The K measurements are obtained from the pumping tests and represent the primary data (hard data). The borehole electrical resistivity data from electrical logs are regarded as the secondary data (soft data). The electrical resistivity data is used to infer hydraulic conductivity values through the Archie law and Kozeny-Carman equation. A pseudo cross-semivariogram is developed to cope with the resistivity data non-collocation. Uncertainty in the auto-semivariograms and pseudo cross-semivariogram is quantified. The methodology is demonstrated by a real-world case study where the hydraulic conductivity is estimated in the Upper Chicot aquifer of Southwestern Louisiana. The groundwater responses by the cokriging and cosimulation of hydraulic conductivity are compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). ?? 2007 ASCE.

  16. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  17. A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.; Beaty, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    . For this reason, any exploration activity (such as drilling) whose success is contingent on the presence of subsurface water, must be preceded by a comprehensive high-resolution geophysical survey capable of assessing whether local reservoirs of water and ice actually exist. Terrestrial experience has demonstrated that the accurate identification of such targets is likely to require the application of multiple geophysical techniques. In this abstract we propose an integrated strategy for the geophysical exploration of Mars that we believe represents the fastest, most cost-effect, and technically capable approach to identifying the state and distribution of subsurface water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Integration of Petrologic, Geophysical, and Gas Monitoring Data at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, C. R.; Lee, R. L.; Gansecki, C. A.; Orr, T. R.; Miklius, A.; Sutton, A. J.; Thelen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Well-quenched, near-vent lava samples taken at weekly to monthly intervals during the past 31 years of near-continuous Kilauea East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption have yielded an unprecedented temporal record of petrology and geochemistry. Salient petrologic parameters derived from bulk lava major- and trace-element geochemistry, and from microprobe analyses of matrix glasses, phenocrysts, and melt-inclusions, are now incorporated into the USGS Volcano Science Center's near real-time volcano-monitoring software platform, called the Volcano Analysis and Visualization Environment (VALVE). The petrologic parameters now imported into VALVE for correlation with geophysical and gas data streams are: 1) MgO systematics of bulk lava, glass, and olivine, used to portray pre-eruptive magma temperature and temperature of lava erupted at the vent, 2) incompatible element ratios of bulk lava and glass, used to track either sudden or long-term magma-mixing or magma-source changes , and 3) magmatic sulfur, measured within glass inclusions of olivine, used to infer pre-eruptive volatile content of magma. Petrologic data in VALVE provides added insight into magmatic processes. For example, since the onset of Kilauea's summit eruption in 2008, correlations of summit deformation with MgO systematics and magmatic sulfur in coeval summit tephra and ERZ lava, along with their identical incompatible-element signatures, demonstrate summit-to-ERZ magmatic continuity. As constrained by geophysical and geologic observations at both ends of the eruptive plumbing system, changes in petrology of lava erupted at Puu Oo are likely associated with physical maturation of magma pathways along the shallow ERZ conduit, repeated intrusions and systematic over-pressurization during the 2003-2007 surge in magma supply. Two fissure eruptions uprift of Puu Oo in January 1997 and March 2011 also show a strong correlation of geophysical and gas signatures with a petrologic shift to cooler, incompatible

  19. Integration of geological, geomorphological and geophysical methods in the study of sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, S.; Negri, S.; Parise, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Salento region of southern Italy has a great number of active sinkholes, related to both natural and anthropogenic cavities. The presence of sinkholes is at the origin of several problems to the built-up environment, due to the increasing population growth and development pressures. In such a context, the detection of cavities, and therefore the assessment of the sinkhole hazard, presents numerous difficulties. At this aim, the present paper illustrates the advantages of integrating geological and geomorphological surveys with surface geophysical techniques such as seismic, geoelectrical and ground penetrating radar methods for the identification of sinkhole-prone areas. Three different types of sinkholes related to natural karst caves are here described. The first is that of Casalabate, a typical Adriatic coastal town affected by a long history of sinkhole phenomena correlated to the presence of marsh deposits overlying a carbonate karstified bedrock. The second is the Palude del Capitano area, along the Ionian coastline, which is characterized by alignments of sinkholes with the main tectonic systems; it is in an advanced stage of evolution, with wide basins connected by submerged passages, only a part of which has been so far explored by scuba divers. The third is the sinkhole system at Nociglia (inland Salento) where the shallow phreatic speleogenesis operates close to the water table level with formation of karst conduits and proto-caves whose evolution occurs through successive roof collapse, formation of wide caverns and sinkhole development at the surface. In all the cases above, the combination of different methods made possible to recognize the sectors more prone to sinkhole development, and to identify the zones of mechanical weakness. Geological and geomorphological analyses provided the basic data necessary to constitute a framework for understanding the mechanism of formation of sinkholes, at the same time guiding the choice of the most suitable

  20. Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block.

  1. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  2. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  3. Karst system vadose zone hydrodynamics highlighted by an integrative geophysical and hydrogeological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Rochez, G.; Kaufmann, O.

    2015-12-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of climate conditions, diminished evapotranspiration and differences of porosity relative to deeper layers. It is therefore crucial, but challenging, to separate the hydrological signature of the vadose zone from the one of the saturated zone for understanding hydrological processes that occur in the vadose zone. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside with various techniques. We present results covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL), located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data such as flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them with more integrative techniques. A microgravimetric monitoring involves a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring at the surface of the RCL. Early in 2015, a second relative gravimeter was installed in the underlying cave system located 35 meters below the surface. This set up allows highlighting vadose gravity changes. These relative measurements are calibrated using an absolute gravimeter. 12 additional stations (7 at the surface, 5 in the cave) are monitored on a monthly basis by a spring gravimeter. To complete these gravimetric measurements, the site has been equipped with a permanent Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring system comprising an uncommon array of surface, borehole and cave electrodes. Although such

  4. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : King, Trude V. V., (Edited By); Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    During the independent analysis of the geophysical, ASTER, and imaging spectrometer (HyMap) data by USGS scientists, previously unrecognized targets of potential mineralization were identified using evaluation criteria most suitable to the individual dataset. These anomalous zones offer targets of opportunity that warrant additional field verification. This report describes the standards used to define the anomalies, summarizes the results of the evaluations for each type of data, and discusses the importance and implications of regions of anomaly overlap between two or three of the datasets.

  5. Map showing locations of geophysical survey and modeling lines in the vicinity of New Madrid, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Wheeler, Russell L.

    1994-01-01

    This is one of a series of five seismotectonic maps of the seismically active New Madrid area in southeast Missouri and adjacent parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee (table 1). We cannot legibly show all the seismotectonic data on a single map, therefore each of the five maps in this series groups a different type of related information. Rhea and others (1994) summarized the background and purpose of the seismotectonic map folio.

  6. Integrated environmental site characterization involving geochemistry, geophysics, and geology: A shortcut to remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Viellenave, J.; Slatten, M.; Church, G.; Anderson, M.

    1996-11-01

    Environmental site characterization processes have evolved from simple drill-and-sample routines into more sophisticated evaluations of increasingly complex problems involving a variety of contaminants. Strategic integration of several geoscience tools into a more holistic approach benefits the site owner/operator by developing a synoptic perspective of the site at the earliest possible time, allowing for more selective and focused use of the expensive and invasive technologies. The ultimate effect is a better site characterization, including attention to difficult PRP issues, lower liability, fewer risks of bypassing potentially hazardous contaminant accumulations, and a result that is more targeted to environmental and human health risks. An integrated site investigation system requires good geology and hydrology, but is properly augmented by use of modem and sophisticated geochemical and geophysical tools. Establishing characterization objectives is critical in deciding what geoscience tool(s) to deploy in any given situation. For each tool, critical criteria are identified that will enable the user to best decide which to use for what purposes.

  7. Integration of remote sensing and surface geophysics in the detection of faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, P. L.; Shuchman, R. A.; Wagner, H.; Ruskey, F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was included in a comprehensive investigation of the use of geophysical techniques to aid in underground mine placement. The primary objective was to detect faults and slumping, features which, due to structural weakness and excess water, cause construction difficulties and safety hazards in mine construction. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance was performed on a potential site for an underground oil shale mine in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. LANDSAT data, black and white aerial photography and 3 cm radar imagery were obtained. LANDSAT data were primarily used in optical imagery and digital tape forms, both of which were analyzed and enhanced by computer techniques. The aerial photography and radar data offered supplemental information. Surface linears in the test area were located and mapped principally from LANDSAT data. A specific, relatively wide, linear pointed directly toward the test site, but did not extend into it. Density slicing, ratioing, and edge enhancement of the LANDSAT data all indicated the existence of this linear. Radar imagery marginally confirmed the linear, while aerial photography did not confirm it.

  8. Use of geophysical methods to map subsurface features at levee seepage locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackett, Thomas C.

    The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.

  9. Quasi-3D Resistivity Imaging - Results from Geophysical Mapping and Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, D.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    2D resistivity tomography has proven to be a reliable tool in detecting, characterizing and mapping of permafrost, especially in joint application with other geophysical methods, e.g. seismic refraction. For many permafrost related problems a 3D image of the subsurface is of interest. Possibilities of quasi-3D imaging by collating several 2D ERT files into one quasi-3D file were tested. Data acquisition took place on a vegetated scree slope with isolated permafrost lenses in the Bever Valley, Swiss Alps. 21 2D-electrical arrays were applied with an electrode spacing of 5 m and a parallel spacing of 20 and 30 m using the Wenner electrode configuration. Refraction seismic was applied parallel to every second ERT array, with a geophone spacing of 5 m for validation. Results of quasi-3D imaging indicate that the most important factors influencing data quality are parallel spacing and number of right-angled crossing profiles. While the quasi-3D images generated of 2D-files with a parallel spacing of 20 m provide an interpretable image, 30 m spacing results in a blurred illustration of resistivity structures. To test the influence of crossing profiles quasi-3D images were inverted using only parallel measured data files as well as images containing right-angled crossing transects. Application of crossing profiles is of great importance, because the number of model blocks with interpolated resistivity values between parallel profiles is minimized. In case of two adjacent high resistivity anomalies a quasi-3D image consisting of parallel measured transects only illustrates one anomaly. A crossing profile provides information to differentiate the anomalies. Forward modeling was used to prove these assumptions and to improve the application of 2D ERT with regard to quasi-3D imaging. Main focus was on electrode and parallel spacing, the influence of crossing transects and the applicability of different array types. A number of 2D ERT profiles were generated, using the forward

  10. Predictive lithological mapping of Canada's North using Random Forest classification applied to geophysical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Grunsky, E. C.

    2015-07-01

    A recent method for mapping lithology which involves the Random Forest (RF) machine classification algorithm is evaluated. Random Forests, a supervised classifier, requires training data representative of each lithology to produce a predictive or classified map. We use two training strategies, one based on the location of lake sediment geochemical samples where the rock type is recorded from a legacy geology map at each sample station and the second strategy is based on lithology recorded from field stations derived from reconnaissance field mapping. We apply the classification to interpolated major and minor lake sediment geochemical data as well as airborne total field magnetic and gamma ray spectrometer data. Using this method we produce predictions of the lithology of a large section of the Hearne Archean - Paleoproterozoic tectonic domain, in northern Canada. The results indicate that meaningful predictive lithologic maps can be produced using RF classification for both training strategies. The best results were achieved when all data were used; however, the geochemical and gamma ray data were the strongest predictors of the various lithologies. The maps generated from this research can be used to compliment field mapping activities by focusing field work on areas where the predicted geology and legacy geology do not match and as first order geological maps in poorly mapped areas.

  11. Suitability aero-geophysical methods for generating conceptual soil maps and their use in the modeling of process-related susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilch, Nils; Römer, Alexander; Jochum, Birgit; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    . Previous studies show that, especially with radiometric measurements, the two-dimensional spatial variability of the nature of the process-relevant soil, close to the surface can be determined. In addition, the electromagnetic measurements are more important to obtain three-dimensional information of the deeper geological conditions and to improve the area-specific geological knowledge and understanding. The validation of these measurements is done with terrestrial geoelectrical measurements. So both aspects, radiometric and electromagnetic measurements, are important and subsequently, interpretation of the geophysical results can be used as the parameter maps in the modeling of more realistic susceptibility maps with respect to various processes. Within this presentation, results of geophysical measurements, the outcome and the derived parameter maps, as well as first process-oriented susceptibility maps in terms of gravitational soil mass movements will be presented. As an example results which were obtained with a heuristic method in an area in Vorarlberg (Western Austria) will be shown. References: Schwarz, L. & Tilch, N. (2011): Why are good process data so important for the modelling of landslide susceptibility maps?- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6), Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_schwarz_tilch_1.pdf] Tilch, N. & Schwarz, L. (2011): Spatial and scale-dependent variability in data quality and their influence on susceptibility maps for gravitational mass movements in soil, modelled by heuristic method.- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6); Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_tilch_schwarz.pdf

  12. Airborne geophysical mapping as an innovative methodology for landslide investigation: evaluation of results from the Gschliefgraben landslide, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supper, R.; Baroň, I.; Ottowitz, D.; Motschka, K.; Gruber, S.; Winkler, E.; Jochum, B.; Römer, A.

    2013-05-01

    In September 2009, a complex airborne geophysical survey was performed in the large landslide affected area of the Gschliefgraben valley, Upper Austria, in order to evaluate the usability of this method for landslide detection and mapping. An evaluation of the results, including different remote sensing and ground based methods, proved that airborne geophysics, especially the airborne electromagnetic method, has a high potential for landslide investigation. This is due to its sensitivity to fluid and clay content and porosity, which are parameters showing characteristic values in landslide prone structures. Resistivity distributions in different depth levels as well as depth-slices along selected profiles are presented and compared with ground geoelectrical profiles for the test area of Gschliefgraben. Further interesting results can be derived from the radiometric survey, whereas the naturally occurring radioisotopes 40K and 232Th, as well as the man-made nuclide 137Cs have been considered. While the content of potassium and thorium in the shallow subsurface layer is expressively related to the lithological composition, the distribution of caesium is mainly determined by mass wasting processes.

  13. Airborne geophysical mapping as an innovative methodology for landslide investigation: evaluation of results from the Gschliefgraben landslide, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supper, R.; Baroň, I.; Ottowitz, D.; Motschka, K.; Gruber, S.; Winkler, E.; Jochum, B.; Römer, A.

    2013-12-01

    In September 2009, a complex airborne geophysical survey was performed in the large landslide affected area of the Gschliefgraben valley, Upper Austria, in order to evaluate the applicability of this method for landslide detection and mapping. An evaluation of the results, including different remote-sensing and ground-based methods, proved that airborne geophysics, especially the airborne electromagnetic method, has a high potential for landslide investigation. This is due to its sensitivity to fluid and clay content and porosity, which are parameters showing characteristic values in landslide prone structures. Resistivity distributions in different depth levels as well as depth slices along selected profiles are presented and compared with ground geoelectrical profiles for the test area of Gschliefgraben. Further interesting results can be derived from the radiometric survey, whereas the naturally occurring radioisotopes 40K and 232Th, as well as the man-made nuclide 137Cs have been considered. While the content of potassium and thorium in the shallow subsurface layer is expressively related to the lithological composition, the distribution of caesium is mainly determined by mass wasting processes.

  14. Regional-scale integration of multiresolution hydrological and geophysical data using a two-step Bayesian sequential simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Irving, James; Gloaguen, Erwan; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Significant progress has been made with regard to the quantitative integration of geophysical and hydrological data at the local scale for the purpose of improving predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport. However, extending corresponding approaches to the regional scale still represents one of the major challenges in the domain of hydrogeophysics. To address this problem, we have developed a regional-scale data integration methodology based on a two-step Bayesian sequential simulation approach. Our objective is to generate high-resolution stochastic realizations of the regional-scale hydraulic conductivity field in the common case where there exist spatially exhaustive but poorly resolved measurements of a related geophysical parameter, as well as highly resolved but spatially sparse collocated measurements of this geophysical parameter and the hydraulic conductivity. To integrate this multi-scale, multi-parameter database, we first link the low- and high-resolution geophysical data via a stochastic downscaling procedure. This is followed by relating the downscaled geophysical data to the high-resolution hydraulic conductivity distribution. After outlining the general methodology of the approach, we demonstrate its application to a realistic synthetic example where we consider as data high-resolution measurements of the hydraulic and electrical conductivities at a small number of borehole locations, as well as spatially exhaustive, low-resolution estimates of the electrical conductivity obtained from surface-based electrical resistivity tomography. The different stochastic realizations of the hydraulic conductivity field obtained using our procedure are validated by comparing their solute transport behaviour with that of the underlying "true" hydraulic conductivity field. We find that, even in the presence of strong subsurface heterogeneity, our proposed procedure allows for the generation of faithful representations of the regional-scale hydraulic

  15. Building a cognitive map by assembling multiple path integration systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2016-06-01

    Path integration and cognitive mapping are two of the most important mechanisms for navigation. Path integration is a primitive navigation system which computes a homing vector based on an animal's self-motion estimation, while cognitive map is an advanced spatial representation containing richer spatial information about the environment that is persistent and can be used to guide flexible navigation to multiple locations. Most theories of navigation conceptualize them as two distinctive, independent mechanisms, although the path integration system may provide useful information for the integration of cognitive maps. This paper demonstrates a fundamentally different scenario, where a cognitive map is constructed in three simple steps by assembling multiple path integrators and extending their basic features. The fact that a collection of path integration systems can be turned into a cognitive map suggests the possibility that cognitive maps may have evolved directly from the path integration system. PMID:26442503

  16. Dynamic Coupling of Alaska Based Ecosystem and Geophysical Models into an Integrated Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, A.; Carman, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    As scientific models and the challenges they address have grown in complexity and scope, so has interest in dynamically coupling or integrating these models. Dynamic model coupling presents software engineering challenges stemming from differences in model architectures, differences in development styles between modeling groups, and memory and run time performance concerns. The Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Modeling (AIEM) project aims to dynamically couple three independently developed scientific models so that each model can exchange run-time data with each of the other models. The models being coupled are a stochastic fire dynamics model (ALFRESCO), a permafrost model (GIPL), and a soil and vegetation model (DVM-DOS-TEM). The scientific research objectives of the AIEM project are to: 1) use the coupled models for increasing our understanding of climate change and other stressors on landscape level physical and ecosystem processes, and; 2) provide support for resource conservation planning and decision making. The objectives related to the computer models themselves are modifiability, maintainability, and performance of the coupled and individual models. Modifiability and maintainability are especially important in a research context because source codes must be continually adapted to address new scientific concepts. Performance is crucial to delivering results in a timely manner. To achieve the objectives while addressing the challenges in dynamic model coupling, we have designed an architecture that emphasizes high cohesion for each individual model and loose coupling between the models. Each model will retain the ability to run independently, or to be available as a linked library to the coupled model. Performance is facilitated by parallelism in the spatial dimension. With close collaboration among modeling groups, the methodology described here has demonstrated the feasibility of coupling complex ecological and geophysical models to provide managers with more

  17. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  18. Integrating Diverse Geophysical and Geological Data to Construct Multi-Dimensional Earth Models: The Open Earth Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Keller, R.; Wallet, B.; Crosby, C.; Moreland, J.; Nadeau, D.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, many large geoscientific efforts (e.g., EarthScope, Continental Dynamics, and GeoSwath) have emphasized that a crucial need in advancing our understanding of the structure and evolution of the continents is high-resolution, 3-D models of lithospheric structure. In addition, the geoscience community recognizes that our ultimate goal is the addition of the dimension of time to make the problem 4-D. Adding the dimension of time is a complex problem that is strongly dependent on the integration of a variety of geological data into our analyses (e.g., geochronology, paleontology, stratigraphy, pressure-time histories, structural geology, paleogeography, etc.). The geoscience community also recognizes that solutions to the scientific and societal questions that they seek to answer require innovative integration of many types of data so that many physical properties (x, y, z, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, electrical conductivity, etc.) are measured and included in 3-D models. The problem is, therefore, truly multidimensional in nature. We are developing an Open Earth Framework (OEF) as an open data model for integration of such multidimensional Earth Sciences data. In our work and interactions with the community on building and visualizing complex earth models, several issues have emerged on which there is consensus. First of all, integration efforts should work from the surface down because we have the most data there (e.g., geologic maps, remote sensing data such as LIDAR and ASTER, digital elevation models, gravity and magnetic measurements, etc.) and because the complex conditions near surface always have a potential to mask deeper features. Secondly since we cannot expect uniform coverage of a variety of high-resolution data in anything but special circumstances, a data integration effort should first establish a regional context using lower resolution (and usually wide coverage) data and then proceed to modeling the data sets with the highest

  19. Conflation and integration of archived geologic maps and associated uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Old, archived geologic maps are often available with little or no associated metadata. This creates special problems in terms of extracting their data to use with a modern database. This research focuses on some problems and uncertainties associated with conflating older geologic maps in regions where modern geologic maps are, as yet, non-existent as well as vertically integrating the conflated maps with layers of modern GIS data (in this case, The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey). Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri was chosen as the test area. It is covered by six archived geologic maps constructed in the years between 1928 and 1994. Conflating these maps results in a map that is internally consistent with these six maps, is digitally integrated with hydrography, elevation and orthoimagery data, and has a 95% confidence interval useful for further data set integration.

  20. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  2. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Brad L. (Editor); Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

  3. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench

  4. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Approach for Establishing Geothermal Play Fairways and Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin Region, Western USA: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Shevenell, Lisa A.; Siler, Drew L.; dePolo, Craig M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corne; Oppliger, G.; Wannamaker, P.; Queen, John H.; Visser, Charles

    2015-09-02

    We have undertaken an integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical study of a broad 240-km-wide, 400-km-long transect stretching from west-central to eastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western USA. The main goal of this study is to produce a comprehensive geothermal potential map that incorporates up to 11 parameters and identifies geothermal play fairways that represent potential blind or hidden geothermal systems. Our new geothermal potential map incorporates: 1) heat flow; 2) geochemistry from springs and wells; 3) structural setting; 4) recency of faulting; 5) slip rates on Quaternary faults; 6) regional strain rate; 7) slip and dilation tendency on Quaternary faults; 8) seismologic data; 9) gravity data; 10) magnetotelluric data (where available); and 11) seismic reflection data (primarily from the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins). The transect is respectively anchored on its western and eastern ends by regional 3D modeling of the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins, which will provide more detailed geothermal potential maps of these two promising areas. To date, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets have been assembled into an ArcGIS platform and combined into a preliminary predictive geothermal play fairway model using various statistical techniques. The fairway model consists of the following components, each of which are represented in grid-cell format in ArcGIS and combined using specified weights and mathematical operators: 1) structural component of permeability; 2) regional-scale component of permeability; 3) combined permeability, and 4) heat source model. The preliminary model demonstrates that the multiple data sets can be successfully combined into a comprehensive favorability map. An initial evaluation using known geothermal systems as benchmarks to test interpretations indicates that the preliminary modeling has done a good job assigning relative ranks of geothermal potential. However, a major challenge is defining

  5. Geophysical Survey and Detailed Geologic Mapping of an Eroded Stratovolcano's Central Intrusive Complex, Summer Coon, Co.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Eroded volcanoes expose plumbing systems that provide important information on intrusive geometries, magma propagation directions, and the effects of host rock types and heterogeneities. Summer Coon Volcano, CO, is an Oligocene stratovolcano where erosion has removed much of the original edifice, revealing the intrusive stocks of the central intrusive complex (CIC). Surrounding the CIC are hundreds of radial dikes ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition. Published geologic maps indicate most radial dikes do not connect to the intrusive stocks, supporting published theories that most did not emanate from the central intrusions. However, much of the area surrounding the CIC is covered by alluvium, suggesting that the lack of connection might be an artifact of exposure. We completed a ground magnetic survey and detailed geological mapping to determine if the dikes continue beneath the alluvium and into the intrusive stocks. Linear magnetic anomalies indicate four NW-SE trending rhyodacite dikes continue beneath the alluvium for up to 250 m, and mapping indicates that at least two of the rhyodacite dikes do extend into the CIC. Shorter linear anomalies are attributed to seven NW-SE trending basaltic dikes ~100-500-m-long which are sparsely exposed in the alluvium. Mapping shows that three rhyodacite dikes extend into the CIC and to within 200 m of their possible source, an 800-m-wide granodiorite stock. Additionally, three rhyolitic dikes extend to within several meters of a 200×500-m-wide tuff breccia zone of similar composition, likely their source. In summary, magnetic data and detailed mapping indicate that radial dikes do extend into the central intrusive complex in contrast to some model predictions.

  6. Microgravimetric and ground penetrating radar geophysical methods to map the shallow karstic cavities network in a coastal area (Marina Di Capilungo, Lecce, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara

    2010-06-01

    The coastal area Marina di Capilungo located ~50km south-west of Lecce (Italy) is one of the sites at greatest geological risk in the Salento peninsula. In the past few decades, Marina di Capilungo has been affected by a series of subsidence events, which have led in some cases to the partial collapse of buildings and road surfaces. These events had both social repercussions, causing alarm and emergency situations, and economic ones in terms of the funds for restoration. With the aim of mapping the subsurface karstic features, and so to assess the dimensions of the phenomena in order to prevent and/or limit the ground subsidence events, integrated geophysical surveys were undertaken in an area of ~70000m2 at Marina di Capilungo. Large volume voids such as karstic cavities are excellent targets for microgravity surveys. The absent mass of the void creates a quantifiable disturbance in the earth's gravitational field, with the magnitude of the disturbance directly proportional to the volume of the void. Smaller shallow voids can be detected using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Microgravimetric and GPR geophysical methods were therefore used. An accurate interpretation was obtained using small station spacing and accurate geophysical data processing. The interpretation was facilitated by combining the modelling of the data with the geological and topographic information for explored caves. The GPR method can complement the microgravimetric technique in determining cavity depths and in verifying the presence of off-line features and numerous areas of small cavities, which may be difficult to be resolved with only microgravimetric data. However, the microgravimetric can complement GPR in delineating with accuracy the shallow cavities in a wide area where GPR measurements are difficult. Furthermore, microgravity surveys in an urban environment require effective and accurate consideration of the effects given by infrastructures, such as buildings, as well as those given

  7. Integrated data search and access to geophysical data for Geohazards Supersites and Natural Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, L.; Baker, S.; Wier, S.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Geohazards Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) are committed to sharing space-based and ground-based geophysical data and building collaborations to better understand Earth processes and mitigate the societal hazards related to the dynamic Earth. GSNL is global with locations in Turkey, Japan, China, Italy, Haiti the United States (e.g. Hawaii and the western U.S.) and elsewhere. The UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, archives and distributes geodesy data and products in the GPS/GNSS, InSAR, and LiDAR domains. UNAVCO has an open access data policy and strives to provide catalogs and data access tools for all users. In an effort to create a unified data and metadata access capability for geodesy data centers in general and for GSNL in particular, UNAVCO and our partners, have designed and implemented software for simplified access called the Geodesy Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC). GSAC is a web services based technology to facilitate data discovery and access. The GSAC technology leverages several well-accepted geodesy data and metadata formats, and identifies a relatively small set of required and recommended metadata for the basic installation. Additional optional metadata can be defined at individual data centers. The GSAC services utilize a repository layer implemented at each data center, and a service layer to identify and present the required metadata elements along with any data center-specific services and capabilities. The software for the GSAC is available through SourceForge, and any geodesy data archive can download the code and implement GSAC services for their repository; doing so will provide the data center's users with the ability to use common query and access mechanisms with other GSAC data centers. Further, optional federation of individual GSAC data centers is facilitated through the GSAC software. GSAC would significantly simplify data access and integration, while enhancing data sharing around the world. GSAC is an excellent

  8. Integration & Co-development of a Geophysical CO2 Monitoring Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-07-24

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for dramatic short-term reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in particular from large stationary. A key challenge in this arena is the monitoring and verification (M&V) of CO2 plumes in the deep subsurface. Towards that end, we have developed a tool that can simultaneously invert multiple sub-surface data sets to constrain the location, geometry, and saturation of subsurface CO2 plumes. We have focused on a suite of unconventional geophysical approaches that measure changes in electrical properties (electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic induction tomography) and bulk crustal deformation (til-meters). We had also used constraints of the geology as rendered in a shared earth model (ShEM) and of the injection (e.g., total injected CO{sub 2}). We describe a stochastic inversion method for mapping subsurface regions where CO{sub 2} saturation is changing. The technique combines prior information with measurements of injected CO{sub 2} volume, reservoir deformation and electrical resistivity. Bayesian inference and a Metropolis simulation algorithm form the basis for this approach. The method can (a) jointly reconstruct disparate data types such as surface or subsurface tilt, electrical resistivity, and injected CO{sub 2} volume measurements, (b) provide quantitative measures of the result uncertainty, (c) identify competing models when the available data are insufficient to definitively identify a single optimal model and (d) rank the alternative models based on how well they fit available data. We present results from general simulations of a hypothetical case derived from a real site. We also apply the technique to a field in Wyoming, where measurements collected during CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced oil recovery serve to illustrate the method's performance. The stochastic inversions provide estimates of the most probable location, shape, volume of the plume and most likely CO{sub 2

  9. Integrating High-Resolution Geophysical Technologies with a GIS-Based Decision Support System into Evaluation and Management of Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    Wetlands perform many ecological functions and provide numerous societal benefits such as providing unique wildlife habitats, natural mechanisms for water purification, flood storage, recreational opportunities and natural resources. Geophysical technologies are increasingly used on land for environmental assessment. However, geophysical evaluation of wetlands has received minimal attention. The problems associated with conventional direct sampling of subsurface properties are exasperated in shallow water wetlands due to the logistical constraints imposed by these environments. Growing interest in wetlands highlights a need for high-resolution, non-invasive methods for evaluating and managing wetland water resources. We have developed an integrated geophysical-GIS approach to investigating shallow water wetlands. Rapid geophysical data acquisition in shallow water (less than 2 ft) is achieved using a plastic paddleboat modified as a "research vessel" for conducting high-resolution geophysical surveys. The vessel is designed for reconnaissance electromagnetic terrain conductivity (TC), reconnaissance gradiometer and 2D/3D continuous electrical resistivity imaging. A buoyant 12-electrode array, using non-polarizing Pb-PbCl2 junctions, is pulled behind the boat with simultaneous measurement of 10 resistances at two-second intervals using a SYSCAL PRO acquisition system. All instrumentation was tested and modified to ensure removal of artifacts caused by the metal steering mechanism. A multi-purpose surface water quality probe simultaneously records water depth, surface water conductivity, salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen content. All instruments are set to take a multi parameter measurement every two seconds while paddling. Decimeter scale location of all measurements is obtained at the instant of acquisition using precision differential GPS unit. We are typically able to survey an average of 8 km in one day, producing over 6,000 measurements

  10. Results of integrated geological-geophysical investigations in Makhtesh Ramon (Israel) aimed to revealing diamondiferous associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L.; Kouznetsov, S.; Sazonova, L.; Korotaeva, N.; Surkov, A.; Smirnov, S.; Vaksman, V.; Klepatch, C.; Itkis, S.

    2003-04-01

    of diamond-bearing of the studied area. It should be noted that the amount of these minerals (first and second groups) is extremely high: in 200 kg of the investigated geological concentrate (selected from the loose deposits and conglomerate) till the present time (January 2003) altogether were detected more than 14,000 grains of the proposed diamondiferous association. Identification of small plates of Au and Ag as well as tracing of La, Ce, Th, Nb and Ta also maybe linked with the nearest kimberlite rock occurrence. Analysis of the studied polymineral fractions has been performed using electronic scanning raster microscope CAMSCAN-4DV with energy-dispersion Roentgen micro-analyzer Link AN10000 (binocular microscopes were applied only by initial analyzing). Examination of the performed geophysical investigations: (1a) magnetic field (applied ground observations were integrated with the previous airborn measurements), (1b) magnetic susceptibility measurements; (2) self-potential field and (3) set of physical-chemical examinations of significant features (S2+, CO2-_3, Eh{-}Pt, N0^-_3, Br^-, F^-, I^-, Cl^-, Ca2+, B^+, ClO^-_4, pH, Hg2+, Na^+, K^+, Cd2+, Cu2+ &Pb2+) using ion-selective electrodes (gradient mode was applied) testifies to high probability of discovering diamondiferous pipes (dykes) at the depths from several meters up to 30 meters. The latest important petrological identifications include discovering of blue clay (usually occurring at the top of kimberlite pipe) and yttrium phosphate (it is a known signature of kimberlite associations). Finally, the total number of recognized diamonds exceeds 400 units (size of the largest crystal is about of 1.5 mm). On basis of the mentioned positive features we can unambiguously estimating that the Makhtesh Ramon Canyon is highly perspective area for discovering indigenous diamond-containing targets.

  11. Mining the Geophysical Research Abstracts Corpus: Mapping the impact of Free and Open Source Software on the EGU Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    Text mining is commonly employed as a tool in data science to investigate and chart emergent information from corpora of research abstracts, such as the Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) published by Copernicus. In this context current standards, such as persistent identifiers like DOI and ORCID, allow us to trace, cite and map links between journal publications, the underlying research data and scientific software. This network can be expressed as a directed graph which enables us to chart networks of cooperation and innovation, thematic foci and the locations of research communities in time and space. However, this approach of data science, focusing on the research process in a self-referential manner, rather than the topical work, is still in a developing stage. Scientific work presented at the EGU General Assembly is often the first step towards new approaches and innovative ideas to the geospatial community. It represents a rich, deep and heterogeneous source of geoscientific thought. This corpus is a significant data source for data science, which has not been analysed on this scale previously. In this work, the corpus of the Geophysical Research Abstracts is used for the first time as a data base for analyses of topical text mining. For this, we used a sturdy and customizable software framework, based on the work of Schmitt et al. [1]. For the analysis we used the High Performance Computing infrastructure of the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam, Germany. Here, we report on the first results from the analysis of the continuous spreading the of use of Free and Open Source Software Tools (FOSS) within the EGU communities, mapping the general increase of FOSS-themed GRA articles in the last decade and the developing spatial patterns of involved parties and FOSS topics. References: [1] Schmitt, L. M., Christianson, K.T, Gupta R..: Linguistic Computing with UNIX Tools, in Kao, A., Poteet S.R. (Eds.): Natural Language processing and Text

  12. Integration and Improvement of Geophysical Root Biomass Measurements for Determining Carbon Credits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitet, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon trading schemes fundamentally rely on accurate subsurface carbon quantification in order for governing bodies to grant carbon credits inclusive of root biomass (What is Carbon Credit. 2013). Root biomass makes up a large chunk of the subsurface carbon and is difficult, labor intensive, and costly to measure. This paper stitches together the latest geophysical root measurement techniques into site-dependent recommendations for technique combinations and modifications that maximize large-scale root biomass measurement accuracy and efficiency. "Accuracy" is maximized when actual root biomass is closest to measured root biomass. "Efficiency" is maximized when time, labor, and cost of measurement is minimized. Several combinations have emerged which satisfy both criteria under different site conditions. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and/or electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow for large tracts of land to be surveyed under appropriate conditions. Among other characteristics, GPR does best with detecting coarse roots in dry soil. ERT does best in detecting roots in moist soils, but is especially limited by electrode configuration (Mancuso, S. 2012). Integration of these two technologies into a baseline protocol based on site-specific characteristics, especially soil moisture and plants species heterogeneity, will drastically theoretically increase efficiency and accuracy of root biomass measurements. Modifications of current measurement protocols using these existing techniques will also theoretically lead to drastic improvements in both accuracy and efficiency. These modifications, such as efficient 3D imaging by adding an identical electrode array perpendicular to the first array used in the Pulled Array Continuous Electrical Profiling (PACEP) technique for ERT, should allow for more widespread application of these techniques for understanding root biomass. Where whole-site measurement is not feasible either due to financial, equipment, or

  13. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M

  14. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  15. Multi-scale analysis of Proterozoic shear zones: An integrated structural and geophysical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John R.; Betts, Peter G.; Collins, Alan S.; Schaefer, Bruce F.

