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Sample records for integrating lys-n proteolysis

  1. Sequencing Lys-N proteolytic peptides by ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated. PMID:21472586

  2. Sequencing Lys-N Proteolytic Peptides by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated.

  3. The NuRD Chromatin-Remodeling Enzyme CHD4 Promotes Embryonic Vascular Integrity by Transcriptionally Regulating Extracellular Matrix Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Kyle G.; Curtis, Carol D.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Lupu, Florea; Griffin, Courtney T.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) supports vascular integrity during embryonic development. Proteolytic degradation of ECM components is required for angiogenesis, but excessive ECM proteolysis causes blood vessel fragility and hemorrhage. Little is understood about how ECM proteolysis is transcriptionally regulated during embryonic vascular development. We now show that the NuRD ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex promotes vascular integrity by preventing excessive ECM proteolysis in vivo. Mice lacking endothelial CHD4—a catalytic subunit of NuRD complexes—died at midgestation from vascular rupture. ECM components surrounding rupture-prone vessels in Chd4 mutants were significantly downregulated prior to embryonic lethality. Using qPCR arrays, we found two critical mediators of ECM stability misregulated in mutant endothelial cells: the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or Plaur) was upregulated, and thrombospondin-1 (Thbs1) was downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CHD4-containing NuRD complexes directly bound the promoters of these genes in endothelial cells. uPAR and THBS1 respectively promote and inhibit activation of the potent ECM protease plasmin, and we detected increased plasmin activity around rupture-prone vessels in Chd4 mutants. We rescued ECM components and vascular rupture in Chd4 mutants by genetically reducing urokinase (uPA or Plau), which cooperates with uPAR to activate plasmin. Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which a chromatin-remodeling enzyme regulates ECM stability to maintain vascular integrity during embryonic development. PMID:24348274

  4. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ward, Donald E.; Shockley, Keith R.; Chang, Lara S.; Levy, Ryan D.; Michel, Joshua K.; Conners, Shannon B.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus , the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus , and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima . An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putativemore » proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.« less

  5. Plastid intramembrane proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zach

    2015-09-01

    Progress in the field of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in recent years has not surpassed plant biology. Nevertheless, reports on RIP in plants, and especially in chloroplasts, are still scarce. Of the four different families of intramembrane proteases, only two have been linked to chloroplasts so far, rhomboids and site-2 proteases (S2Ps). The lack of chloroplast-located rhomboid proteases was associated with reduced fertility and aberrations in flower morphology, probably due to perturbations in jasmonic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in chloroplasts. Mutations in homologues of S2P resulted in chlorophyll deficiency and impaired chloroplast development, through a yet unknown mechanism. To date, the only known substrate of RIP in chloroplasts is a PHD transcription factor, located in the envelope. Upon proteolytic cleavage by an unknown protease, the soluble N-terminal domain of this protein is released from the membrane and relocates to the nucleus, where it activates the transcription of the ABA response gene ABI4. Continuing studies on these proteases and substrates, as well as identification of the genes responsible for different chloroplast mutant phenotypes, are expected to shed more light on the roles of intramembrane proteases in chloroplast biology. PMID:25528366

  6. Peptidomics for Studying Limited Proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Osaki, Tsukasa; Minamino, Naoto; Sasaki, Kazuki

    2015-11-01

    Limited proteolysis is a pivotal mechanism regulating protein functions. Identifying physiologically or pathophysiologically relevant cleavage sites helps to develop molecular tools that can be used for diagnostics or therapeutics. During proteolysis of secretory and membrane proteins, part of the cleaved protein is liberated and destined to undergo degradation but should retain original cleavage sites created by proteolytic enzymes. We profiled endogenous peptides accumulated for 4 h in media conditioned by primary cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts. A total of 3916 redundant peptide sequences from 94 secretory proteins and membrane proteins served to identify limited cleavage sites, both annotated and unannotated, for signal peptide or propeptide removal, peptide hormone processing, ectodomain shedding, and regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Incorrectly predicted signal cleavage sites are found in typical proteins such as extracellular matrix proteins and the peptide hormone precursor adrenomedullin ADM. The revealed signal peptide cleavage site for ADM was experimentally verified by identifying the major molecular form of flanking proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide. We suggest that profiling of endogenous peptides, like transcriptome sequence reads, makes sense in regular cells such as fibroblasts and that peptidomics provides insight into proteolysis-regulated protein functions. PMID:26479776

  7. Proteolysis, proteasomes and antigen presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, A. L.; Rock, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins presented to the immune system must first be cleaved to small peptides by intracellular proteinases. Proteasomes are proteolytic complexes that degrade cytosolic and nuclear proteins. These particles have been implicated in ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and in the processing of intracellular antigens for cytolytic immune responses.

  8. Structural determinants of limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kazanov, Marat D; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Cieplak, Piotr; Ratnikov, Boris; Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhanwen; Godzik, Adam; Osterman, Andrei L; Smith, Jeffrey W

    2011-08-01

    Limited or regulatory proteolysis plays a critical role in many important biological pathways like blood coagulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. A better understanding of mechanisms that control this process is required for discovering new proteolytic events and for developing inhibitors with potential therapeutic value. Two features that determine the susceptibility of peptide bonds to proteolysis are the sequence in the vicinity of the scissile bond and the structural context in which the bond is displayed. In this study, we assessed statistical significance and predictive power of individual structural descriptors and combination thereof for the identification of cleavage sites. The analysis was performed on a data set of >200 proteolytic events documented in CutDB for a variety of mammalian regulatory proteases and their physiological substrates with known 3D structures. The results confirmed the significance and provided a ranking within three main categories of structural features: exposure > flexibility > local interactions. Among secondary structure elements, the largest frequency of proteolytic cleavage was confirmed for loops and lower but significant frequency for helices. Limited proteolysis has lower albeit appreciable frequency of occurrence in certain types of β-strands, which is in contrast with some previous reports. Descriptors deduced directly from the amino acid sequence displayed only marginal predictive capabilities. Homology-based structural models showed a predictive performance comparable to protein substrates with experimentally established structures. Overall, this study provided a foundation for accurate automated prediction of segments of protein structure susceptible to proteolytic processing and, potentially, other post-translational modifications. PMID:21682278

  9. Structural determinants of limited proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kazanov, Marat D.; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Eroshkin, Alexey M.; Cieplak, Piotr; Ratnikov, Boris; Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhanwen; Godzik, Adam; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith1, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Limited or regulatory proteolysis plays a critical role in many important biological pathways like blood coagulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. A better understanding of mechanisms that control this process is required for discovering new proteolytic events and for developing inhibitors with potential therapeutic value. Two features that determine the susceptibility of peptide bonds to proteolysis are the sequence in the vicinity of the scissile bond and the structural context in which the bond is displayed. In this study we assessed statistical significance and predictive power of individual structural descriptors and combination thereof for the identification of cleavage sites. The analysis was performed on a dataset of >200 proteolytic events documented in CutDB for a variety of mammalian regulatory proteases and their physiological substrates with known 3D structures. The results confirmed the significance and provided a ranking within three main categories of structural features: exposure > flexibility > local interactions. Among secondary structure elements, the largest frequency of proteolytic cleavage was confirmed for loops and lower but significant frequency for helices. Limited proteolysis has lower albeit appreciable frequency of occurrence in certain types of β-strands, which is in contrast with some previous reports. Descriptors deduced directly from the amino acid sequence displayed only marginal predictive capabilities. Homology-based structural models showed a predictive performance comparable to protein substrates with experimentally established structures. Overall, this study provided a foundation for accurate automated prediction of segments of protein structure susceptible to proteolytic processing and, potentially, other post-translational modifications. PMID:21682278