    2009-11-01

    Structural mapping of poorly exposed shear zone outcrops is integrated with the analysis of aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data to develop a multi-scale kinematic and relative overprinting chronology for the Palaeoproterozoic Tallacootra Shear Zone, Australia. D 2 mylonitic fabrics at outcrop record Kimban-aged (ca. 1730-1690 Ma) N-S shortening and correlate with SZ 1 movements. Overprinting D 3 sinistral shear zones record the partitioning of near-ideal simple shear and initiated Riedel to regional-scale SZ 2 strike-slip on the Tallacootra Shear Zone (SZ 2). Previously undocumented NE-SW extension led to the emplacement of aplite dykes into the shear zone and can be correlated to the (ca. 1595-1575 Ma) Hiltaba magmatic event. D 4 dextral transpression during the (ca. 1470-1450 Ma) Coorabie Orogeny reactivated the Tallacootra Shear Zone (SZ 2-R4) exhuming lower crust of the northwestern Fowler Domain within a positive flower structure. This latest shear zone movement is related to a system of west-dipping shear zones that penetrate the crust and sole into a lithospheric detachment indicating wholesale crustal shortening. These methods demonstrate the value of integrating multi-scale structural analyses for the study of shear zones with limited exposure.

  16. The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

    2006-12-01

    During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne Li

  17. Geological Model of Potential Rockslide Based on Structural Mapping, Surface Geophysical Data and Borehole Logging at Aaknes, Western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeroed, G.; Dalsegg, E.; Elvebakk, H.; Roenning, J. S.; Blikra, L. H.

    2006-12-01

    Unstable rock slopes possess a threat to the inhabitants along Norwegian fjords, where pre-historic and historic rock avalanches have caused tsunamis, some causing severe casualties (Blikra et al. 2005). The presented site, Aaknes, is a large potential landslide of minimum 30 - 45 million m3 rock mass. Continuous creep of the rock mass and the fact that Aaknes is situated in the vicinity of one of Norway's most visited tourist attractions the Geiranger fjord, listed on the UNESCO`s World heritage list, have triggered a comprehensive mapping program. The overall aim is to assess the likelihood that the landslide accelerates into a rock avalanche. The potential landslide area at Åknes has been mapped by structurally mapped in detailed, whereas subsurface data come from 2D resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP), refraction seismics, core drillings and geophysical logging of the boreholes. In symphony, these data give a detailed 3D geological model of the area, in which the depth to and the geometry of the basal slide surface(s) can be identified. A grid of 2D resistivity profiles indicate an undulating slide surfaces that can be followed from the large tension fracture in the back to the foot of the mapped slide area. Geophysical borehole logging including resistivity, water conductivity, gamma ray of bedrock, and sonic log are consistent with the properties of the bedrock found in the 2D resistivity profiles and in the drill cores. When correlated with drill cores, the sliding surface coincide well with intensely fractured bedrock and layers of fault rocks, such as gouge and breccia. Fracturing along the foliation of the host rock in combination with reactivation of fracture sets controls sub- block sizes as well as the pattern of movement, the latter consistent with a wedge failure model. Trends of fractures follow major trends of lineaments in the area, of which the most pronounced lineaments coincide with major fjords. The importance of fracturing along the

  18. Hydrogeological modeling constraints provided by geophysical and geochemical mapping of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Guérin, Roger; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2014-09-01

    A methodological approach is described which combines geophysical and geochemical data to delineate the extent of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France; the methodology was used to calibrate a hydrogeological model of the contaminants' migration and degradation. The existence of strong reducing conditions in some parts of the aquifer is first determined by measuring in situ the redox potential and dissolved oxygen, dissolved ferrous iron and chloride concentrations. Electrical resistivity imaging and electromagnetic mapping, using the Slingram method, are then used to determine the shape of the pollutant plume. A decreasing empirical exponential relation between measured chloride concentrations in the water and aquifer electrical resistivity is observed; the resistivity formation factor calculated at a few points also shows a major contribution of chloride concentration in the resistivity of the saturated porous medium. MODFLOW software and MT3D99 first-order parent-daughter chain reaction and the RT3D aerobic-anaerobic model for tetrachloroethene (PCE)/trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination are finally used for a first attempt at modeling the degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. After calibration, the distribution of the chlorinated ethenes and their degradation products simulated with the model approximately reflects the mean measured values in the observation wells, confirming the data-derived image of the plume.

  19. Geophysical mapping of soil static characteristics and monitoring of soil dynamic states: an example on agricultural land.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Ursino, N.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.; Rossi, M.; Perri, M. T.; Blaschek, M.; Duttmann, R.; Meyer, S.; Ludwig, R.; Soddu, A.; Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.

    2012-04-01

    In this contribution we the results of nearly three years of non invasive monitoring of the soil conditions in an experimental farm in a region of semi-arid climate in Southern Sardinia. The main of the study is to understand the effects of soil types and soil-vegetation interactions on soil water balance. The adopted technique is a combination of time-lapse electromagnetic induction (EMI) monitoring over wide areas and localized irrigation tests monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and TDR soil moisture measurements, with the general aim of achieving quantitative field-scale estimates of moisture content of the first meter of topsoil. Mapping of natural gamma-ray emission, texture analysis and laboratory calibration of an electrical constitutive relationship on soil samples complete the dataset. Unlike remote sensing techniques, non invasive geophysics penetrates the soil subsurface and can effectively image moisture content in the soil active layer. We observed that the growth of vegetation, with the associated below ground allocation of biomass, has a significant impact on the soil moisture dynamics. In particular vegetation extracts a large amount of water from the soil in the hot season, but it also reduces evaporation by shadowing the soil surface. In addition, vegetation enhances the soil wetting process as the root system facilitates water infiltration, thus creating a positive feedback system.

  20. Integration of potential and quasipotential geophysical fields and GPR data for delineation of buried karst terranes in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.; Alperovich, L. S.; Zheludev, V.; Ezersky, M.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Levi, E.

    2012-04-01

    Karst is found on particularly soluble rocks, especially limestone, marble, and dolomite (carbonate rocks), but is also developed on gypsum and rock salt. Subsurface carbonate rocks involved in karst groundwater circulation considerably extend the active karst realm, to perhaps 14% of the world's land area (Price, 2009). The phenomenon of the solution weathering of limestone is the most widely known in the world. Active sinkholes growth appears under different industrial constructions, roads, railways, bridges, airports, buildings, etc. Regions with arid and semi-arid climate occupy about 30% of the Earth's land. Subsurface in arid regions is characterized by high variability of physical properties both on lateral and vertical that complicates geophysical survey analysis. Therefore for localization and monitoring of karst terranes effective and reliable geophysical methodologies should be applied. Such advanced methods were developed in microgravity (Eppelbaum et al., 2008; Eppelbaum, 2011b), magnetic (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2004; Eppelbaum, 2011a), induced polarization (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2002), VLF (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 1992; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2012), near-surface temperature (Eppelbaum, 2009), self-potential (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2002), and resistivity (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2007a) surveys. Application of some of these methodologies in the western and eastern shores of the Dead Sea area (e.g., Eppelbaum et al., 2008; Ezersky et al., 2010; Al-Zoubi et al., 2011) and in other regions of the world (Eppelbaum, 2007a) has shown their effectiveness. The common procedures for ring structure identification against the noise background and probabilistic-deterministic methods for recognizing the desired targets in complex media are presented in Khesin and Eppelbaum (1997), Eppelbaum et al. (2003), and Eppelbaum (2007b). For integrated analysis of different geophysical fields (including GPR images) intended

  1. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of rock alteration and water content at Mount Adams, Washington: Implications for lahar hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Anderson, E.D.; John, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Evaluating the hazards associated with such alteration is difficult because alteration has been mapped on few active volcanoes and the distribution and intensity of subsurface alteration are largely unknown on any active volcano. At Mount Adams, some Holocene debris flows contain abundant hydrothermal minerals derived from collapse of the altered, edifice. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock, and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Electromagnetic and magnetic data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. We identify steep cliffs at the western edge of this zone as the likely source for future large debris flows. In addition, the electromagnetic data identified water in the brecciated core of the upper 100-200 m of the volcano. Water helps alter the rocks, reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Our results demonstrate that high-resolution geophysical and geological observations can yield unprecedented views of the three-dimensional distribution of altered rock and shallow pore water aiding evaluation of the debris avalanche hazard.

  2. Application of Geophysical Techniques to Identify and Map the Benthic Habitat and Sub- bottom Sediments of Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J.; Wilson, B.; Carter, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Coastal Program of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control is engaged in a bottom and sub-bottom imaging project to identify and map the benthic habitat and sub-bottom sediments of the Delaware Bay. The project, now in the third of its five year implementation, integrates the use of three types of acoustical systems: RoxAnn seabed classification, chirp sub-bottom profiling, and multi-beam bathymetric mapping. Verification of the acoustic data with bottom and sub-bottom sediments is performed through the collection of grab and core samples and underwater video images. All this information is being compiled into a GIS database to enable coastal decision makers to effectively manage this estuarine resource. The RoxAnn system measures bottom hardness and roughness along a ship's track, and when correlated with analyses of ground-truth grab samples and video, can be used to classify bottom sediments. Regional maps of sediment type based on the RoxAnn classification are constructed by interpolating between track lines. This project has identified the spatial extent and relative density of oyster shell on the bay bottom, while also determining the composition of regional surrounding sediments. Sub-bottom profiles, collected using an Edgetech X-STAR chirp sonar system, are being used to map potential, and past, offshore sand borrow sites that can be/have been used for beach replenishment and to study the deposition and/or erosion of sediments and the evolution of the Delaware Estuary over the past 10,000 years. In locations along Delaware Bay where beach replenishment is necessary, the chirp data has been integrated with additional information from sediment cores to develop maps of suitable sand deposits based upon location, thickness, overburden, and grain size. The sub-bottom data has been used to map the Holocene/Pre-Holocene boundary and to constrain the paleo-environmental setting of the recent transgressive sea-level sequence in the

  3. Hydro-geophysical observations integration in numerical model: case study in Mediterranean karstic unsaturated zone (Larzac, france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champollion, Cédric; Fores, Benjamin; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Chéry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Karstic hydro-systems are highly non-linear and heterogeneous but one of the main water resource in the Mediterranean area. Neither local measurements in boreholes or analysis at the spring can take into account the variability of the water storage. Since a few years, ground-based geophysical measurements (such as gravity, electrical resistivity or seismological data) allows following water storage in heterogeneous hydrosystems at an intermediate scale between boreholes and basin. Behind classical rigorous monitoring, the integration of geophysical data in hydrological numerical models in needed for both processes interpretation and quantification. Since a few years, a karstic geophysical observatory (GEK: Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) has been setup in the Mediterranean area in the south of France. The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. At the observatory water level in boreholes, evapotranspiration and rainfall are classical hydro-meteorological observations completed by continuous gravity, resistivity and seismological measurements. The main objective of the study is the modelling of the whole observation dataset by explicit unsaturated numerical model in one dimension. Hydrus software is used for the explicit modelling of the water storage and transfer and links the different observations (geophysics, water level, evapotranspiration) with the water saturation. Unknown hydrological parameters (permeability, porosity) are retrieved from stochastic inversions. The scale of investigation of the different observations are discussed thank to the modelling results. A sensibility study of the measurements against the model is done and key hydro-geological processes of the site are presented.

  4. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  5. Gravity field separation and mapping of buried quaternary valleys in Lolland, Denmark using old geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Mads Jensen; Olsen, Henrik; Ploug, Carsten; Strykowski, Gabriel; Hjorth, Henriette

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we utilise the old industrial data for planning new surveys. The overall purpose is a detailed mapping of possible aquifers for the island of Lolland, Denmark. This is done through detection and modelling of the buried quaternary valleys, which either can serve as potential aquifers or potential aquifer barriers. The present paper deals only with one aspect of a larger study; namely a case story leading to the detection of unknown buried valleys and the first attempts to model them in 3D from gravity and seismics. Also, the emphasis here is not on any theoretical or even methodological developments (we use slightly modified standard methods), but rather on the sequence of investigations and decisions leading to the focused fieldwork and modelling. In our work, the gravity data play a crucial role. Surprisingly, the choice of simple modelling methods (the geological stripping followed by a simple high-pass filtering) seems to work for this particular area. A number of previously unknown shallow geological features is clearly seen in the residual signal and were later confirmed by new surveys. This work consists of a number of steps (some of which are not described here even though we use the results): the construction of depth models from industrial seismic data for known geological units; geological stripping with mass density adjustment; high-pass filtering of the residual gravity signals; vibroseis surveys; microgravity surveys along seismic lines; the first modelling of buried valleys.

  6. Integrated geological and geophysical studies of the Indio Mountains and Hueco bolson, west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, Pawan

    This dissertation consists of two different projects. The first project describes the results of an outcrop based sequence stratigraphic study of the Albian Cox Sandstone in the Indio Mountains of west Texas. The depositional environment of the Cox Sandstone ranges from shallow marine to the coastal plain deposited in four sequences where sequence 1 and sequence 2 consists of transgressive system tracts (TST) followed by highstand system tracts (HST). The highstand system tract (HST) is missing in sequence 3 and the transgressive systems tract is missing in sequence 4. The Cox changes in thickness from 320 m in the northern end of the outcrop belt to 365 m in the southern end. This thickness change is accommodated during transgression where shales drape topography that is actively being shaped by faults and block rotation recorded in exposed growth strata. During Highstand, coarse fluvial-deltaic systems truncate shales on topographic high levelling the topography. Systems tracts and sequences change thickness due to block rotation and erosion as well as deposition from a point source near the center of the outcrop belt. The second project involves the integrated study of gravity and well log data in the northern Hueco bolson. The objective of this study is to demarcate subsurface faults that appear to control the locations of fresh and brackish water. In this study 28 gravity anomalies were identified that correlate with previously mapped (Collins and Raney, 2000) and new faults, and some of them can be extended further south to south east to join with previously mapped faults by Collins and Raney (2000) and Marrufo (2011). Structural cross sections of well logs also suggest that at least some faults are present between them. The four depositional environments inferred from the gamma log responses and their stacking patterns are consistent with the previous interpretation of Doser and Langford (2006) and Marrufo (2011).

  7. Advances in BAC-Based Physical Mapping and Map Integration Strategies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils

    2012-01-01

    In the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, map-based sequencing strategy has been recently suppressed being too expensive and laborious. The detailed studies on NGS drafts alone indicated these assemblies remain far from gold standard reference quality, especially when applied on complex genomes. In this context the conventional BAC-based physical mapping has been identified as an important intermediate layer in current hybrid sequencing strategy. BAC-based physical map construction and its integration with high-density genetic maps have benefited from NGS and high-throughput array platforms. This paper addresses the current advancements of BAC-based physical mapping and high-throughput map integration strategies to obtain densely anchored well-ordered physical maps. The resulted maps are of immediate utility while providing a template to harness the maximum benefits of the current NGS platforms. PMID:22500080

  8. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  9. Integrated geophysical data processing and interpretation of crustal structure in Ethiopia with emphasis on the Ogaden Basin and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Ketsela

    ties these results together to form a complete picture of the axial structure of the rift. The cross profiles, which are interlocked with the axial rift profile, indicate that thick (˜45km) crust is present beneath a broad region of the western plateau. The EAGLE seismic results indicate that the part of the western plateau adjacent to the rift is thickened via underplating. The Bale Mountain region on the eastern rift flank has relatively thick (˜40 km) crust, which is in agreement with receiver function results. In general, asthenospheric upwelling affects a wide zone near Afar and the southern Ethiopian rift, whereas the area of upwelling is narrower around the MER. The Abbay or Blue Nile basin was another target of my study. Integrated geophysical (seismic, remote sensing, and gravity) and geological data suggest that the sedimentary section of Abbay basin extends well to the east of the known extent of its sedimentary fill. Gravity modeling results suggest approximately 3 km of sub-volcanic sedimentary strata exist over a wide area. I also undertook an integrated analysis of the Ogaden basin that lies east of the rift valley and is associated with the break-up of Gondwanaland by Karroo rifting. Seismic reflection data were processed and interpreted and combined with gravity and magnetic data to study the evolution of the basin and its geometry. The existence of a tri-radial rift that connects to the Abbay basin is suggested by the isostatic residual gravity anomaly map produced in this study. This result provides new evidence for the relationship of the Ogaden and Abbay basins via a northwest-southeast trending Permo-Triassic rift system. The northeastern part of the Ogaden basin shows distinct gravity anomalies trending in a northeast-southwest direction that appear to be due to a series of grabens and horsts. 3D Euler deconvolution of gravity data and modeling results suggest a sedimentary thickness of about 5 km sedimentary strata in some of the grabens

  10. Integrating auxiliary data and geophysical techniques for the estimation of soil clay content using CHAID algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh Afshar, Farideh; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Besalatpour, Ali Asghar; Khademi, Hossein; Castrignano, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to estimate soil clay content in two depths using geophysical techniques (Ground Penetration Radar-GPR and Electromagnetic Induction-EMI) and ancillary variables (remote sensing and topographic data) in an arid region of the southeastern Iran. GPR measurements were performed throughout ten transects of 100 m length with the line spacing of 10 m, and the EMI measurements were done every 10 m on the same transect in six sites. Ten soil cores were sampled randomly in each site and soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and then the clay fraction of each of sixty soil samples was measured in the laboratory. Clay content was predicted using three different sets of properties including geophysical data, ancillary data, and a combination of both as inputs to multiple linear regressions (MLR) and decision tree-based algorithm of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) models. The results of the CHAID and MLR models with all combined data showed that geophysical data were the most important variables for the prediction of clay content in two depths in the study area. The proposed MLR model, using the combined data, could explain only 0.44 and 0.31% of the total variability of clay content in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, respectively. Also, the coefficient of determination (R2) values for the clay content prediction, using the constructed CHAID model with the combined data, was 0.82 and 0.76 in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, respectively. CHAID models, therefore, showed a greater potential in predicting soil clay content from geophysical and ancillary data, while traditional regression methods (i.e. the MLR models) did not perform as well. Overall, the results may encourage researchers in using georeferenced GPR and EMI data as ancillary variables and CHAID algorithm to improve the estimation of soil clay content.

  11. Integration of Field Geophysics and Geology in an International Setting: Multidisciplinary Geoscience Field Experience at the University of Western Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenders, A. J.; Banerjee, N.; Pratt, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The pedagogical value of the field experience is unequaled: students, teaching assistants, and professors alike return with a renewed sense of purpose, community, and the context in which to place classroom education. It is widely regarded as valuable to personal development, and is required by the Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists for professional registration. As part of our ongoing International Geoscience Field Experience Initiative, Earth Sciences students at the University of Western Ontario have the opportunity to enhance their education through a study abroad program. The focus is on a residential field experience to world-class localities, offered with the collaboration of internationally recognized academic researchers, government survey personnel, and industry leaders. Recent trips have included the Sn-W mineralization in the Cornwall district of the U.K., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in Portugal and Spain, and the metallogenic belts of Western Turkey. The integration of geological knowledge with geophysical data was one of the key organizing principles of our recent field trips to the IPB and Western Turkey. This integration is a foundation of modern Earth Sciences, and common practice in industry, it is relatively rare in classroom settings. Lectures before departure and evening exercises during the field trip supplemented the core undergraduate curriculum in geophysics, reviewing gravity, DC resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and magnetotelluric methods, focusing on application to mineral exploration. During our trip to the IPB, partnership with industry allowed students the opportunity to work with state of the art geophysical data, acquired on an exploration prospect visited during the field trip. Multi-parameter geophysical inversions of the IP and MT data produced cross-sections in depth - results interpretable by the students in the complex geological environment of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Although the students gained valuable

  12. An Integration of Geophysical Methods for the Determination of Subsurface Structure of the Intra-Mountain Plains: The CASES of Rieti and Leonessa (CENTRAL APENNINES, ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrame, K.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, describes the acquisition of gravity data and their integration with different geophysical techniques, in order to map and model the thickness of unconsolidated deposits and determine the bedrock configuration of two different intra-mountain plains: Leonessa plain (hereafter LP) and Rieti plain (hereafter RP). The LP and the RP, the test areas of this study, are typical intra-mountain depressions of Center Apennines, related to the Plio-Quaternary extensional tectonic. Both basins are characterized by thick Quaternary fluvial-lacustrine deposits (gravel, sand and clay) overlaying the Meso-Cenozoic pelagic basin deposits. On the LP, the study involved an area of 62 km2 occupied by 333 gravity stations. Instead, on the RP, the study area, of 35 km2, were occupied by 170 gravity stations. The gravity data resulted from the network adjustment were used to calculate the Bouguer anomaly map. Subtracting the regional field from the Bouguer anomaly produced the residual anomaly map. In order to determine the distribution of the sedimentary infill, a 2D gravity modeling was developed in the region, including five profiles in the case study of LP and six profiles in the case study of RP. A realistic density of the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits (1.75-2,00 g/cm3 in the case of LP and 2,15 g/cm3 in the case of RP), a density of 2.50 g/cm3 for the Travertine and a density of 2.60 g/cm3 for the Meso-Cenozoic pelagic basin deposits were used to constrain the 2D gravimetric models. The models match quite well with the information determined from a collection of existing well logs and geophysical data obtained by the ambient noise, MASW and Downhole measurements. Finally, referring to these models, we were able to evaluate the thickness of the Quaternary sedimentary infilling and to define the 3D bedrock configuration of the basins. These 3D models represent a useful starting point for future activities such as

  13. An integrated surface-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, C.B.; Belaval, Marcel; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2002-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill area at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was conducted in 2000 to supplement the preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of the contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water at the site. A geophysical-toolbox approach was used to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity, inductive terrain-conductivity, and seismic-refraction surface-geophysical data were collected and interpreted in an iterative manner with exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and hydraulic testing. In this investigation, a geophysical-toolbox approach was used to 1) further define previously identified conductive anomalies and leachate plumes; 2) identify additional leachate plumes, possible fracture zones, and (or) conductive lithologic layers in the bedrock; and 3) delineate bedrock-surface topography in the drainage valleys north and south of the landfill. Resistivity and terrain-conductivity surveys were used to further delineate previously identified geophysical anomalies to the north and southwest of the landfill. A conductive anomaly identified in the terrain-conductivity survey to the north of the landfill in 2000 had a similar location and magnitude as an anomaly identified in terrain-conductivity surveys conducted in 1998 and 1999. Collectively, these surveys indicated that the magnitude of the conductive anomaly decreased with depth and with distance from the landfill. These anomalies indicated landfill leachate in the overburden and shallow bedrock. Results of previous surface-geophysical investigations southwest of the landfill indicated a shallow conductive anomaly in the overburden that extended into the fractured-bedrock aquifer. This conductive anomaly had a sheet-like geometry that had a north-south strike, dipped to the west, and terminated

  14. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  15. Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefaee, Hamed

    The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a

  16. An Integrated Geophysical Strategy for the Characterization of a Gas Permeable Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinelli, E.; Zaja, A.; Menghini, A.; Cecchini, F.; Margottini, S.; di Filippo, M.; Beaubien, S. E.; Annunziatellis, A.; Citotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical methods have been used extensively to study deep reservoirs and geological structures for the purposes of resource exploration, however their application to characterise and monitor CO2 geological storage sites is relatively new and less well tested. Although similar in some ways, the goals, challenges and requirements of a geophysical survey conducted at a CO2 storage site will in many ways be quite unique. For example, whereas a fault may only be studied at the depth of a petroleum reservoir due to its potential as a trapping mechanism, the characteristics of a fault near a CO2 storage site must be understood from reservoir to surface to understand if it represents a migration pathway to the biosphere and atmosphere. An added complication is the fact that there will be a phase shift in the target material should it begin to migrate from the injection depth towards surface, with supercritical CO2 changing to gas as pressure and temperature decreases; whereas the supercritical phase can be imaged with seismic techniques, geophysical imaging of a vertical plume of gaseous CO2 will be much less likely. And finally sensitivity of the applied method may need to be greater than that normally required, as gas may be able to migrate along smaller, more closed structures and channelled flow along isolated fault intervals will control potential release points at surface. In order to examine these issues it is necessary to test different geophysical methods at sites where deep CO2 is migrating along fault structures to the ground surface. As none of the man-made storage sites have been observed to leak the only other alternative is to use sites with leaking, naturally-produced CO2. One such site is the Latera Caldera in central Italy, a faulted geothermal reservoir where thermo-metamorphically produced CO2 migrates along faults in the overlying volcanic rocks and is released at surface from features known as gas vents. In this study a single, isolated gas vent

  17. Capability of self-organizing map neural network in geophysical log data classification: Case study from the CCSD-MH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Fang, Sinan; Asim, Shazia; Ziggah, Yao Yevenyo; Deng, Chengxiang; Khan, Nasir

    2015-07-01

    Well log interpretation is one of the prime sources of information for deep lithology in drilling research. Because of the complex geological features of the crystalline metamorphic rocks, more complex nonlinear functional behaviors exist for well log interpretation purposes. Hence, establishing a prediction technology that can accurately interpret/classify well log data in terms of lithology is of major significance. This study, for the first time, explores the application of self-organizing map neural network (SOM) in the classification of metamorphic rocks from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Main Hole (CCSD-MH) log data. For this purpose, a total of 33,326 data points derived from resistivity, P-wave velocity, bulk density, photoelectric absorption capture cross section, gamma ray, potassium content and neutron logs were used as an input pattern to a SOM to classify lithology in five categories: orthogneiss, paragneiss, eclogite, amphibolite and ultramafic rocks. Comparison of SOM results to those of feed-forward neural network (FFNN) was also carried out. The cross-validation method was used to investigate the robustness of the two neural networks in terms of classification accuracy in the context of lithology clustering tasks by sampling rotation. Statistical tests such as student paired samples t-test was carried out to guide in classification decision of the CCSD-MH data. The results of this study have proven that SOM appears to be comparable to FFNN in classifying lithology using geophysical log data from crystalline rocks. This proposed SOM approach can serve as practical alternative technology to be used in drilling research.

  18. Integrated Geologic, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Finn, Carol A.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Page, William R.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Texas, covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mi (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States border with Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year project in 2003 with the objective of studying a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP. This fact sheet describes results of some of the research by USGS scientists working in BBNP.

  19. Norg underground gas storage - an integrated 3-D geological and geophysical reservoir modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Smith, S. ); Huis, R.; Copper, J.; Whyte, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Netherlands have an extensive gas distribution infrastructure supplying 80 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] per annum to the domestic and European market. The capacity requirement exceeds 600 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, of which 430 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d is provided by the giant Groningen gas field. The Groningen field will soon reach a pressure at which this capacity can no longer be met without considerable investments. It will also become difficult to maintain the market gas quality, because of the increasing supply from small fields with widely varying gas qualities. Underground Gas Storage (UGS) will satisfy both capacity and gas-quality requirements. This UGS must eventually store 4.5 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] with injection/production capacities of 36/80-100 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, making it one of the largest UGS projects in the world. These extremely high-capacity requirements demand both high-matrix permeability and good understanding of vertical and lateral reservoir continuity. Matrix permeability is predictable due to the close relationship with the lithofacies defined within the primary Rotliegende depositional model. Minor faults, identified on three-dimensional (3-D) seismic attribute maps, represent potential transmissibility impairment zones, compartmentalizing the reservoir. This was initially suggested by core fracture studies and confirmed by a subsequent field shut-in and pressure buildup test. Lithofacies and seismic structural data are integrated within a computerized reservoir geological modeling system known as [open quotes]Monarch[close quotes] to provide a highly detailed 3-D permeability model that is then tranformed into a model for dynamic reservoir simulation. The results confirm the required working volume for the UGS operation and provide a basis for the initial field development planning.

  20. Integrated geophysical application to investigate groundwater potentiality of the shallow Nubian aquifer at northern Kharga, West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Abdellatif; Soliman, Mamdouh; Moussa, Salah; Massoud, Usama; ElNabi, Sami Abd; Attia, Magdy

    2016-06-01

    Continuous evaluation of groundwater aquifers in the basin of Kharga Oasis is very important. Groundwater in Kharga Oasis represents the major factor for the development plans of this area as it is the sole source for water supplies required for drinking and irrigation purposes. This study is concerned by analyzing the groundwater potentiality of the shallow aquifer at the northern part of Kharga basin by integrated application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Time domain Electromagnetic (TEM) techniques. The VES data were measured at 28 points arranged along a north-south trending line by applying Schlumberger array with a maximum current-electrode spacing (AB) of 1000 m. The TEM data were measured at 167 points arranged along 11 east-west trending lines by using a single square loop with 50 m loop-side length. The VES and TEM data have been individually inverted, where the VES models were used as initial models for TEM data inversion. The final models were used for construction of 17 geoelectrical sections and 5 contour maps describing subsurface water-bearing layers at the investigated area. Correlation of the obtained models with geologic, hydrogeologic and borehole information indicates that the shallow aquifer comprises two zones (A-up) and (B-down) separated by a highly conductive shale layer. The upper zone (A) is composed of fine to medium sand with thin clay intercalations. It exhibits low to moderate resistivities. This zone was detected at depth values ranging from 10 to 70 m below ground surface (bgs) and shows a thickness of 25-90 m. The lower zone (B) exhibits moderate to high resistivity values with expected good water quality. The upper surface of zone B was detected at 60-165 m depth.

  1. An integrative approach to genomic introgression mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) are valuable genetic resources for many crop species, including soybean. The development of new molecular platforms promises to accelerate the mapping of genetic introgressions in these materials. Here we compare some existing and emerging methodologies for genetic intro...

  2. Integrative Physiology: On Mapping the Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelberg, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    The physiological literature exhibits a variety of diagrammatic conventions to represent cause-and-effect relationships (organismal maps). One scheme, based on mathematical studies of physiological systems, is described. The scheme involves the use of solid and dotted arrows, the former representing stimulation, the latter inhibition. (JN)

  3. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Water ice is ubiquitous in our Solar System and is a probable target for planetary exploration. Mapping the lateral and vertical concentration of subsurface ice from or near the surface could determine the origin of lunar and martian ice and quantify a much-needed resource for human exploration. Determining subsurface ice concentration on Earth is not trivial and has been attempted previously with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), airborne EM (AEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These EM geophysical techniques do not actually detect ice, but rather the absence of unfrozen water. This causes a non-unique interpretation of frozen and dry subsurface sediments. This works well in the arctic because most locations are not dry. However, for planetary exploration, liquid water is exceedingly rare and subsurface mapping must discriminate between an ice-rich and a dry subsurface. Luckily, nature has provided a unique electrical signature of ice: its dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of ice creates a temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical properties and varies the relative dielectric permittivity from ~3.1 at radar frequencies to >100 at low frequencies. On Mars, sediments smaller than silt size can hold enough adsorbed unfrozen water to complicate the measurement. This is because the presence of absorbed water also creates frequency-dependent electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of adsorbed water and ice can be separated as they have different shapes and frequency ranges as long as a spectrum spanning the two relaxations is measured. The volume concentration of ice and adsorbed water is a function of the strength of their relaxations. Therefore, we suggest that capacitively-coupled dielectric spectroscopy (a.k.a. spectral induced polarization or complex resistivity) can detect the concentration of both ice and adsorbed water in the subsurface. To prove this concept we have collected

  4. A method to generate surface UV radiation maps over Europe using GOME, Meteosat, and ancillary geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdebout, Jean

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a method for generating surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation maps over Europe, with a spatial resolution of 0.05°, and potentially on a half-hour basis. The UV irradiance is obtained by interpolation in a look-up table (LUT), the entries of which are solar zenith angle, total column ozone amount, cloud liquid water thickness, near-surface horizontal visibility, surface elevation, and UV albedo. Both satellite (Meteosat, GOME) and nonsatellite (synoptic observations, meteorological model results, digital elevation model) data are exploited to assign values to the influencing factors. With the help of another LUT simulating the visible signal, Meteosat data are processed to retrieve the cloud liquid water thickness. The radiative transfer calculations are performed with the UVspec code. A preliminary step consists in generating an effective surface Meteosat albedo map from a series of 10 consecutive days. In this process the well-known difficulty of distinguishing clouds from snow-covered surfaces is encountered. An attempt is made to partially resolve the ambiguity by using the Meteosat infrared channel and modeled snow cover data. After additional empirical cloud filtering, the effective albedo map is used as a baseline to estimate the cloud liquid water thickness. The UV surface albedo is assigned uniform values for land and sea/ocean, except in the presence of snow. In this case it is given a value proportional to the Meteosat effective albedo. The total column ozone is extracted from the level 3 GOME products. The aerosol optical thickness is mapped by gridding the daily measurements performed by ˜1000 ground stations. The digital elevation model is the GTOPO30 data set from the U.S. Geological Survey. European wide UV dose rate maps are presented for one day in April 1997, and the influence of the various factors is illustrated. A daily integrated dose map was also generated using 27 Meteosat acquisitions at half-hour intervals on the same

  5. Integrable mappings of the plane preserving biquadratic invariant curves II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatrou, Apostolos; Roberts, John A. G.

    2002-03-01

    We review recently introduced curve-dependent McMillan maps which are mappings of the plane that preserve biquadratic foliations. We show that they are measure preserving and thus integrable. We discuss the geometry of these maps including their fixed points and their stability. We consider the normal forms of symmetric and asymmetric biquadratic curves and the normal forms for their associated McMillan maps. We further discuss the dynamics on biquadratic curves by considering the possibility of parametrizing them by Jacobian elliptic or rational functions.

  6. Creation of a global land cover and a probability map through a new map integration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Tsuguki; Iwao, Koki; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Global land cover maps are widely used for assessment and in research of various kinds, and in recent years have also come to be used for socio-economic forecasting. However, existing maps are not very accurate, and differences between maps also contribute to their unreliability. Improving the accuracy of global land cover maps would benefit a number of research fields. In this paper, we propose a methodology for using ground truth data to integrate existing global land cover maps. We checked the accuracy of a map created using this methodology and found that the accuracy of the new map is 74.6%, which is 3% higher than for existing maps. We then created a 0.5-min latitude by 0.5-min longitude probability map. This map indicates the probability of agreement between the category class of the new map and truth data. Using the map, we found that the probabilities of cropland and grassland are relatively low compared with other land cover types. This appears to be because the definitions of cropland differ between maps, so the accuracy may be improved by including pasture and idle plot categories.

  7. Non-integrability of measure preserving maps via Lie symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cima, Anna; Gasull, Armengol; Mañosa, Víctor

    2015-11-01

    We consider the problem of characterizing, for certain natural number m, the local Cm-non-integrability near elliptic fixed points of smooth planar measure preserving maps. Our criterion relates this non-integrability with the existence of some Lie Symmetries associated to the maps, together with the study of the finiteness of its periodic points. One of the steps in the proof uses the regularity of the period function on the whole period annulus for non-degenerate centers, question that we believe that is interesting by itself. The obtained criterion can be applied to prove the local non-integrability of the Cohen map and of several rational maps coming from second order difference equations.

  8. Integrating Radar Image Data with Google Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Bruce D.; Gibas, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A public Web site has been developed as a method for displaying the multitude of radar imagery collected by NASA s Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) instrument during its 16-year mission. Utilizing NASA s internal AIRSAR site, the new Web site features more sophisticated visualization tools that enable the general public to have access to these images. The site was originally maintained at NASA on six computers: one that held the Oracle database, two that took care of the software for the interactive map, and three that were for the Web site itself. Several tasks were involved in moving this complicated setup to just one computer. First, the AIRSAR database was migrated from Oracle to MySQL. Then the back-end of the AIRSAR Web site was updated in order to access the MySQL database. To do this, a few of the scripts needed to be modified; specifically three Perl scripts that query that database. The database connections were then updated from Oracle to MySQL, numerous syntax errors were corrected, and a query was implemented that replaced one of the stored Oracle procedures. Lastly, the interactive map was designed, implemented, and tested so that users could easily browse and access the radar imagery through the Google Maps interface.

  9. Integrating the USMARC genetic map for the pig with the pig physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive genetic linkage map containing 3418 markers and spanning 2,326 cM of the autosomal genome was generated and integrated with the available physical maps for the pig. Marker types consisted of 1531 microsatellites and 1887 markers based on single feature polymorphisms, insertion/delet...

  10. Multi-Parameteric Geophysical Observatory: An Integrated Approach to Earthquake Precursory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, B. K.; Arora, B. R.; Kumar, N.

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory based Dilatancy-diffusion model predicts that crustal rocks when subjected to various degrees of stresses, simulating different phases of earthquake preparatory cycle, undergo opening of minor cracks, in-flux of fluids, material strengthening prior to the rupture. These changes producing small perturbation in physical properties of rocks are manifested in the enhanced micro-seismicity, seismic wave velocity changes, crustal deformation, small-scale changes in gravity, resistivity, magnetic field intensity, electromagnetic and radon gas emission as well as by fluctuations in hydrological parameters. Recognising that simultaneous measurements of inter-disciplinary parameters are key to decipher characteristic space-time variation during the earthquake preparatory cycles, a Multi-Parameteric Geophysical Observatory (MPGO) has been established at Ghuttu, Central Himalaya. Located in a narrow belt of high seismicity, just south of the Main Central Thrust of the Himalaya, has been the seat of recent 1991-Uttarkashi and 1999-Chamoli earthquakes, both M> 6. The MPGO became fully operational in April 2007 and is equipped with super conducting gravimeter, overhauser magnetometer, tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer, ULF band search coil magnetometer, radon data logger, water level recorders and is backed up by the dense network of Broad Band Seismometers (BBS) and GPS. However, the isolation of weak earthquake precursory signal further requires characterization of time variability related to environmental, hydrological, tectonic and even inter planetary processes affecting differently each geophysical time series. Demonstrating the potential of data adoptive techniques like Principal Component Analysis, Wavelet, Singular Spectrum Analysis, Fractal etc in denoising and allowing parameterization of tidal, pressure and hydrological influence on gravity and other time series, the presentation shall present nature of precursory signals in gravity, magnetic, radon and water

  11. Integrated Geophysical Examination of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel’s Fairbanks Silt Units, Fox, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; McGinnis, R. N.; Stillman, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Bjella, K.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a recent geophysical survey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory’s Permafrost Tunnel in Fox, Alaska. The tunnel consists of an adit and winze excavated into late-Pleistocene loess (Fairbanks Silt), segregated lens ice, chaotic reticulated ice, foliated massive wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice, and gravel pseudomorphs. From within the tunnel and at land surface above the tunnel, we used ground-penetrating radar reflection and transillumination soundings, multielectrode and capacitively coupled resistivity profiling, and electrical resistivity tomography to identify geophysical signatures of permanently frozen loess and massive wedge ice. We exploited the increasing path length through the septum between the adit and winze in the direction away from their junction to observe how radar signals attenuate in these media. GPR transillumination soundings of this septum at 100, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 MHz clearly demarcated the difference between ray paths transiting relatively conductive permanently frozen loess versus those transiting relatively resistive massive wedge ice. Multielectrode resistivity tomography of the septum also clearly distinguished between massive wedge ice with estimated resistivities >100,000 ohm-m and permanently frozen loess with resistivities ranging from 4000 to 40,000 ohm-m. Capacitively coupled resistivity data gathered at land surface above the distal end of the adit show signatures consistent with its delaminating roof at this location. Analysis of dipole-dipole multielectrode resistivity data gathered at land surface with 48 electrodes and 2-m spacings produced adit-level resistivity estimates in the 10,000 to 26,000 ohm-m range. Both surface resistivity methods revealed the 0.75-1.0-m-thick seasonally frozen active layer above the tunnel to be relatively resistive (>1000 ohm-m) during midwinter. Core samples of foliated wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice with bubbles

  12. 3D Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Iranian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ardestani, Vahid E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Fullea, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The present-day Iranian Plateau is the result of complex tectonic processes associated with the Arabia-Eurasia Plate convergence at a lithospheric scale. In spite of previous mostly 2D geophysical studies, fundamental questions regarding the deep lithospheric and sub-lithospheric structure beneath Iran remain open. A robust 3D model of the thermochemical lithospheric structure in Iran is an important step toward a better understanding of the geological history and tectonic events in the area. Here, we apply a combined geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) to investigate the present-day thermal and compositional structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone using a comprehensive variety of constraining data: elevation, surface heat flow, gravity potential fields, satellite gravity gradients, xenoliths and seismic tomography. Different mantle compositions were tested in our model based on local xenolith samples and global data base averages for different tectonothermal ages. A uniform mantle composition fails to explain the observed gravity field, gravity gradients and surface topography. A tectonically regionalized lithospheric mantle compositional model is able to explain all data sets including seismic tomography models. Our preliminary thermochemical lithospheric study constrains the depth to Moho discontinuity and intra crustal geometries including depth to sediments. We also determine the depth to Curie isotherm which is known as the base of magnetized crustal/uppermost mantle bodies. Discrepancies with respect to previous studies include mantle composition and the geometry of Moho and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB). Synthetic seismic Vs and Vp velocities match existing seismic tomography models in the area. In this study, depleted mantle compositions are modelled beneath cold and thick lithosphere in Arabian and Turan platforms. A more fertile mantle composition is found in collision zones. Based on our 3

  13. Mapping the 3D Geometry of the San Leandro Block of the Hayward Fault Zone Using Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data, California State University, East Bay Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvilly, A.; Abimbola, A.; Chan, J. H.; Strayer, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), located in Hayward, California, lies atop the San Leandro block (SLB) in the Hayward fault zone. The SLB is a J-K aged lithotectonic assemblage dominated by gabbro and intercalated with minor volcanics and sediments. It is bound by the subparallel northwest-trending western Hayward and eastern Chabot (CF) faults and pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary faults. The block itself is ~30 km along strike and 2-3 km wide. Previous studies suggest the block dips steeply to the northeast and extends to a depth of at least 7 km. In May of 2015, as part of an ongoing collaborative effort led by the USGS to create a 3D velocity model of the San Francisco Bay Area, researchers from CSUEB and the USGS conducted a seismic survey on the CSUEB campus. The primary goal of this pilot study was to locate the trace of the CF on the CSUEB campus and to determine bedrock depth. We deployed a 60-channel, 300m profile using 4.5Hz sensors spaced at 5m intervals. Active seismic sources were used at each geophone location. A 226kg accelerated weight-drop was used to generate P and Rayleigh waves for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and a 3.5kg sledgehammer and block were used to generate S and Love waves for S-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of Love waves (MALW). Preliminary P-wave tomography, MASW, and MALW results from this pilot study suggest the location of an eastward-dipping CF as well as the presence of a high-velocity unit at about 20m depth, presumably an unmapped sliver of bedrock from the San Leandro block. Further studies planned for the fall of 2015 include additional seismic lines and surface mapping along the Chabot fault on and near the CSUEB campus. These new geophysical, GPS, and field geological data will be integrated with LiDAR imagery and existing geological, gravity and magnetic maps to create a 3-dimensional model of the portion of the SLB that contains the CSUEB campus.

  14. Geophysically inferred structural and lithologic map of the precambrian basement in the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Cordell, Lindrith E.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data that was carried out as part of a Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) study of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri. It is one in a series of reports representing a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas Geological Survey, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey. The work presented here is part of a larger project whose goal is to assess the mineral resource potential of the Paleozoic sedimentary section and crystalline basement within the quadrangle. Reports discussing geochemical, geological, and various other aspects of the study area are included in this Miscellaneous Field Studies Map series as MF-2125-A through MF-2125-E. Geophysical interpretation of Precambrian crystalline basement lithology and structure is the focus of this report. The study of the crystalline basement is complicated by the lack of exposures due to the presence of a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary cover. In areas where there are no outcrops, the geologist must turn to other indirect methods to assist in an understanding of the basement. Previous investigations of the buried basement in this region used available drill hole data, isotope age information, and regional geophysical data (Sims, 1990; Denison and others, 1984; Bickford and others, 1986). These studies were regional in scope and were presented at state and multistate scales. The work documented here used recently collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data to enhance the regional geologic knowledge of the area. Terrace-density and terrace-magnetization maps were calculated from the gravity and aeromagnetic data, leading directly to inferred physical-property (density and magnetization) maps. Once these maps were produced, the known geology and drill-hole data were reconciled with the physical-property maps to form a refined structural and

  15. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  16. Integrated geophysical survey in defining subsidence features on a golf course

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Subsidence was observed at several places on the Salina Municipal Golf Course in areas known to be built over a landfill in Salina, Kansas. High-resolution magnetic survey (???5400 m2), multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (three 154 m lines) and microgravity profiling (23 gravity-station values) were performed on a subsidence site (Green 16) to aid in determining boundaries and density deficiency of the landfill in the vicinity of the subsidence. Horizontal boundaries of the landfill were confidently defined by both magnetic anomalies and the pseudo-vertical gradient of total field magnetic anomalies. Furthermore, the pseudo-vertical gradient of magnetic anomalies presented a unique anomaly at Green 16, which provided a criterion for predicting other spots with subsidence potential using the same gradient property. Results of multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) suggested the bottom limit of the landfill at Green 16 was around 21 m below the ground surface based on the vertical gradient of electric resistivity and a priori information on the depth of the landfill. ERP results also outlined several possible landfill bodies based on their low resistivity values. Microgravity results suggested a -0.14 g cm-3 density deficiency at Green 16 that could equate to future surface subsidence of as much as 1.5 m due to gradual compaction. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting.

  17. Integration of geophysics within the Argonne expedited site characterization Program at a site in the southern High Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, B.; Hildebrandt, G.; Meyer, T.; Saunders, W.; Burton, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    An Argonne National Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) program was carried out at a site in the central United States. The Argonne ESC process emphasizes an interdisciplinary approach in which all available information is integrated to produce as complete a picture as possible of the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant distribution and transport. As part of this process, all pertinent data that have been collected from previous investigations are thoroughly analyzed before a decision is made to collect additional information. A seismic reflection program recently concluded at the site had produced inconclusive results. Before we decided whether another acquisition program was warranted, we examined the existing data set to evaluate the quality of the raw data, the appropriateness of the processing sequence, and the integrity of the interpretation. We decided that the field data were of sufficient quality to warrant reprocessing and reinterpretation. The main thrust of the reprocessing effort was to enhance the continuity of a shallow, low-frequency reflection identified as a perching horizon within the Ogallala formation. The reinterpreted seismic data were used to locate the boundaries of the perched aquifer, which helped to guide the Argonne ESC drilling and sampling program. In addition, digitized geophysical well log data from previous drilling programs were reinterpreted and integrated into the geologic and hydrogeologic model.

  18. Ignimbrites to batholiths: integrating perspectives from geological, geophysical, and geochronological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.; Bachmann, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Multistage histories of incremental accumulation, fractionation, and solidification during construction of large subvolcanic magma bodies that remained sufficiently liquid to erupt are recorded by Tertiary ignimbrites, source calderas, and granitoid intrusions associated with large gravity lows at the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field (SRMVF). Geophysical data combined with geological constraints and comparisons with tilted plutons and magmatic-arc sections elsewhere are consistent with the presence of vertically extensive (>20 km) intermediate to silicic batholiths (with intrusive:extrusive ratios of 10:1 or greater) beneath the major SRMVF volcanic loci (Sawatch, San Juan, Questa-Latir). Isotopic data require involvement of voluminous mantle-derived mafic magmas on a scale equal to or greater than that of the intermediate to silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks. Early waxing-stage intrusions (35–30 Ma) that fed intermediate-composition central volcanoes of the San Juan locus are more widespread than the geophysically defined batholith; these likely heated and processed the crust, preparatory for ignimbrite volcanism (32–27 Ma) and large-scale upper-crustal batholith growth. Age and compositional similarities indicate that SRMVF ignimbrites and granitic intrusions are closely related, but the extent to which the plutons record remnants of former magma reservoirs that lost melt to volcanic eruptions has been controversial. Published Ar/Ar-feldspar and U-Pb-zircon ages for plutons spatially associated with ignimbrite calderas document final crystallization of granitoid intrusions at times indistinguishable from the tuff to ages several million years younger. These ages also show that SRMVF caldera-related intrusions cooled and solidified soon after zircon crystallization, as magma supply waned. Some researchers interpret these results as recording pluton assembly in small increments that crystallized rapidly, leading to temporal disconnects between

  19. Integrating aerial geophysical data in multiple-point statistics simulations to assist groundwater flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Neil E. M.; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Renard, Philippe; Straubhaar, Julien A.; McKinley, Jennifer M.; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    The process of accounting for heterogeneity has made significant advances in statistical research, primarily in the framework of stochastic analysis and the development of multiple-point statistics (MPS). Among MPS techniques, the direct sampling (DS) method is tested to determine its ability to delineate heterogeneity from aerial magnetics data in a regional sandstone aquifer intruded by low-permeability volcanic dykes in Northern Ireland, UK. The use of two two-dimensional bivariate training images aids in creating spatial probability distributions of heterogeneities of hydrogeological interest, despite relatively `noisy' magnetics data (i.e. including hydrogeologically irrelevant urban noise and regional geologic effects). These distributions are incorporated into a hierarchy system where previously published density function and upscaling methods are applied to derive regional distributions of equivalent hydraulic conductivity tensor K. Several K models, as determined by several stochastic realisations of MPS dyke locations, are computed within groundwater flow models and evaluated by comparing modelled heads with field observations. Results show a significant improvement in model calibration when compared to a simplistic homogeneous and isotropic aquifer model that does not account for the dyke occurrence evidenced by airborne magnetic data. The best model is obtained when normal and reverse polarity dykes are computed separately within MPS simulations and when a probability threshold of 0.7 is applied. The presented stochastic approach also provides improvement when compared to a previously published deterministic anisotropic model based on the unprocessed (i.e. noisy) airborne magnetics. This demonstrates the potential of coupling MPS to airborne geophysical data for regional groundwater modelling.

  20. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly

  1. Improving Integration Effectiveness of ID Mapping Based Biological Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biological objects such as genes, proteins, and pathways are represented by a convenient identifier, or ID, which is then used to cross reference, link and describe objects in biological databases. Relationships among the objects are often established using non-trivial and computationally complex ID mapping systems or converters, and are stored in authoritative databases such as UniGene, GeneCards, PIR and BioMart. Despite best efforts, such mappings are largely incomplete and riddled with false negatives. Consequently, data integration using record linkage that relies on these mappings produces poor quality of data, inadvertently leading to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, we discuss this largely ignored dimension of data integration, examine how the ubiquitous use of identifiers in biological databases is a significant barrier to knowledge fusion using distributed computational pipelines, and propose two algorithms for ad hoc and restriction free ID mapping of arbitrary types using online resources. We also propose two declarative statements for ID conversion and data integration based on ID mapping on-the-fly. PMID:26357233

  2. An integrated geophysical study of north African and Mediterranean lithospheric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dial, Paul Joseph

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation utilizes gravity and seismic waveform modeling techniques to: (1) determine models of lithospheric structure across northern African through gravity modeling and (2) determine lithospheric and crustal structure and seismic wave propagation characteristics across northern Africa and the Mediterranean region. The purpose of the gravity investigation was to construct models of lithospheric structure across northern Africa through the analysis of gravity data constrained by previous geological and geophysical studies. Three lithospheric models were constructed from Bouguer gravity data using computer modeling, and the gravity data was wavelength-filtered to investigate the relative depth and extent of the structures associated with the major anomalies. In the Atlas Mountains area, the resulting earth models showed slightly greater crustal thickness than those of previous studies if a low density mantle region is not included in the models. However, if a low density mantle region (density = 3.25 g/cm3) was included beneath the Atlas, the earth models showed little crustal thickening (38 km), in accord with previous seismic studies. The second portion of the research consisted of seismic waveform modeling of regional and teleseismic events to determine crustal and lithospheric structure across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. A total of 174 seismograms (145 at regional distances (200--1400 km) and 29 with epicentral distances exceeding 1900 km) were modeled using 1-D velocity models and a reflectivity code. At regional distances from four stations surrounding the western Mediterranean basin (MAL, TOL, PTO and AQU) and one station near the Red Sea (HLW), 1-D velocity models can satisfactorily model the relative amplitudes of both the Pnl and surface wave portions of the seismograms. Modeling of propagation paths greater than 1900 km was also conducted across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. The results indicate that the S-wave velocity model

  3. Integrating Terrain Maps Into a Reactive Navigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Werger, Barry; Seraji, Homayoun

    2006-01-01

    An improved method of processing information for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across rough terrain involves the integration of terrain maps into a reactive navigation strategy. Somewhat more precisely, the method involves the incorporation, into navigation logic, of data equivalent to regional traversability maps. The terrain characteristic is mapped using a fuzzy-logic representation of the difficulty of traversing the terrain. The method is robust in that it integrates a global path-planning strategy with sensor-based regional and local navigation strategies to ensure a high probability of success in reaching a destination and avoiding obstacles along the way. The sensor-based strategies use cameras aboard the vehicle to observe the regional terrain, defined as the area of the terrain that covers the immediate vicinity near the vehicle to a specified distance a few meters away.

  4. Geologic and geophysical maps of the Las Vegas 30' x 60' quadrangle, Clark and Nye counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Harris, Anita G.; Langenheim, V.E.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Mahan, Shannon; Paces, James B.; Dixon, Gary L.; Rowley, Peter D.; Burchfiel, B.C.; Bell, John W.; Smith, Eugene I.

    2005-01-01

    Las Vegas and Pahrump are two of the fastest growing cities in the US, and the shortage of water looms as among the greatest future problems for these cities. These new maps of the Las Vegas 30 x 60-minute quadrangle provide a geologic and geophysical framework and fundamental earth science database needed to address societal issues such as ground water supply and contamination, surface flood, landslide, and seismic hazards, and soil properties and their changing impact by and on urbanization. The mountain ranges surrounding Las Vegas and Pahrump consist of Mesozoic, Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks. A majority of these rocks are Paleozoic carbonate rocks that are part of Nevada's carbonate rock aquifer province. The Spring Mountains represent a major recharge site in the province, where maximum altitude is 3,632 m (Charleston Peak) above sea level. Rocks in the Sheep and Las Vegas Ranges and Spring Mountains contain correlative, northeast-striking, southeast-verging thrust faults that are part of the Cretaceous, Sevier orogenic belt. These thrusts were offset during the Miocene by the Las Vegas Valley shear system (LVVSZ). We conducted new mapping in the Blue Diamond area, highlighting refined work on the Bird Spring thrust, newly studied ancient landslides, and gravity-slide blocks. We conducted new mapping in the Las Vegas Range and mapped previously unrecognized structures such as the Valley thrust and fold belt; recognition of these structures has led to a refined correlation of Mesozoic thrust faults across the LVVSZ. New contributions in the quadrangle also include a greatly refined stratigraphy of Paleozoic bedrock units based on conodont biostragraphy. We collected over 200 conodont samples in the quadrangle and established stratigraphic reference sections used to correlate units across the major Mesozoic thrust faults. Quaternary deposits cover about half of the map area and underlie most of the present urbanized area. Deposits consist of large coalescing

  5. Research on Integrated Mapping——A Case Study of Integrated Land Use with Swamp Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Yan, F.; Chang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Unified real estate registration system shows the attention, determination and effort to of CPC Central Committee and State Council on real estate registration in China. However, under current situation, China's real estate registration work made less progress. One of the reasons is that it's hard to express the property right of real estate on one map under the multi-sector management system. Under current multi-sector management system in China, different departments usually just survey and mapping the land type under its jurisdiction. For example, wetland investigation only mapping all kinds of wetland resources but not mapping other resource types. As a result, it cause he problem of coincidence or leak in integration of different results from different departments. As resources of the earth's surface, the total area of forest, grassland, wetland and so on should be equal to the total area of the earth's surface area. However, under the current system, the area of all kinds of resources is not equal to the sum of the earth's surface. Therefore, it is of great importance to express all the resources on one map. On one hand, this is conducive to find out the real area and distribution of resources and avoid the problem of coincidence or leak in integration; On the other hand, it is helpful to study the dynamic change of different resources. Therefore, we first proposed the "integrated mapping" as a solution, and take integrated land use with swamp mapping in Northeast China as an example to investigate the feasibility and difficulty. Study showed that: integrated land use with swamp mapping can be achieved through combining land use survey standards with swamps survey standards and "second mapping" program. Based on the experience of integrated land use with swamp mapping, we point out its reference function on integrated mapping and unified real estate registration system. We concluded that: (1) Comprehending and integrating different survey standard of

  6. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  7. Integrating order and distance relationships from heterogeneous maps.

    PubMed

    Graves, M

    1993-01-01

    There is no automatic mechanism to integrate information between heterogeneous genome maps. Currently, integration is a difficult, manual process. We have developed a process for knowledge base design, and we use this to integrate order and distance relationships between genetic linkage, radiation hybrid, and physical maps. Until now, the only way to develop a persistent, knowledge-intensive application was to either develop a new knowledge base from scratch or coerce the application to fit an existing knowledge base. This was not from lack of interest by the knowledge base or database community, but merely from a lack of theoretical tools powerful enough to tackle the problem. We import formalisms from knowledge representation, natural language semantics, programming language research, and databases. These form a strong, theoretical foundation for knowledge base design upon which we have implemented the knowledge base design tool called WEAVE. PMID:7584331

  8. Integrated Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation of the Failed Portion of a Road in Basement Complex Terrain, Southwest Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, O. O.; Oladunjoye, M. A.; Olayinka, A. I.

    2008-05-01

    Several efforts by the local authority to fix the bad portion of the Ijebu Ode - Erunwon road, southwest Nigeria have over the years yielded no meaningful result as the road often gets deteriorated shortly after repair. Motorists and other road users have abandoned this road that is meant to link a commercial center with several farming communities, thus making the cost of transportation of farm produce very high. Geophysical methods of investigation integrated with geotechnical studies of the road, especially the failed portion were undertaken with the object of finding causes of the road failure as well as determine the most appropriate design method. Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods were employed to determine sections of the road with anomalous electrical responses that could be interpreted in terms of structures, lithology, water saturation etc. Geotechnical studies such as California Bearing ratio (CBR), grain size analysis, liquid limit, linear shrinkage, plastic limit, etc of samples obtained from sections identified as having high electrical anomaly were also carried out to determine geotechnical properties. Plots of inverted VLF-EM real and filtered real data identified bad sections of the road show peaks with positive filtered real amplitudes greater than 30% and lower amplitudes less than 30% and were interpreted to indicate major and minor linear features of faults and fractured zones, which in addition also display very high conductivity values. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) probe of the failed portions gave three to four layered earth interpreted to contain clayey-sand and loose saturated sand units at the upper portion, highly saturated weathered/fractured basement and fresh basement at the lower portion. Soaked and unsoaked CBR result range from 70.3 - 83.9%, and 12.9 - 31.6% respectively, indicating percentage reduction in strength with wetness of 55.7% - 83.8%. Liquid limit, linear shrinkage and

  9. Integration of borehole geophysical properties into surface multichannel seismic data sets: First results from the SCOPSCO ICDP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania), located on the Balkan Peninsula within the Dinaride-Hellenide-Albanide mountain belt is probably the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe (2-5 Ma). Multidisciplinary studies at Lake Ohrid prove that it is an important archive to study the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of a graben system over a long time period. Within the frame of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out in spring 2013 with more than 2000 m of sediment cores at four sites. Downhole logging was realized at each site after coring, enabling us to integrate geophysical and sedimentological data into seismic cross sections in order to get a profound knowledge of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment area. The longest record (~569 m, site DEEP), recovered in the central part of lake Ohrid likely covers the entire lacustrine succession within Lake Ohrid Basin including several Interglacial and Glacial cycles. Sedimentological analyses are still ongoing; however, the upper 260 m of the DEEP reflecting the time period between Mid-Pleistocene Transition to present. An integration of borehole geophysical data into surface seismic lines shows that sediments, within the central part of Lake Ohrid, were deposited in a deep water environment over the last 600 ka. For the uppermost sediment cover, about 50 m of penetration, a very high resolution sediment echosounder data set allows us to identify major tephra layers and track them through the entire deep basin. Furthermore, a vertical seismic profile was carried out at site DEEP resulting in a conversion from two-way-travel-time into sediment depth. One major outcome is a corridor stack of the upgoing wave that clearly shows several reflectors linked to changes of sediment properties of cores and hence environmental and climate changes in the surrounding area of Lake Ohrid Basin. Several changes from Glacial to Interglacial, and vice versa

  10. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in İzmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahor, Mahmut Göktuğ

    In the new millennium, globalisation, and with it urbanisation, has been expanding as a consequence of economic development throughout the world. Urbanisation is a major social problem, not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. Urbanisation also has a major impact on archaeological sites and cultural heritages in urbanised zones. Non-destructive investigation techniques, such as geophysics, which uses remote sensing, and is non-invasive, are of great importance in urban areas. We are now capable of solving urbanisation-related problems, and these techniques reduce the cost of projects at urbanised sites. Geophysics has increased the possibilities of new applications in determining intensive urbanisation effects in earth science. Geophysics deals with numerous physical variations such as electricity, electromagnetism, magnetics, acoustics, gravity and radioactivity. There are numerous ways geophysics can be applied in archaeological and cultural heritage studies. In addition the hazard mitigation, infrastructure investigation, waste management, water supply, urban gateways and other factors are documented by geophysics. In recent years, archaeological sites under the encroachment of urbanisation have been investigated on numerous occasions using non-invasive geophysical techniques, allowing parameters such as the depth, dimension and extension of targets to be clearly determined. The term “urban geophysics” has recently been seen in various references related to geophysics and other earth science studies. This study reviews the results of geophysical investigations carried out at important archaeological sites under encroaching urbanisation in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

  11. Integrability and vesture for harmonic maps into symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Shabnam; Tahvildar-Zadeh, Shadi

    2016-05-01

    After formulating the notion of integrability for axially symmetric harmonic maps from ℝ3 into symmetric spaces, we give a complete and rigorous proof that, subject to some mild restrictions on the target, all such maps are integrable. Furthermore, we prove that a variant of the inverse scattering method, called vesture (dressing) can always be used to generate new solutions for the harmonic map equations starting from any given solution. In particular, we show that the problem of finding N-solitonic harmonic maps into a non-compact Grassmann manifold SU(p,q)/S(U(p) × U(q)) is completely reducible via the vesture (dressing) method to a problem in linear algebra which we prove is solvable in general. We illustrate this method, and establish its agreement with previously known special cases, by explicitly computing a 1-solitonic harmonic map for the two cases (p = 1,q = 1) and (p = 2,q = 1) and showing that the family of solutions obtained in each case contains respectively the Kerr family of solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations, and the Kerr-Newman family of solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the hyperextreme sector of the corresponding parameters.

  12. Inside the polygonal walls of Amelia (Central Italy): A multidisciplinary data integration, encompassing geodetic monitoring and geophysical prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, M.; Brigante, R.; Radicioni, F.; Pauselli, C.; Mazzocca, M.; Centi, G.; Stoppini, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a portion of the ancient (VI and IV centuries BC) polygonal walls of Amelia, in Central Italy. After the collapse of a portion of the walls which occurred in January 2006, a wide project started in order to monitor their external facade and inspect the characteristics of the internal structure, currently not clearly known. In this specific case, the preservation of such an important cultural heritage was mandatory, therefore invasive methods like drilling or archaeological essays cannot be used. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach represents an innovative way to shed light on their inner structure. We combine several non-invasive techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), specifically adapted for this study, Laser Scanning and Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry, integrated with other geomatic measures provided by a Total Station and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). After collecting some historical information, we gather the whole datasets exploring for their integration an interpretation approach borrowed from the reflection seismic (attribute analysis and three dimensional visualization). The results give rise for the first time to the internal imaging of this ancient walls, highlighting features associable to different building styles related to different historical periods. Among the result, we define a max wall thickness of about 3.5 m for the cyclopic sector, we show details of the internal block organization and we detect low resistivity values interpretable with high water content behind the basal part of the walls. Then, quantitative analyses to assess their reliable geotechnical stability are done, integrating new geometrical constrains provided by the geophysics and geo-technical ground parameters available in literature. From this analysis, we highlight how the Amelia walls are interested, in the investigated sector, by a critical pseudo-static equilibrium.

  13. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  14. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  15. Map showing a deep-tow geophysical study of the north end of the San Clemente Fault, California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, George A.; Normark, William R.

    1980-01-01

    A deep-tow geophysical study of a small ridge along the north end of the San Clemente fault, informally termed Kimki Ridge by Arne Junger and J.G. Vedder (unpub. data, 1979), was conducted in April 1976 using the R/V Melville of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The purpose of the survey was to search for evidence of active faulting along the north-ward extension of the San Clemente fault, a major structural feature in the California Borderland (fig. 1). 

  16. Map_plot and bgg_plot: software for integration of geoscience datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Punongbayan, Jane T.; Rea, Brice

    2004-02-01

    Since 1985, the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has been supporting multidisciplinary research in exploring the structure and history of Earth beneath the oceans. After more than 200 Legs, complementary datasets covering different geological environments, periods and space scales have been obtained and distributed world-wide using the ODP-Janus and Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory-Borehole Research Group (LDEO-BRG) database servers. In Earth Sciences, more than in any other science, the ensemble of these data is characterized by heterogeneous formats and graphical representation modes. In order to fully and quickly assess this information, a set of Unix/Linux and Generic Mapping Tool-based C programs has been designed to convert and integrate datasets acquired during the present ODP and the future Integrated ODP (IODP) Legs. Using ODP Leg 199 datasets, we show examples of the capabilities of the proposed programs. The program map_plot is used to easily display datasets onto 2-D maps. The program bgg_plot (borehole geology and geophysics plot) displays data with respect to depth and/or time. The latter program includes depth shifting, filtering and plotting of core summary information, continuous and discrete-sample core measurements (e.g. physical properties, geochemistry, etc.), in situ continuous logs, magneto- and bio-stratigraphies, specific sedimentological analyses (lithology, grain size, texture, porosity, etc.), as well as core and borehole wall images. Outputs from both programs are initially produced in PostScript format that can be easily converted to Portable Document Format (PDF) or standard image formats (GIF, JPEG, etc.) using widely distributed conversion programs. Based on command line operations and customization of parameter files, these programs can be included in other shell- or database-scripts, automating plotting procedures of data requests. As an open source software, these programs can be customized and interfaced to fulfill any specific

  17. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. PMID:27017185

  18. Integration of Kepler with ROADNet: Visual Dataflow Design with Real-time Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, T. T.; Ludaescher, B.; Altintas, I.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Rajasekar, A.; Vernon, F. L.; Orcutt, J.

    2004-12-01

    The ROADNet project concentrates real-time data from a wide variety of signal domains, providing a reliable platform to store and transport these data. Ptolemy is a general purpose visual programming environment in which work flows on data streams can be constructed by connecting general purpose components. The Kepler scientific workflow system extends Ptolemy to approach design and automation of scientific data analysis tasks. In this work we discuss our integration of ROADNet (and the Antelope platform on which ROADNet is based in part) with the Ptolemy environment. We have produced interface components that allow someone using the Kepler scientific workflow system to readily use ROADNet data resources. Presently we have working components to gather real-time waveform and image data from ROADNet object ring buffers, and we are working to provide the ability to perform Datascope database queries from Kepler. The Kepler project, including the Antelope interface, is entirely free and open-source, and will run on any platform where Java is available. We discuss existing applications in addition to possible future directions, such as coherent array processing, event detection, and online stream processing. A major advantage of the Ptolemy environment is the ease with which it may be used for rapid prototyping of analyses by even inexperienced users. For instance, a user can drag-and-drop an Orb Waveform Source component and several general purpose analysis and display components, connect them visually, and immediately perform an analysis on real-time data.

  19. Multi-sourced, 3D geometric characterization of volcanogenic karst features: Integrating lidar, sonar, and geophysical datasets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Gary, M. O.; Reyes, R.; Halihan, T.; Fairfield, N.; Stone, W. C.

    2009-12-01

    Karstic aquifers can form very complex hydrogeological systems and 3-D mapping has been difficult, but Lidar, phased array sonar, and improved earth resistivity techniques show promise in this and in linking metadata to models. Zacatón, perhaps the Earth’s deepest cenote, has a sub-aquatic void space exceeding 7.5 x 106 cubic m3. It is the focus of this study which has created detailed 3D maps of the system. These maps include data from above and beneath the the water table and within the rock matrix to document the extent of the immense karst features and to interpret the geologic processes that formed them. Phase 1 used high resolution (20 mm) Lidar scanning of surficial features of four large cenotes. Scan locations, selected to achieve full feature coverage once registered, were established atop surface benchmarks with UTM coordinates established using GPS and Total Stations. The combined datasets form a geo-registered mesh of surface features down to water level in the cenotes. Phase 2 conducted subsurface imaging using Earth Resistivity Imaging (ERI) geophysics. ERI identified void spaces isolated from open flow conduits. A unique travertine morphology exists in which some cenotes are dry or contain shallow lakes with flat travertine floors; some water-filled cenotes have flat floors without the cone of collapse material; and some have collapse cones. We hypothesize that the floors may have large water-filled voids beneath them. Three separate flat travertine caps were imaged: 1) La Pilita, which is partially open, exposing cap structure over a deep water-filled shaft; 2) Poza Seca, which is dry and vegetated; and 3) Tule, which contains a shallow (<1 m) lake. A fourth line was run adjacent to cenote Verde. La Pilita ERI, verified by SCUBA, documented the existence of large water-filled void zones ERI at Poza Seca showed a thin cap overlying a conductive zone extending to at least 25 m depth beneath the cap with no lower boundary of this zone evident

  20. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  1. Study on the Integrated Geophysic Methods and Application of Advanced Geological Detection for Complicated Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiao, G.

    2014-12-01

    The engineering geological and hydrological conditions of current tunnels are more and more complicated, as the tunnels are elongated with deeper depth. In constructing these complicated tunnels, geological hazards prone to occur as induced by unfavorable geological bodies, such as fault zones, karst or hydrous structures, etc. The working emphasis and difficulty of the advanced geological exploration for complicated tunnels are mainly focused on the structure and water content of these unfavorable geological bodies. The technical aspects of my paper systematically studied the advanced geological exploration theory and application aspects for complicated tunnels, with discussion on the key technical points and useful conclusions. For the all-aroundness and accuracy of advanced geological exploration results, the objective of my paper is targeted on the comprehensive examination on the structure and hydrous characteristic of the unfavorable geological bodies in complicated tunnels. By the multi-component seismic modeling on a more real model containing the air medium, the wave field response characteristics of unfavorable geological bodies can be analyzed, thus providing theoretical foundation for the observation system layout, signal processing and interpretation of seismic methods. Based on the tomographic imaging theory of seismic and electromagnetic method, 2D integrated seismic and electromagnetic tomographic imaging and visualization software was designed and applied in the advanced drilling hole in the tunnel face, after validation of the forward and inverse modeling results on theoretical models. The transmission wave imaging technology introduced in my paper can be served as a new criterion for detection of unfavorable geological bodies. After careful study on the basic theory, data processing and interpretation, practical applications of TSP and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method, as well as serious examination on their application examples, my paper

  2. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Maurer, Hansruedi; Rabenstein, Lasse; Doetsch, Joseph; Auken, Esben; Ngwisanyi, Tiyapo; Tshoso, Gomotsang; Jaba, Bashali Charles; Ntibinyane, Onkgopotse; Laletsang, Kebabonye

    2015-03-01

    Integration of information from the following sources has been used to produce a much better constrained and more complete four-unit geological/hydrological model of the Okavango Delta than previously available: (i) a 3D resistivity model determined from helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta, and (iii) geological details extracted from boreholes in northeastern and southeastern parts of the delta. The upper heterogeneous unit is the modern delta, which comprises extensive dry and freshwater-saturated sand and lesser amounts of clay and salt. It is characterized by moderate to high electrical resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands and clays deposited in the huge Paleo Lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), which once covered a 90,000 km2 area that encompassed the delta, Lake Ngami, the Mababe Depression, and the Makgadikgadi Basin. Examples of PLM sediments are intersected in many boreholes. Low permeability clay within the PLM unit seems to be a barrier to the downward flow of the saline water. Below the PLM unit, freshwater-saturated sand of the Paleo Okavango Megafan (POM) unit is distinguished by moderate to high resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and numerous subhorizontal reflectors. The POM unit is interpreted to be the remnants of a megafan based on the arcuate nature of its front and the semi-conical shape of its upper surface in the HTEM resistivity model. Moderate to high resistivity subhorizontal layers are

  3. The new integrable symplectic map and the symmetry of integrable nonlinear lattice equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huanhe; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoen

    2016-07-01

    A discrete matrix spectral problem is presented and the hierarchy of discrete integrable systems is derived. Their Hamiltonian structures are established. As to the discrete integrable system, nonlinearization of the spatial parts of the Lax pairs and the adjoint Lax pairs generate a new integrable symplectic map. Based on the theory, a new integrable symplectic map and a family of finite-dimension completely integrable systems are given. Especially, two explicit equations are obtained under the Bargmann constraint. Finally, the symmetry of the discrete equation is provided according to the recursion operator and the seed symmetry. Although the solutions of the discrete equations have been gained by many methods, there are few articles that solving the discrete equation via the symmetry. So the solution of the discrete lattice equation is obtained through the symmetry theory.