  10. Proteolysis in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.E.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    Many secretory proteins are degraded intracellularly rather than secreted, however the location of this catabolic process is not known. The authors have tested the hypothesis that the degradation occurs in the organelles of the secretory pathway. Slices of rat liver were incubated with (/sup 14/C)leucine for 3 h and then incubated under chase conditions for 30 min. The tissue was homogenized and the Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were isolated by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The organelles were incubated in 0.3M sucrose-50 mM citrate (pH 4) for 8-12 h at 37 C; control samples were incubated at 4 C. Percent degradation was calculated as the amount of acid soluble radioactivity released relative to total radioactivity in the sample. Proteolysis in the organelles incubated at 37 C was as follows: Golgi: 15-25%; sER: 10-20%; rER: 10-20%. Proteolysis at 4 C was negligible in all cases. These results support the hypothesis that the compartments of the secretory pathway are capable of degrading newly synthesized secretory proteins.

  11. Endolysosomal proteolysis and its regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Ché S; Elliott, Edith; Dennison, Clive

    2002-01-01

    The endolysosomal system comprises a unique environment for proteolysis, which is regulated in a manner that apparently does not involve protease inhibitors. The system comprises a series of membrane-bound intracellular compartments, within which endocytosed material and redundant cellular components are hydrolysed. Endocytosed material tends to flow vectorially through the system, proceeding through the early endosome, the endosome carrier vesicle, the late endosome and the lysosome. Phagocytosis and autophagy provide alternative entry points into the system. Late endosomes, lysosome/late endosome hybrid organelles, phagosomes and autophagosomes are the principal sites for proteolysis. In each case, hydrolytic competence is due to components of the endolysosomal system, i.e. proteases, lysosome-associated membrane proteins, H(+)-ATPases and possibly cysteine transporters. The view is emerging that lysosomes are organelles for the storage of hydrolases, perhaps in an inactivated form. Once a substrate has entered a proteolytically competent environment, the rate-limiting proteolytic steps are probably effected by cysteine endoproteinases. As these are affected by pH and possibly redox potential, they may be regulated by the organelle luminal environment. Regulation is probably also affected, among other factors, by organelle fusion reactions, whereby the meeting of enzyme and substrate may be controlled. Such systems would permit simultaneous regulation of a number of unrelated hydrolases. PMID:11964142

  12. Regulated proteolysis in bacterial development

    PubMed Central

    Konovalova, Anna; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Kroos, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria use proteases to control three types of events temporally and spatially during processes of morphological development. These events are destruction of regulatory proteins, activation of regulatory proteins, and production of signals. While some of these events are entirely cytoplasmic, others involve intramembrane proteolysis of a substrate, trans-membrane signaling, or secretion. In some cases, multiple proteolytic events are organized into pathways, e.g., turnover of a regulatory protein activates a protease that generates a signal. We review well-studied and emerging examples, and identify recurring themes and important questions for future research. We focus primarily on paradigms learned from studies of model organisms, but we note connections to regulated proteolytic events that govern bacterial adaptation, biofilm formation and disassembly, and pathogenesis. PMID:24354618

  13. The meteoric rise of regulated intracellular proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R J

    2000-11-01

    It is often the case in biology that research into breaking things down lags behind research into synthesizing them, and this is certainly true for intracellular proteolysis. Now that we recognize that intracellular proteolysis, triggered by attaching multiple copies of a small protein called ubiquitin to target proteins, is fundamental to life, it is hard to believe that 20 years ago this field was little more than a backwater of biochemistry studied by a handful of laboratories. Among the few were Avram Hershko, Aaron Ciechanover and Alexander Varshavsky, who were recently awarded the Albert Lasker award for basic medical research for discovering the importance of protein degradation in cellular physiology. This Timeline traces how they and their collaborators triggered the rapid movement of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis to centre stage. PMID:11253367

  14. The discovery of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    In early 1980, Irwin A. Rose, Avram Hershko, and Aaron Ciechanover published two papers in PNAS that reported the astounding observation that energy-dependent intracellular proteolysis was far more complicated than the previously accepted models of lysosomal proteolysis or the action of ATP-dependent proteases such as bacterial lon. In fact, it has turned out to be even more complicated than they could have suspected. The general model of covalently attaching a small protein as a targeting signal has proved to be every bit as important to eukaryotic cells as the better understood modifications such as phosphorylation or acetylation. The key player in this modification, a small protein called ubiquitin (APF-1 in these papers), is the founding member of a large family of proteins containing the β-grasp fold and is used as a posttranslational targeting signal to modify the structure, function, and/or localization of other proteins. The story of this discovery is a textbook example of the confluence of intellectual curiosity, unselfish collaboration, chance, luck, and preparation. PMID:16230621

  15. The discovery of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Keith D

    2005-10-25

    In early 1980, Irwin A. Rose, Avram Hershko, and Aaron Ciechanover published two papers in PNAS that reported the astounding observation that energy-dependent intracellular proteolysis was far more complicated than the previously accepted models of lysosomal proteolysis or the action of ATP-dependent proteases such as bacterial lon. In fact, it has turned out to be even more complicated than they could have suspected. The general model of covalently attaching a small protein as a targeting signal has proved to be every bit as important to eukaryotic cells as the better understood modifications such as phosphorylation or acetylation. The key player in this modification, a small protein called ubiquitin (APF-1 in these papers), is the founding member of a large family of proteins containing the beta-grasp fold and is used as a posttranslational targeting signal to modify the structure, function, and/or localization of other proteins. The story of this discovery is a textbook example of the confluence of intellectual curiosity, unselfish collaboration, chance, luck, and preparation. PMID:16230621

  16. Proteolysis of HCF-1 by Ser/Thr glycosylation-incompetent O-GlcNAc transferase:UDP-GlcNAc complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kapuria, Vaibhav; Röhrig, Ute F.; Bhuiyan, Tanja; Borodkin, Vladimir S.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Zoete, Vincent; Herr, Winship