  4. Efficiency of Integrated Geophysical techniques in delineating the extension of Bauxites ore in north Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Alanazi, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Muteb; Alsama, Ali; Alhenaki, Bander; Almalki, Awadh

    2014-05-01

    We exploit the integration of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study for delineating the subsurface Bauxite layer in Zabira locality, north of Riyadh. Integrated GPR, magnetic gradiometry resistivity and seismic refraction are used in the case of high contrast targets and provide an accurate subsurface reconstruction of foundations in sediments. Resistivity pseudo-sections are in particular useful for the areal identification of contacts between soils and foundations while GPR and magnetic gradiometry provide detailed information about location and depth of the structures. Results obtained by GPR, Magnetics and resistivity shows a very good agreement in mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 5 m to 10 m while the depth obtained by seismic refraction was 10 m to 15 m due to lack of velocity information.

  5. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  6. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  7. An integrated YAC contig map for human chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmill, R.M.; Scott, P.; Cypser, J.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated physical map of human chromosome 3, containing 590 primary markers and 694 corresponding megabase-sized YACs, has been developed from the fusion of two large datasets. YACs identified with 462 physically localized hybridization-based probes and 120 genetically linked polymorphic STSs form the basis of the contigs. Many additional chromosome 3-specific YACs were identified by Alu-PCR hybridization and fingerprint analyses. Contigs defined entirely by primary marker content (level 1) provide >70% coverage. Since the markers used are chromosome 3-specific and have been previously localized by genetic or regional positioning, the reliability of the data at this level is extremely high. Alu-PCR and fingerprint analyses identified overlapping YACs which have permitted fusion and extension of these primary contigs. Selected incorporation of these data has resulted in an integrated coverage of over 80% at level 3. This level corresponds to the use of a single YAC to bridge gaps between YACs or contigs identified by primary markers. Limiting level 3 connections such that the STS or hybridization probe-containing YACs are derived from a common chromosomal segment has helped to ensure their authenticity. The chromosome is now represented by a number of very large YAC contigs whose order is known. Some of the gaps which separate these contigs can be bridged using Alu-PCR and fingerprint data at level 4, although these connections require STS confirmation. The map generated by fusion of the hybridization and STS based datasets is a major advance over maps possible from either dataset alone, both in terms of overall coverage and reliability, and should provide the foundation for development of a transcriptional map and a higher resolution physical map.

  8. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  9. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  10. An integrated geophysical study on the Mesozoic strata distribution and hydrocarbon potential in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weijian; Hao, Tianyao; Jiang, Weiwei; Xu, Ya; Zhao, Baimin; Jiang, Didi

    2015-11-01

    A series of drilling, dredge, and seismic investigations indicate that Mesozoic sediments exist in the South China Sea (SCS) which shows a bright prospect for oil and gas exploration. In order to study the distribution of Mesozoic strata and their residual thicknesses in the SCS, we carried out an integrated geophysical study based mainly on gravity data, gravity basement depth and distribution of residual Mesozoic thickness in the SCS were obtained using gravity inversion constrained with high-precision drilling and seismic data. In addition, the fine deep crustal structures and distribution characteristics of Mesozoic thicknesses of three typical profiles were obtained by gravity fitting inversion. Mesozoic strata in the SCS are mainly distributed in the south and north continental margins, and have been reformed by the later tectonic activities. They extend in NE-trending stripes are macro-controlled by the deep and large NE-trending faults, and cut by the NW-trending faults which were active in later times. The offset in NW direction of Mesozoic strata in Nansha area of the southern margin are more obvious as compared to the north margin. In the Pearl River Mouth Basin and Southwest Taiwan Basin of the north continental margin the Mesozoic sediments are continuously distributed with a relatively large thickness. In the Nansha area of the south margin the Mesozoic strata are discontinuous and their thicknesses vary considerably. According to the characteristics of Mesozoic thickness distribution and hydrocarbon potential analyses from drilling and other data, Dongsha Uplift-Chaoshan Depression, Southwest Taiwan Basin-Peikang Uplift and Liyue Bank have large thickness of the Mesozoic residual strata, have good hydrocarbon genesis capability and complete source-reservoir-cap combinations, show a bright prospect of Mesozoic oil/gas resources.

  11. Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Trans-European Suture Zone along the TOR-profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Folker; Ebbing, Jörg; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    We apply the integrated geophysical-petrological software package LitMod3D to study the effect of changes in thickness and composition associated with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone as part of the Transeuropean Suture Zone (TESZ). Results of the TOR-project (Teleseismic Tomography TORnquist) show a P wave velocity anomaly that indicates an abrupt step in the base lithosphere between southern Sweden and Northern Germany. From a depth of ~300 km beneath the proto-Proterozoic Baltic shield the base lithosphere increases to less than 100 km beneath the Phanerozoic terranes in the southwest. However, this significant change in lithospheric thickness is not expressed by significant changes in the gravity field or topography. Hence, some form of isostatic compensation must be achieved by changes in the composition or thermal structure of the crust or upper mantle. First sensitivity tests were performed to show that the most important parameters to explain seismic upper mantle velocities, gravity and topography. These are, in addition to lithospheric thickness, the densities and thermal conductivity in the crust and the amount of depletion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). When applying a simple geometry with steps at the Moho and base lithosphere, the TOR results could be reproduced to a large degree when applying different compositions for the SCLM beneath the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic domains. To address the gravity field and topography as well, we present two alternative models for the TOR-profile. In the first model, the gravity field and topography is explained by dividing the Phanerozoic SCLM in a refertilized upper and more depleted lower part. This model leads to a deeper base lithosphere (130 km), but does not provide a very good fit to the P wave velocities. In the second alternative, the thermal conductivity of the Phanerozoic crust and for the sediments has been increased within reasonable parameters. This leads to a shallower LAB ~100 km and

  12. Integrating Recent Land Cover Mapping Efforts to Update the National Gap Analysis Program's Species Habitat Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerrow, A. J.; Davidson, A.; Earnhardt, T. S.; Benson, A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, great progress has been made to develop national extent land cover mapping products to address natural resource issues. One of the core products of the GAP Program is range-wide species distribution models for nearly 2000 terrestrial vertebrate species in the U.S. We rely on deductive modeling of habitat affinities using these products to create models of habitat availability. That approach requires that we have a thematically rich and ecologically meaningful map legend to support the modeling effort. In this work, we tested the integration of the Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization Consortium's National Land Cover Database 2011 and LANDFIRE's Disturbance Products to update the 2001 National GAP Vegetation Dataset to reflect 2011 conditions. The revised product can then be used to update the species models. We tested the update approach in three geographic areas (Northeast, Southeast, and Interior Northwest). We used the NLCD product to identify areas where the cover type mapped in 2011 was different from what was in the 2001 land cover map. We used Google Earth and ArcGIS base maps as reference imagery in order to label areas identified as "changed" to the appropriate class from our map legend. Areas mapped as urban or water in the 2011 NLCD map that were mapped differently in the 2001 GAP map were accepted without further validation and recoded to the corresponding GAP class. We used LANDFIRE's Disturbance products to identify changes that are the result of recent disturbance and to inform the reassignment of areas to their updated thematic label. We ran species habitat models for three species including Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) and the White-tailed Jack Rabbit (Lepus townsendii) and Brown Headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). For each of three vertebrate species we found important differences in the amount and location of suitable habitat between the 2001 and 2011 habitat maps. Specifically, Brown headed nuthatch habitat in

  13. Reconstructing the integrated Sachs-Wolfe map with galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Jessica; Huterer, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is a large-angle modulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), generated when CMB photons traverse evolving potential wells associated with large scale structure (LSS). Recent efforts have been made to reconstruct maps of the ISW signal using information from surveys of galaxies and other LSS tracers, but investigation into how survey systematics affect their reliability has so far been limited. Using simulated ISW and LSS maps, we study the impact of galaxy survey properties and systematic errors on the accuracy of a reconstructed ISW signal. We find that systematics that affect the observed distribution of galaxies along the line of sight, such as photo-z and bias-evolution related errors, have a relatively minor impact on reconstruction quality. In contrast, however, we find that direction-dependent calibration errors can be very harmful. Specifically, we find that, in order to avoid significant degradation of our reconstruction quality statistics, direction-dependent number density fluctuations due to systematics must be controlled so that their variance is smaller than 10-6 (which corresponds to a 0.1% calibration). Additionally, we explore the implications of our results for attempts to use reconstructed ISW maps to shed light on the origin of large-angle CMB alignments. We find that there is only a weak correlation between the true and reconstructed angular momentum dispersion, which quantifies alignment, even for reconstructed ISW maps which are fairly accurate overall.

  14. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  15. Definition of a geometric model for landslide numerical modeling from the integration of multi-source geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, Julien; Bernardie, Séverine; Grandjean, Gilles; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Landslide hazard can be assessed through numerical hydro-mechanical models. These methods require different input data such as a geometric model, rheological constitutive laws and associated hydro-mechanical parameters, and boundary conditions. The objective of this study is to fill the gap existing between geophysical and engineering communities. This gap prevents the engineering community to use the full information available in geophysical imagery. A landslide geometrical model contains information on the geometry and extent of the different geotechnical units of the landslide, and describes the layering and the discontinuities. It is generally drawn from punctual geotechnical tests, using interpolation, or better, from the combined use of a geotechnical test and the iso-value of geophysical tomographies. In this context, we propose to use a multi-source geophysical data fusion strategy as an aid for the construction of landslide geometric models. Based on a fuzzy logic data fusion method, we propose to use different geophysical tomographies and their associated uncertainty and sensitivity tomograms to design a "probable" geometric model. This strategy is tested on a profile of the Super-Sauze landslide using P-wave velocity, P-wave attenuation and electrical resistivity tomography. We construct a probable model and a true model for numerical modeling. Using basic elastic constitutive laws, we show that the model geometry is sufficiently detailed to simulate the complex surface displacements pattern.

  16. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  17. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  18. Integrated geophysical surveys on waste dumps: evaluation of physical parameters to characterize an urban waste dump (four case studies in Italy).

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2004-10-01

    Geophysical surveys were carried out on different waste dumps to evaluate key geometric and physical parameters. Depending on the dump dimensions and physical characteristics different geophysical techniques were used. Vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization and seismic refraction techniques were integrated to eliminate the non-uniqueness of solutions and for a better understanding of the results. Physical parameters inside and outside the dumps were compared. The change of physical parameters such as resistivity, chargeability, and P-wave velocity allowed evaluation of waste dump geometry, leachate saturation levels, and thickness of waste. Furthermore, in illegal dumps, the size and waste type disposed could be evaluated. Calculated results were compared with plans and book-keeping from the dumps investigated. PMID:15560444

  19. Installation restoration research program: Assessment of geophysical methods for subsurface geologic mapping, cluster 13, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Simms, J.E.; Llopis, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at a portion of Cluster 13, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Seismic refraction cross sections map the topsoil layer and the water table (saturated zone). The water table elevations from the seismic surveys correlate closely with water table elevations in nearby monitoring wells. Electrical resistivity cross sections reveal a very complicated distribution of sandy and clayey facies in the upper 10 - 15 m of the subsurface. A continuous surficial (topsoil) layer correlates with the surficial layer of the seismic section and nearby boring logs. The complexity and details of the electrical resistivity cross section correlate well with boring and geophysical logs from nearby wells. The transient electromagnetic surveys map the Pleistocene-Cretaceous boundary, the saprolite, and the top of the Precambrian crystalline rocks. Conducting the transient electromagnetic surveys on a grid pattern allows the construction of a three-dimensional representation of subsurface geology (as represented by variations of electrical resistivity). Thickness and depth of the saprolitic layer and depth to top of the Precambrian rocks are consistent with generalized geologic cross sections for the Edgewood Area and depths projected from reported depths at the Aberdeen Proving Ground NW boundary using regional dips.

  20. The hydrothermal and structural history of the Cuprite mining district, southwestern Nevada: An integrated geological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayze, Gregg Alan

    The Cuprite area consists of two acid-sulfate hydrothermal alteration centers straddling U.S. Highway 95 in southwestern Nevada, with alteration involving Tertiary volcanic rocks in the eastern center and Cambrian metasedimentary rocks in the western center. The purpose of this study was to determine if these late-Miocene hydrothermal centers developed independently or whether they were created by lystric-faulting of a single conduit along an east-dipping detachment that moved the cooler upper portion of the system to the east relative to the hotter lower portion. The answer has implications for mineral exploration. Geology of the area was studied using imaging spectroscopy, isotopic dates, geologic maps, drill hole data, and D-C resistivity soundings. The western center lacks a siliceous cap, has a core of low-grade kaolinite-muscovite and propylitic rock surrounded by a high temperature alunite zone, and that this center was eroded to a deep level, exposing the high temperature kaolinite polymorph dickite and a pyrite-rich zone. Spectral maps indicate that the eastern center has an extensive siliceous cap surrounded by a high to intermediate temperature alunite zone, lacks a propylitic core (at least at the present level of exposure), has extensive kaolinite zones lacking dickite, and has volumetrically insignificant jarosite, all consistent with present exposure near the top of the hydrothermal system. Tabular clasts of Cambrian phyllite, altered to alunite, eroded from the western center, and deposited in a conglomerate below the Spearhead member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff in the eastern center, are evidence that the western center had formed, was uplifted, and eroded prior to 7.6 Ma. Continuous exposures of the Stonewall Flat Tuff and underlying conglomerate can be traced from the argillic zone into the alunite and siliceous zones of the eastern center, implying that this center formed after 7.6 Ma. New sp{40}Ar-sp{39}Ar isotopic dates indicate that the

  1. Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: toward a global map of life.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; McPherson, Jana M; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-03-01

    Global knowledge about the spatial distribution of species is orders of magnitude coarser in resolution than other geographically-structured environmental datasets such as topography or land cover. Yet such knowledge is crucial in deciphering ecological and evolutionary processes and in managing global change. In this review, we propose a conceptual and cyber-infrastructure framework for refining species distributional knowledge that is novel in its ability to mobilize and integrate diverse types of data such that their collective strengths overcome individual weaknesses. The ultimate aim is a public, online, quality-vetted 'Map of Life' that for every species integrates and visualizes available distributional knowledge, while also facilitating user feedback and dynamic biodiversity analyses. First milestones toward such an infrastructure have now been implemented. PMID:22019413

  2. Integrated geophysical and geological study and petroleum appraisal of Cretaceous plays in the Western Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dkhaili, Noomen; Bey, Saloua; El Abed, Mahmoud; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi

    2015-09-01

    An integrated study of available seismic and calibrated wells has been conducted in order to ascertain the structural development and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous Formations of the Western Gulf of Gabes. This study has resulted in an understanding of the controls of deep seated Tethyan tectonic lineaments by analysis of the Cretaceous deposits distribution. Three main unconformities have been identified in this area, unconformity U1 between the Jurassic and Cretaceous series, unconformity U2 separating Early from Late Cretaceous and known as the Austrian unconformity and the major unconformity U3 separating Cretaceous from Tertiary series. The seismic analysis and interpretation have confirmed the existence of several features dominated by an NE-SW extensive tectonic regime evidenced by deep listric faults, asymmetric horst and graben and tilted blocks structures. Indeed, the structural mapping of these unconformities, displays the presence of dominant NW-SE fault system (N140 to N160) bounding a large number of moderate sized basins. A strong inversion event related to the unconformity U3 can be demonstrated by the mapping of the unconformities consequence of the succession of several tectonic manifestations during the Cretaceous and post-Cretaceous periods. These tectonic events have resulted in the development of structural and stratigraphic traps further to the porosity and permeability enhancement of Cretaceous reservoirs.

  3. Near-Surface Geophysical Mapping of the Hydrological Response to an Intense Rainfall Event at the Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giraldez, J. V.; Espejo, A. J.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in a wide variety of biogeochemical fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and governs the (eco)hydrological response of a catchment to an external forcing such as rainfall. Near-surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors that measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) provide a fast and non-invasive means for characterizing this response at the field or catchment scale through high-resolution time-lapse mapping. Here we show how ECa maps, obtained before and after an intense rainfall event of 125 mm h-1, elucidate differences in soil moisture patterns and hydrologic response of an experimental field as a consequence of differed soil management. The dryland field (Vertisol) was located in SW Spain and cropped with a typical wheat-sunflower-legume rotation. Both, near-surface and subsurface ECa (ECas and ECad, respectively), were measured using the EM38-DD EMI sensor in a mobile configuration. Raw ECa measurements and Mean Relative Differences (MRD) provided information on soil moisture patterns while time-lapse maps were used to evaluate the hydrologic response of the field. ECa maps of the field, measured before and after the rainfall event showed similar patterns. The field depressions where most of water and sediments accumulated had the highest ECa and MRD values. The SE-oriented soil, which was deeper and more exposed to sun and wind, showed the lowest ECa and MRD. The largest differences raised in the central part of the field where a high ECa and MRD area appeared after the rainfall event as a consequence of the smaller soil depth and a possible subsurface flux concentration. Time-lapse maps of both ECa and MRD were also similar. The direct drill plots showed higher increments of ECa and MRD as a result of the smaller runoff production. Time-lapse ECa increments showed a bimodal distribution differentiating clearly the direct drill from the conventional and minimum tillage plots. However this kind

  4. Mapping the 3-D extent of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld layered mafic intrusion from geophysical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Cole, Janine; Khoza, Tshepo David; Webb, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the mafic portion of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and platinum group element deposits. The combination of the gravity and magnetic data with recent seismic, MT, borehole and rock property measurements powerfully constrains the models. The intrusion north of the TML is generally shallowly buried (generally <1500 m) with a modeled area of ∼160 km × ∼125 km. The modeled thicknesses are not well constrained but vary from ∼<1000 to >12,000 m, averaging ∼4000 m. A feeder, suggested by a large modeled thickness (>10,000 m) and funnel shape, for Lower Zone magmas could have originated near the intersection of NS and NE trending TML faults under Mokopane. The TML has been thought to be the feeder zone for the entire Bushveld Complex but the identification of local feeders and/or dikes in the TML in the models is complicated by uncertainties on the syn- and post-Bushveld deformation history. However, modeled moderately thick high density material near the intersection of faults within the central and western TML may represent feeders for parts of the Bushveld Complex if deformation was minimal. The correspondence of flat, high resistivity and density regions reflect the sill-like geometry of the Bushveld Complex without evidence for feeders north of Mokopane. Magnetotelluric models indicate that the Transvaal sedimentary basin underlies much of the Bushveld Complex north of the TML, further than previously thought and important because the degree of reaction and assimilation of the Transvaal rocks with the mafic magmas resulted in a variety of mineralization zones.

  5. Mapping saline groundwater beneath the Sea Galilee and its vicinity using time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) geophysical technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldman, M.; Gvirtzman, H.; Hurwitz, S.

    2004-01-01

    An extensive time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey covering the Sea of Galilee with a dense grid of points has been recently carried out. A total of 269 offshore and 33 supplementary onshore TDEM soundings were performed along six N-S and ten W-E profiles and at selected points both offshore and onshore along the whole coastal line. The interpreted resistivities were calibrated with the direct salinity measurements in the Haon-2 borehole and relatively deep (5 m) cores taken from the lake bottom. It was found that resistivities below 1 ohm-m are solely indicative of groundwater salinity exceeding 10,000 mg Cl/l. Such low resistivities (high salinities) were detected at depths greater than 15 m below almost the entire bottom of the lake. At some parts of the lake, particularly in the south, the saline water was detected at shallower depths, sometimes at a few meters below the bottom. Relatively high resistivity (fresh groundwater) was found along the margins of the lake down to roughly 100 m, the maximum exploration depth of the system. The detected sharp lateral contrasts at the lake margin between high and low resistivities coincide with the faults separating the carbonate and clastic units, respectively. The geometry of the fresh/saline groundwater interface below the central part of the lake is very similar to the shape of the lake bottom, probably due to the diffusive salt transport from the bottom sediments to the lake water. The above geophysical observations suggest differentsalt transport mechanisms from the sediments to the central part of the lake (diffusion) and from regional aquifers to the margins of the lake (advection). ?? 2004 Science From Israel/LPPLtd.

  6. An Integrative Method for Accurate Comparative Genome Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Swidan, Firas; Rocha, Eduardo P. C; Shmoish, Michael; Pinter, Ron Y

    2006-01-01

    We present MAGIC, an integrative and accurate method for comparative genome mapping. Our method consists of two phases: preprocessing for identifying “maximal similar segments,” and mapping for clustering and classifying these segments. MAGIC's main novelty lies in its biologically intuitive clustering approach, which aims towards both calculating reorder-free segments and identifying orthologous segments. In the process, MAGIC efficiently handles ambiguities resulting from duplications that occurred before the speciation of the considered organisms from their most recent common ancestor. We demonstrate both MAGIC's robustness and scalability: the former is asserted with respect to its initial input and with respect to its parameters' values. The latter is asserted by applying MAGIC to distantly related organisms and to large genomes. We compare MAGIC to other comparative mapping methods and provide detailed analysis of the differences between them. Our improvements allow a comprehensive study of the diversity of genetic repertoires resulting from large-scale mutations, such as indels and duplications, including explicitly transposable and phagic elements. The strength of our method is demonstrated by detailed statistics computed for each type of these large-scale mutations. MAGIC enabled us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the different forces shaping prokaryotic genomes from different clades, and to quantify the importance of novel gene content introduced by horizontal gene transfer relative to gene duplication in bacterial genome evolution. We use these results to investigate the breakpoint distribution in several prokaryotic genomes. PMID:16933978

  7. The tectonic evolution of the Arctic since Pangea breakup: Integrating constraints from surface geology and geophysics with mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace E.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic, including the northern Pacific, Siberian and North American margins, since the Jurassic has been punctuated by the opening and closing of ocean basins, the accretion of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes and associated deformation. This complexity is expressed in the uncertainty of plate tectonic models of the region, with the time-dependent configurations and kinematic history remaining poorly understood. The age, location, geometry and convergence rates of the subduction zones associated with these ancient ocean basins have implications for mantle structure, which can be used as an additional constraint for refining and evaluating plate boundary models. Here we integrate surface geology and geophysics with mantle tomography models to generate a digital set of tectonic blocks and plates as well as topologically closed plate boundaries with time-dependent rotational histories for the circum-Arctic. We find that subducted slabs inferred from seismic velocity anomalies from global P and S wave tomography models can be linked to various episodes of Arctic subduction since the Jurassic, in particular to the destruction of the South Anuyi Ocean. We present a refined model for the opening of the Amerasia Basin incorporating seafloor spreading between at least 142.5 and 120 Ma, a "windshield" rotation for the Canada Basin, and opening orthogonal to the Lomonosov Ridge for the northern Makarov and Podvodnikov basins. We also present a refined pre-accretionary model for the Wrangellia Superterrane, imposing a subduction polarity reversal in the early Jurassic before accretion to North America at 140 Ma. Our model accounts for the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic opening and closure of the Cache Creek Ocean, reconstructed between the Wrangellia Superterrane and Yukon-Tanana Terrane. We suggest that a triple junction may also explain the Mid-Palaeozoic opening of the Slide Mountain, Oimyakon and South Anuyi oceans. Our

  8. Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R. W.

    2006-12-28

    Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive amounts of cultural electromagnetic noise that obscured the

  9. Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Mapping biological ideas: Concept maps as knowledge integration tools for evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of ideas from different areas (Bahar et al., 1999; Tsui & Treagust, 2003) and multiple interacting levels (Wilensky & Resnick, 1999; Duncan & Reiser, 2007; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Research suggests that learners can hold a rich repertoire of co-existing alternative ideas of evolution (for example, Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes, Good, & Peebles, 1996; Evans, 2008), especially of human evolution (for example, Nelson, 1986; Sinatra et al., 2003; Poling & Evans, 2004). Evolution ideas are difficult to understand because they often contradict existing alternative ideas (Mayr, 1982; Wolpert, 1994; Evans, 2008). Research suggests that understanding human evolution is a key to evolution education (for example, Blackwell et al., 2003; Besterman & Baggott la Velle, 2007). This dissertation research investigates how different concept mapping forms embedded in a collaborative technology-enhanced learning environment can support students' integration of evolution ideas using case studies of human evolution. Knowledge Integration (KI) (Linn et al., 2000; Linn et al., 2004) is used as the operational framework to explore concept maps as knowledge integration tools to elicit, add, critically distinguish, group, connect, and sort out alternative evolution ideas. Concept maps are a form of node-link diagram for organizing and representing connections between ideas as a semantic network (Novak & Gowin, 1984). This dissertation research describes the iterative development of a novel biology

  11. Second-Generation Genetic Linkage Map of Catfish and Its Integration with the BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W.; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-01-01

    Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ∼52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds. PMID:23050234

  12. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  13. Use of integrated geologic and geophysical information for characterizing the structure of fracture systems at the US/BK Site, Grimsel Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, S.J.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Fracture systems form the primary fluid flow paths in a number of rock types, including some of those being considered for high level nuclear waste repositories. In some cases, flow along fractures must be modeled explicitly as part of a site characterization effort. Fractures commonly are concentrated in fracture zones, and even where fractures are seemingly ubiquitous, the hydrology of a site can be dominated by a few discrete fracture zones. We have implemented a site characterization methodology that combines information gained from geophysical and geologic investigations. The general philosophy is to identify and locate the major fracture zones, and then to characterize their systematics. Characterizing the systematics means establishing the essential and recurring patterns in which fractures are organized within the zones. We make a concerted effort to use information on the systematics of the fracture systems to link the site-specific geologic, borehole and geophysical information. This report illustrates how geologic and geophysical information on geologic heterogeneities can be integrated to guide the development of hydrologic models. The report focuses on fractures, a particularly common type of geologic heterogeneity. However, many aspects of the methodology we present can be applied to other geologic heterogeneities as well. 57 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Digital Geologic Mapping and Integration with the Geoweb: The Death Knell for Exclusively Paper Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of traditional methods of geologic mapping with rapidly developing web-based geospatial applications ('the geoweb') and the various collaborative opportunities of web 2.0 have the potential to change the nature, value, and relevance of geologic maps and related field studies. Parallel advances in basic GPS technology, digital photography, and related integrative applications provide practicing geologic mappers with greatly enhanced methods for collecting, visualizing, interpreting, and disseminating geologic information. Even a cursory application of available tools can make field and office work more enriching and efficient; whereas more advanced and systematic applications provide new avenues for collaboration, outreach, and public education. Moreover, they ensure a much broader audience among an immense number of internet savvy end-users with very specific expectations for geospatial data availability. Perplexingly, the geologic community as a whole is not fully exploring this opportunity despite the inevitable revolution in portends. The slow acceptance follows a broad generational trend wherein seasoned professionals are lagging behind geology students and recent graduates in their grasp of and interest in the capabilities of the geoweb and web 2.0 types of applications. Possible explanations for this include: fear of the unknown, fear of learning curve, lack of interest, lack of academic/professional incentive, and (hopefully not) reluctance toward open collaboration. Although some aspects of the expanding geoweb are cloaked in arcane computer code, others are extremely simple to understand and use. A particularly obvious and simple application to enhance any field study is photo geotagging, the digital documentation of the locations of key outcrops, illustrative vistas, and particularly complicated geologic field relations. Viewing geotagged photos in their appropriate context on a virtual globe with high-resolution imagery can be an

  15. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are commonly seen as unpredictable. Even when scientists believe an earthquake is likely, it is still hard to understand the indications observed, as well as their theoretical and practical implications. There is some controversy surrounding the concept of using animals as a precursor of earthquakes. Nonetheless, several institutes at University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Vienna University of Technology, both Vienna, Austria, and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, as well as Terramath Indonesia, Buleleng, both Indonesia, cooperate in a long-term project, funded by Red Bull Media House, Salzburg, Austria, which aims at getting some decisive step forward from anecdotal to scientific evidence of those interdependencies, and show their possible use in forecasting seismic hazard on a short-term basis. Though no conclusive research has yet been published, an idea in this study is that even if animals do not respond to specific geophysical precursors and with enough notice to enable earthquake forecasting on that basis, they may at least enhance, in conjunction with other indications, the degree of certainty we can get of a prediction of an impending earthquake. In Indonesia, indeed, before the great earthquakes of 2004 and 2005, ominous geophysical as well as biological phenomena occurred (but were realized as precursors only in retrospect). Numerous comparable stories can be told from other times and regions. Nearly 2000 perceptible earthquakes (> M3.5) occur each year in Indonesia. Also, in 2007, the government has launched a program, focused on West Sumatra, for investigating earthquake precursors. Therefore, Indonesia is an excellent target area for a study concerning possible interconnections between geophysical and biological earthquake precursors. Geophysical and atmospheric measurements and behavioral observation of several animal species (elephant, domestic cattle, water buffalo, chicken, rat, catfish) are conducted in three areas

  16. Mapping White Matter Integrity in Elderly People with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Talia M.; Jahanshad, Neda; Busovaca, Edgar; Wendelken, Lauren; Nicolas, Krista; Thompson, Paul M.; Valcour, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    People with HIV are living longer as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) becomes more widely available. However, even when plasma viral load is reduced to untraceable levels, chronic HIV infection is associated with neurological deficits and brain atrophy beyond that of normal aging. HIV is often marked by cortical and subcortical atrophy, but the integrity of the brain’s white matter (WM) pathways also progressively declines. Few studies focus on older cohorts where normal aging may be compounded with HIV infection to influence deficit patterns. In this relatively large diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we investigated abnormalities in WM fiber integrity in 56 HIV+ adults with access to cART (mean age: 63.9 ± 3.7 years), compared to 31 matched healthy controls (65.4 ± 2.2 years). Statistical 3D maps revealed the independent effects of HIV diagnosis and age on fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity, but we did not find any evidence for an age by diagnosis interaction in our current sample. Compared to healthy controls, HIV patients showed pervasive FA decreases and diffusivity increases throughout WM. We also assessed neuropsychological (NP) summary z-score associations. In both patients and controls, fiber integrity measures were associated with NP summary scores. The greatest differences were detected in the corpus callosum and in the projection fibers of the corona radiata. These deficits are consistent with published NP deficits and cortical atrophy patterns in elderly people with HIV. PMID:23362139

  17. The study of a potential CO2 repository: Integrating laboratory and field geophysical experiments to characterize the upper Muschelkalk aquifer (northern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Zappone, A. S.; Misra, S.; Diamond, L.

    2011-12-01

    The upper Muschelkalk saline aquifer consists of partly dolomitized to completely dolomitized carbonate rocks of mid Triassic age (~230 Ma). This aquifer is present throughout the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB), north of the Alps. A regional appraisal of the SMB indicates that this Formation is a potential host aquifer for sequestered CO2. However, the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the porosity, permeability and other relevant physical and mechanical properties of the upper Muschelkalk are still poorly known. The uncertainty in this knowledge stems mainly from the weakly developed oil and gas exploration industry in Switzerland. We use an integrated approach to better constrain the aquifer physical properties, which couples field scale geophysical surveys (borehole logging and seismic reflection profiles) with laboratory analytical data. Here we focus on a set of boreholes from northern Switzerland, where geophysical data and drill core useable for laboratory measurements are available. Two sub-units comprise the upper Muschelkalk Formation. The stratigraphically higher part is a fossiliferous dolomite (>90 vol% CaMg(CO3)2; Trigodonusdolomit). The underlying unit, is composed of micritic calcite and dolomite layers interbedded with fossil-rich layers (Hauptmuschelkalk). Although both units are part of the aquifer formation, they appear to have distinctly different physical properties. The transition from Trigodonusdolomit to the Hauptmuschelkalk is marked by an increase in the sonic velocity, density and acoustic impedance. The magnitude of increase in sonic velocity can be up to 500 m/s, accompanied by an increase in acoustic impedance from 8500 to 15500 (m/s*g/cm3), but varies between the different boreholes. Poisson's ratio, determined from a single borehole, show sharp decrease at the transition. The origin of the changes in the geophysical data is likely reflecting differences in porosity and mineral composition in the Trigodonusdolomit and

  18. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  19. Integrative Acoustic Mapping Reveals Hudson RIver Sediment Processes an Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Bell, R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Slagle, A.; Chillrud, S.; Kenna, T.; Flood, R.; Ferrini, V.; Cerrato, R.; McHugh, C.; Strayer, D.

    2005-06-01

    Rivers and estuaries around the world are the focus of human settlements and activities. Needs for clean water, ecosystem preservation, commercial navigation, industrial development, and recreational access compete for the use of estuaries, and management of these resources requires a detailed understanding of estuarine morphology and sediment dynamics. This article presents an overview of the first estuary-wide study of a heavily used estuary, the Hudson River, based on high-resolution acoustic mapping of the river bottom. The integration of three high-resolution acoustic methods with extensive sampling reveals an unexpected complexity of bottom features and allows detailed classification of the benthic environment in terms of riverbed morphology, sediment type, and sedimentary processes.

  20. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes.

    PubMed

    Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Książkiewicz, Michał; Szczepaniak, Anna; Susek, Karolina; Podkowiński, Jan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) has recently been considered a reference genome for the Lupinus genus. In the present work, genetic and cytogenetic maps of L. angustifolius were supplemented with 30 new molecular markers representing lupin genome regions, harboring genes involved in nitrogen fixation during the symbiotic interaction of legumes and soil bacteria (Rhizobiaceae). Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase P2, asparagine synthetase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Together with previously mapped chromosomes, the integrated L. angustifolius map encompasses 73 chromosome markers, including 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 45S rDNA, and anchors 20 L. angustifolius linkage groups to corresponding chromosomes. Chromosomal identification using BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization identified two BAC clones as narrow-leafed lupin centromere-specific markers, which served as templates for preliminary studies of centromere composition within the genus. Bioinformatic analysis of these two BACs revealed that centromeric/pericentromeric regions of narrow-leafed lupin chromosomes consisted of simple sequence repeats ordered into tandem repeats containing the trinucleotide and pentanucleotide simple sequence repeats AGG and GATAC, structured into long arrays. Moreover, cross-genus microsynteny analysis revealed syntenic patterns of 31 single-locus BAC clones among several legume species. The gene and chromosome level findings provide evidence of ancient duplication events that must have occurred very early in the divergence of papilionoid lineages. This work provides a strong foundation for future comparative mapping among legumes and may facilitate understanding of mechanisms involved in shaping legume chromosomes. PMID:27168155

  1. An integrated petrophysical-geophysical approach for the characterization of a potential caprock-reservoir system for CO2 storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The selection of a CO2 geologic storage site requires the choice of a study site suitable for the characterization in order to create a robust experimental database especially regarding the spatial petrophysical heterogeneities and elasto-mechanical properties of the rocks that make up a potential caprock-reservoir system. In our study the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical characterization began in a previously well drilled area in the northern part of the Sulcis coal basin (Nuraxi Figus area - SW Sardinia - Italy) where crucial geologic data were recovered from high-quality samples from stratigraphic wells and from mining galleries. The basin represents one of the most important Italian carbon reserves characterized by a great mining potential. In the study area, the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Fm. made up of terrigeneous continental rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for CO2 storage. Petrophysical and geophysical investigations were carried out by a great number of laboratory tests on the core samples and in situ measurements on a mining gallery in order to characterize the potential caprock-reservoir system and to substantially reduce geologic uncertainty in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of CO2 storage capacity. In order to better define the spatial distribution of the petrophysical heterogeneity, the seismic responses from the caprock-reservoir system formations were also analysed and correlated with the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical properties In a second step of this work, we also analysed the tectonic stability of the study area by the integrated application of remote-sensing monitoring spatial geodetic techniques. In particular, the global positioning system (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (inSAR) were considered

  2. Utilizing Dynamic Form Generation and Image Map Techniques to Construct an Interface to an Astronomical and Geophysical INGRES Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorland, B. N.; Snyder, W. A.; Jones, R. D.; Heinicke, S.; Becker, D. A.