    2016-01-01

    In complex with the cosubstrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes Ser/Thr O-GlcNAcylation of many cellular proteins and proteolysis of the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1. Such a dual glycosyltransferase–protease activity, which occurs in the same active site, is unprecedented and integrates both reversible and irreversible forms of protein post-translational modification within one enzyme. Although occurring within the same active site, we show here that glycosylation and proteolysis occur through separable mechanisms. OGT consists of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) and catalytic domains, which, together with UDP-GlcNAc, are required for both glycosylation and proteolysis. Nevertheless, a specific TPR domain contact with the HCF-1 substrate is critical for proteolysis but not Ser/Thr glycosylation. In contrast, key catalytic domain residues and even a UDP-GlcNAc oxygen important for Ser/Thr glycosylation are irrelevant for proteolysis. Thus, from a dual glycosyltransferase–protease, essentially single-activity enzymes can be engineered both in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, whereas OGT-mediated HCF-1 proteolysis is limited to vertebrate species, invertebrate OGTs can cleave human HCF-1. We present a model for the evolution of HCF-1 proteolysis by OGT. PMID:27056667

  17. Proteolysis of HCF-1 by Ser/Thr glycosylation-incompetent O-GlcNAc transferase:UDP-GlcNAc complexes.

    PubMed

    Kapuria, Vaibhav; Röhrig, Ute F; Bhuiyan, Tanja; Borodkin, Vladimir S; van Aalten, Daan M F; Zoete, Vincent; Herr, Winship

    2016-04-15

    In complex with the cosubstrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc),O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes Ser/ThrO-GlcNAcylation of many cellular proteins and proteolysis of the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1. Such a dual glycosyltransferase-protease activity, which occurs in the same active site, is unprecedented and integrates both reversible and irreversible forms of protein post-translational modification within one enzyme. Although occurring within the same active site, we show here that glycosylation and proteolysis occur through separable mechanisms. OGT consists of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) and catalytic domains, which, together with UDP-GlcNAc, are required for both glycosylation and proteolysis. Nevertheless, a specific TPR domain contact with the HCF-1 substrate is critical for proteolysis but not Ser/Thr glycosylation. In contrast, key catalytic domain residues and even a UDP-GlcNAc oxygen important for Ser/Thr glycosylation are irrelevant for proteolysis. Thus, from a dual glycosyltransferase-protease, essentially single-activity enzymes can be engineered both in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, whereas OGT-mediated HCF-1 proteolysis is limited to vertebrate species, invertebrate OGTs can cleave human HCF-1. We present a model for the evolution of HCF-1 proteolysis by OGT. PMID:27056667

  18. Intramembrane proteolysis in regulated protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-09-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which membrane-anchored bioactive molecules are released from cellular membranes. In eukaryotic cells, intramembrane proteases are found in different cellular organelles ranging from the endosomal system to mitochondria and chloroplasts. These proteases function in diverse processes such as transcription control, regulated growth factor secretion and recently even a role in the control of mitophagy has been suggested. Genomic annotation has predicted 13 different intramembrane proteases in humans. Apart from few studied examples, very little is known about their function. This review describes emerging principles of how intramembrane proteases contribute to the regulation of cellular protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells and raises the important question of how their activity is controlled. PMID:21585636

  19. Pulse Proteolysis and Precipitation for Target Identification.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Rogério V; Pinto, Antônio F M; Santos, Diógenes S; Bizarro, Cristiano V

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, phenotypic screening has assumed a leading role in drug discovery efforts. However, development of new drugs from bioactive compounds obtained in screening campaigns requires identification of the cellular targets responsible for their biological activities. A new energetics-based method for target identification is presented: pulse proteolysis and precipitation for target identification (PePTID). In this method, proteins incubated with or without a ligand and submitted to a brief proteolytic pulse are directly analyzed and compared using a label-free semiquantitative mass spectrometry strategy, dispensing the SDS-PAGE readout and greatly improving the throughput. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the PePTID method to identify ATP-binding proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis. PMID:27255303

  20. Allosteric regulation of rhomboid intramembrane proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunova, Elena; Panwar, Pankaj; Skiba, Pauline M; Gale, Nicola; Mak, Michelle W; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis within the lipid bilayer is poorly understood, in particular the regulation of substrate cleavage. Rhomboids are a family of ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases that harbour a buried active site and are known to cleave transmembrane substrates with broad specificity. In vitro gel and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based kinetic assays were developed to analyse cleavage of the transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii). We demonstrate significant differences in catalytic efficiency (kcat/K0.5) values for transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii) cleavage for three rhomboids: AarA from P. stuartii, ecGlpG from Escherichia coli and hiGlpG from Haemophilus influenzae demonstrating that rhomboids specifically recognize this substrate. Furthermore, binding of psTatA occurs with positive cooperativity. Competitive binding studies reveal an exosite-mediated mode of substrate binding, indicating allostery plays a role in substrate catalysis. We reveal that exosite formation is dependent on the oligomeric state of rhomboids, and when dimers are dissociated, allosteric substrate activation is not observed. We present a novel mechanism for specific substrate cleavage involving several dynamic processes including positive cooperativity and homotropic allostery for this interesting class of intramembrane proteases. PMID:25009246

  1. Regulatory Proteolysis in Arabidopsis-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pogány, Miklós; Dankó, Tamás; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Schwarczinger, Ildikó; Bozsó, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two and a half percent of protein coding genes in Arabidopsis encode enzymes with known or putative proteolytic activity. Proteases possess not only common housekeeping functions by recycling nonfunctional proteins. By irreversibly cleaving other proteins, they regulate crucial developmental processes and control responses to environmental changes. Regulatory proteolysis is also indispensable in interactions between plants and their microbial pathogens. Proteolytic cleavage is simultaneously used both by plant cells, to recognize and inactivate invading pathogens, and by microbes, to overcome the immune system of the plant and successfully colonize host cells. In this review, we present available results on the group of proteases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana whose functions in microbial pathogenesis were confirmed. Pathogen-derived proteolytic factors are also discussed when they are involved in the cleavage of host metabolites. Considering the wealth of review papers available in the field of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system results on the ubiquitin cascade are not presented. Arabidopsis and its pathogens are conferred with abundant sets of proteases. This review compiles a list of those that are apparently involved in an interaction between the plant and its pathogens, also presenting their molecular partners when available. PMID:26404238

  2. Probing catalytic rate enhancement during intramembrane proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Arutyunova, Elena; Smithers, Cameron C; Corradi, Valentina; Espiritu, Adam C; Young, Howard S; Tieleman, D Peter; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Rhomboids are ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases involved in various signaling pathways. While the high-resolution structures of the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG with various inhibitors revealed an active site comprised of a serine-histidine dyad and an extensive oxyanion hole, the molecular details of rhomboid catalysis were unclear because substrates are unknown for most of the family members. Here we used the only known physiological pair of AarA rhomboid with its psTatA substrate to decipher the contribution of catalytically important residues to the reaction rate enhancement. An MD-refined homology model of AarA was used to identify residues important for catalysis. We demonstrated that the AarA active site geometry is strict and intolerant to alterations. We probed the roles of H83 and N87 oxyanion hole residues and determined that substitution of H83 either abolished AarA activity or reduced the transition state stabilization energy (ΔΔG‡) by 3.1 kcal/mol; substitution of N87 decreased ΔΔG‡ by 1.6-3.9 kcal/mol. Substitution M154, a residue conserved in most rhomboids that stabilizes the catalytic general base, to tyrosine, provided insight into the mechanism of nucleophile generation for the catalytic dyad. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the role of several residues important for hydrolytic efficiency and oxyanion stabilization during intramembrane proteolysis. PMID:27071148

  3. Sarcomere Length Influences u-calpain Mediated Proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis both influence beef tenderness, but their interacting effects on tenderness are relatively unknown. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for deg...