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC), located in the Space Sciences Division (SSD) of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is the designated archive for celestial and earth backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) science research programs, including the upcoming Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data set. We extract and populate relational database catalogs with metadata and these catalogs to locate archived data products which our users request. The advent of Jason Ng's (NCSA) GSQL protocols have allowed us to construct World-Wide Wed interfaces to our catalogs, greatly improving their utility to users. We have modified these scripts to work with our INGRES RDBMS. We have enhanced the standard GSQL interface by incorporating the use of 'on the fly' form and graphical image construction. With dynamic forms, users generate their own forms by pre-selecting those query parameters they wish to use to search on databases. Users can also select query complexity ranging from rank novice to direct interaction with Standard Query Language (SQL). Dynamic image mapping adds a graphical layer to the WWW forms interface, and permits users to select data by interacting with images only. These techniques allow for an uncluttered and intuitive representation of the catalog databases to users.

  3. A high density consensus genetic map of tetraploid cotton that integrates multiple component maps through molecular marker redundancy check

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-dense consensus (UDC) genetic map of tetraploid cotton was constructed using six high-density component maps and after the integration of a sequence-based marker redundancy check. Public cotton SSR libraries (17,343 markers) were curated for sequence redundancy using 90% as a similarity cut...

  4. Hudson Canyon benthic habitats characterization and mapping by integrated analysis of multidisciplinary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Rona, Peter A.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

    2013-04-01

    . Previously described hummocky terrain associated with extensive, long-term burrowing activity by golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps) was clearly delineated along the canyon rims. Bedform fields and potential current deposits observed along the upper portion of canyon walls suggest the presence of intense bottom currents flowing parallel to canyon axis. A benthic habitat map of Hudson Canyon head was produced by integration of the different datasets. The distribution of habitats was primarily inferred from geophysical data characteristics. Furthermore habitat characteristics can be related to sedimentary and oceanographic processes acting on the seafloor. Comparison and refinement of bathymetric and backscatter imagery with ground truth data enabled validation of acoustic classification of the seafloor, allowing the definition of morpho-acoustic classes corresponding to as many habitats, and to extend the predictive results over larger areas.

  5. Integration of geology, non-seismic geophysics and seismic data in a structurally complex, frontier oil play: Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    The discovery of live Cretaceous oil in mineral exploration drill holes, followed by the identification of Mesozoic sediments in outcrop and in shallow drill holes, has lead to an integrated approach to exploration of a structurally complex, frontier oil play in south-central Colorado. Gravity, aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric (MT), and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were acquired and interpreted in the initial stages of the project. Models derived from the geophysical data were augmented with geologic field work to explain specific anomalies. Interpretation of the gravity data was constrained by density measurements on representative rock samples collected in the field. Seismic data, acquired in the most recent exploration stage, provided confirmation and modification of the basin margin geometry. Velocity data from the seismic was integrated with resistivity, density, magnetic and geologic data to predict lithologies on an intermediate fault block located between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the San Luis Basin.

  6. Geographic information systems (GIS) spatial data compilation of geodynamic, tectonic, metallogenic, mineral deposit, and geophysical maps and associated descriptive data for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naumova, Vera V., (compiler); Patuk, Mikhail I.; Kapitanchuk, Marina Yu.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Miller, Robert J.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. The purpose of this publication is to provide a high-quality spatial data compilation (Geographical Information System or GIS) of geodynamic, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps, and descriptive data for Northeast Asia for customers and users. This area consists of Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan. The GIS compilation contains integrated spatial data for: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) a mineral deposit location map; (3) metallogenic belt maps; (4) detailed descriptions of geologic units, including tectonostratigraphic terranes, cratons, major melange zones, and overlap assemblages, with references; (5) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; (6) detailed mineral deposit descriptions with references; and (7) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes.

  7. An integrated BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated genome-wide genetic and physical maps are crucial to many aspects of cotton genome research. We report a genome-wide BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the upland cotton genome using a high-resolution and high-throughput capillary-based fingerprinting method. The map was constr...

  8. Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed integration imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand K.; Zhou, Wensen

    1999-02-01

    A direct phase-to-radial distance mapping algorithm for 360 deg profilometry with time delay and integration imaging is presented. This method, based on an inherent mapping relationship, is capable of speedy and accurate measurement without the determination of any geometric parameter. The capability of the mapping algorithm is demonstrated by measuring a plane and a shoe.

  9. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  10. AthaMap, integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional data

    PubMed Central

    Bülow, Lorenz; Engelmann, Stefan; Schindler, Martin; Hehl, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The AthaMap database generates a map of predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap has now been extended to include data on post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 403 173 genomic positions of small RNAs have been mapped in the A. thaliana genome. These identify 5772 putative post-transcriptionally regulated target genes. AthaMap tools have been modified to improve the identification of common TFBS in co-regulated genes by subtracting post-transcriptionally regulated genes from such analyses. Furthermore, AthaMap was updated to the TAIR7 genome annotation, a graphic display of gene analysis results was implemented, and the TFBS data content was increased. AthaMap is freely available at http://www.athamap.de/. PMID:18842622

  11. AthaMap, integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional data.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Lorenz; Engelmann, Stefan; Schindler, Martin; Hehl, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The AthaMap database generates a map of predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap has now been extended to include data on post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 403,173 genomic positions of small RNAs have been mapped in the A. thaliana genome. These identify 5772 putative post-transcriptionally regulated target genes. AthaMap tools have been modified to improve the identification of common TFBS in co-regulated genes by subtracting post-transcriptionally regulated genes from such analyses. Furthermore, AthaMap was updated to the TAIR7 genome annotation, a graphic display of gene analysis results was implemented, and the TFBS data content was increased. AthaMap is freely available at http://www.athamap.de/. PMID:18842622

  12. Using Methods of Dimension Reduction to Expand Data Integration and Reduce Uncertainty in Hydrological and Geophysical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, A.; Savoy, H.; Heße, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD), first demonstrated by Rubin et al. in 2010, has been particularly useful in hydrological and geophysical applications. MAD provides a new framework for successfully using diverse data for the characterization of heterogeneous subsurface quantities (eg. hydraulic conductivity). Through Bayesian inverse modeling, MAD is able to take a general, assumption-free approach, incorporating both local data, ie. data that pertains directly to the target quantity, as well as other indirectly related non-local data. The latter are used for the inversion and converted into local data, called 'anchors', therefore improving the overall characterization of the target variable. However, with the use of more and more data, problems arise with the inversion due to the high dimensionality of said data, eg. when using time series. As a result, MAD becomes increasingly difficult, if not impossible, to use for large data sets. The objective of our study is therefore to investigate and demonstrate effective methods of dimension reduction that reduces large data sets to a small set of relevant parameters while still retaining a strong effect on the inversion procedure. The poster will explain the relevant methods and present examples of their effect on different data types, primarily looking at hydrological data (ie. concentration breakthrough curves, drawdown time series or vertical head profiles) then further theorizing its possible application to geophysical information. Ultimately, the broader goal of this study is to propose ways of applying dimension reduction to the realm of hydrogeophysics, which will not only expand the application of MAD, but also improve our ability to reduce uncertainty in the relevant parameters.

  13. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  14. Late Cenozoic Magmatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Ancestral Cascade Arc in the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada: Insights from Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, Geochemical and Geochronologic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Box, S. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Cousens, B.; Moring, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic mapping integrated with new geophysical, geochemical, and geochronologic data characterize the evolution of Bodie Hills volcanic field (BHVF), a long-lived eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade arc. The ~700 km2 field was a locus of magmatic activity from ~15 to 8 Ma. It includes >25 basaltic andesite to trachyandesite stratovolcanoes and silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite dome complexes. The southeastern part of the BHVF is overlain by the ~3.9 to 0.1 Ma, post-arc Aurora Volcanic Field. Long-lived BHVF magmatism was localized by crustal-scale tectonic features, including the Precambrian continental margin, the Walker Lane, the Basin and Range Province, and the Mina deflection. BHVF eruptive activity occurred primarily during 3 stages: 1) dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~15.0 to 12.9 Ma), 2) coalesced trachydacite and rhyolite lava domes and trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~11.6 to 9.7 Ma), and 3) dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite lava dome complexes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Relatively mafic stratovolcanoes surrounded by debris flow aprons lie on the margins of the BHVF, whereas more silicic dome fields occupy its center. Detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data suggest the presence of unexposed cogenetic granitic plutons beneath the center of the BHVF. Isotopic compositions of BHVF rocks are generally more radiogenic with decreasing age (e.g., initial Sr isotope values increase from ~0.7049 to 0.7061), which suggests progressively greater magma contamination by crustal components during evolution of the BHVF. Approximately circular, polygenetic volcanoes and scarcity of dikes suggest a low differential horizontal stress field during BHVF formation. Extensive alluvial gravel deposits that grade laterally into fluvial gravels and finer grained lacustrine sediments and the westerly sourced Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT; ~9.4 Ma) blanket large parts of the BHVF. The earliest sediments

  15. Identification of Ischemic Lesions Based on Difference Integral Maps, Comparison of Several ECG Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švehlíková, J.; Kania, M.; Turzová, M.; Hebláková, E.; Tyšler, M.; Maniewski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Ischemic changes in small areas of myocardium can be detected from difference integral maps computed from body surface potentials measured on the same subject in situations with and without manifestation of ischemia. The proposed method for their detection is the inverse solution with 2 dipoles. Surface potentials were recorded at rest and during stress on 10 patients and 3 healthy subjects. Difference integral maps were computed for 4 intervals of integration of electrocardiographic signal (QRST, QRSU, STT and STU) and their properties and applicability as input data for inverse identification of ischemic lesions were compared. The results showed that better (more reliable) inverse solutions can be obtained from difference integral maps computed either from QRST or from STT interval of integration. The average correlation between these maps was 97%. The use of the end of U wave instead of the end of T wave for interval of integration did not improve the results.

  16. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  17. Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gurioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical

  18. Integrated geophysical and petrological characterization of mud volcanoes at the Morrocan Atlantic margin - linking morphology to fluid flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depreiter, D.; van Rensbergen, P.; Poort, J.; de Boever, E.; Swennen, R.; Henriet, J.

    2005-12-01

    Detailed geophysical, geochemical and petrological data over a cluster of large mud volcanoes at the Moroccan North Atlantic margin document the activity of sea floor mud volcanoes in relation to its morphology and structural setting. Mud volcanoes are often long-lived systems; their changing morphology bears witness of the evolution of fluid flow expulsion. The El Arraiche mud volcano field is a cluster of 9 mud volcanoes. It was discovered in 2002 at the Morrocan Atlantic margin in water depths from 200 m to 700 m. The largest mud volcano in the field is 255 m high and 5.4 km wide. Marine surveys between 2002 and 2005 yielded detailed geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological, and petrological data. The geophysical data include multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution seismics, deep-tow sub bottom profiles and side-scan sonar mosaics. Video imagery lines, video guided grab samples, dredge samples, gravity cores, and box cores were collected for groundtruthing purposes. Petrological and geochemical analysis of authigenic carbonates provided a record of hydrocarbon sources, fluid characteristics, processes of mixing and the mode of venting. The El Arraiche mud volcanoes cluster around two subparallel anticlines and are associated active extensional faults. Extruded rock clasts and regional seismic data locate the El Arraiche field over a Late Miocene to Pliocene extensional basin. The onset of mud volcanic activity is estimated at about 2.4 Ma and probably roots in the Cretacous to Miocene accretionary wedge. Stacked outflows are visible up to a depth of about 500 m below the sea floor. Stratigraphic correlation of the outflow lenses over the entire mud volcano field indicate that although large outflow events are not synchronized between the individual mud volcanoes, eruptions occurred more frequently during periods of active extensive tectonics. The morphology of the sea floor mud volcanoes is the result of a combination of extrusive and intrusive processes

  19. INTEGRATION OF GENETIC AND RADIATION HYBRID MAPS OF THE PIG: THE SECOND GENERATION IMPRH MAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 4500 markers, ESTs and genes have been mapped on IMpRH radiation hybrid panel and submitted to IMpRH Server before 30 March 2002, whereas 757 markers only were mapped on the first generation map (Hawken et al, 1999). To take advantage of the different resolutions observed on the genetic an...

  20. Integrating grid-based and topological maps for mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Thrun, S.; Buecken, A.

    1996-12-31

    Research on mobile robot navigation has produced two major paradigms for mapping indoor environments: grid-based and topological. While grid-based methods produce accurate metric maps, their complexity often prohibits efficient planning and problem solving in large-scale indoor environments. Topological maps, on the other hand, can be used much more efficiently, yet accurate and consistent topological maps are considerably difficult to learn in large-scale environments. This paper describes an approach that integrates both paradigms: grid-based and topological. Grid-based maps are learned using artificial neural networks and Bayesian integration. Topological maps are generated on top of the grid-based maps, by partitioning the latter into coherent regions. By combining both paradigms-grid-based and topological, the approach presented here gains the best of both worlds: accuracy/consistency and efficiency. The paper gives results for autonomously operating a mobile robot equipped with sonar sensors in populated multi-room environments.

  1. Integrated Geophysical Investigation of Preferential Flow Paths at the Former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Missouri, May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, conducted surface and borehole geophysical surveys at the former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Mo., to identify preferential pathways for potential contaminant transport along the bedrock surface and into dissolution-enhanced fractures. The Tyson Valley Powder Farm was formerly used as a munitions storage and disposal facility in the 1940s and 1950s, and the site at which the surveys were performed was a disposal area for munitions and waste solvents such as trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene. Direct-current resistivity and seismic refraction data were acquired on the surface; gamma, electromagnetic induction, and full waveform sonic logs were acquired in accessible boreholes. Through the combined interpretation of the seismic refraction tomographic and resistivity inversion results and borehole logs, inconsistencies in the bedrock surface were identified that may provide horizontal preferential flow paths for dense nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants. These results, interpreted and displayed in georeferenced three-dimensional space, should help to establish more effective monitoring and remediation strategies.

  2. An integrated geophysical study of basin structure in the Van Horn segment of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, T.J.; Whitelaw, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Rio Grande Rift is a major late Cenozoic continental rift which trends north-south from Colorado to West Texas where it takes an abrupt south-west turn. A series of basins then follow the Texas-Mexico border passing through the Big Bend Area into Mexico. This rifting zone produced a series of bolsons: Hueco Bolson, Red Light Bolson, Eagle Flat, Green River Bolson, and Ryan Flat being the most predominant of the area. The target of this study was the area southeast of the Hueco Bolson; the Red Light and Green River Bolson is an intermontane basin being bounded on the west by the Eagle Mountains and on the east by the Van Horn Mountains. The Red Light Bolson is nested between the Quitman and Eagle Mountains. Through the use of gravity data, drill hole information and other related geophysical information, the subsurface structure of this region was investigated. A broad gravity low dominates the region, but does not correlate well with late Cenozoic features. Drilling data suggest that this low is due to thick Cretaceous strata. The Green River Bolson is associated with a north-south trending gravity low suggesting it contains considerable Cenozoic fill.

  3. The DIGISOIL multi-sensor system: from geophysical measurements to soil properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the preliminary tasks of the DIGISOIL project were to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The different field tests, realized at this time, allow focusing on technological suitable solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from such data to soil properties maps.

  4. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  5. Integration of Geologic and Geophysical Data to Model Hydrostratigraphy Under a Recharge Pond for Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, V.; Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R. J.; Jenni, S.; Will, R.; Lear, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Harkins Slough Recharge Pond (HSRP) near Watsonville, CA, was developed to lessen the adverse impacts of excessive groundwater pumping in the Pajaro Valley. Storm-flow run-off is filtered and diverted into the pond during the winter, percolates through the base of the pond to the alluvial aquifer, and is recovered in the summer. The pond faces two operational challenges. The first is a decrease in the infiltration rate throughout the winter, reducing the amount of run-off that can percolate into the aquifer. The second is a recovery rate of less than 25%. Operators need a clearer understanding of the hydrologic processes governing the movement and storage of water beneath the pond. Efforts to characterize hydrologic processes at the HSRP have resulted in the acquisition of numerous data sets. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions from shallow cores and drillers’ logs of ten, ~50 m deep wells. An additional nine monitoring wells were used to measure hydraulic head every 15 minutes throughout the year. Geophysical surveys, including shallow shear-wave reflection, ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, and seismic cone penetration testing, were collected along the base of the HSRP in Summer 2007 when the pond was drained. In addition, four probes collected 1D resistivity profiles every 3 minutes throughout an infiltration cycle in the winter of 2007-2008. We combined these data, using PETREL software, into a model describing the hydrostratigraphy beneath the pond, and then used ECLIPSE to simulate the variably-saturated flow behavior. The extent of our model, 380 m by 390 m, roughly matches the size of the pond, and extends to a depth of ~60 m. We input all data using the resolution at which they were acquired; this ranged from 0.2 m resolution for the shallow cores to ~3 m resolution for seismic data. The GPR and electrical data were input as images and used with the seismic data to identify hydrostratigraphic boundaries. We elected to use 12

  6. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  7. Integrated electrical geophysical surveys (ERT and SP) for the study of buried structure in a archeological complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Sergio; Mazzone, Fiorella; Maglio, Graziano

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical methods, particularly ERT, are very popular in archeological investigations. The success of the ERT method depends on the difference between the resistivity properties of the potential archeological targets (walls, roads, cavities etc..) and the surrounding environment. In this context often the main issue is to identify cavities or antropic buried structures. In this work we have used ERT and SP combined surveys for the study of buried structures in a farm of artistic importance of the XVII century located near Lecce (Salento peninsula, Italy). In the courtyard of the farm, characterized by the presence of two access holes to a possible underground cavity, we performed a 3D ERT that consists of 7 parallel profiles with 15 electrodes and a resolution of 0.7m, inverted with robust method. Also we performed a 3D SP surveys with 70 data points and a resolution of 1m using non-polarizing Cu/CuSO4 electrodes and a high internal impedance voltmeter using the Charge Occurence Probability (COP) algorithm. In correspondence of the two access holes both methods demonstrate clearly the presence of a cavity that extends to a depth of about 1.8m from ground level probably used for storage of rainwater. Furthermore the ERT surveys show the presence of a second cavity at greater depths (2.5m) that is not resolved by the SP method. The 3D inversion results clearly illustrate the capability to resolve in view of quality 3D structures of archeological interest. Particularly, in this work, we underline the role of SP surveys in this context and the good correlation with ERT surveys.

  8. An Incremental Map Building Approach via Static Stixel Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffert, M.; Anzt, S.; Franke, U.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a stereo-vision based incremental mapping approach for urban regions. As input, we use the 3D representation called multi-layered Stixel World which is computed from dense disparity images. More and more, researchers of Driver Assistance Systems rely on efficient and compact 3D representations like the Stixel World. The developed mapping approach takes into account the motion state of obstacles, as well as free space information obtained from the Stixel World. The presented work is based on the well known occupancy grid mapping technique and is formulated with evidential theory. A detailed sensor model is described which is used to determine the information whether a grid cell is occupied, free or has an unknown state. The map update is solved in a time recursive manner by using the Dempster`s Rule of Combination. 3D results of complex inner city regions are shown and are compared with Google Earth images.

  9. Safe task planning integrating uncertainties and local maps federations

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, A.; Fort-Piat, N.L.

    2000-06-01

    This paper deals with the generation of safe tasks for displacement missions of a nonholonomic mobile robot in a mapped indoor environment. The goal of this study is to plan safe actions (path-following) as well as observations (they call it local maps federation [LMF]), leading the robot to configurations where pertinent features can be sensed, thus attaining best localization relative to its environment. A path-planning method dealing with uncertainties is proposed, where both uncertainties in localization and in control of a nonholonomic mobile robot are managed. Maps uncertainties are handled using the local map concept, which is introduced as a set of the best landmarks used for planning and executing robust motion movements. The safeness of the proposed method is due to the mixing between the planning phase and the navigation phase.

  10. IRETHERM: Developing a Strategic and Holistic Understanding of Ireland's Geothermal Energy Potential through Integrated Modelling of New and Existing Geophysical, Geochemical and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Daly, Stephen; Vozar, Jan; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Fritschle, Tobias; Willmot Noller, Nicola; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Science Foundation Ireland funded academia-government-industry collaborative IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie), initiated in 2011, is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's (all-island) deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Potential applications include both low enthalpy district space heating of large urban centres and electricity generation from intermediate-temperature waters. IRETHERM comprises three broad geothermal target types; 1) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's radiogenic granites (EGS), (2) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's deep sedimentary basins (HSA), and, (3) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of warm springs. The geophysical subsurface imaging techniques of choice are controlled-source (CSEM) and natural-source (magnetotellurics, MT) electromagnetic methods. Electrical conductivity, being a transport property, is a proxy for permeability, and appropriate porosity-permeability relations are being developed. To date, MT measurements have been made at 466 sites over sedimentary basins (190 sites), granites (156 sites) and warm springs (120 sites), with CSEM across one warm spring. An ongoing continuous geochemical (temperature and electrical conductivity every 15 mins) and time-lapse seasonal hydrochemical sampling programmes are in progress at six warm spring sites. A database on heat production in Irish rocks has been compiled, of more than 3,300 geochemical sample measurements, with 3,000 retrieved from various archives and over 300 new analyses. Geochemistry, geochronology and isotopic analyses have been conducted on subsurface granites and exposed analogues astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in order to understand the underlying reasons for their radiogenic heat production. Finally, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on borehole samples from representative lithologies

  11. Smartphone-based noise mapping: Integrating sound level meter app data into the strategic noise mapping process.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2016-08-15

    The strategic noise mapping process of the EU has now been ongoing for more than ten years. However, despite the fact that a significant volume of research has been conducted on the process and related issues there has been little change or innovation in how relevant authorities and policymakers are conducting the process since its inception. This paper reports on research undertaken to assess the possibility for smartphone-based noise mapping data to be integrated into the traditional strategic noise mapping process. We compare maps generated using the traditional approach with those generated using smartphone-based measurement data. The advantage of the latter approach is that it has the potential to remove the need for exhaustive input data into the source calculation model for noise prediction. In addition, the study also tests the accuracy of smartphone-based measurements against simultaneous measurements taken using traditional sound level meters in the field. PMID:27115622

  12. An updated USMARC genetic map for the pig integrated with the pig physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten years ago, we published our last comprehensive genetic map for the pig. This map contained 1,042 markers (mostly microsatellites) and spanned 2,286 cM of the autosomal genome, ~98% estimated coverage based on information available at the time. Since that time, USMARC has continued to add genetic...

  13. Integration of geophysical and geochemical data for the study of the North-Est Rift dynamics on Mount Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripaldi, Simona; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Loddo, Mariano; Moretti, Pierpaolo; Neri, Marco; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Schiavone, Domenico; Siniscalchi, Agata

    2010-05-01

    Mount Etna volcano is located at the front of the Apennine-Maghrebian Chain, along the Malta Escarpment, and lies on the Pliocene-Pleistocene foredeep deposits. The apparatus is characterized by a central conduit divided, at surface, into four summit craters, with a maximum elevation of 3329 m above sea level. In the upper part (>1500 m), three main "rift zones" can be identified: the NE Rift, the S Rift and the W Rift. These structures are probably shallow, do not tap deep magma and are usually directly fed by the central conduit, rather than from an underlying shallow magma chamber. The volcano is characterized by the displacement of its eastern to southern flanks, involving an on-shore area of >700 km2. This is confined to the north by the Pernicana fault system (PFS). The PFS, located on the NE sector of Mt. Etna, is >18 km long, from the NE Rift to the coastline. The western PFS is seismogenetic, while the eastern PFS undergoes creep movements. In its westernmost section, the PFS is divided into two main segments, the more northerly of these starting from the Monte Nero area of the NE Rift and the more southerly from Piano Provenzana. The PFS is kinematically connected, with a feedback mechanism, to eruptions occurring on the NE Rift. In spite of this relationship, the PFS has shown continuous activity between 1947 and 2002, a period when no eruptions occurred on the NE Rift, with major surface fracturing and seismic activity in 1984-1988. Geophysical-geochemical investigation were conducted in the area where PFS is connected with the NE Rift, including the areas characterized by a consistent slip, as well as those structures through which the motion occurs. The aim of this work is to provide a multidisciplinary frame to characterize this dynamic and structural natural system. Magnetotelluric, geoelectric, self-potential and and soil gas emissions measurements give a comprehensive view on the geometry and depth of the lithological units together with fluid

  14. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum. PMID:26125877

  15. Integrating Clinical Experiences in a TESOL Teacher Education Program: Curriculum Mapping as Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Across all certification areas, teacher education is being challenged to better integrate clinical experiences with coursework. This article describes the process of curriculum mapping and its impact on the organization of clinical experiences in a master's TESOL program over a 1-year redesign process. Although curriculum mapping has been…

  16. Using Concept Maps to Assess Interdisciplinary Integration of Green Engineering Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Chad B.; McNair, Lisa D.; McGinnis, Sean; Paretti, Marie C.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering education, like many fields, has started to explore the benefits of concept maps as an assessment technique for knowledge integration. Because they allow students to graphically link topics and represent complex interconnections among diverse concepts, we argue that concept maps are particularly appropriate for assessing…

  17. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  18. A 4103 marker integrated physical and comparative map of the horse genome

    PubMed Central

    Raudsepp, Terje; Gustafson-Seabury, Ashley; Durkin, Keith; Wagner, Michelle L.; Goh, Glenda; Seabury, Christopher M.; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Lee, Eun-Joon; Agarwala, Richa; Rice, Edward Stallknecht; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Skow, Loren C.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Yasue, Hiroshi; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Binns, Matthew M.; MacLeod, James N.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Leeb, Tosso; Mickelson, James R.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive second-generation whole genome radiation hybrid (RH II), cytogenetic and comparative map of the horse genome (2n=64) has been developed using the 5000rad horse × hamster radiation hybrid panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The map contains 4,103 markers (3,816 RH, 1,144 FISH) assigned to all 31 pairs of autosomes and the X chromosome. The RH maps of individual chromosomes are anchored and oriented using 857 cytogenetic markers. The overall resolution of the map is one marker per 775 kilobase-pairs (kb), which represents a more than five-fold improvement over the first-generation map. The RH II incorporates 920 markers shared jointly with the two recently reported meiotic maps. Consequently the two maps were aligned with the RH II maps of individual autosomes and the X chromosome. Additionally, a comparative map of the horse genome was generated by connecting 1,904 loci on the horse map with genome sequences available for eight diverse vertebrates to highlight regions of evolutionarily conserved syntenies, linkages and chromosomal breakpoints. The integrated map thus obtained presents the most comprehensive information on the physical and comparative organization of the equine genome and will assist future assemblies of whole genome BAC fingerprint maps and the genome sequence. It will also serve as a tool to identify genes governing health, disease and performance traits in horses and assist us in understanding the evolution of the equine genome in relation to other species. PMID:18931483

  19. Long range translocations ashore to offshore using Spacelab-1 metric camera imagery in the perspective of integrated geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galibert, G.

    1985-04-01

    It is shown that long range translocations ashore to offshore of points or objects are possible (up to 150,000 m, X and Y) using Spacelab metric camera imagery when conventional methods of positioning by triangulation, Doppler satellites or radio-electric hyperbolic systems are unusable. Experiments in the Saint Malo coastal area along the French side of the English Channel are described. Dimensional measurements of colored crystals give an accuracy of 8 to 20 m through analog or digital methods, X and Y, with a possible transfer on topographical maps or charts at scales of 1:25000 or 1:15560. Transfers of digitized images on helicopter head up displays (theoretical accuracy 1 m) is also possible to prepare airborne coastal surveys over shallow waters.

  20. A high utility integrated map of the pig genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The domestic pig is being increasingly exploited as a system for modeling human disease. It also has substantial economic importance for meat-based protein production. Physical clone maps have underpinned large-scale genomic sequencing and enabled focused cloning efforts for many genome...

  1. Integrated and composite genome maps: the bovine example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combinations of genome maps representing different types of information are needed to link economically important phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation in farmed animals. For the cow, data from two linkage populations and three radiation hybrid (RH) panels were combined to construc...

  2. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  3. A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Colin; CHIU, Dr. R.; Shin, Dr. H.; Krywinski, Martin; Fjell, Chris; Wilkin, Jennifer; Yin, Tongming; Difazio, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the few such maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the Populus genome, which has been estimated from the genome sequence assembly to be 485 {+-} 10 Mb in size. BAC ends were sequenced to assist long-range assembly of whole-genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. A total of 2411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa, version 1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

  4. Integrated genetic map of Anopheles gambiae: use of RAPD polymorphisms for genetic, cytogenetic and STS landmarks.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, G; Zheng, L; Kumar, V; della Torre, A; Kafatos, F C; Louis, C

    1996-06-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been integrated in the genetic and cytogenetic maps of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Fifteen of these markers were mapped by recombination, relative to microsatellite markers that had been mapped previously. Thirty-four gel-purified RAPD bands were cloned and sequenced, generating sequence tagged sites (STSs) that can be used as entry points to the A. gambiae genome. Thirty one of these STSs were localized on nurse cell polytene chromosomes through their unique hybridization signal in in situ hybridization experiments. Five STSs map close to the breakpoints of polymorphic inversions, which are notable features of the Anopheles genome. The usefulness and limitations of this integrated mosquito map are discussed. PMID:8725241

  5. Geophysical data integration, stochastic simulation and significance analysis of groundwater responses using ANOVA in the Chicot Aquifer system, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Carlson, D.A.; Willson, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Data integration is challenging where there are different levels of support between primary and secondary data that need to be correlated in various ways. A geostatistical method is described, which integrates the hydraulic conductivity (K) measurements and electrical resistivity data to better estimate the K distribution in the Upper Chicot Aquifer of southwestern Louisiana, USA. The K measurements were obtained from pumping tests and represent the primary (hard) data. Borehole electrical resistivity data from electrical logs were regarded as the secondary (soft) data, and were used to infer K values through Archie's law and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A pseudo cross-semivariogram was developed to cope with the resistivity data non-collocation. Uncertainties in the auto-semivariograms and pseudo cross-semivariogram were quantified. The groundwater flow model responses by the regionalized and coregionalized models of K were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that non-collocated secondary data may improve estimates of K and affect groundwater flow responses of practical interest, including specific capacity and drawdown. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  6. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  7. Integrated geophysical interpretation for delineating the structural elements and groundwater aquifers at central part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araffa, Sultan Awad Sultan; Sabet, Hassan S.; Gaweish, Wael R.

    2015-05-01

    The study area is inhabited by Bedouins, suffering from scarcity of water necessary for domestic use and agricultural activities. The study area is located at central part of Sinai between Nakhl area and El Thamed area. Magnetic, gravity and geoelectric methods were used in this investigation to determine the groundwater aquifers and delineate the structural elements in the study area. Two hundreds and eighty eight magnetic and gravity stations were acquired by the EnviMag and Autograv CG3 instruments respectively. The magnetic data were processed by using Oasis Montaj. Reductions to the pole and 2D magnetic modeling were established to construct basement relief map. The depth to the basement rocks in the study area is ranging from 1200 m to 7000 m. The regional-residual separation and Euler deconvolution techniques were applied to the gravity data. Nine deep Vertical Electrical Sounding stations were measured to estimate the deep groundwater aquifer in the study area (Nubian Sandstone aquifer). The depth of upper surface of Nubian Sandstone aquifer is ranging between 975 m and 1100 m and affected by two major fault trends in the NE-SW and NW-SE directions.

  8. Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, E.; Berz, M.

    1988-06-01

    We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

  10. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  11. Uncertainty estimation in integrated LiDAR- and radar-derived biomass maps at key national-level map scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, N.; Fensholt, R.; Saatchi, S. S.; Mitchard, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    The international Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) program requires accurate and cost-effective techniques of national-level mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) and ground-sampling strategies. This paper explores a multi-sensor (radar and low-density airborne LiDAR) integration approach for country-wide AGB estimation and mapping in Denmark, selected as a test-country due to the unique availability of country-wide remote sensing and forest inventory data. We assess the potential use of ALOS PALSAR L-band radar and ENVISAT ASAR C-band radar in prediction and mapping of AGB with accuracies similar to LiDAR-derived AGB estimates at different map scales. We start by creating a LiDAR-based ';ground truth' map, using LiDAR-derived 95th Percentile of heights >1 m weighted by the Canopy Density ratio, together with 113 AGB plots to map AGB at a 0.25 ha resolution across the country. A leave-20%-out cross-validation indicates that the AGB estimates have a mean absolute error of 41 Mg ha-1 and a negative mean bias error of 1.7 Mg ha-1. Though the LiDAR model appears to have an overall species-specific bias for conifers and broadleaf (-5.2 Mg ha-1 and +12.3 Mg ha-1 respectively), these are found to be insignificant (p>0.05) when accounting for species sampling bias and the under-prediction of plots containing high-biomass (> 350 Mg ha-1). Using the LiDAR-derived biomass map as a ';truth-map', biomass-backscatter relations will be quantified at three map scales (0.25 ha, 1 ha and 100 ha) and using three spatial sampling frameworks (full-dataset, stratified random sampling equally representing low and high biomass pixels, clustered sampling). The approach aims to derive a minimal-sampling and mapping strategy for L- and C-band radar that achieves at least 20% accuracy in AGB estimation, along with quantified sources of error from ground-AGB estimates, scaling and sampling. It is expected that mapping techniques, uncertainty quantification and

  12. Integrated use of geophysical, hydrological and geographic information system (GIS) methods in enhancing the groundwater quality in a fluoride-endemic terrain (Andhra Pradesh, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rolland

    2012-12-01

    The concept of groundwater recharge and quality improvement is often implemented in arid and semi-arid areas with depleted aquifers. Nalgonda district in Andhra Pradesh, India, has endemic fluoride, with concentrations in drinking water varying between 3 and 8 mg/l. Numerous techniques adopted in the recent past for defluoridizing groundwater proved to have limitations. The integrated approach of a geographic information system (GIS) and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to identify suitable sites for recharge structures over an area of ˜115 km2, is highlighted. Further, to validate the delineated sites, a micro-watershed basin (2 km2) was selected for detailed recharge assessment and site feasibility studies through geophysical and tracer tests. Groundwater velocity (7 m/day) and flow direction through fractures in the shallow horizon were established through tracer experiments. The efficacy of the recommended recharge structures and their impact on groundwater quality were assessed over a period of 5 years, from 2002 to 2007, and the mean groundwater fluoride concentration of > 3.5 mg/l over the study area was brought down to < 1.5 mg/l.

  13. An overset grid method for integration of fully 3D fluid dynamics and geophysics fluid dynamics models to simulate multiphysics coastal ocean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. S.; Qu, K.; Wu, X. G.

    2014-09-01

    It is now becoming important to develop our capabilities to simulate coastal ocean flows involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a hybrid modeling system for such simulation. The system consists of a fully three dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model, which couple with each other in two-way and march in time simultaneously. Particularly, in the hybrid system, the solver for incompressible flow on overset meshes (SIFOM) resolves fully 3D small-scale local flow phenomena, while the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) captures large-scale background flows. The integration of the two models are realized via domain decomposition implemented with an overset grid method. Numerical experiments on performance of the system in resolving flow patterns and solution convergence rate show that the SIFOM-FVCOM system works as intended, and its solutions compare reasonably with data obtained with measurements and other computational approaches. Its unparalleled capabilities to predict multiphysics and multiscale phenomena with high-fidelity are demonstrated by three typical applications that are beyond the reach of other currently existing models. It is anticipated that the SIFOM-FVCOM system will serve as a new platform to study many emerging coastal ocean problems.

  14. Modeling photonic crystals by boundary integral equations and Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Jianhua; Lu Yayan Antoine, Xavier

    2008-04-20

    Efficient numerical methods for analyzing photonic crystals (PhCs) can be developed using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) maps of the unit cells. The DtN map is an operator that takes the wave field on the boundary of a unit cell to its normal derivative. In frequency domain calculations for band structures and transmission spectra of finite PhCs, the DtN maps allow us to reduce the computation to the boundaries of the unit cells. For two-dimensional (2D) PhCs with unit cells containing circular cylinders, the DtN maps can be constructed from analytic solutions (the cylindrical waves). In this paper, we develop a boundary integral equation method for computing DtN maps of general unit cells containing cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The DtN map method is used to analyze band structures for 2D PhCs with elliptic and other cylinders.

  15. Advances On Integration Between Stereo Sparse Data And Orientation Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponetti, Laura; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Distante, Arcangelo; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Stella, Ettore

    1990-03-01

    During last years, Computer Vision has developed algorithms for most of early vision processes. It is a common idea that each vision process seaparatly cannot supply a reliable descritpion of the scene. In fact, one of the keys in reliability and robustness of biological systems is their ability to integrate information from different early processes. The base concept of our vision system is to integrate information from stereo and shading (Fig.1). The results obtained from this scheme in previous works are very interesting and suggest us to continue on this methodology. In the first work 1.2 the base approach to integration scheme was presented. The work deals on general concepts and main evolutions on shading analysis, in terms of analysis simplifications and improved accuracy. The scheme was tested on both synthetical and real scenes.

  16. Algorithms for computing and integrating physical maps using unique probes.

    PubMed

    Jain, M; Myers, E W

    1997-01-01

    Current physical mapping projects based on STS-probes involve additional clues such as the fact that some probes are anchored to a known map and that others come from the ends of clones. Because of the disparate combinatorial contributions of these varied data items, it is difficult to design a "tailored" algorithm that incorporates them all. Moreover, it is inevitable that new experiments will provide new kinds of data, making obsolete any such algorithm. We show how to convert the physical mapping problem into a 0/1 linear programming (LP) problem. We further show how one can incorporate additional clues as additional constraints in the LP formulation. We give a simple relaxation of the 0/1 LP problem, which solves problems of the same scale as previously reported tailored algorithms, to equal or greater optimization levels. We also present a theorem proving that when the data is 100% accurate, then the relaxed and integer solutions coincide. The LP algorithm suffices to solve problems on the order of 80-100 probes--the typical size of the 2- or 3-connected contigs of Arratia et al. (1991). We give a heuristic algorithm which attempts to order and link the set of LP-solved contigs. Unlike previous work, this algorithm only links and orders contigs when the join is 90% or more likely to be correct. It is our view that there is no value in computing an optimal solution with respect to some criteria over very noisy data as this optimal solution rarely corresponds to the true solution. The paper involves extensive empirical trials over real and simulated data. PMID:9385539

  17. Geophysical modelling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region: integrating potential field, surface heat flow, elevation, seismological and petrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Afonso, J.; Verges, J.; Zeyen, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In this work we study the present-day thermal and compositional 3D structure of the lithosphere beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region (AMTR) and the lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction from Jurassic times to present. The AMTR comprises the western segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, encompassing two main large-scale tectonic domains: the Gibraltar Arc System and the Atlas Mountains. We apply an integrated and self-consistent geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) that combines elevation, gravity, geoid, surface heat flow, and seismic data and allows modelling of compositional heterogeneities within the lithospheric mantle. Our results reveal large variations in the depth of the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as a lack of spatial correlation between the thicknesses of these two boundaries. The Moho essentially mimics the topography with depths ranging from ~10 km beneath the oceanic domains of the Atlantic abyssal plains and the Algerian Basin to >34 km in the Eastern Betics and Rif, the High Atlas mountains, and the Sahara Platform. In contrast, the LAB is shallower beneath the central and eastern Alboran Basin (~70 km) and all along the High, Middle and Anti Atlas (<100 km) coinciding with the loci of Cenozoic volcanism. Deeper LAB depths are found along the central and western Betics and the Moroccan Atlantic margin (>140 km) with values exceeding 230 km beneath the Rif and the Sahara Platform. We find that the average bulk composition of the lithospheric mantle corresponds to that of a typical Tecton (i.e. Phanerozoic) domain, with the exceptions of the Sahara Platform, the Alboran Basin, and Atlas Mountains. Distinct mantle compositions are required in these areas to make model predictions and geophysical observables compatible. We propose that the highly irregular LAB topography is the result of the superposition of three different geodynamic mechanisms, which include shortening and thickening

  18. A high-density integrated genetic linkage and radiation hybrid map of the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Steen, R G; Kwitek-Black, A E; Glenn, C; Gullings-Handley, J; Van Etten, W; Atkinson, O S; Appel, D; Twigger, S; Muir, M; Mull, T; Granados, M; Kissebah, M; Russo, K; Crane, R; Popp, M; Peden, M; Matise, T; Brown, D M; Lu, J; Kingsmore, S; Tonellato, P J; Rozen, S; Slonim, D; Young, P; Jacob, H J

    1999-06-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key animal model for biomedical research. However, the genetic infrastructure required for connecting phenotype and genotype in the rat is currently incomplete. Here, we report the construction and integration of two genomic maps: a dense genetic linkage map of the rat and the first radiation hybrid (RH) map of the rat. The genetic map was constructed in two F2 intercrosses (SHRSP x BN and FHH x ACI), containing a total of 4736 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers. Allele sizes for 4328 of the genetic markers were characterized in 48 of the most commonly used inbred strains. The RH map is a lod >/= 3 framework map, including 983 SSLPs, thereby allowing integration with markers on various genetic maps and with markers mapped on the RH panel. Together, the maps provide an integrated reference to >3000 genes and ESTs and >8500 genetic markers (5211 of our SSLPs and >3500 SSLPs developed by other groups). [Bihoreau et al. (1997); James and Tanigami, RHdb (http:www.ebi.ac.uk/RHdb/index.html); Wilder (http://www.nih.gov/niams/scientific/ratgbase); Serikawa et al. (1992); RATMAP server (http://ratmap.gen.gu.se)] RH maps (v. 2.0) have been posted on our web sites at http://goliath.ifrc.mcw.edu/LGR/index.html or http://curatools.curagen.com/ratmap. Both web sites provide an RH mapping server where investigators can localize their own RH vectors relative to this map. The raw data have been deposited in the RHdb database. Taken together, these maps provide the basic tools for rat genomics. The RH map provides the means to rapidly localize genetic markers, genes, and ESTs within the rat genome. These maps provide the basic tools for rat genomics. They will facilitate studies of multifactorial disease and functional genomics, allow construction of physical maps, and provide a scaffold for both directed and large-scale sequencing efforts and comparative genomics in this important experimental organism. PMID:10400928

  19. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  1. Examining Geospatial Technology Tools to Compensate for Limited Exposures and Integrate Diverse Map and Data Resources in Geological Studies of the Southern Blue Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, N.; Ryan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Constraining the tectonic and metamorphic history of rock units in the southern Blue Ridge of western North Carolina is complicated by limited exposures and extensive vegetative cover, as well as burial by human development. Integrating varied data sources for field relations using cyberinformation tools may provide a means around such difficulties. We are examining several different Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools as a means for effectively integrating available map data, both toward meeting research objectives as well as to facilitate classroom and field instruction. Commercial GIS platforms like ArcGIS and associated software can effectively integrate diverse geoscience information resources within a single platform. The Internet provides free access to databases ranging from geochemical datasets to topographical and structural data. Public domain geochemical databases like EarthChem provide spatially controlled elemental data on rock samples collected by many researchers over extended periods. Once incorporated within the ArcGIS template, this information can then be exported into free geospatial visualization applications such as Goggle Earth, as well as 3D manipulation programs like Fledermaus. Geospatially controlled USGS and NCGS geologic maps and geophysical datasets provide a useful base for examining mafic and ultramafic rock exposures in the Blue Ridge. One can resolve the exposures of specific rock types from these map resources within ArcGIS, as well as fault locations, and magnetics and gravity data. High-resolution DEMs permit data-intensive focusing on areas of interest, and Fledermaus manipulations permit 3D visualization. The output maps and visualizations are of publishable quality, and permit the manipulation of data across a region to infer contact trends and/or chemical or mineralogical, as well as to identify discontinuities that may be geologically relevant. “All-in-one” GIS applications like GeoMapApp have many of these

  2. A first-generation integrated tammar wallaby map and its use in creating a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The limited (2X) coverage of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) genome sequence dataset currently presents a challenge for assembly and anchoring onto chromosomes. To provide a framework for this assembly, it would be a great advantage to have a dense map of the tammar wallaby genome. However, only limited mapping data are available for this non-model species, comprising a physical map and a linkage map. Results We combined all available tammar wallaby mapping data to create a tammar wallaby integrated map, using the Location DataBase (LDB) strategy. This first-generation integrated map combines all available information from the second-generation tammar wallaby linkage map with 148 loci, and extensive FISH mapping data for 492 loci, especially for genes likely to be located at the ends of wallaby chromosomes or at evolutionary breakpoints inferred from comparative information. For loci whose positions are only approximately known, their location in the integrated map was refined on the basis of comparative information from opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and human. Interpolation of segments from the opossum and human assemblies into the integrated map enabled the subsequent construction of a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map, which comprises 14336 markers, including 13783 genes recruited from opossum and human assemblies. Both maps are freely available at http://compldb.angis.org.au. Conclusions The first-generation integrated map and the first-generation virtual genome map provide a backbone for the chromosome assembly of the tammar wallaby genome sequence. For example, 78% of the 10257 gene-scaffolds in the Ensembl annotation of the tammar wallaby genome sequence (including 10522 protein-coding genes) can now be given a chromosome location in the tammar wallaby virtual genome map. PMID:21854555

  3. Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data

    PubMed Central

    Di Traglia, F; Cauchie, L; Casagli, N; Saccorotti, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the integration of seismic and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GBInSAR) displacement data at Stromboli Volcano. Ground deformation in the area of summit vents is positively correlated with both seismic tremor amplitude and cumulative amplitudes of very long period (VLP) signals associated with Strombolian explosions. Changes in VLP amplitudes precede by a few days the variations in ground deformation and seismic tremor. We propose a model where the arrival of fresh, gas-rich magma from depth enhances gas slug formation, promoting convection and gas transfer throughout the conduit system. At the shallowest portion of the conduit, an increase in volatile content causes a density decrease, expansion of the magmatic column and augmented degassing activity, which respectively induce inflation of the conduit, and increased tremor amplitudes. The temporal delay between increase of VLP and tremor amplitudes/conduit inflation can be interpreted in terms of the different timescales characterizing bulk gas transfer versus slug formation and ascent. PMID:25821278

  4. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  5. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  6. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  7. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  8. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M., (compiler); Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  9. Integrating geophysical and archaeological data for knowledge and management of the Historical Heritage. The case of the medieval church at Vereto (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, F.; Pepe, P.; Sammarco, M.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The native settlement of Vereto lies at the top of a small calcareous hill near the Adriatic coast, in the southernmost part of the Salento Peninsula of Apulia region (southern Italy). Recent topographical and aero-topographical surveys carried out in the ‘urban' area and in a wide sector of the surrounding territory, integrated by a thorough research of the literary and archival sources, allowed to define the long human occupation of the site between Bronze Age and the late Middle Age, and to focus the important role it played for many centuries, due to both vicinity to a commercial port and a coastal sanctuary, and its connection with the ancient road network. Within the framework of a research project by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Salento University, the regional Archaeological Superintendence and the local Administration, detailed analyses of the ancient settlement and of its most significant structures (city-walls, cisterns, private buildings) have been started. The attention was focused particularly on the 500th century religious building located at the hilltop and dedicated to the eponymous Holy Virgin. Here two different methods of investigation have been used. The first level of knowledge consists in geophysical surveys, that included georadar (GPR) and geoelectrical prospections. Georadar data were acquired using GSSI SIR 20 with 2 antenna simultaneously mounted on the same cart. The choice of array was determined to get a very good resolution (up to 1 meter) using an high frequency antenna (900Mhz) and to increase the investigation depth (up to 3 meters) with the medium frequency antenna (400Mhz). Data were acquired both inside and outside the religious building along two orthogonal direction (lines spaced 0.5 m), processed using Radan 6.5 software, and eventually were represented as georadar profiles and 3D time-slices and 3D volumes in order to show the distribution of anomalies with depth. To get information at higher depth, to

  10. Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping.

    PubMed

    Karau, Eva C; Sikkink, Pamela G; Keane, Robert E; Dillon, Gregory K

    2014-07-01

    Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI (R (2) = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image (R (2) = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models (R (2) = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps. PMID:24817334

  11. Integrating Satellite Imagery with Simulation Modeling to Improve Burn Severity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keane, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.

    2014-07-01

    Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI ( R 2 = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image ( R 2 = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models ( R 2 = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps.

  12. The Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada: Integrating marine geotechnical and geophysical data for spatial seismic slope stability and hazard assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urgeles, R.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.J.; Martin, F.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a major flood occurred in the Saguenay region, Quebec, Canada, delivering several km3 of sediment to the Saguenay Fjord. Such sediments covered large areas of the, until then, largely contaminated fjord bottom, thus providing a natural capping layer. Recent swath bathymetry data have also shown that sediment landslides are widely present in the upper section of the Saguenay Fjord, and therefore, should a new event occur, it would probably expose the old contaminated sediments. Landslides in the Upper Saguenay Fjord are most probably due to earthquakes given its proximity to the Charlevoix seismic region and to that of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. In consequence, this study tries to characterize the permanent ground deformations induced by different earthquake scenarios from which shallow sediment landslides could be triggered. The study follows a Newmark analysis in which, firstly, the seismic slope performance is assessed, secondly, the seismic hazard analyzed, and finally an evaluation of the seismic landslide hazard is made. The study is based on slope gradients obtained from EM1000 multibeam bathymetry data as well as water content and undrained shear strength measurements made in box and gravity cores. Ground motions integrating local site conditions were simulated using synthetic time histories. The study assumes the region of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake as the most likely source area for earthquakes capable of inducing large ground motions in the Upper Saguenay region. Accordingly, we have analyzed several shaking intensities to deduce that generalized sediment displacements will begin to occur when moment magnitudes exceed 6. Major displacements, failure, and subsequent landslides could occur only from earthquake moment magnitudes exceeding 6.75. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  14. Integrated map of new CA-repeats of human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, A.; Guimera, J.; Patterson, D.

    1994-09-01

    To contribute to the map of human chromosome 21 (HC21), 35 new CA-repeats isolated from an HC21 phage library (LA21NS01) have been characterized and localized on HC21 using somatic cell hybrids and the Genethon YAC panel. Their heterozygosities range between 0.10 and 0.90 with an average of 0.70. Twenty of them, with heterozygosities between 0.47 and 0.83, have been analyzed in the CEPH reference families. A linkage map was constructed using the CRI-MAP program with 46 markers. This linkage map contains 22 uniquely placed loci, ordered with odds of at least 1000:1, with an average size interval of 3.5 cM. 10 markers were approximately positioned on the map. The sex average length of the map is 73.4 cM, with male and female lengths being 64.2 and 83.5 cM, respectively. D21S1262 was placed in the same megalocus as the IFNAR and GART genes. D21S369 seems to be the most pericentromeric microsatellite marker on HC21 based on linkage analysis, with a heterozygosity of 0.60, and may be very useful for nondisjunction studies. Integration of the somatic cell hybrid, TAC and/or linkage maps have provided a more defined location for these 35 new CA-repeat markers which will contribute greatly to the integrated map of HC21.

  15. Integrated Geohazard Screening Using Remote Sensing, Including Satellite and Helicopter Based Imagery, LiDAR, and Geophysics, in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, A. M.; Kozaci, O.; Hitchcock, C. S.; Konieczny, G.; Garrie, D.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a detailed geohazard investigation of a 5 km-wide, 650km-long corridor through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. The study area includes the Rasht and Alai valleys at the boundary between the Pamir Mountains and the Alai Range of the southern Tien Shan. Ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia plates has resulted in the Tien Shan orogenic belt and the Pamir Mountains. Thus the study area is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Rapid uplift, erosion, and steep slopes give rise to widespread landsliding and massive rock slope failures in both the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains. Our integrated data acquisition and interpretation plan used airborne and remote sensing methods including satellite based DEMs and high resolution imagery, LiDAR, aerial photography, and helicopter based electromagnetic resistivity (HEM). Analysis of these data sets allowed us to delineate potential geohazards through surficial geologic mapping. Initial desktop geohazard screening included 1:50,000-scale mapping for potential faults, landslides, and liquefiable deposits, which included traffic light-style susceptibility maps for route refinement and hazard mitigation. As part of detailed investigations, continuous HEM data was collected and processed at a spatial sampling interval of approximately 3m. Apparent resistivity was calculated for each of the five operating frequencies over the entire survey area. For the purposes of this study, resistivity values at 10 m and 20 m depths were sliced from the interpolated 3D Differential Resistivity model for use in the analysis. Using GIS, we compared these results with mapped Quaternary units and found good correlation between resistivity contrasts and the boundaries of mapped surficial units. With this confidence, the HEM measurements were further analyzed to identify subsurface features and to develop a 3D geologic model. Based on this analysis we provided a framework for an optimized geotechnical

  16. Systematic method of generating new integrable systems via inverse Miura maps

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Takayuki

    2011-05-15

    We provide a new natural interpretation of the Lax representation for an integrable system; that is, the spectral problem is the linearized form of a Miura transformation between the original system and a modified version of it. On the basis of this interpretation, we formulate a systematic method of identifying modified integrable systems that can be mapped to a given integrable system by Miura transformations. Thus, this method can be used to generate new integrable systems from known systems through inverse Miura maps; it can be applied to both continuous and discrete systems in 1 + 1 dimensions as well as in 2 + 1 dimensions. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using examples such as the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) system, the Zakharov-Ito system (two-component KdV), the three-wave interaction system, the Yajima-Oikawa system, the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice (integrable space-discrete NLS), and two (2 + 1)-dimensional NLS systems.

  17. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  18. Learning one-to-many mapping functions for audio-visual integrated perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jung-Hui; Oh, Do-Kwan; Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    In noisy environment the human speech perception utilizes visual lip-reading as well as audio phonetic classification. This audio-visual integration may be done by combining the two sensory features at the early stage. Also, the top-down attention may integrate the two modalities. For the sensory feature fusion we introduce mapping functions between the audio and visual manifolds. Especially, we present an algorithm to provide one-to-many mapping function for the videoto- audio mapping. The top-down attention is also presented to integrate both the sensory features and classification results of both modalities, which is able to explain McGurk effect. Each classifier is separately implemented by the Hidden-Markov Model (HMM), but the two classifiers are combined at the top level and interact by the top-down attention.

  19. Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Cooper, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

  20. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in

  1. An integrated approach for automated cover-type mapping of large inaccessible areas in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of any detailed cover type maps in the state necessitated that a rapid and accurate approach to be employed to develop maps for 329 million acres of Alaska within a seven-year period. This goal has been addressed by using an integrated approach to computer-aided analysis which combines efficient use of field data with the only consistent statewide spatial data sets available: Landsat multispectral scanner data, digital elevation data derived from 1:250 000-scale maps, and 1:60 000-scale color-infrared aerial photographs.

  2. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  3. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

  4. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance. PMID:25662411

  5. Integration of the cytogenetic and genetic linkage maps of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Elaine C; Barker, Guy C; Jones, Gareth H; Kearsey, Michael J; King, Graham J; Kop, Erik P; Ryder, Carol D; Teakle, Graham R; Vicente, Joana G; Armstrong, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    We have assigned all nine linkage groups of a Brassica oleracea genetic map to each of the nine chromosomes of the karyotype derived from mitotic metaphase spreads of the B. oleracea var. alboglabra line A12DHd using FISH. The majority of probes were BACs, with A12DHd DNA inserts, which give clear, reliable FISH signals. We have added nine markers to the existing integrated linkage map, distributed over six linkage groups. BACs were definitively assigned to linkage map positions through development of locus-specific PCR assays. Integration of the cytogenetic and genetic linkage maps was achieved with 22 probes representing 19 loci. Four chromosomes (2, 4, 7, and 9) are in the same orientation as their respective linkage groups (O4, O7, O8, and O6) whereas four chromosomes (1, 3, 5, and 8) and linkage groups (O3, O9, O2, and O1) are in the opposite orientation. The remaining chromosome (6) is probably in the opposite orientation. The cytogenetic map is an important resource for locating probes with unknown genetic map positions and is also being used to analyze the relationships between genetic and cytogenetic maps. PMID:12136025

  6. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  7. Crustal structure and tectonic development of Gulf of Guinea Cul-deSac from integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic and existing geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    Data-acquisition difficulties and propriety restrictions on industry data have necessitated liberal extrapolations and generalizations in previous tectono-structural studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac. This region is the locus of a postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction whose arms were the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the Benue Trough aulacogen. Oceanic crust has been inferred to underlie most of the thick sedimentary wedge of the oil-prolific Niger Delta basin. Integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic data of the Geological Survey of Nigeria and existing geophysical data corroborates previous work on the general structure of the marginal basins. New aeromagnetic data, however, reveal a detail structure more complex than previously known. Low-frequency magnetic anomalies over the Niger delta indicate that oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust trends southwestward along the Benin hinge line (an apparent continental continuation of either the Chain fracture zone or a new Okitipupa fracture zone) and also wiggles southeastward (adjoined by a wide margin of transitional crust) toward the shelf break off Cameroon. Linear magnetic anomalies trending northeast indicate about 7 fracture zones beneath the Niger Delta basin. The region of high-frequency magnetic anomalies west of the Niger delta represent the Okitipupa basement ridge complex, which separates the Niger Delta basin from the Dahomey embayment. In this embayment, 2 wide bands of intervening high- and low-frequency aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to represent a basement high or ridge and a fault-bonded trough, respectively.

  8. Boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method for gratings in conical diffraction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yumao; Lu, Ya Yan

    2011-06-01

    Boundary integral equation methods for diffraction gratings are particularly suitable for gratings with complicated material interfaces but are difficult to implement due to the quasi-periodic Green's function and the singular integrals at the corners. In this paper, the boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method for in-plane diffraction problems of gratings [Y. Wu and Y. Y. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 2444 (2009)] is extended to conical diffraction problems. The method uses boundary integral equations to calculate the so-called Neumann-to-Dirichlet maps for homogeneous subdomains of the grating, so that the quasi-periodic Green's functions can be avoided. Since wave field components are coupled on material interfaces with the involvement of tangential derivatives, a least squares polynomial approximation technique is developed to evaluate tangential derivatives along these interfaces for conical diffraction problems. Numerical examples indicate that the method performs equally well for dielectric or metallic gratings. PMID:21643404

  9. Integrating in silico resources to map a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanqing; Beck, Tim N; Golemis, Erica A; Serebriiskii, Ilya G

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of publicly available life science databases offers a wealth of information that can support interpretation of experimentally derived data and greatly enhance hypothesis generation. Protein interaction and functional networks are not simply new renditions of existing data: they provide the opportunity to gain insights into the specific physical and functional role a protein plays as part of the biological system. In this chapter, we describe different in silico tools that can quickly and conveniently retrieve data from existing data repositories and we discuss how the available tools are best utilized for different purposes. While emphasizing protein-protein interaction databases (e.g., BioGrid and IntAct), we also introduce metasearch platforms such as STRING and GeneMANIA, pathway databases (e.g., BioCarta and Pathway Commons), text mining approaches (e.g., PubMed and Chilibot), and resources for drug-protein interactions, genetic information for model organisms and gene expression information based on microarray data mining. Furthermore, we provide a simple step-by-step protocol for building customized protein-protein interaction networks in Cytoscape, a powerful network assembly and visualization program, integrating data retrieved from these various databases. As we illustrate, generation of composite interaction networks enables investigators to extract significantly more information about a given biological system than utilization of a single database or sole reliance on primary literature. PMID:24233784

  10. Integrating In Silico Resources to Map a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanqing; Beck, Tim N.; Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of publicly available life science databases offer a wealth of information that can support interpretation of experimentally derived data and greatly enhance hypothesis generation. Protein interaction and functional networks are not simply new renditions of existing data: they provide the opportunity to gain insights into the specific physical and functional role a protein plays as part of the biological system. In this chapter, we describe different in silico tools that can quickly and conveniently retrieve data from existing data repositories and discuss how the available tools are best utilized for different purposes. While emphasizing protein-protein interaction databases (e.g., BioGrid and IntAct), we also introduce metasearch platforms such as STRING and GeneMANIA, pathway databases (e.g., BioCarta and Pathway Commons), text mining approaches (e.g., PubMed and Chilibot), and resources for drug-protein interactions, genetic information for model organisms and gene expression information based on microarray data mining. Furthermore, we provide a simple step-by-step protocol to building customized protein-protein interaction networks in Cytoscape, a powerful network assembly and visualization program, integrating data retrieved from these various databases. As we illustrate, generation of composite interaction networks enables investigators to extract significantly more information about a given biological system than utilization of a single database or sole reliance on primary literature. PMID:24233784

  11. An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Valerio; Herold, Martin; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Asner, Gregory P; Armston, John; Ashton, Peter S; Banin, Lindsay; Bayol, Nicolas; Berry, Nicholas J; Boeckx, Pascal; de Jong, Bernardus H J; DeVries, Ben; Girardin, Cecile A J; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Lucas, Richard; Malhi, Yadvinder; Morel, Alexandra; Mitchard, Edward T A; Nagy, Laszlo; Qie, Lan; Quinones, Marcela J; Ryan, Casey M; Ferry, Slik J W; Sunderland, Terry; Laurin, Gaia Vaglio; Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla; Valentini, Riccardo; Verbeeck, Hans; Wijaya, Arief; Willcock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns indicated by the reference data. The method was applied independently in areas (strata) with homogeneous error patterns of the input (Saatchi and Baccini) maps, which were estimated from the reference data and additional covariates. Based on the fused map, we estimated AGB stock for the tropics (23.4 N-23.4 S) of 375 Pg dry mass, 9-18% lower than the Saatchi and Baccini estimates. The fused map also showed differing spatial patterns of AGB over large areas, with higher AGB density in the dense forest areas in the Congo basin, Eastern Amazon and South-East Asia, and lower values in Central America and in most dry vegetation areas of Africa than either of the input maps. The validation exercise, based on 2118 estimates from the reference dataset not used in the fusion process, showed that the fused map had a RMSE 15-21% lower than that of the input maps and, most importantly, nearly unbiased estimates (mean bias 5 Mg dry mass ha(-1) vs. 21 and 28 Mg ha(-1) for the input maps). The fusion method can be applied at any scale including the policy-relevant national level, where it can provide improved biomass estimates by integrating existing regional biomass maps as input maps and additional, country-specific reference datasets. PMID:26499288

  12. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  13. An Integrated 3D Hydrogeological, Geophysical, and Microbiological Investigation of Geochemical Gradients in a Pristine Aquifer Located in Laurentian Hills, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Graves, L.; Stojanovic, S.; Enright, A. M.; Bank, C.; Ferris, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    A pristine glaciofluvial aquifer displaying naturally occurring geochemical gradients was investigated using hydrogeological, geophysical, and microbiological methods. A network of 25 piezometers was used to collect samples for groundwater chemical analysis, including parameters such as total iron (Fe), ferrous iron (Fe2+), sulphate (SO42-), sulfur (S2-), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), silica (SiO2), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). Ion concentration values between piezometers were interpolated using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Yearly analysis of the network shows spatially and temporally persistent plumes of iron and sulfur. A 3D model of the aquifer was compiled to aid in the understanding of the nature and origin of the geochemical gradients. The resulting maps showed zones with high concentrations of dissolved total iron (predominantly soluble ferric iron and complexed iron compounds), followed immediately downgradient by a high concentration of ferrous iron. Similarly, zones of high sulfide concentration were followed by areas of high sulfate concentration. There was some overlap between the iron and sulfur plumes, and ion concentrations were higher in years with a lower water table elevation. Metagenomic analysis revealed a diverse microbial community in the sediment, capable of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, and nitrogen. The aquifer basin, as bounded by a till aquitard, was delineated using ground penetrating radar tomography from 45 lines. The plumes corresponded to an area where there is large, channel-like depression in the till boundary. Flow vectors from hydrogeological modelling indicated increased velocity followed by a slowing and convergence of groundwater in this location. Resistivity values from 20 lines varied in general from high values (2000-6000 Ohm.m) above 1-2 m to lower values (less than 1000 Ohm.m) below 2 to a 5m depth. The resistivity surveys consistently showed

  14. An integrated approach (remote sensing, geophysics, field) to assess the structural control of groundwater flow in Wadi Feiran basement complex, Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Zaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    The groundwater flow and potentiality for groundwater accumulation in the fractured basement rocks and the overlaying alluvial deposits were examined in Wadi Feiran basin using remote sensing (Landsat ETM, Ikonos, and Envisat, TRMM, and SIR-C radar images), field (well location, depth to water table), and geophysical (Very Low Frequency [VLF], magnetic) datasets. Our approach encompassed the following steps: (1) head data from 52 wells was utilized to build an approximate potentiometric surface map for the basin; (2) Landsat ETM, 3D, hill shade, Ikonos and SIR-C radar images were used to delineate structures in the study area including faults and dikes; (3) major precipitation events were identified from three-hourly TRMM data; and (4) false color composite images were generated from pairs of multi-temporal Envisat images acquired before and after a precipitation event (17th and 18th of January 2010) to identify structures (faults and dykes) that show an increase in moisture content and radar reflectivity following precipitation events and persisting for periods of days to months. Examination of the radar images revealed: (1) a network of highly reflective interconnected structures and channels (wadis) that are here interpreted to indicate preferred groundwater flow direction in the study area; and (2) many of the identified highly persistent reflective structures were found to be sub-parallel (hereafter referred to as low angle) to groundwater flow directions indicating that they are exceptionally conducive to groundwater flow. We suspect that groundwater flow occurs along low angle faults and dykes within the fault damaged zones and the weathered borders of mafic dykes. These suggestions are further corroborated by: (1) VLF results that showed significant dip angles (up to 60%) indicative of presence of shallow sub-vertical, sheet-like conductors across the identified low angle faults and dykes, (2) the presence of groundwater accumulation down gradient, along

  15. Mapping and predicting sinkholes by integration of remote sensing and spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Azaria, I.

    2013-08-01

    The Dead Sea coastal area is exposed to the destructive process of sinkhole collapse. The increase in sinkhole activity in the last two decades has been substantial, resulting from the continuous decrease in the Dead Sea's level, with more than 1,000 sinkholes developing as a result of upper layer collapse. Large sinkholes can reach 25 m in diameter. They are concentrated mainly in clusters in several dozens of sites with different characteristics. In this research, methods for mapping, monitoring and predicting sinkholes were developed using active and passive remote-sensing methods: field spectrometer, geophysical ground penetration radar (GPR) and a frequency domain electromagnetic instrument (FDEM). The research was conducted in three stages: 1) literature review and data collection; 2) mapping regions abundant with sinkholes in various stages and regions vulnerable to sinkholes; 3) analyzing the data and translating it into cognitive and accessible scientific information. Field spectrometry enabled a comparison between the spectral signatures of soil samples collected near active or progressing sinkholes, and those collected in regions with no visual sign of sinkhole occurrence. FDEM and GPR investigations showed that electrical conductivity and soil moisture are higher in regions affected by sinkholes. Measurements taken at different time points over several seasons allowed monitoring the progress of an 'embryonic' sinkhole.

  16. Environmental geophysics - fad or future?

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    For ten years, the oil industry has suffered cycles of downsizing, out-sourcing, and reorganization. As layoffs and early retirement have become widespread, an increasing number of geophysicists have seen the environmental business as an opportunity to stay in their chosen professions. There have been predictions that the use of geophysics for environmental mapping and characterization could spawn an industry larger than oil exploration. These predictions have come from serious financial analysts as well as from hopeful geophysicists, so they cannot be ignored. There also are reputable professionals who believe that environmentalism is a fad which will die out as soon as the next oil shortage occurs. They point to recent publicity about excessive expenditures for waste remediation as a signal of the beginning of the end. These conflicting views raise serious questions about the form and function of, and the future for, environmental geophysics. This paper reviews these views.

  17. Geophysical investigations at Momotombo, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Cordon, U.J.; Zurflueh, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua was investigated in three exploration stages, using a number of geophysical techniques. Stage 1 of the investigations by Texas Instruments, Inc., (1970) located and delineated a potential geothermal field, with the dipole mapping surveys and electromagnetic soundings being most effective. Stage 2 of the investigations, performed in 1973 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), outlined the resistivity anomalies in the area west of the previously selected field; Schlumberger VES soundings and constant depth profiling (SCDP) proved most useful. During Stage 3 of the investigations, Electroconsult (ELC) performed 20 additional Schlumberger VES soundings as part of the 1975 plant feasibility studies. Results of these geophysical techniques are summarized and their effectiveness briefly discussed.

  18. Breaking Concept Boundaries to Enhance Creative Potential: Using Integrated Concept Maps for Conceptual Self-Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Gloria Yi-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the role of computer support for building conceptual self-awareness--that is, enabling students to think outside of concept boundaries in hope of enhancing creative potential. Based on meta-cognition theory, we developed an integrated concept mapping system (ICMSys) to improve users' conceptual self-awareness in addition to…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE MAIZE MAPPING PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addition, the system must...

  20. Effects of Various Types of Situps on Integrated MAP's of the Abdominal Musculature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    The electrical activity of the abdominal muscles was tested during situps to determine the effect upon integrated muscle action potential (MAP). The following types of situps were used in testing 18 college males: (1) trunk curls; (2) AAHPER situp; (3) YMCA situp; (4) modified AAHPER situp; and (5) modified YMCA situp. All situps were performed…

  1. Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...

  2. Tools for integrating women's health into medical education: clinical cases and concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Weiss, L B; Levison, S P

    2000-11-01

    The authors describe two teaching tools, case-based learning and concept mapping, and how they support cross-disciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary learning, use a biopsychosocial model, and promote the integration of sex- and gender-based science into the medical curriculum. The process of case development at MCP Hahnemann University (MCPHU) is outlined in detail for a specific case. That case, which integrates three different components of women's health, is then presented in full. The authors then provide an example of a concept map dealing with women and alcohol use; the map defines current knowledge and serves as a blueprint for developing curricular goals and learning objectives for the topic. Properly constructed concept maps and cases help teach patient-centered approaches to problem solving, address sex- and gender-based differences in disease as well as in pathophysiology and pharmacology, integrate psychosocial issues-such as family dynamics, environmental stressors, access to health care, effective gender-based communication between patient and provider, and cultural variations-along with biomedical ones, and encourage a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. The authors maintain that these tools might be used to transform medical education by making it more integrated and interdisciplinary. PMID:11078666

  3. Integrated environmental mapping and monitoring, a methodological approach to optimise knowledge gathering and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Ødegård, Øyvind; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Berge, Jørgen

    2015-07-15

    New technology has led to new opportunities for a holistic environmental monitoring approach adjusted to purpose and object of interest. The proposed integrated environmental mapping and monitoring (IEMM) concept, presented in this paper, describes the different steps in such a system from mission of survey to selection of parameters, sensors, sensor platforms, data collection, data storage, analysis and to data interpretation for reliable decision making. The system is generic; it can be used by authorities, industry and academia and is useful for planning- and operational phases. In the planning process the systematic approach is also ideal to identify areas with gap of knowledge. The critical stages of the concept is discussed and exemplified by two case studies, one environmental mapping and one monitoring case. As an operational system, the IEMM concept can contribute to an optimised integrated environmental mapping and monitoring for knowledge generation as basis for decision making. PMID:25956441

  4. Statewide Mapping of Aboveground Biomass by Integrating Airborne Lidar Data and National Forestry Inventory Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; McRoberts, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The freely available airborne lidar data at the sub-national level in the United States provide unprecedented opportunities for mapping large-area yet accurate information about vegetation structure, biomass, and carbon. However, the challenge of processing massive lidar data and extracting useful information is huge. This study is to conduct a statewide mapping study of aboveground biomass (AGB) by integrating airborne lidar data and FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis) plot data for the whole state of Minnesota. We will share our experience and lessons in issues including 1) automatic generation of Digital Terrain Model from point cloud, 2) classification of vegetation returns, 3) calculation of AGB from FIA plots using different allometric models, 4) statistical modeling of AGB by integrating with FIA plots, and 5) assessing the uncertainty of mapped AGB.