  4. Effects of reduction and proteolysis on cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...

  5. Sarcomere length influences postmortem proteolysis of excised bovine semitendinosus muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction between sarcomere length and postmortem proteolysis as related to meat tenderness is not clear. The extent of thick and thin filament overlap alters actomyosin binding and may alter substrate availability during aging-induced tenderization. The objective of this study was to determin...

  6. Sarcomeric thick and thin filament overlap influences postmortem proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction between sarcomere length (SL) and proteolysis on meat tenderness is not clear. Indeed, the extent of thick and thin filament overlap alters actomyosin binding and may alter substrate availability during aging. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of sarcomere le...

  7. Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics. PMID:25511010

  8. Structural organization of mammalian prions as probed by limited proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GPI- transgenic mouse model was used to study the structure of GPI- prions. We obtained valuable information about the structure of prions by performing limited proteolysis of the GPI- prions and analyzing the results by mass spectrometry and Western blot. This information coupled with previous ...

  9. Understanding intramembrane proteolysis: from protein dynamics to reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Langosch, D; Scharnagl, C; Steiner, H; Lemberg, M K

    2015-06-01

    Intramembrane proteolysis - cleavage of proteins within the plane of a membrane - is a widespread phenomenon that can contribute to the functional activation of substrates and is involved in several diseases. Although different families of intramembrane proteases have been discovered and characterized, we currently do not know how these enzymes discriminate between substrates and non-substrates, how site-specific cleavage is achieved, or which factors determine the rate of proteolysis. Focusing on γ-secretase and rhomboid proteases, we argue that answers to these questions may emerge from connecting experimental readouts, such as reaction kinetics and the determination of cleavage sites, to the structures and the conformational dynamics of substrates and enzymes. PMID:25941170

  10. Role of the response regulator RssB in sigma recognition and initiation of sigma proteolysis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klauck, E; Lingnau, M; Hengge-Aronis, R

    2001-06-01

    In growing Escherichia coli cells, the master regulator of the general stress response, sigmaS (RpoS), is subject to rapid proteolysis. In response to stresses such as sudden carbon starvation, osmotic upshift or shift to acidic pH, sigmaS degradation is inhibited, sigmaS accumulates and numerous sigmaS-dependent genes with stress-protective functions are activated. sigmaS proteolysis is dependent on ClpXP protease and the response regulator RssB, whose phosphorylated form binds directly to sigmaS in vitro. Here, we show that substitutions of aspartate 58 (D58) in RssB, which result in higher sigmaS levels in vivo, produce RssB variants unable to bind sigmaS in vitro. Thus, RssB is the direct substrate recognition factor in sigmaS proteolysis, whose affinity for sigmaS depends on phosphorylation of its D58 residue. RssB does not dimerize or oligomerize upon this phosphorylation and sigmaS binding, and RssB and sigmaS exhibit a 1:1 stoichiometry in the complex. The receiver as well as the output domain of RssB are required for sigmaS binding (as shown in vivo and in vitro) and for complementation of an rssB null mutation. Thus, the N-terminal receiver domain plays an active and positive role in RssB function. Finally, we demonstrate that RssB is not co-degraded with sigmaS, i.e. RssB has a catalytic role in the initiation of sigmaS turnover. A model is presented that integrates the details of RssB-sigmaS interaction, the RssB catalytic cycle and potential stress signal input in the control of sigmaS proteolysis. PMID:11442836

  11. Apoptotic cell death induced by intracellular proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, M S; Henkart, P A

    1994-11-01

    To mimic the injection of granzymes into target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes or the activation of endogenous proteases in programmed cell death, the proteases chymotrypsin, proteinase K, or trypsin were loaded into the cytoplasm of several different cell types using the osmotic lysis of pinosomes technique. Internalization of these proteases caused cell lysis within several hours, accompanied by extensive nuclear damage in most but not all combinations of target cells and proteases. This nuclear damage, quantitated by DNA release from nuclei, was associated with apoptotic features including DNA fragmentation into nucleosomal ladders, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and membrane blebbing. Agents reported to block programmed cell death, including aurintricarboxylic acid, inhibitors of energy metabolism, and protein or RNA synthesis, failed to block this protease-induced death, although some inhibited nuclear damage. In separate experiments, introduction of staphylococcal nuclease into cells led to near complete (at least 75% of total) nucleosomal DNA fragmentation within 6 to 8 h. Condensation of chromatin did not accompany this fragmentation to the same extent, and there was approximately a 10-h lag between half-maximal DNA fragmentation and 50% loss of membrane integrity. The results suggest that activation of intracellular proteases during cell death by any molecular pathway could give rise to apoptotic morphology and DNA fragmentation. PMID:7930626

  12. [Role of defective intracellular proteolysis in human degenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Nezelof, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Although intracellular protein synthesis has been studied extensively, protein degradation and disposal, know as proteolysis, has been relatively neglected. Modern studies which led two Nobel prizes (de Duve in 1950 and Herschko, Rose and Ciechanover in 1980) established that proteolysis is ensured by two separate but complementary mechanisms: lysosomes responsible for auto and heterophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). The UPS involves ubiquitin, a small molecule consisting of 76 amino acids found in all eukaryotic cells that ensures the identification of the protein to be degraded and its transport to the proteasome, an intracellular complex with enzymes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins. The proteasome, acting as a composting agent, ensures the enzymatic dissociation of the protein. In this degradation process, as infinite screw, ubiquitin, peptides and amino acids are released and made available for a new cycle. Knowledge of the UPS and its related disorders is continually expanding. Concurrent with lysosomes which work in acidic environment, it is currently known that the UPS provides 80% to 90% of the proteolysis of the short-life proteins and ensures, as chaperon-molecules, the right conformation and hence the correct function of the proteins. The proteolytic activity generates abnormal residues (tau protein, amyloid and related proteins) and various soluble and insoluble wastes. Some are precipitated as inclusion-bodies or aggregosomes, identified years ago by pathologists. These aggregosomes affect almost exclusively long-lived cells (nervous and muscular, macophages). Pigment deposits, such as lipofuscines made by the peroxydation of cell membranes, are the most abundant. Due to their diverse chemical composition, they cannot be empoyed for a scientific classification. Failures of these systems are numerous. They vary not according to the chemical nature of the abnormal protein and wastes but the life span of the targeted cells and