  5. Wakeful rest promotes the integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Harris, Mathew A; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Flexible spatial navigation, e.g. the ability to take novel shortcuts, is contingent upon accurate mental representations of environments-cognitive maps. These cognitive maps critically depend on hippocampal place cells. In rodents, place cells replay recently travelled routes, especially during periods of behavioural inactivity (sleep/wakeful rest). This neural replay is hypothesised to promote not only the consolidation of specific experiences, but also their wider integration, e.g. into accurate cognitive maps. In humans, rest promotes the consolidation of specific experiences, but the effect of rest on the wider integration of memories remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that cognitive map formation is supported by rest-related integration of new spatial memories. We predicted that if wakeful rest supports cognitive map formation, then rest should enhance knowledge of overarching spatial relations that were never experienced directly during recent navigation. Forty young participants learned a route through a virtual environment before either resting wakefully or engaging in an unrelated perceptual task for 10 min. Participants in the wakeful rest condition performed more accurately in a delayed cognitive map test, requiring the pointing to landmarks from a range of locations. Importantly, the benefit of rest could not be explained by active rehearsal, but can be attributed to the promotion of consolidation-related activity. These findings (i) resonate with the demonstration of hippocampal replay in rodents, and (ii) provide the first evidence that wakeful rest can improve the integration of new spatial memories in humans, a function that has, hitherto, been associated with sleep. PMID:26235141

  6. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  7. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  8. Integrable maps from Galois differential algebras, Borel transforms and number sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    A new class of integrable maps, obtained as lattice versions of polynomial dynamical systems is introduced. These systems are obtained by means of a discretization procedure that preserves several analytic and algebraic properties of a given differential equation, in particular symmetries and integrability (see Tempesta, 2010 [40]). Our approach is based on the properties of a suitable Galois differential algebra, that we shall call a Rota algebra. A formulation of the procedure in terms of category theory is proposed. In order to render the lattice dynamics confined, a Borel regularization is also adopted. As a byproduct of the theory, a connection between number sequences and integrability is discussed.

  9. Automated integration of genomic physical mapping data via parallel simulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T.

    1994-06-01

    The Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is nearing closure on a high-resolution physical map of human chromosome 19. We have build automated tools to assemble 15,000 fingerprinted cosmid clones into 800 contigs with minimal spanning paths identified. These islands are being ordered, oriented, and spanned by a variety of other techniques including: Fluorescence Insitu Hybridization (FISH) at 3 levels of resolution, ECO restriction fragment mapping across all contigs, and a multitude of different hybridization and PCR techniques to link cosmid, YAC, AC, PAC, and Pl clones. The FISH data provide us with partial order and distance data as well as orientation. We made the observation that map builders need a much rougher presentation of data than do map readers; the former wish to see raw data since these can expose errors or interesting biology. We further noted that by ignoring our length and distance data we could simplify our problem into one that could be readily attacked with optimization techniques. The data integration problem could then be seen as an M x N ordering of our N cosmid clones which ``intersect`` M larger objects by defining ``intersection`` to mean either contig/map membership or hybridization results. Clearly, the goal of making an integrated map is now to rearrange the N cosmid clone ``columns`` such that the number of gaps on the object ``rows`` are minimized. Our FISH partially-ordered cosmid clones provide us with a set of constraints that cannot be violated by the rearrangement process. We solved the optimization problem via simulated annealing performed on a network of 40+ Unix machines in parallel, using a server/client model built on explicit socket calls. For current maps we can create a map in about 4 hours on the parallel net versus 4+ days on a single workstation. Our biologists are now using this software on a daily basis to guide their efforts toward final closure.

  10. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  11. Candidate-penetrative-fracture mapping of the Grand Canyon area, Arizona, from spatial correlation of deep geophysical features and surficial lineaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Some aquifers of the southwestern Colorado Plateaus Province are deeply buried and overlain by several impermeable shale layers, and so recharge to the aquifer probably is mainly by seepage down penetrative-fracture systems. The purpose of this 2-year study, sponsored by the U.S. National Park Service, was to map candidate deep penetrative fractures over a 120,000-km2 area, using gravity and aeromagnetic-anomaly data together with surficial-fracture data. The study area was on the Colorado Plateau south of the Grand Canyon and west of Black Mesa; mapping was carried out at a scale of 1:250,000. The resulting database constitutes a spatially registered estimate of deep-fracture locations. Candidate penetrative fractures were located by spatial correlation of horizontal- gradient and analytic-signal maximums of gravity and magnetic anomalies with major surficial lineaments obtained from geologic, topographic, side-looking-airborne-radar, and satellite imagery. The maps define a subset of candidate penetrative fractures because of limitations in the data coverage and the analytical technique. In particular, the data and analytical technique used cannot predict whether the fractures are open or closed. Correlations were carried out by using image-processing software, such that every pixel on the resulting images was coded to uniquely identify which datasets are correlated. The technique correctly identified known and many new deep fracture systems. The resulting penetrative-fracture-distribution maps constitute an objectively obtained, repeatable dataset and a benchmark from which additional studies can begin. The maps also define in detail the tectonic fabrics of the southwestern Colorado Plateaus Province. Overlaying the correlated lineaments on the normalized-density-of-vegetation-index image reveals that many of these lineaments correlate with the boundaries of vegetation zones in drainages and canyons and so may be controlling near-surface water availability in

  12. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  13. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    imaging to reduce uncertainty and associated risk. In the economically dominant area of petroleum exploration and production, the focus has moved dramatically from exploration to production. This shift is leading increasingly to integration between petroleum geoscience and petrophysics on the one hand, and petroleum engineering and rock mechanics on the other. This integration means that petroleum engineers need to be aware of developments in geophysics, and geophysicists need to be aware of the problems and requirements of the reservoir engineer. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering has been established firmly in that context, and we expect this trend to strengthen and extend far into the future. The Editors welcome your submissions, and comments on this first issue of JGE.

  14. A ``model`` geophysics program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994.

  15. Geological realism in hydrogeological and geophysical inverse modeling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Niklas; Renard, Philippe; Mukerji, Tapan; Caers, Jef

    2015-12-01

    Scientific curiosity, exploration of georesources and environmental concerns are pushing the geoscientific research community toward subsurface investigations of ever-increasing complexity. This review explores various approaches to formulate and solve inverse problems in ways that effectively integrate geological concepts with geophysical and hydrogeological data. Modern geostatistical simulation algorithms can produce multiple subsurface realizations that are in agreement with conceptual geological models and statistical rock physics can be used to map these realizations into physical properties that are sensed by the geophysical or hydrogeological data. The inverse problem consists of finding one or an ensemble of such subsurface realizations that are in agreement with the data. The most general inversion frameworks are presently often computationally intractable when applied to large-scale problems and it is necessary to better understand the implications of simplifying (1) the conceptual geological model (e.g., using model compression); (2) the physical forward problem (e.g., using proxy models); and (3) the algorithm used to solve the inverse problem (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo or local optimization methods) to reach practical and robust solutions given today's computer resources and knowledge. We also highlight the need to not only use geophysical and hydrogeological data for parameter estimation purposes, but also to use them to falsify or corroborate alternative geological scenarios.

  16. Applied geophysical techniques to evaluate earth dams and foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopis, Jose L.; Sharp, Michael K.; Butler, Dwain K.; Yule, Donald E.

    1995-05-01

    Mill Creek Dam, near Walla Walla, Washington has experienced anomalous seepage since its first filling in 1941. Various attempts to abate and control the seepage, including construction of a concrete wall, have not been completely successful. Construction of the cutoff wall reduced the seepage by about 30 percent, from 33 cubic feet per second to 22 cubic feet per second, and downstream saturated farmland was reduced by 56 percent. However, there are indications of increased seepage pressures in a conglomerate formation in the right abutment. A comprehensive, integrated geophysics investigation of the right abutment area of the dam was conducted to detect and map anomalous conditions and assist in the evaluation of remedial measures. The geophysics program consisted of microgravity, ground penetrating radar, seismic reflection, electromagnetic conductivity, and electrical resistivity surveying. Results of the program indicate anomalous conditions extending from the reservoir area through the right abutment. The aspects of the program planning leading to technique selection and field procedures are emphasized, as well as the role of different geophysical techniques in defining the nature of anomalous condition.

  17. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. An integrated map with cosmid/PAC contigs of a 4-Mb down syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Susukida, Rie; Okano, Saishi

    1996-03-05

    The major phenotypic features of Down syndrome have been correlated with partial trisomies of chromosome 21, allowing us to define the candidate gene region to a 4-Mb segment on the 21q22.2 band. We present here a high resolution physical map with megabase-sized cosmid/PAC contigs. This ordered clone library has provided unique material for the integration of a variety of mappable objects, including exons, cDNAs, restriction sites etc. Furthermore, our results have emplified a strategy for the completion of the chromosome 21 map to sequencing. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Construction of a high-density, high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Qin, Zhenkui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Ruijia; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Danzmann, Roy G.; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present work, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic map for channel catfish with three large resource families genotyped using the catfish 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 54,342 SNPs were placed on the linkage map, which to our knowledge had the highest marker density among aquaculture species. The estimated genetic size was 3,505.4 cM with a resolution of 0.22 cM for sex-averaged genetic map. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 4,495.1 cM in females and 2,593.7 cM in males, presenting a ratio of 1.7 : 1 between female and male in recombination fraction. After integration with the previously established physical map, over 87% of physical map contigs were anchored to the linkage groups that covered a physical length of 867 Mb, accounting for ∼90% of the catfish genome. The integrated map provides a valuable tool for validating and improving the catfish whole-genome assembly and facilitates fine-scale QTL mapping and positional cloning of genes responsible for economically important traits. PMID:25428894

  20. Construction of a high-density, high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Qin, Zhenkui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Ruijia; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Danzmann, Roy G; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-02-01

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present work, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic map for channel catfish with three large resource families genotyped using the catfish 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 54,342 SNPs were placed on the linkage map, which to our knowledge had the highest marker density among aquaculture species. The estimated genetic size was 3,505.4 cM with a resolution of 0.22 cM for sex-averaged genetic map. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 4,495.1 cM in females and 2,593.7 cM in males, presenting a ratio of 1.7 : 1 between female and male in recombination fraction. After integration with the previously established physical map, over 87% of physical map contigs were anchored to the linkage groups that covered a physical length of 867 Mb, accounting for ∼90% of the catfish genome. The integrated map provides a valuable tool for validating and improving the catfish whole-genome assembly and facilitates fine-scale QTL mapping and positional cloning of genes responsible for economically important traits. PMID:25428894

  1. Data layer integration for the national map of the united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Starbuck, M.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of geographic data layers in multiple raster and vector formats, from many different organizations and at a variety of resolutions and scales, is a significant problem for The National Map of the United States being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Our research has examined data integration from a layer-based approach for five of The National Map data layers: digital orthoimages, elevation, land cover, hydrography, and transportation. An empirical approach has included visual assessment by a set of respondents with statistical analysis to establish the meaning of various types of integration. A separate theoretical approach with established hypotheses tested against actual data sets has resulted in an automated procedure for integration of specific layers and is being tested. The empirical analysis has established resolution bounds on meanings of integration with raster datasets and distance bounds for vector data. The theoretical approach has used a combination of theories on cartographic transformation and generalization, such as T??pfer's radical law, and additional research concerning optimum viewing scales for digital images to establish a set of guiding principles for integrating data of different resolutions.

  2. Concepts of integrated satellite surveys. [thematic mapping of land use in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations initially contracted with NASA to carry out investigations in three countries; but now as the result of rapidly increasing interest, ERTS imagery has been/is being used in 7 additional projects related to agriculture, forestry, land-use, soils, landforms and hydrology. Initially the ERTS frames were simply used to provide a synoptic view of a large area of a developing country as a basis to regional surveys. From this, interest has extended to using reconstituted false color imagery and latterly, in co-operation with Purdue University, the use of computer generated false color mosaics and computer generated large scale maps. As many developing countries are inadequately mapped and frequently rely on outdated maps, the ERTS imagery is considered to provide a very wide spectrum of valuable data. Thematic maps can be readily prepared at a scale of 1:250,000 using standard NASA imagery. These provide coverage of areas not previously mapped and provide supplementary information and enable existing maps to be up-dated. There is also increasing evidence that ERTS imagery is useful for temporal studies and for providing a new dimension in integrated surveys.

  3. Benthic habitat mapping in a Portuguese Marine Protected Area using EUNIS: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Victor; Guerra, Miriam Tuaty; Mendes, Beatriz; Gaudêncio, Maria José; Fonseca, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    A growing demand for seabed and habitat mapping has taken place over the past years to support the maritime integrated policies at EU and national levels aiming at the sustainable use of sea resources. This study presents the results of applying the hierarchical European Nature Information System (EUNIS) to classify and map the benthic habitats of the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park, a marine protected area (MPA), located in the mainland Portuguese southwest coast, in the Iberian Peninsula. The habitat map was modelled by applying a methodology based on EUNIS to merge biotic and abiotic key habitat drivers. The modelling in this approach focused on predicting the association of different data types: substrate, bathymetry, light intensity, waves and currents energy, sediment grain size and benthic macrofauna into a common framework. The resulting seamless medium scale habitat map discriminates twenty six distinct sublittoral habitats, including eight with no match in the current classification, which may be regarded as new potential habitat classes and therefore will be submitted to EUNIS. A discussion is provided examining the suitability of the current EUNIS scheme as a standardized approach to classify marine benthic habitats and map their spatial distribution at medium scales in the Portuguese coast. In addition the factors that most affected the results available in the predictive habitat map and the role of the environmental factors on macrofaunal assemblage composition and distribution are outlined.

  4. Putting people on the map through an approach that integrates social data in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Sheri L; Mascia, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Conservation planning is integral to strategic and effective operations of conservation organizations. Drawing upon biological sciences, conservation planning has historically made limited use of social data. We offer an approach for integrating data on social well-being into conservation planning that captures and places into context the spatial patterns and trends in human needs and capacities. This hierarchical approach provides a nested framework for characterizing and mapping data on social well-being in 5 domains: economic well-being, health, political empowerment, education, and culture. These 5 domains each have multiple attributes; each attribute may be characterized by one or more indicators. Through existing or novel data that display spatial and temporal heterogeneity in social well-being, conservation scientists, planners, and decision makers may measure, benchmark, map, and integrate these data within conservation planning processes. Selecting indicators and integrating these data into conservation planning is an iterative, participatory process tailored to the local context and planning goals. Social well-being data complement biophysical and threat-oriented social data within conservation planning processes to inform decisions regarding where and how to conserve biodiversity, provide a structure for exploring socioecological relationships, and to foster adaptive management. Building upon existing conservation planning methods and insights from multiple disciplines, this approach to putting people on the map can readily merge with current planning practices to facilitate more rigorous decision making. PMID:25102957

  5. Geophysical and isotopic mapping of preexisting crustal structures that influenced the location and development of the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Matti, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the role of preexisting crustal structure within the Peninsular Ranges batholith on determining the location of the San Jacinto fault zone by analysis of geophysical anomalies and initial strontium ratio data. A 1000-km-long boundary within the Peninsular Ranges batholith, separating relatively mafic, dense, and magnetic rocks of the western Peninsular Ranges batholith from the more felsic, less dense, and weakly magnetic rocks of the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith, strikes north-northwest toward the San Jacinto fault zone. Modeling of the gravity and magnetic field anomalies caused by this boundary indicates that it extends to depths of at least 20 km. The anomalies do not cross the San Jacinto fault zone, but instead trend northwesterly and coincide with the fault zone. A 75-km-long gradient in initial strontium ratios (Sri) in the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith coincides with the San Jacinto fault zone. Here rocks east of the fault are characterized by Sri greater than 0.706, indicating a source of largely continental crust, sedimentary materials, or different lithosphere. We argue that the physical property contrast produced by the Peninsular Ranges batholith boundary provided a mechanically favorable path for the San Jacinto fault zone, bypassing the San Gorgonio structural knot as slip was transferred from the San Andreas fault 1.0-1.5 Ma. Two historical M6.7 earthquakes may have nucleated along the Peninsular Ranges batholith discontinuity in San Jacinto Valley, suggesting that Peninsular Ranges batholith crustal structure may continue to affect how strain is accommodated along the San Jacinto fault zone. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  6. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  7. Geoid Recovery using Geophysical Inverse Theory Applied to Satellite to Satellite Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Frey, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a new method for determination of the geopotential. The analysis is aimed at the GRACE mission. This Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) mission is viewed as a mapping mission The result will be maps of the geoid. The elements of potential theory, celestial mechanics, and Geophysical Inverse Theory are integrated into a computation architecture, and the results of several simulations presented Centimeter accuracy geoids with 50 to 100 km resolution can be recovered with a 30 to 60 day mission.

  8. Integrating field sampling, spatial statistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arieira, J.; Karssenberg, D.; de Jong, S. M.; Addink, E. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nunes da Cunha, C.; Skøien, J. O.

    2010-09-01

    including new digital images as explanatory variables in the model. By comparing the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, we verified that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. We discuss our study in the context of developing a mapping approach that is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote sensing images, providing new basis to map wetland vegetation and allowing its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  9. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  10. EDITORIAL: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Soldovieri, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two decades, the use of non-invasive methods for the study and conservation of cultural heritage, from artefacts and historical sites to recent architectural structures, has gained increasing interest. This is due to several reasons: (i) the improvement of performance and information resolution of sensors and devices; (ii) the increasing availability of user-friendly data/image analysis, and processing software and routines; (iii) the ever greater awareness of archaeologists and conservators of the benefits of these technologies, in terms of reduction of costs, time and the risk associated with direct and destructive investigations of archaeological sites (excavation) and monuments (i.e. masonry coring). The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the spatial and physical characteristics of the cultural objects or sites, the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). This makes the set up and validation of ad hoc procedures based on data processing and post-processing methods necessary, generally developed to address issues in other fields of application. This methodological perspective based on an integrated and multi-scale approach characterizes the papers of this special issue, which is focused on integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage. In particular, attention is given to the advanced application of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the satellite-based platform for deformation monitoring thanks to the innovative differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique; Zeni et al show the significant possibilities of the proposed methodology in achieving a global vision not only of cultural heritage but also of the embedding territory. This collection also deals with the application of non-invasive diagnostics to archaeological prospecting, and

  11. Integration of hydrological and geophysical data beyond the local scale: Application of Bayesian sequential simulation to field data from the Saint-Lambert-de-Lauzon site, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Gloaguen, Erwan; Lefebvre, René; Irving, James; Holliger, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Adequate characterization of aquifer heterogeneity is critically important for the sustainable use, protection, and remediation of groundwater resources. The combined use of hydrological and geophysical measurements is arguably the most effective means of achieving this objective. In this regard, significant progress has been made on the quantitative integration of geophysical and hydrological data at the local scale. However, the extension of such approaches to larger, more regional scales remains a major research challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a recently developed regional-scale hydrogeophysical data integration approach, which is based on Bayesian sequential simulation, to a field database from Quebec, Canada consisting of low-resolution, surface-based geoelectrical measurements as well as high-resolution direct-push and borehole-based measurements of the electrical and hydraulic conductivities. The results of our study, which involved the integration of data along an approximately 250-m-long survey line, confirm that this novel methodology, with suitable adaptation, is fully applicable to field data and has the potential of providing realistic estimates of the spatial distribution of hydraulic target parameters at the regional-scale. Equally importantly, through the generation of multiple stochastic realizations, the methodology allows for quantitative assessment of the uncertainty associated with the inferred subsurface models, which in turn is essential for interpreting subsequent predictions of the flow and transport characteristics of the studied region.

  12. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  13. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors' data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  14. Multipoint-likelihood maximization mapping on 4 segregating populations to achieve an integrated framework map for QTL analysis in pot azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) is the most important flowering pot plant produced in Belgium, being exported world-wide. In the breeding program, flower color is the main feature for selection, only in later stages cultivation related plant quality traits are evaluated. As a result, plants with attractive flowering are kept too long in the breeding cycle. The inheritance of flower color has been well studied; information on the heritability of cultivation related quality traits is lacking. For this purpose, QTL mapping in diverse genetic backgrounds appeared to be a must and therefore 4 mapping populations were made and analyzed. Results An integrated framework map on four individual linkage maps in Rhododendron simsii hybrids was constructed. For genotyping, mainly dominant scored AFLP (on average 364 per population) and MYB-based markers (15) were combined with co-dominant SSR (23) and EST markers (12). Linkage groups were estimated in JoinMap. A consensus grouping for the 4 mapping populations was made and applied in each individual mapping population. Finally, 16 stable linkage groups were set for the 4 populations; the azalea chromosome number being 13. A combination of regression mapping (JoinMap) and multipoint-likelihood maximization (Carthagène) enabled the construction of 4 maps and their alignment. A large portion of loci (43%) was common to at least two populations and could therefore serve as bridging markers. The different steps taken for map optimization and integration into a reference framework map for QTL mapping are discussed. Conclusions This is the first map of azalea up to our knowledge. AFLP and SSR markers are used as a reference backbone and functional markers (EST and MYB) were added as candidate genes for QTL analysis. The alignment of the 4 maps on the basis of framework markers will facilitate in turn the alignment of QTL regions detected in each of the populations. The approach we took is thoroughly different than the

  15. Comparison of methods for integrating biological and physical data for marine habitat mapping and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumchenia, E. J.; King, J. W.

    2010-09-01

    An important first step in marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management efforts is the creation of benthic habitat maps that allow scientists and managers to understand the distribution of living and non-living resources on the seafloor. However, the location of boundaries between and composition of habitats is highly dependent on the approach taken to integrate abiotic and biotic information. The purpose of this study was to test "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches for integrating physical and biological data derived from commonly used sub-tidal benthic mapping tools to create a habitat map compatible with the US Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). We found that a top-down framework, where we tested for differences in macrofauna assemblages among side scan sonar facies, defined two broad-scale and general habitats. Using the bottom-up approach, where patterns in abiotic and biotic variables were examined with multivariate statistics (BEST, LINKTREE, ANOSIM, SIMPER), we generated seven biotopes based on the macrofauna abundance, percent sand, water depth, and backscatter standard deviation that corresponded well to, but provided more fine-scale detail than the top-down habitats. We were able to use the statistical relationship between abiotic variables and macrofauna assemblages in the LINKTREE to predict the spatial distribution of assemblages over ˜50% of the study area. We created a local catalogue of biotopes specific to our study area that contributes to the CMECS library. In addition, we were able to fully map CMECS Geoform, Surface Geology, and Biotic Cover Components. This mapping effort represented real progress toward reconciling the "data density mismatch" between physical and biological mapping methods, and it provided further evidence that using a bottom-up methodology preserves species-environment relationships.

  16. Ensemble Integration of Forest Disturbance Maps for the Landscape Change Monitoring System (LCMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Healey, S. P.; Yang, Z.; Zhu, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Kennedy, R. E.; Huang, C.; Steinwand, D.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Stehman, S. V.; Loveland, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent convergence of free, high quality Landsat data and acceleration in the development of dense Landsat time series algorithms has spawned a nascent interagency effort known as the Landscape Change Monitoring System (LCMS). LCMS is being designed to map historic land cover changes associated with all major disturbance agents and land cover types in the US. Currently, five existing algorithms are being evaluated for inclusion in LCMS. The priorities of these five algorithms overlap to some degree, but each has its own strengths. This has led to the adoption of a novel approach, within LCMS, to integrate the map outputs (i.e., base learners) from these change detection algorithms using empirical ensemble models. Training data are derived from independent datasets representing disturbances such as: harvest, fire, insects, wind, and land use change. Ensemble modeling is expected to produce significant increases in predictive accuracy relative to the results of the individual base learners. The non-parametric models used in LCMS also provide a framework for matching output ensemble maps to independent sample-based statistical estimates of disturbance area. Multiple decision trees "vote" on class assignment, and it is possible to manipulate vote thresholds to ensure that ensemble maps reflect areas of disturbance derived from sources such as national-scale ground or image-based inventories. This talk will focus on results of the first ensemble integration of the base learners for six Landsat scenes distributed across the US. We will present an assessment of base learner performance across different types of disturbance against an independently derived, sample-based disturbance dataset (derived from the TimeSync Landsat time series visualization tool). The goal is to understand the contributions of each base learner to the quality of the ensemble map products. We will also demonstrate how the ensemble map products can be manipulated to match sample-based annual

  17. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernadino: Chapter B in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Menges, Christopher M.; Lidke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The geology and landscape of the Fort Irwin area, typical of many parts of the Mojave Desert, consist of rugged mountains separated by broad alluviated valleys that form the main coarse-resolution features of the geologic map. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and older in age, form most of the mountains with lesser accumulations of Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. In detail, the area exhibits a fairly complex distribution of surficial deposits resulting from diverse rock sources and geomorphology that has been driven by topographic changes caused by recent and active faulting. Depositional environments span those typical of the Mojave Desert: alluvial fans on broad piedmonts, major intermittent streams along valley floors, eolian sand dunes and sheets, and playas in closed valleys that lack through-going washes. Erosional environments include rocky mountains, smooth gently sloping pediments, and badlands in readily eroded sediment. All parts of the landscape, from regional distribution of mountains, valleys, and faults to details of degree of soil development in surface materials, are portrayed by the surficial geologic map. Many of these attributes govern infiltration and recharge, and the surface distribution of permeable rock units such as Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks provides a basis for evaluating potential groundwater storage. Quaternary faults are widespread in the Fort Irwin area and include sinistral, east-striking faults that characterize the central swath of the area and the contrasting dextral, northwest-striking faults that border the east and west margins. Bedrock distribution and thickness of valley-fill deposits are controlled by modern and past faulting, and faults on the map help to identify targets for groundwater exploration.

  18. Integration of imagery and cartographic data through a common map base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.

    1983-01-01

    Several disparate data types are integrated by using control points as the basis for spatially registering the data to a map base. The data are reprojected to match the coordinates of the reference UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) map projection, as expressed in lines and samples. Control point selection is the most critical aspect of integrating the Thematic Mapper Simulator MSS imagery with the cartographic data. It is noted that control points chosen from the imagery are subject to error from mislocated points, either points that did not correlate well to the reference map or minor pixel offsets because of interactive cursorring errors. Errors are also introduced in map control points when points are improperly located and digitized, leading to inaccurate latitude and longitude coordinates. Nonsystematic aircraft platform variations, such as yawl, pitch, and roll, affect the spatial fidelity of the imagery in comparison with the quadrangles. Features in adjacent flight paths do not always correspond properly owing to the systematic panorama effect and alteration of flightline direction, as well as platform variations.

  19. Aeromagnetic data, processing, and maps of Fort Irwin and vicinity, California: Chapter I in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data help provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for Fort Irwin by locating inferred structural features or grain that influence groundwater flow. Magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. These boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  20. Geologic and Geophysical Framework of the Santa Rosa 7.5' Quadrangle, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.; McPhee, D.K.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; Wan, Elmira

    2008-01-01

    The geologic and geophysical maps of Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and accompanying structure sections portray the sedimentary and volcanic stratigraphy and crustal structure of the Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and provide a context for interpreting the evolution of volcanism and active faulting in this region. The quadrangle is located in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay and is traversed by the active Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Maacama Fault Zones. The geologic and geophysical data presented in this report, are substantial improvements over previous geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Rosa area, allowing us to address important geologic issues. First, the geologic mapping is integrated with gravity and magnetic data, allowing us to depict the thicknesses of Cenozoic deposits, the depth and configuration of the Mesozoic basement surface, and the geometry of fault structures beneath this region to depths of several kilometers. This information has important implications for constraining the geometries of major active faults and for understanding and predicting the distribution and intensity of damage from ground shaking during earthquakes. Secondly, the geologic map and the accompanying description of the area describe in detail the distribution, geometry and complexity of faulting associated with the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Bennett Valley Fault Zones and associated faults in the Santa Rosa quadrangle. The timing of fault movements is constrained by new 40Ar/39Ar ages and tephrochronologic correlations. These new data provide a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the extensive sedimentary and volcanic cover in the area and, in particular, clarify the formational affinities of Pliocene and Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary units in the map area. Thirdly, the geophysics, particularly gravity data, indicate the locations of thick sections of sedimentary and volcanic fill within ground water basins of the Santa Rosa plain and

  1. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  2. Intraoperative Monitoring and Mapping of the Functional Integrity of the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Conejero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic damage is very high in surgical interventions in or around the brainstem. However, surgical techniques and intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION) have evolved sufficiently to increase the likelihood of successful functional outcomes in many patients. We present a critical review of the methodologies available for intraoperative monitoring and mapping of the brainstem. There are three main groups of techniques that can be used to assess the functional integrity of the brainstem: 1) mapping, which provides rapid anatomical identification of neural structures using electrical stimulation with a hand-held probe, 2) monitoring, which provides real-time information about the functional integrity of the nervous tissue, and 3) techniques involving the examination of brainstem reflexes in the operating room, which allows for the evaluation of the reflex responses that are known to be crucial for most brainstem functions. These include the blink reflex, which is already in use, and other brainstem reflexes that are being explored, such as the masseter H-reflex. This is still under development but is likely to have important functional consequences. Today an abundant armory of ION methods is available for the monitoring and mapping of the functional integrity of the brainstem during surgery. ION methods are essential in surgery either in or around the brainstem; they facilitate the removal of lesions and contribute to notable improvements in the functional outcomes of patients. PMID:27449909

  3. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  4. Integrated Approach (Geophysics and Remote Sensing) to identify Water-bearing Dyke Swarms and Fractured Basement in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M. E.; Sauck, W.; Abouelmagd, A. A.; Chouinard, K.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated approach utilizing Very Low Frequency (VLF) and magnetic field surveying and temporal remote sensing data including: (1) Advanced Space Borne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) data, (2) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2) radar imagery, and (3) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to delineate water-bearing sub-vertical shear zones within the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula. The following steps were undertaken: (1) the shear zones and dyke swarms within the basement complex were delineated using false color ASTER band and band ratio images; (2) the spatial and temporal precipitation events over the basement complex were then identified from TRMM data, and (3) finally, observations extracted from temporal radar and thermal ASTER bands were used to identify the water-bearing shear zones and dyke swarms. A fracture or dyke was deemed to be water bearing if: (1) it witnessed a large increase in its reflectivity and emissivity compared to its surroundings following a precipitation event, and maintained such differences for periods ranging from days to months. Field observations and VLF investigations were then applied to test the validity of our satellite-based methodologies for locating targeted aquifer types and for refining the satellite-based selections. The VLF detects conductive water-saturated subvertical breccia zones in bedrock. Thirty two VLF transects were collected in September of 2011 and July of 2012 along with 10 magnetic profiles at the same VLF locations. Both VLF and magnetic transects were acquired along a traverse perpendicular to the dike orientations with station separations ranging from 10 to 25 m. The VLF receiver (T-VLF) measures the distortion of the normally horizontal electromagnetic flux lines by local electrical conductors. At each VLF station, and for each frequency used, the following were measured: the tilt of the electromagnetic field, from the horizontal (given in percentage), the

  5. GIS integration of the 1:2880 Stabile cadastre map sheets from Bukovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Vasile; Niè›U, Constantin; Timár, Gábor; Boicu, Alin; Rus, Ioan

    2010-05-01

    Starting with 1975, the North-West part of the Moldavia Principality was occupied by the Habsburg Monarchy and become known as Duchy of Bukovina. During the 143 years of Austrian rule (1775 - 1918), this territory was the subject of several topographic and cadastral surveys. The paper will focus on the cadastral maps produced under the Stabile cadaster (also known as Franciscan cadastre). In the Habsburg Empire, this cadastral survey was started in 1817, at an order of the Emperor Francis I of Austria, as a base for his land taxation reform. In Bukovina, the land registration system was introduced in 1832. The base maps, known as Katastralmappe or Parzellenplan, were drawn under the 1:2880 scale, using Viennese Klafter (fathom) as length unit (1 Viennese Klafter = 1.89648 meters). Each taxation parish (usually centered on the most important cities/villages) was surveyed and mapped individually. The map sheets were accompanied by several registers (e.g. register of building plots, register of land plots) with informations regarding the cadastral parcels. Today, such documents represent a valuable resource in reconstructing the natural and built environment. The study presents the way this maps can be georeferenced and integrated into modern GIS applications, for precise digitization, spatial analysis and 3D reconstruction. The base of the georeference is the knowledge of the projection and datum parameters of the survey in Bukovina as well as the sheet labeling system.

  6. A Geophysical Atlas for Interpretation of Satellite-derived Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr. (Editor); Frey, H. V. (Editor); Davis, W. M.; Greenberg, A. P.; Hutchinson, M. K.; Langel, R. A.; Lowrey, B. E.; Marsh, J. G.; Mead, G. D.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A compilation of maps of global geophysical and geological data plotted on a common scale and projection is presented. The maps include satellite gravity, magnetic, seismic, volcanic, tectonic activity, and mantle velocity anomaly data. The Bibliographic references for all maps are included.

  7. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  8. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAP PROJECTION OF THE SPHEROID USING TRANSFORMATION OF THE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    This program produces the Gauss-Kruger (constant meridional scale) Transverse Mercator Projection which is used to construct the U.S. Army's Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid System. The method is capable of mapping the entire northern hemisphere of the earth (and, by symmetry of the projection, the entire earth) accurately with respect to a single principal meridian, and is therefore mathematically insensitive to proximity either to the pole or the equator, or to the departure of the meridian from the central meridian. This program could be useful to any map-making agency. The program overcomes the limitations of the "series" method (Thomas, 1952) presently used to compute the UTM Grid, specifically its complicated derivation, non-convergence near the pole, lack of rigorous error analysis, and difficulty of obtaining increased accuracy. The method is based on the principle that the parametric colatitude of a point is the amplitude of the Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind, and this (irreducible) integral is the desired projection. Thus, a specification of the colatitude leads, most directly (and with strongest motivation) to a formulation in terms of amplitude. The most difficult problem to be solved was setting up the method so that the Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind could be used elsewhere than on the principal meridian. The point to be mapped is specified in conventional geographic coordinates (geodetic latitude and longitudinal departure from the principal meridian). Using the colatitude (complement of latitude) and the longitude (departure), the initial step is to map the point to the North Polar Stereographic Projection. The closed-form, analytic function that coincides with the North Polar Stereographic Projection of the spheroid along the principal meridian is put into a Newton-Raphson iteration that solves for the tangent of one half the parametric colatitude, generalized to the complex plane. Because the parametric colatitude is the amplitude of

  9. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  10. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  11. New generation of integrated geological-geomorphological reconstruction maps in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierik, Harm Jan; Cohen, Kim; Stouthamer, Esther

    2016-04-01

    Geological-geomorphological reconstructions are important for integrating diverse types of data and improving understanding of landscape formation processes. This works especially well in densely populated Holocene landscapes, where large quantities of raw data are produced by geotechnical, archaeological, soil science and hydrological communities as well as in academic research. The Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, has a long tradition of integrated digital reconstruction maps and databases. This contributed to improve understanding of delta evolution, especially regarding the channel belt network evolution. In this contribution, we present a new generation of digital map products for the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Our reconstructions expand existing channel belt network maps, with new map layers containing natural levee extent and relative elevation. The maps we present have been based on hundreds of thousands of lithological borehole descriptions, >1000 radiocarbon dates, and further integrate LIDAR data, soil maps and archaeological information. For selected time slices through the Late Holocene, the map products describe the patterns of levee distribution. Additionally, we mapped the palaeo-topography of the levees through the delta, aiming to resolve what parts of the overbank river landscape were the relatively low and high positioned areas in the past landscape. The resulting palaeogeographical maps are integrative products created for a very data-rich research area. They will allow for delta-wide analysis in studying changes in the Late Holocene landscape and the interaction with past habitation.