  13. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  14. Calcineurin proteolysis in astrocytes: Implications for impaired synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Pleiss, Melanie M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kraner, Susan D; Abdul, Hafiz Mohmmad; Furman, Jennifer L; Guttmann, Rodney P; Wilcock, Donna M; Nelson, Peter T; Norris, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that astrocyte activation, found in most forms of neural injury and disease, is linked to the hyperactivation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. In many tissues and cell types, calcineurin hyperactivity is the direct result of limited proteolysis. However, little is known about the proteolytic status of calcineurin in activated astrocytes. Here, we developed a polyclonal antibody to a high activity calcineurin proteolytic fragment in the 45-48kDa range (ΔCN) for use in immunohistochemical applications. When applied to postmortem human brain sections, the ΔCN antibody intensely labeled cell clusters in close juxtaposition to amyloid deposits and microinfarcts. Many of these cells exhibited clear activated astrocyte morphology. The expression of ΔCN in astrocytes near areas of pathology was further confirmed using confocal microscopy. Multiple NeuN-positive cells, particularly those within microinfarct core regions, also labeled positively for ΔCN. This observation suggests that calcineurin proteolysis can also occur within damaged or dying neurons, as reported in other studies. When a similar ΔCN fragment was selectively expressed in hippocampal astrocytes of intact rats (using adeno-associated virus), we observed a significant reduction in the strength of CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses, indicating that the hyperactivation of astrocytic calcineurin is sufficient for disrupting synaptic function. Together, these results suggest that proteolytic activation of calcineurin in activated astrocytes may be a central mechanism for driving and/or exacerbating neural dysfunction during neurodegenerative disease and injury. PMID:27212416

  15. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M. Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling. PMID:27505308

  16. Complete and limited proteolysis in cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Brigitte; Nepveu, Alain

    2004-08-01

    An important mechanism of regulation that controls progression through the cell cycle involves the timely degradation of specific regulatory proteins. In parallel to the main degradative pathways, it appears that the function of certain proteins may also be modulated by a process called limited proteolysis. We have recently shown that the CDP/Cux transcription factor is proteolytically processed at the G(1)/S transition by the cathepsin L protease. Two aspects of these findings are discussed in the context of the cell cycle. Firstly, together with the cohesin subunit Scc1 and the HCF-1 factor, CDP/Cux represents a third example whereby the process of "limited proteolysis" plays a role in the control of cell cycle progression. Secondly, our findings provides compelling evidence that the cathepsin L protease, which was believed to be obligatorily targeted through the endoplasmic reticulum to the lysosomes or the extra-cellular milieu, could also be present in the nucleus and modulate the function of transcription factors. PMID:15254406

  17. Postmortem titin proteolysis is influenced by sarcomere length in bovine muscle.

    PubMed

    England, E M; Fisher, K D; Wells, S J; Mohrhauser, D A; Gerrard, D E; Weaver, A D

    2012-03-01

    The calpain protease system, in particular, μ-calpain is involved in the disassembly of specific myofibrillar proteins, resulting in tenderization of meat postmortem. Given the size, complexity, and integral nature of titin to the structure of the sarcomere, it is plausible that the length of a sarcomere may alter the susceptibility of various domains of titin to cleavage by the calpains. Therefore, we hypothesized titin degradation differs in a sarcomere-length-dependent manner in beef. After slaughter, beef carcasses were split and sides were either suspended by the Achilles tendon (normal suspension, NS) or by the aitchbone (hip suspension, HS). Immediately after suspension, samples were dissected from the LM, psoas major (PM), and semitendinosus (STN) muscles to serve as 0-d controls. After 24 h, 4 steaks were removed from each muscle and randomly assigned to 1-, 4-, 7-, or 10-d aging treatments. After the assigned aging period, myofibrils were purified for determination of sarcomere length. Warner-Bratzler shear force analysis was also performed to evaluate differences in tenderness. Muscle proteins were solubilized and subjected to SDS-VAGE (vertical agarose gel electrophoresis) to evaluate titin degradation. Sarcomere lengths differed (P < 0.0001) between contralateral muscles of NS and HS carcasses. Quantification of SDS-VAGE gels revealed less (P < 0.05) intact titin in the PM muscle of NS carcasses at each aging period compared with the PM of HS carcasses. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected in the disappearance of intact titin among suspension methods in the LM or STN. These data demonstrate that suspension method alters proteolysis of titin and suggest an increase in sarcomere length may contribute to the susceptibility of titin to postmortem proteolysis in beef. PMID:21984717

  18. A novel ELISA-based diagnosis of acquired von Willebrand disease with increased VWF proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Antoine; Caron, Claudine; Vincent, Flavien; Jeanpierre, Emmanuelle; Ternisien, Catherine; Boisseau, Pierre; Zawadzki, Christophe; Fressinaud, Edith; Borel-Derlon, Annie; Hermoire, Sylvie; Paris, Camille; Lavenu-Bombled, Cécile; Veyradier, Agnès; Ung, Alexandre; Vincentelli, André; van Belle, Eric; Lenting, Peter J; Goudemand, Jenny; Susen, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Von Willebrand disease-type 2A (VWD-2A) and acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) due to aortic stenosis (AS) or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are associated with an increased proteolysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Analysis of VWF multimeric profile is the most sensitive way to assess such increased VWF-proteolysis. However, several technical aspects hamper a large diffusion among routine diagnosis laboratories. This makes early diagnosis and early appropriate care of increased proteolysis challenging. In this context of unmet medical need, we developed a new ELISA aiming a quick, easy and reliable assessment of VWF-proteolysis. This ELISA was assessed successively in a LVAD-model, healthy subjects (n=39), acquired TTP-patients (n=4), VWD-patients (including VWD-2A(IIA), n=22; VWD-2B, n=26; VWD-2A(IIE), n=21; and VWD-1C, n=8) and in AVWS-patients (AS, n=9; LVAD, n=9; and MGUS, n=8). A standard of VWF-proteolysis was specifically developed. Extent of VWF-proteolysis was expressed as relative percentage and as VWF proteolysis/VWF:Ag ratio. A speed-dependent increase in VWF-proteolysis was assessed in the LVAD model whereas no proteolysis was observed in TTP-patients. In VWD-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in VWD-2A(IIA) and VWD-2B and significantly decreased in VWD-2A(IIE) versus controls (p< 0.0001). In AVWS-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in AS- and LVAD-patients compared to controls (p< 0.0001) and not detectable in MGUS-patients. A significant increase in VWF-proteolysis was detected as soon as three hours after LVAD implantation (p< 0.01). In conclusion, we describe a new ELISA allowing a rapid and accurate diagnosis of VWF-proteolysis validated in three different clinical situations. This assay represents a helpful alternative to electrophoresis-based assay in the diagnosis and management of AVWS with increased VWF-proteolysis. PMID:26791163

  19. Regulation of proteolysis during reloading of the unweighted soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, Daniel; Aurousseau, Eveline; Combaret, Lydie; Guezennec, Charles-Yannick; Attaix, Didier

    2003-05-01

    There is little information on the mechanisms responsible for muscle recovery following a catabolic condition. To address this point, we reloaded unweighted animals and investigated protein turnover during recovery from this highly catabolic state and the role of proteolysis in the reorganization of the soleus muscle. During early recovery (18 h of reloading) both muscle protein synthesis and breakdown were elevated (+65%, P<0.001 and +22%, P<0.05, respectively). However, only the activation of non-lysosomal and Ca(2+)-independent proteolysis was responsible for increased protein breakdown. Accordingly, mRNA levels for ubiquitin and 20S proteasome subunits C8 and C9 were markedly elevated (from +89 to +325%, P<0.03) and actively transcribed as shown by the analysis of polyribosomal profiles. In contrast, both cathepsin D and 14-kDa-ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 mRNA levels decreased, suggesting that the expression of such genes is an early marker of reversed muscle wasting. Following 7 days of reloading, protein synthesis was still elevated and there was no detectable change in protein breakdown rates. Accordingly, mRNA levels for all the proteolytic components tested were back to control values even though an accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitin conjugates was still detectable. This suggests that soleus muscle remodeling was still going on. Taken together, our observations suggest that enhanced protein synthesis and breakdown are both necessary to recover from muscle atrophy and result in catch-up growth. The observed non-coordinate regulation of proteolytic systems is presumably required to target specific classes of substrates (atrophy-specific protein isoforms, damaged proteins) for replacement and/or elimination. PMID:12672458

  20. Immunoregulatory roles of versican proteolysis in the myeloma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hope, Chelsea; Foulcer, Simon; Jagodinsky, Justin; Chen, Sarah X; Jensen, Jeffrey L; Patel, Sanjay; Leith, Catherine; Maroulakou, Ioanna; Callander, Natalie; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Hematti, Peiman; Apte, Suneel S; Asimakopoulos, Fotis

    2016-08-01

    Myeloma immunosurveillance remains incompletely understood. We have demonstrated proteolytic processing of the matrix proteoglycan, versican (VCAN), in myeloma tumors. Whereas intact VCAN exerts tolerogenic activities through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) binding, the immunoregulatory consequences of VCAN proteolysis remain unknown. Here we show that human myeloma tumors displaying CD8(+) infiltration/aggregates underwent VCAN proteolysis at a site predicted to generate a glycosaminoglycan-bereft N-terminal fragment, versikine Myeloma-associated macrophages (MAMs), rather than tumor cells, chiefly produced V1-VCAN, the precursor to versikine, whereas stromal cell-derived ADAMTS1 was the most robustly expressed VCAN-degrading protease. Purified versikine induced early expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 by human myeloma marrow-derived MAMs. We show that versikine signals through pathways both dependent and independent of Tpl2 kinase, a key regulator of nuclear factor κB1-mediated MAPK activation in macrophages. Unlike intact VCAN, versikine-induced Il-6 production was partially independent of Tlr2. In a model of macrophage-myeloma cell crosstalk, versikine induced components of "T-cell inflammation," including IRF8-dependent type I interferon transcriptional signatures and T-cell chemoattractant CCL2. Thus the interplay between stromal cells and myeloid cells in the myeloma microenvironment generates versikine, a novel bioactive damage-associated molecular pattern that may facilitate immune sensing of myeloma tumors and modulate the tolerogenic consequences of intact VCAN accumulation. Therapeutic versikine administration may potentiate T-cell-activating immunotherapies. PMID:27259980

  1. [Effect of thyroid status on the system proteolysis under stress].

    PubMed

    Gorodetskaia, I V; Gusakova, E A

    2013-12-01

    Introduction of merkazolil to in rats (25 mg/kg 20 days), causing reduction of iodine containing thyroid hormones levels (ITH) in the blood, reduces the trypsin-like activity (TLA) and the activity of α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) in the liver and blood; in the alarm-stage of stress reaction (1 hour after swimming in a cage) it defines more pronounced than that in euthyroid animals stimulation of proteolysis due to the decline of α1-AT and α2-MG activity, in stage of resistance (48 hours) it prevents the normalization of TLA, α1-AT and α2-MG activity, which took place in the stress at the euthyrosis; in the stage of exhaustion (1 hour of the stress within 10 days) promotes to the most significant activation of the proteolysis owing to profound inhibition of the α1-AT and α2-MG. The introduction of L-thyroxine (1.5-3.0 μg/kg 28 days) does not change the concentration of ITH in the blood and it does not affect the proteolyis system; in the alarm- and exhaustion stages it limits the increase of the TLA, in the stage of re-istance prevents it, eliminating the depression of aα1AT and aα-MG activity. The results demon-trate a new aspect of the participation of ITH in the body anti-stress system --heir effect on pro-ease/inhibitor system. PMID:25464768

  2. [Effect of thyroid status on the system proteolysis under stress].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Introduction of merkazolil to in rats (25 mg/kg 20 days), causing reduction of iodine containing thyroid hormones levels (ITH) in the blood, reduces the trypsin-like activity (TLA) and the activity of α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) in the liver and blood; in the alarm-stage of stress reaction (1 hour after swimming in a cage) it defines more pronounced than that in euthyroid animals stimulation of proteolysis due to the decline of α1-AT and α2-MG activity, in stage of resistance (48 hours) it prevents the normalization of TLA, α1-AT and α2-MG activity, which took place in the stress at the euthyrosis; in the stage of exhaustion (1 hour of the stress within 10 days) promotes to the most significant activation of the proteolysis owing to profound inhibition of the α1-AT and α2-MG. The introduction of L-thyroxine (1.5-3.0 μg/kg 28 days) does not change the concentration of ITH in the blood and it does not affect the proteolyis system; in the alarm- and exhaustion stages it limits the increase of the TLA, in the stage of re-istance prevents it, eliminating the depression of aα1AT and aα-MG activity. The results demon-trate a new aspect of the participation of ITH in the body anti-stress system --heir effect on pro-ease/inhibitor system. PMID:25508399

  3. Sarcomere length influences u-calpain mediated proteolysis of troponin-T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis are well established as mechanisms controlling beef tenderness. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for degradation by calpains. The objective ...