  12. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Thudi, Mahendar; Hu, Yuqin; Azam, Sarwar; Zhang, Yong; Jaganathan, Deepa; You, Frank M; Gao, Jinliang; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Luo, Ming-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Physical map of chickpea was developed for the reference chickpea genotype (ICC 4958) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries targeting 71,094 clones (~12× coverage). High information content fingerprinting (HICF) of these clones gave high-quality fingerprinting data for 67,483 clones, and 1,174 contigs comprising 46,112 clones and 3,256 singletons were defined. In brief, 574 Mb genome size was assembled in 1,174 contigs with an average of 0.49 Mb per contig and 3,256 singletons represent 407 Mb genome. The physical map was linked with two genetic maps with the help of 245 BAC-end sequence (BES)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This allowed locating some of the BACs in the vicinity of some important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for drought tolerance and reistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight. In addition, fingerprinted contig (FPC) assembly was also integrated with the draft genome sequence of chickpea. As a result, ~965 BACs including 163 minimum tilling path (MTP) clones could be mapped on eight pseudo-molecules of chickpea forming 491 hypothetical contigs representing 54,013,992 bp (~54 Mb) of the draft genome. Comprehensive analysis of markers in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance QTL regions led to identification of 654, 306 and 23 genes in drought tolerance "QTL-hotspot" region, Ascochyta blight resistance QTL region and Fusarium wilt resistance QTL region, respectively. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map should provide a foundation for cloning and isolation of QTLs/genes for molecular dissection of traits as well as markers for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement. PMID:24610029

  13. A database system for constructing, integrating, and displaying physical maps of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T.; Wagner, M.; Yeh, Mimi; Ashworth, L.; Nelson, D.; Ow, D.; Branscomb, E.; Carrano, A.

    1994-06-01

    Efforts are underway at numerous sites around the world to construct physical maps of all human chromosomes. These maps will enable researchers to locate, characterize, and eventually understand the genes that control human structure and function. Accomplishing this goal will require a staggering amount of innovation and advancement of biological technology. The volume and complexity of the data already generated requires a sophisticated array of computational support to collect, store, analyze, integrate, and display it in biologically meaningful ways. The Human Genome Center at Livermore has spent the last 6 years constructing a database system to support its physical mapping efforts on human chromosome 19. Our computational support team is composed of experienced computer professionals who share a common pragmatic primary goal of rapidly supplying tools that meet the ever-changing needs of the biologists. Most papers describing computational support of genome research concentrate on mathematical details of key algorithms. However, in this paper we would like to concentrate on the design issues, tradeoffs, and consequences from the point of view of building a complex database system to support leading-edge genomic research. We introduce the topic of physical mapping, discuss the key design issues involved in our databases, and discuss the use of this data by our major tools (DNA fingerprint analysis and overlap computation, contig assembly, map integration, and database browsing.) Given the advantage of hindsight, we discuss what worked, what didn`t, and how we will evolve from here. As early pioneers in this field we hope that our experience may prove useful to others who are now beginning to design and construct similar systems.

  14. Volumetric ellipsoid zone mapping for enhanced visualisation of outer retinal integrity with optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuji; Vasanji, Amit; Ehlers, Justis P

    2016-03-01

    Objective assessment of retinal layer integrity with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently limited. The ellipsoid zone (EZ) has been identified as an important feature on OCT that has critical prognostic value in macular disorders. In this report, we describe a novel assessment tool for EZ integrity that provides visual and quantitative assessment across an OCT data set. Using this algorithm, we describe the findings in multiple clinical examples, including normal controls, age-related macular degeneration, drug effects (eg, ocriplasmin, hydroxychloroquine) and effects of surgical manipulation (eg, following membrane peeling using intraoperative OCT). EZ mapping provides both en face visualisation of EZ integrity and EZ-retinal pigment epithelium height. Additionally, volumetric, area and linear measurements are feasible using this assessment tool. PMID:26201354

  15. Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral Integration Sites.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Erik; Cherepanov, Peter; Engelman, Alan N

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses exhibit signature integration preferences on both the local and global scales. Here, we present a detailed protocol for (1) generation of diverse libraries of retroviral integration sites using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) amplification and next-generation sequencing (NGS), (2) mapping the genomic location of each virus-host junction using BEDTools, and (3) analyzing the data for statistical relevance. Genomic DNA extracted from infected cells is fragmented by digestion with restriction enzymes or by sonication. After suitable DNA end-repair, double-stranded linkers are ligated onto the DNA ends, and semi-nested PCR is conducted using primers complementary to both the long terminal repeat (LTR) end of the virus and the ligated linker DNA. The PCR primers carry sequences required for DNA clustering during NGS, negating the requirement for separate adapter ligation. Quality control (QC) is conducted to assess DNA fragment size distribution and adapter DNA incorporation prior to NGS. Sequence output files are filtered for LTR-containing reads, and the sequences defining the LTR and the linker are cropped away. Trimmed host cell sequences are mapped to a reference genome using BLAT and are filtered for minimally 97% identity to a unique point in the reference genome. Unique integration sites are scrutinized for adjacent nucleotide (nt) sequence and distribution relative to various genomic features. Using this protocol, integration site libraries of high complexity can be constructed from genomic DNA in three days. The entire protocol that encompasses exogenous viral infection of susceptible tissue culture cells to integration site analysis can therefore be conducted in approximately one to two weeks. Recent applications of this technology pertain to longitudinal analysis of integration sites from HIV-infected patients. PMID:27023428

  16. An Integrated Linkage, Chromosome, and Genome Map for the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Severson, David W.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Black, William C.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is an efficient vector of arboviruses and a convenient model system for laboratory research. Extensive linkage mapping of morphological and molecular markers localized a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, linking the QTLs to Ae. aegypti chromosomes and genomic sequences has been challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes and the highly fragmented genome assembly for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the approach developed in our previous study, we constructed idiograms for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti based on their banding patterns at early metaphase. These idiograms represent the first cytogenetic map developed for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti. One hundred bacterial artificial chromosome clones carrying major genetic markers were hybridized to the chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. As a result, QTLs related to the transmission of the filarioid nematode Brugia malayi, the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the dengue virus, as well as sex determination locus and 183 Mbp of genomic sequences were anchored to the exact positions on Ae. aegypti chromosomes. A linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers on the physical and linkage maps. As a result of the recombination rate variation along the chromosomes, 12 QTLs on the linkage map were combined into five major clusters of QTLs on the chromosome map. Conclusion This study developed an integrated linkage, chromosome, and genome map—iMap—for the yellow fever mosquito. Our discovery of the localization of multiple QTLs in a few major chromosome clusters suggests a possibility that the transmission of various pathogens is controlled by the same genomic loci. Thus, the iMap will facilitate the identification of genomic determinants of traits responsible

  17. MAPS (My Atlas and Plot Service) for Integrated Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, M.; Fukuda, K.; Sugiura, N.; Funakoshi, R.

    2010-12-01

    DIAS (Data integration and Analysis System) is one of the activities of GEOSS, and also one of Japanese National Key Technology activities. JAMSTEC collaborates with the University of Tokyo, the main contractor of the project. It is a five-year project until March 2011. We at JAMSTEC also have developed a data distribution system toward long-term sustainable services as part of DIAS. We launched the early website at 2007. It provided six integration and analysis datasets in the fields of “Ocean & Fishery Resources”, “Water Cycle” and “Land Ecosystem”. We also investigated users’ needs through an online questionnaire and through interviews regarding the types and quality of required data, data formats, website functions and so on. Accordingly, our new website, MAPS, which is short for My Atlas and Plot Service has been remodeled with four new datasets and new functions to meet users’ needs since the fall in 2010. We have provided online mapping and plotting services with MapServer, and download services with functions of extracting digital data by selected attribute and of converting into another file type. These services provide a powerful visualization and analysis capabilities for the data products. The input items and forms in online questionnaire and Contact-Us page in our website have been refined to collect feedbacks and comments about the new website functions. We are continuously researching the further future needs in order to promote the wider usage of the datasets.

  18. Fuzzy cognitive mapping in support of integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing a shared conceptual model among stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Vasslides, James M; Jensen, Olaf P

    2016-01-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches, including integrated ecosystem assessments, are a popular methodology being used to holistically address management issues in social-ecological systems worldwide. In this study we utilized fuzzy logic cognitive mapping to develop conceptual models of a complex estuarine system among four stakeholder groups. The average number of categories in an individual map was not significantly different among groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups in the average complexity or density indices of the individual maps. When ordered by their complexity scores, eight categories contributed to the top four rankings of the stakeholder groups, with six of the categories shared by at least half of the groups. While non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis displayed a high degree of overlap between the individual models across groups, there was also diversity within each stakeholder group. These findings suggest that while all of the stakeholders interviewed perceive the subject ecosystem as a complex series of social and ecological interconnections, there are a core set of components that are present in most of the groups' models that are crucial in managing the system towards some desired outcome. However, the variability in the connections between these core components and the rest of the categories influences the exact nature of these outcomes. Understanding the reasons behind these differences will be critical to developing a shared conceptual model that will be acceptable to all stakeholder groups and can serve as the basis for an integrated ecosystem assessment. PMID:26520042

  19. An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles Gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Benedict, M. Q.; Cornel, A. J.; Collins, F. H.; Kafatos, F. C.

    1996-01-01

    We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Polymorphisms in laboratory strains were detected for 89% of the tested microsatellite markers. Genotyping was performed for individual mosquitoes from 13 backcross families that included 679 progeny. Three linkage groups were identified, corresponding to the three chromosomes. We added 22 new markers to the existing X chromosome map, for a total of 46 microsatellite markers spanning a distance of 48.9 cM. The second chromosome has 57 and the third 28 microsatellite markers spanning a distance of 72.4 and 93.7 cM, respectively. The overall average distance between markers is 1.6 cM (or 1.1, 1.2, and 3.2 cM for the X, second, and third chromosomes, respectively). In addition to the 131 microsatellite markers, the current map also includes a biochemical selectable marker, Dieldrin resistance (Dl), on the second chromosome and five visible markers, pink-eye (p) and white (w) on the X, collarless (c) and lunate (lu) on the second, and red-eye (r) on the third. The cytogenetic locations on the nurse cell polytene chromosomes have been determined for 47 markers, making this map an integrated tool for cytogenetic, genetic, and molecular analysis. PMID:8725240

  20. New generation of electro-anatomic mapping: full intracardiac ultrasound image integration.

    PubMed

    Packer, Douglas L; Johnson, Susan B; Kolasa, Mark W; Bunch, Thomas J; Henz, Benhur D; Okumura, Yasuo

    2008-11-01

    Surrogate electro-anatomic-derived geometries are used as the three-dimensional (3D) basis for mapping of cardiac arrhythmias. While merged computed tomography (CT) imaging may provide stellar pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrial (LA) anatomy, the applied scans must be obtained prior to ablation, and may not reflect physiologic conditions at the time of intervention. Patient-specific, ultrasound-derived 3D imaging has been developed as an alternative basis for new generation electro-anatomic mapping. An electro-anatomic sensor positioned at the tip of the phased-array intracardiac ultrasound catheter, provides the means to specify both location and orientation of each image as the 'context' for creating the 3D volumes for co-registration with electro-anatomic mapping. Specific anatomic details such as the pulmonary veins, membranous fossa, papillary muscles, or valve structures derived from real-time imaging can also be integrated into each segmented volume. This presentation reviews the basis and methods for this novel multi-modality image fusion for the creation of robust, nearly real-time anatomic images for guiding electro-anatomic mapping and ablation without requiring pre-acquired CT image sets, with accompanying limitations. PMID:18955397

  1. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  2. A Concept-Map Integrated Dynamic Assessment System for Improving Ecology Observation Competences in Mobile Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, I-Hsiang; Lin, I-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Observation competence plays a fundamental role in outdoor scientific investigation. The computerized concept mapping technique as a Mindtool has shown the potential for enhancing meaningful learning in science education. The purposes of the present study are to develop a concept map integrated mobile learning design for ecology observation and to…

  3. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  4. A second generation integrated map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome: analysis of synteny with model fish genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we generated DNA fingerprints and end sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from two new libraries to improve the first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome. The current version of the physical map is compose...

  5. The GDB Human Genome Data Base: a source of integrated genetic mapping and disease data.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, K A

    1993-01-01

    The GDB Human Genome Data Base refers collectively to GDB and OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. GDB and OMIM are linked databases that provide an international repository for information generated by the Human Genome Initiative. GDB contains human gene mapping data, while OMIM offers the text of Dr. Victor A. McKusick's catalog of genetic disease and phenotype descriptions. These databases, updated and edited continuously, integrate bibliographic and full-text information with several types of mapping data. They are accessible through a flexible interface and are available through SprintNet and the Internet to the scientific community without cost. This paper provides an overview of the context, development, structure, content, and use of these databases. PMID:8374584

  6. Analysis of adiabatic trapping for quasi-integrable area-preserving maps.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Armando; Frye, Christopher; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hernalsteens, Cédric

    2014-04-01

    Trapping phenomena involving nonlinear resonances have been considered in the past in the framework of adiabatic theory. Several results are known for continuous-time dynamical systems generated by Hamiltonian flows in which the combined effect of nonlinear resonances and slow time variation of some system parameters is considered. The focus of this paper is on discrete-time dynamical systems generated by two-dimensional symplectic maps. The possibility of extending the results of neo-adiabatic theory to quasi-integrable area-preserving maps is discussed. Scaling laws are derived, which describe the adiabatic transport as a function of the system parameters using a probabilistic point of view. These laws can be particularly relevant for physical applications. The outcome of extensive numerical simulations showing the excellent agreement with the analytical estimates and scaling laws is presented and discussed in detail. PMID:24827321

  7. A MAP OF THE INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE SIGNAL FROM LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Granett, Benjamin R.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-08-10

    We construct a map of the time derivative of the gravitational potential traced by Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The potential decays on large scales due to cosmic acceleration, leaving an imprint on cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. With a template fit, we directly measure this signature on the CMB at a 2{sigma} confidence level. The measurement is consistent with the cross-correlation statistic, strengthening the claim that dark energy is indeed the cause of the correlation. This new approach potentially simplifies the cosmological interpretation. Our constructed linear ISW map shows no evidence for degree-scale cold and hot spots associated with supervoid and supercluster structures. This suggests that the linear ISW effect in a concordance {lambda}CDM cosmology is insufficient to explain the strong CMB imprints from these structures that we previously reported.

  8. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density.

  9. Integrating Multibeam Backscatter Angular Response, Mosaic and Bathymetry Data for Benthic Habitat Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Che Hasan, Rozaimi; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Schimel, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam echosounders (MBES) are increasingly becoming the tool of choice for marine habitat mapping applications. In turn, the rapid expansion of habitat mapping studies has resulted in a need for automated classification techniques to efficiently map benthic habitats, assess confidence in model outputs, and evaluate the importance of variables driving the patterns observed. The benthic habitat characterisation process often involves the analysis of MBES bathymetry, backscatter mosaic or angular response with observation data providing ground truth. However, studies that make use of the full range of MBES outputs within a single classification process are limited. We present an approach that integrates backscatter angular response with MBES bathymetry, backscatter mosaic and their derivatives in a classification process using a Random Forests (RF) machine-learning algorithm to predict the distribution of benthic biological habitats. This approach includes a method of deriving statistical features from backscatter angular response curves created from MBES data collated within homogeneous regions of a backscatter mosaic. Using the RF algorithm we assess the relative importance of each variable in order to optimise the classification process and simplify models applied. The results showed that the inclusion of the angular response features in the classification process improved the accuracy of the final habitat maps from 88.5% to 93.6%. The RF algorithm identified bathymetry and the angular response mean as the two most important predictors. However, the highest classification rates were only obtained after incorporating additional features derived from bathymetry and the backscatter mosaic. The angular response features were found to be more important to the classification process compared to the backscatter mosaic features. This analysis indicates that integrating angular response information with bathymetry and the backscatter mosaic, along with their derivatives

  10. Integration of Google Maps/Earth with microscale meteorology models and data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yansen; Huynh, Giap; Williamson, Chatt

    2013-12-01

    The Google Maps/Earth GIS has been integrated with a microscale meteorological model to improve the system's functionality and ease of use. Almost all the components of the model system, including the terrain data processing, morphological data generation, meteorological data gathering and initialization, and displaying/visualizing the model results, have been improved by using this approach. Different from the traditional stand-along model system, this novel system takes advantages of enormous resources in map and image data retrieving/handling, four-dimensional (space and time) data visualization, overlaying, and many other advanced GIS features that the Google Maps/Earth platform has to offer. We have developed modular components for all of the model system controls and data processing programs which are glued together with the JavaScript language and KML/XML data. We have also developed small modular software using the Google application program interface to convert the model results and intermediate data for visualizations and animations. Capabilities such as high-resolution image, street view, and 3D buildings in the Google Earth/Map are also used to quickly generate small-scale vegetation and building morphology data that are required for the microscale meteorological models. This system has also been applied to visualize the data from other instruments such as Doppler wind lidars. Because of the tight integration of the internet based GIS and a microscale meteorology model, the model system is more versatile, intuitive, and user-friendly than a stand-along system we had developed before. This kind of system will enhance the user experience and also help researchers to explore new phenomena in fine-scale meteorology.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Daniel F.

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  12. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them. PMID:26610985

  13. An integrated approach for updating cadastral maps in Pakistan using satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zahir; Tuladhar, Arbind; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2012-08-01

    Updating cadastral information is crucial for recording land ownership and property division changes in a timely fashioned manner. In most cases, the existing cadastral maps do not provide up-to-date information on land parcel boundaries. Such a situation demands that all the cadastral data and parcel boundaries information in these maps to be updated in a timely fashion. The existing techniques for acquiring cadastral information are discipline-oriented based on different disciplines such as geodesy, surveying, and photogrammetry. All these techniques require a large number of manpower, time, and cost when they are carried out separately. There is a need to integrate these techniques for acquiring cadastral information to update the existing cadastral data and (re)produce cadastral maps in an efficient manner. To reduce the time and cost involved in cadastral data acquisition, this study develops an integrated approach by integrating global position system (GPS) data, remote sensing (RS) imagery, and existing cadastral maps. For this purpose, the panchromatic image with 0.6 m spatial resolution and the corresponding multi-spectral image with 2.4 m spatial resolution and 3 spectral bands from QuickBird satellite were used. A digital elevation model (DEM) was extracted from SPOT-5 stereopairs and some ground control points (GCPs) were also used for ortho-rectifying the QuickBird images. After ortho-rectifying these images and registering the multi-spectral image to the panchromatic image, fusion between them was attained to get good quality multi-spectral images of these two study areas with 0.6 m spatial resolution. Cadastral parcel boundaries were then identified on QuickBird images of the two study areas via visual interpretation using participatory-GIS (PGIS) technique. The regions of study are the urban and rural areas of Peshawar and Swabi districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The results are the creation of updated cadastral maps with a

  14. Integration of 28 STSs into the physical map of human chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, S.; White, R.; Bradley, P.

    1994-12-01

    Genes on human chromosome 18 are associated with familial glucocorticoid deficiency (MC2R), pemphigus vulgaris (DSG3) and foliaceus (DSG1), familial amyloidosis (TTR), colorectal carcinoma (DCC), erythropoietic protoporphyria (FECH), follicular lymphoma (BCL2, FVT1), and congenital methemoglobinemia (CYB5). As the resolution of human genetic maps improves, linkage between other diseases and specific regions of chromosome 18 will occur. A physical map of human chromosome 18 will prove useful in identifying candidate genes that are associated with these disorders. Using various physical and genetic mapping techniques, over 35 genes and 19 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are assigned to human chromosome 18. Most of these genes and several of the ESTs were sublocalized using a well-defined panel of somatic cell hybrids that contain different segments of human chromosome 18. Despite recent efforts, progress in mapping human chromosome 18 has lagged behind that achieved for other chromosomes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to integrate 9 new transcriptional tags [8 brain ESTs (8) and the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) (3)] and 19 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) into the physical map of human chromosome 18. The SSRs were isolated by screening genomic DNA libraries constructed in M13mp18 vectors with oligonucleotide probes that detected dinucleotide d(CA)- and tetranucleotide-repeat motifs. DNA sequences of clones that contained microsatellite repeats were obtained by thermal-cycle sequencing, and STSs were developed from clones that contained numerous repeats. STSs that identified highly polymorphic loci in eight unrelated CEPH parents were used for genotyping. Results of linkage analyses and estimates of heterozygosity for these markers will be reported. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Organic–Inorganic Eu3+/Tb3+ codoped hybrid films for temperature mapping in integrated circuits

    PubMed Central

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Lima, Patrícia P.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Millán, Angel; Amaral, Vitor S.; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous decrease on the geometric size of electronic devices and integrated circuits generates higher local power densities and localized heating problems that cannot be characterized by conventional thermographic techniques. Here, a self-referencing intensity-based molecular thermometer involving a di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrid thin film co-doped with Eu3+ and Tb3+ tris (β-diketonate) chelates is used to obtain the temperature map of a FR4 printed wiring board with spatio-temporal resolutions of 0.42 μm/4.8 ms. PMID:24790938

  16. Mapping for Advocacy - Using Marine Geophysical Data to Establish the Limits of Extend Continent Shelves under the Convention on the Law of the Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Baker, B.

    2008-12-01

    sounder data was the primary bathymetric mapping tool. As a result it was built on a remarkably simplistic view of the seafloor that has been completely overturned by the swath bathymetric data collected over the last two decades. This process must then somehow reconcile the great diversity of seafloor structure and composition that has been recognized with the simplistic language of the treaty itself. While this process relies on scientific data, it is not hypothesis testing, where, by successive elimination of the unlikely we claim to find some "truth" as a residue. In this context the data are material for advocacy, to establish a positive case for each particular claim. If the science is something like art, making a beautiful object is like seeking the unique, optimal hypothesis, then this instrumental advocacy is something more like engineering. The data are a means to achieve a particular objective, in the typical situation, the goal is to maximize the claimed area. Chris Carleton has referred to "the technical expert and his political masters"; a relationship that this presentation will address and discuss some of the potential uses of Article 76 data in the arctic and the application of Article 76 by the circum-arctic states to the Arctic Ocean.

  17. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  18. Integrated Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data to Understand the Extent, Kinematics and Tectonic Evolution of the Precambrian Aswa Shear Zone in East Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a Precambrian lithospheric structure which forms the western margin of the East African Orogeny (EAO) that influenced the evolution of many tectonic events in Eastern Africa including the East African Rift System. It separates the cratonic entities of Saharan Metacraton in the northeast from the Congo craton and the Tanzanian craton and the Kibaran orogenic belt to the southwest. However little is known about its kinematics and the extent and tectonic origin are not fully understood. We developed a new technique based on the tilt method to extract kinematic information from high-resolution airborne magnetic data. We also used radiometric data over Uganda integrated with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in South Sudan to understand the extent, kinematics and define the tectonic origin of ASZ. (1) Our results suggest that the ASZ extends in a NW-SE for ~550 km in Uganda and South Sudan. (2) The airborne magnetic and radiometric data revealed a much wider (~50 km) deformation belt than the mapped 5-10 km of exposed surface expression of the ASZ. The deformation belt associated with the shear is defined by three NW-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zones bounding structural domains with magnetic fabrics showing splays of secondary shear zones and shear-related folds. These folds are tighter close to the discrete shear zones with their axial traces becoming sub-parallel to the shear zones. Similar fold patterns are observed from South Sudan in the SRTM DEM. We interpret these folds as due to ENE-WSW shortening associated with the sinistral strike-slip movement. (3) To the northeast of the shear zone, the magnetic patterns suggest a series of W-verging nappes indicative of strong E-W oriented shortening. Based on the above observations, we relate the evolution of the ASZ to Neoproterozoic E-W collision between East and West Gondwana. This collision produced E-W contraction resulting in W-verging thrusts

  19. Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) Framework for Exercise and Response Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mapar, Jalal; Hoette, Trisha; Mahrous, Karim; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Plantenga, Todd; Yang, Christine; Yang, Lynn; Hopmeier, Michael

    2011-01-01

    EmergenCy management personnel at federal, stale, and local levels can benefit from the increased situational awareness and operational efficiency afforded by simulation and modeling for emergency preparedness, including planning, training and exercises. To support this goal, the Department of Homeland Security's Science & Technology Directorate is funding the Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) program to create an integrating framework that brings together diverse models for use by the emergency response community. SUMMIT, one piece of the IMMS program, is the initial software framework that connects users such as emergency planners and exercise developers with modeling resources, bridging the gap in expertise and technical skills between these two communities. SUMMIT was recently deployed to support exercise planning for National Level Exercise 2010. Threat, casualty. infrastructure, and medical surge models were combined within SUMMIT to estimate health care resource requirements for the exercise ground truth.

  20. Geophysical investigation at Fort Detrick Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of 15 suspected disposal areas at Area B, Fort Detrick, Maryland, are presented. Between 1943 and 1969, Fort Detrick served as the nation's center for military offensive and defensive biological research. As a result of this activity, chemically and biologically contaminated materials were generated and disposed in burial pits at Site B. Based on historical and visual information, 15 sites suspected of containing burial pits were selected to be examined in greater detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigations were designed to detect anomalous conditions indicative of past disposal activities. The geophysical program included electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and seismic refraction methods. Anomalous conditions were found at several of the sites tested and noted. The anomalous conditions may have resulted from the presence of buried material or from physical and/or chemical soil changes caused by disposal activities.... Geophysics, Electromagnetics ground penetrating radar, Geophysical surveys, Magnetics, Seismic refraction.

  1. Optical-radar-DEM remote sensing data integration for geological mapping in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurmond, Allison K.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Thurmond, John B.

    2006-02-01

    The advantages of integrating optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)) and radar (Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) - C, X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and RADARSAT-1) remote sensing data, and digital elevation models (DEMs) (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) for geological mapping in arid regions such as the Afar Depression in Ethiopia are demonstrated. The Afar Depression in NE Africa is a natural laboratory for studying processes of sea-floor spreading and the transition from rifting to true sea-floor spreading. It is ideal for geological remote sensing because of its vastness, remoteness and inaccessibility together with almost continuous exposure, and lack of vegetation and soil cover. Optical-radar-DEM remote sensing data integration is used for: (1) Distinguishing spatial and temporal distribution of individual lava flows in the Quaternary Erta 'Ale Volcanic Range in the northern part of the Afar Depression, by integrating band-ratios of ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data with Landsat ETM+ visible and near infrared (VNIR) and SIR-C/X-SAR L-band ( λ = 24 cm) data with horizontally transmitted and horizontally received (HH) polarization. (2) Visualizing and interpreting extensional imbrication fans that constitute part of the Dobe Graben in the central part of the Afar Depression by integrating Landsat ETM+ VNIR data with RADARSAT C-band ( λ = 6 cm) data with HH polarization and SRTM DEMs. These imbrication fans were developed as layer-parallel gravitational slip of the border fault hanging-wall towards the graben center. (3) Mapping morphologically defined structures in rhyolite flows exposed on the flanks of the Tendaho Rift by merging ASTER VNIR and short wave infrared (SWIR) with RADARSAT C-band data with HH polarization. The Tendaho Rift constitutes part of the Tendaho-Gobaad Discontinuity that separates the southern and the central eastern parts of the Afar

  2. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    Existing underground utilities continue to be a leading cause of highway construction delay claims in the United States. Although 80-90% of existing utilities can typically be discovered and mapped using a wide range of geophysical tools, there is a recognizable need to improve the process. Existing shortcomings to the utility mapping process include a lack of viable depth attributes, long field occupation times, low experience level of the field technicians, and separate survey / geophysics functions. The U.S. National Academies and its Transportation Research Board recently concluded a project on alleviating the existing utility mapping shortcomings through the development of enhanced GPR. An existing commercial 400MHz 14-channel towed array was enhanced with positioning and interpretation hardware and software over a 3-year US 2M program. Field trials for effectiveness were conducted in a city suburb commercialized environment where the relative permittivity values averaged 9.4. The effectiveness of enhanced GPR was compared to traditional utility mapping techniques (Single Channel GPR, FDEM, Acoustic, Sondes, Gradiometric Magnetometers) during the project. The project area utilities included natural gas, water, electric, telephone, cable, storm, sanitary, traffic control, and several unknown function lines. Depths for these utilities were mostly unknown. 81% of known (from records and field appurtenance visual observation) utilities were detected via traditional geophysical means. These traditional geophysical means also detected 14% additional and previously "unknown" utilities. The enhanced GPR detected approximately 40% of the known and unknown utilities, and found an additional 6% of utilities that were previously undetected. These additional utilities were subsequently determined to be small diameter abandoned water and gas systems in very poor and broken condition. Although it did well with metallic water and gas lines, communication and electric

  3. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  4. An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and comparison with Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, W J; Poulet, S; Eiglmeier, K; Pascopella, L; Balasubramanian, V; Heym, B; Bergh, S; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R; Cole, S T

    1996-01-01

    An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was constructed by using a twin-pronged approach. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis enabled cleavage sites for Asn I and Dra I to be positioned on the 4.4-Mb circular chromosome, while, in parallel, clones from two cosmid libraries were ordered into contigs by means of fingerprinting and hybridization mapping. The resultant contig map was readily correlated with the physical map of the genome via the landmarked restriction sites. Over 165 genes and markers were localized on the integrated map, thus enabling comparisons with the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, to be undertaken. Mycobacterial genomes appear to have evolved as mosaic structures since extended segments with conserved gene order and organization are interspersed with different flanking regions. Repetitive sequences and insertion elements are highly abundant in M. tuberculosis, but the distribution of IS6110 is apparently nonrandom. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8610181

  5. Integrative transcriptome, proteome, phosphoproteome and genetic mapping reveals new aspects in a fiberless mutant of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qi-Feng; Wu, Chun-Hui; Wu, Man; Pei, Wen-Feng; Li, Xing-Li; Wang, Wen-Kui; Zhang, Jinfa; Yu, Ji-Wen; Yu, Shu-Xun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of fiber initiation in cotton (Gossypium spp.), an integrated approach combining transcriptome, iTRAQ-based proteome and genetic mapping was taken to compare the ovules of the Xuzhou 142 wild type (WT) with its fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant at −3 and 0 day post-anthesis. A total of 1,953 mRNAs, 187 proteins, and 131 phosphoproteins were differentially expressed (DE) between WT and fl, and the levels of transcripts and their encoded proteins and phosphoproteins were highly congruent. A functional analysis suggested that the abundance of proteins were mainly involved in amino sugar, nucleotide sugar and fatty acid metabolism, one carbon pool for folate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis. qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays were performed to confirm the regulation of these transcripts and proteins. A molecular mapping located the lintless gene li3 in the fl mutant on chromosome 26 for the first time. A further in-silico physical mapping of DE genes with sequence variations between fl and WT identified one and four candidate genes in the li3 and n2 regions, respectively. Taken together, the transcript abundance, phosphorylation status of proteins at the fiber initiation stage and candidate genes have provided insights into regulatory processes underlying cotton fiber initiation. PMID:27075604

  6. Integrative transcriptome, proteome, phosphoproteome and genetic mapping reveals new aspects in a fiberless mutant of cotton.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi-Feng; Wu, Chun-Hui; Wu, Man; Pei, Wen-Feng; Li, Xing-Li; Wang, Wen-Kui; Zhang, Jinfa; Yu, Ji-Wen; Yu, Shu-Xun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of fiber initiation in cotton (Gossypium spp.), an integrated approach combining transcriptome, iTRAQ-based proteome and genetic mapping was taken to compare the ovules of the Xuzhou 142 wild type (WT) with its fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant at -3 and 0 day post-anthesis. A total of 1,953 mRNAs, 187 proteins, and 131 phosphoproteins were differentially expressed (DE) between WT and fl, and the levels of transcripts and their encoded proteins and phosphoproteins were highly congruent. A functional analysis suggested that the abundance of proteins were mainly involved in amino sugar, nucleotide sugar and fatty acid metabolism, one carbon pool for folate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis. qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays were performed to confirm the regulation of these transcripts and proteins. A molecular mapping located the lintless gene li3 in the fl mutant on chromosome 26 for the first time. A further in-silico physical mapping of DE genes with sequence variations between fl and WT identified one and four candidate genes in the li3 and n2 regions, respectively. Taken together, the transcript abundance, phosphorylation status of proteins at the fiber initiation stage and candidate genes have provided insights into regulatory processes underlying cotton fiber initiation. PMID:27075604

  7. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P., Jr.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  8. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders. PMID:24303773

  9. Encrypting three-dimensional information system based on integral imaging and multiple chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yan; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Xiong, Zhao-Long; Deng, Huan

    2016-02-01

    An encrypting three-dimensional (3-D) information system based on integral imaging (II) and multiple chaotic maps is proposed. In the encrypting process, the elemental image array (EIA) which represents spatial and angular information of the real 3-D scene is picked up by a microlens array. Subsequently, R, G, and B color components decomposed by the EIA are encrypted using multiple chaotic maps. Finally, these three encrypted components are interwoven to obtain the cipher information. The decryption process implements the reverse operation of the encryption process for retrieving the high-quality 3-D images. Since the encrypted EIA has the data redundancy property due to II, and all parameters of the pickup part are the secret keys of the encrypting system, the system sensitivity on the changes of the plaintext and secret keys can be significantly improved. Moreover, the algorithm based on multiple chaotic maps can effectively enhance the security. A preliminary experiment is carried out, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness, robustness, and security of the proposed system.

  10. Integrated mapping of groundwater drought risk in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Tøttrup, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Maherry, Ashton

    2013-06-01

    Groundwater drought denotes the condition and hazard during a prolonged meteorological drought when groundwater resources decline and become unavailable or inaccessible for human use. Groundwater drought risk refers to the combined physical risk and human vulnerability associated with diminished groundwater availability and access during drought. An integrated management support tool, GRiMMS, is presented, for the mapping and assessment of relative groundwater drought risk in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. Based on composite mapping analysis of region-wide gridded relative indices of meteorological drought risk, hydrogeological drought proneness and human groundwater drought vulnerability, the mapping results highlight consistent areas across the region with highest groundwater drought risk and populations in the order of 39 million at risk of groundwater drought at present. Projective climate-model results suggest a potentially significant negative impact of climate change on groundwater drought risk. The tool provides a means for further attention to the key, but neglected, role of groundwater in drought management in Africa.

  11. Mapping the properties of blue compact dwarf galaxies: integral field spectroscopy with PMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairós, L. M.; Caon, N.; Zurita, C.; Kehrig, C.; Roth, M.; Weilbacher, P.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies are low-luminosity, low-metal content dwarf systems undergoing violent bursts of star formation. They present a unique opportunity to probe galaxy formation and evolution and to investigate the process of star formation in a relatively simple scenario. Spectrophotometric studies of BCDs are essential to disentangle and characterize their stellar populations. Aims: We perform integral field spectroscopy of a sample of BCDs with the aim of analyzing their morphology, the spatial distribution of some of their physical properties (excitation, extinction, and electron density) and their relationship with the distribution and evolutionary state of the stellar populations. Methods: Integral field spectroscopy observations of the sample galaxies were carried out with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) at the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. An area 16 arcsec × 16 arcsec in size was mapped with a spatial sampling of 1 arcsec × 1 arcsec. We obtained data in the 3590-6996 Å spectral range, with a linear dispersion of 3.2 Å per pixel. From these data we built two-dimensional maps of the flux of the most prominent emission lines, of two continuum bands, of the most relevant line ratios, and of the gas velocity field. Integrated spectra of the most prominent star-forming regions and of whole objects within the FOV were used to derive their physical parameters and the gas metal abundances. Results: Six galaxies display the same morphology both in emission line and in continuum maps; only in two objects, Mrk 32 and Tololo 1434+032, the distributions of the ionized gas and of the stars differ considerably. In general the different excitation maps for a same object display the same pattern and trace the star-forming regions, as expected for objects ionized by hot stars; only the outer regions of Mrk 32, I Zw 123 and I Zw 159 display higher [S II]/Hα values, suggestive of shocks. Six galaxies display an

  12. Integration between ground based and satellite SAR data in landslide mapping: The San Fratello case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Federica; Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Bianchini, Silvia; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Moretti, Sandro; Basile, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of the integration of PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and GB-InSAR (Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) for landslide hazard mitigation was evaluated for mapping and monitoring activi