  4. Context-dependent resistance to proteolysis of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Suskiewicz, Marcin J; Sussman, Joel L; Silman, Israel; Shaul, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), also known as intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs), lack a well-defined 3D structure in vitro and, in some cases, also in vivo. Here, we discuss the question of proteolytic sensitivity of IDPs, with a view to better explaining their in vivo characteristics. After an initial assessment of the status of IDPs in vivo, we briefly survey the intracellular proteolytic systems. Subsequently, we discuss the evidence for IDPs being inherently sensitive to proteolysis. Such sensitivity would not, however, result in enhanced degradation if the protease-sensitive sites were sequestered. Accordingly, IDP access to and degradation by the proteasome, the major proteolytic complex within eukaryotic cells, are discussed in detail. The emerging picture appears to be that IDPs are inherently sensitive to proteasomal degradation along the lines of the “degradation by default” model. However, available data sets of intracellular protein half-lives suggest that intrinsic disorder does not imply a significantly shorter half-life. We assess the power of available systemic half-life measurements, but also discuss possible mechanisms that could protect IDPs from intracellular degradation. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the proteolytic sensitivity of IDPs to their function and evolution. PMID:21574196

  5. Circulating Peptidome to Indicate the Tumor-resident Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zaian; Li, Yaojun; Fan, Jia; Wang, Guohui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yaou; Cai, Guoping; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Tony Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-resident proteases (TRPs) are regarded as informative biomarkers for staging cancer progression and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Currently in the clinic, measurement of TRP is dependent on invasive biopsies, limiting their usefulness as monitoring tools. Here we identified circulating peptides naturally produced by TRPs, and evaluated their potential to monitor the efficacy of anti-tumor treatments. We established a mouse model for ovarian cancer development and treatment by orthotopic implantation of the human drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line HeyA8-MDR, followed by porous silicon particle- or multistage vector (MSV) - enabled EphA2 siRNA therapy. Immunohistochemistry staining of tumor tissue revealed decreased expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) in mice exhibiting positive responses to MSV-EphA2 siRNA treatment. We demonstrated, via an ex vivo proteolysis assay, that C3f peptides can act as substrates of MMP-9, which cleaves C3f at L1311-L1312 into two peptides (SSATTFRL and LWENGNLLR). Importantly, we showed that these two C3f-derived fragments detected in serum were primarily generated by tumor-resident, but not blood-circulating, MMP-9. Our results suggested that the presence of the circulating fragments specially derived from the localized cleavage in tumor microenvironment can be used to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer treatment, assessed through a relatively noninvasive and user-friendly proteomics approach. PMID:25788424

  6. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  7. 11S Storage globulin from pumpkin seeds: regularities of proteolysis by papain.

    PubMed

    Rudakova, A S; Rudakov, S V; Kakhovskaya, I A; Shutov, A D

    2014-08-01

    Limited proteolysis of the α- and β-chains and deep cleavage of the αβ-subunits by the cooperative (one-by-one) mechanism was observed in the course of papain hydrolysis of cucurbitin, an 11S storage globulin from seeds of the pumpkin Cucurbita maxima. An independent analysis of the kinetics of the limited and cooperative proteolyses revealed that the reaction occurs in two successive steps. In the first step, limited proteolysis consisting of detachments of short terminal peptides from the α- and β-chains was observed. The cooperative proteolysis, which occurs as a pseudo-first order reaction, started at the second step. Therefore, the limited proteolysis at the first step plays a regulatory role, impacting the rate of deep degradation of cucurbitin molecules by the cooperative mechanism. Structural alterations of cucurbitin induced by limited proteolysis are suggested to generate its susceptibility to cooperative proteolysis. These alterations are tentatively discussed on the basis of the tertiary structure of the cucurbitin subunit pdb|2EVX in comparison with previously obtained data on features of degradation of soybean 11S globulin hydrolyzed by papain. PMID:25365492

  8. Regulation of proteolysis in Bacillus subtilis: effects of calcium ions and energy poisons

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M.B.; Hageman, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis cells carry out extensive intracellular proteolysis (k = 0.15-0.23/h) during sporulation. Protein degradation was measured in cells growing in chemically defined sporulation medium, by following the release of ( UC)-leucine from the cells during spore formation. Sodium arsenate, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone, and sodium azide strongly inhibited proteolysis without altering cell viability greatly, which suggested that bulk proteolysis in B. subtilis is energy dependent. The authors have tested the hypothesis that the energy requirement may be for pumping in CaS . When (CaS ) was < 1 x 10 W, rates of proteolysis in sporulating cells were reduced 4-8 times that in cells in calcium ion- sufficient medium. Further, omission of CaS from the medium prevented the increase in the activity of the major intracellular serine protease. However, the presence of energy poisons in the media at levels which inhibited proteolysis, had no detectable effect on the uptake of by cells (UVCa). The authors concluded that B. subtilis cells required both metabolic energy and calcium ions for normal proteolysis.

  9. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-07-28

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of /sup 32/P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca/sup 2 +/- and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation.

  10. Ca2+-dependent proteolysis of junctophilin-1 and junctophilin-2 in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, R M; Dutka, T L; Horvath, D; Bell, J R; Delbridge, L M; Lamb, G D

    2013-01-01

    Excessive increases in intracellular [Ca2+] in skeletal muscle fibres cause failure of excitation–contraction coupling by disrupting communication between the dihydropyridine receptors in the transverse tubular system and the Ca2+ release channels (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), but the exact mechanism is unknown. Previous work suggested a possible role of Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in this uncoupling process but found no proteolysis of the dihydropyridine receptors, RyRs or triadin. Junctophilin-1 (JP1; ∼90 kDa) stabilizes close apposition of the transverse tubular system and SR membranes in adult skeletal muscle; its C-terminal end is embedded in the SR and its N-terminal associates with the transverse tubular system membrane. Exposure of skeletal muscle homogenates to precisely set [Ca2+] revealed that JP1 undergoes Ca2+-dependent proteolysis over the physiological [Ca2+] range in tandem with autolytic activation of endogenous μ-calpain. Cleavage of JP1 occurs close to the C-terminal, yielding a ∼75 kDa diffusible fragment and a fixed ∼15 kDa fragment. Depolarization-induced force responses in rat skinned fibres were abolished following 1 min exposure to 40 μm Ca2+, with accompanying loss of full-length JP1. Supraphysiological stimulation of rat skeletal muscle in vitro by repeated tetanic stimulation in 30 mm caffeine also produced marked proteolysis of JP1 (and not RyR1). In dystrophic mdx mice, JP1 proteolysis is seen in limb muscles at 4 and not at 10 weeks of age. Junctophilin-2 in cardiac and skeletal muscle also undergoes Ca2+-dependent proteolysis, and junctophilin-2 levels are reduced following cardiac ischaemia–reperfusion. Junctophilin proteolysis may contribute to skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction in a range of circumstances. PMID:23148318

  11. Ca2+-dependent proteolysis of junctophilin-1 and junctophilin-2 in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R M; Dutka, T L; Horvath, D; Bell, J R; Delbridge, L M; Lamb, G D

    2013-02-01

    Excessive increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] in skeletal muscle fibres cause failure of excitation-contraction coupling by disrupting communication between the dihydropyridine receptors in the transverse tubular system and the Ca(2+) release channels (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), but the exact mechanism is unknown. Previous work suggested a possible role of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in this uncoupling process but found no proteolysis of the dihydropyridine receptors, RyRs or triadin. Junctophilin-1 (JP1; ∼90 kDa) stabilizes close apposition of the transverse tubular system and SR membranes in adult skeletal muscle; its C-terminal end is embedded in the SR and its N-terminal associates with the transverse tubular system membrane. Exposure of skeletal muscle homogenates to precisely set [Ca(2+)] revealed that JP1 undergoes Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis over the physiological [Ca(2+)] range in tandem with autolytic activation of endogenous μ-calpain. Cleavage of JP1 occurs close to the C-terminal, yielding a ∼75 kDa diffusible fragment and a fixed ∼15 kDa fragment. Depolarization-induced force responses in rat skinned fibres were abolished following 1 min exposure to 40 μm Ca(2+), with accompanying loss of full-length JP1. Supraphysiological stimulation of rat skeletal muscle in vitro by repeated tetanic stimulation in 30 mm caffeine also produced marked proteolysis of JP1 (and not RyR1). In dystrophic mdx mice, JP1 proteolysis is seen in limb muscles at 4 and not at 10 weeks of age. Junctophilin-2 in cardiac and skeletal muscle also undergoes Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis, and junctophilin-2 levels are reduced following cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion. Junctophilin proteolysis may contribute to skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction in a range of circumstances. PMID:23148318

  12. OMA1 mediates OPA1 proteolysis and mitochondrial fragmentation in experimental models of ischemic kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Yanzhong; Quirós, Pedro M.; Wei, Qingqing; López-Otín, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, which contributes to mitochondrial damage and tubular cell apoptosis. Mitochondrial fragmentation involves the cleavage of both mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. Cleavage of the outer membrane results from Drp-1-mediated fission activation and Bak-promoted fusion arrest, but the molecular mechanism of inner membrane cleavage remains elusive. OMA1-mediated proteolysis of OPA1, a key inner membrane fusion protein, was recently suggested to account for inner membrane cleavage during cell stress. In this study, we determined the role of OMA1 in OPA1 proteolysis and mitochondrial fragmentation in experimental models of ischemic AKI. In ATP-depletion injury, knockdown of OMA1 suppressed OPA1 proteolysis, mitochondrial fragmentation, cytochrome c release, and consequent apoptosis in renal proximal tubular cells. In mice, OMA1 deficiency prevented ischemic AKI as indicated by better renal function, less tubular damage, and lower apoptosis. OPA1 proteolysis and mitochondrial injury during ischemic AKI were ameliorated in OMA1-deficient mice. Thus, OMA1-mediated OPA1 proteolysis plays an important role in the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics in ischemic AKI. PMID:24671334

  13. Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, T. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide can inhibit cytoskeletal breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by inhibiting calpain cleavage of talin. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside prevented many of the effects of calcium ionophore on C(2)C(12) muscle cells, including preventing talin proteolysis and release into the cytosol and reducing loss of vinculin, cell detachment, and loss of cellular protein. These results indicate that nitric oxide inhibition of calpain protected the cells from ionophore-induced proteolysis. Calpain inhibitor I and a cell-permeable calpastatin peptide also protected the cells from proteolysis, confirming that ionophore-induced proteolysis was primarily calpain mediated. The activity of m-calpain in a casein zymogram was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, and this inhibition was reversed by dithiothreitol. Previous incubation with the active site-targeted calpain inhibitor I prevented most of the sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of m-calpain activity. These data suggest that nitric oxide inhibited m-calpain activity via S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine. The results of this study indicate that nitric oxide produced endogenously by skeletal muscle and other cell types has the potential to inhibit m-calpain activity and cytoskeletal proteolysis.

  14. Proteolysis in Manchego-type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Pavia, M; Trujillo, A J; Guamis, B; Ferragut, V

    2000-07-01

    A new salting procedure based on the brine vacuum impregnation of porous products was tested on Manchego-type cheese and compared with conventional brine immersion. Its effect on cheese proteolysis throughout a 90-d ripening period was determined. Three cheese regions were evaluated (the rind, the middle, and the internal regions). The parameters analyzed were total N, water-soluble N, soluble N in trichloroacetic acid and soluble N in phosphotungstic acid by using the Kjeldahl method, casein profile by urea-PAGE, and peptide profile of the water soluble nitrogen extract by reverse-phase HPLC. Free amino acid formation was monitored with a spectrophotometric method by using a Cd-ninhydrin reagent. Globally, proteolysis was significantly affected by ripening stage (increasing throughout all the maturation period studied) and cheese region (rind showed a proteolysis pattern different from the middle and internal regions). The salting procedure only affected cheese proteolysis in the rind, whereas conventional brine-salted cheeses showed lower proteolysis than vacuum-impregnated cheeses. PMID:10908050

  15. The beneficial role of proteolysis in skeletal muscle growth and stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan A V; Al-Khalaf, Mohammad; Megeney, Lynn A

    2016-01-01

    Muscle atrophy derived from excessive proteolysis is a hallmark of numerous disease conditions. Accordingly, the negative consequences of skeletal muscle protein breakdown often overshadow the critical nature of proteolytic systems in maintaining normal cellular function. Here, we discuss the major cellular proteolysis machinery-the ubiquitin/proteosome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-mediated protein cleavage-and the critical role of these protein machines in establishing and preserving muscle health. We examine how ordered degradation modifies (1) the spatiotemporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors during myoblast differentiation, (2) membrane fusion during myotube formation, (3) sarcomere remodeling and muscle growth following physical stress, and (4) energy homeostasis during nutrient deprivation. Finally, we review the origin and etiology of a number of myopathies and how these devastating conditions arise from inborn errors in proteolysis. PMID:27054028

  16. Reelin Proteolysis Affects Signaling Related to Normal Synapse Function and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, April L.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Rebeck, G. William

    2016-01-01

    Reelin is a neurodevelopmental protein important in adult synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Recent evidence points to the importance for Reelin proteolysis in normal signaling and in cognitive function. Support for the dysfunction of Reelin proteolysis in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction comes from postmortem analysis of Alzheimer’s diseases (AD) tissues including cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), showing that levels of Reelin fragments are altered in AD compared to control. Potential key proteases involved in Reelin proteolysis have recently been defined, identifying processes that could be altered in neurodegeneration. Introduction of full-length Reelin and its proteolytic fragments into several mouse models of neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric disorders quickly promote learning and memory. These findings support a role for Reelin in learning and memory and suggest further understanding of these processes are important to harness the potential of this pathway in treating cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27065802

  17. Mass Spectrometry Guided In Situ Proteolysis to Obtain Crystals for X-ray Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Gheyi, Tarun; Rodgers, Logan; Romero, Richard; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-04-30

    A strategy for increasing the efficiency of protein crystallization/structure determination with mass spectrometry has been developed. This approach combines insights from limited proteolysis/mass spectrometry and crystallization via in situ proteolysis. The procedure seeks to identify protease-resistant polypeptide chain segments from purified proteins on the time-scale of crystal formation, and subsequently crystallizing the target protein in the presence of the optimal protease at the right relative concentration. We report our experience with 10 proteins of unknown structure, two of which yielded high-resolution X-ray structures. The advantage of this approach comes from its ability to select only those structure determination candidates that are likely to benefit from application of in situ proteolysis, using conditions most likely to result in formation of a stable proteolytic digestion product suitable for crystallization.

  18. 'Seeding' with protease to optimize protein crystallization conditions in in situ proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinguang; Gong, Yanmei; Huang, Dan; Haire, Lesley; Liu, Junfeng; Peng, Youliang

    2012-05-01

    In situ proteolysis is one of the most effective rescue strategies for protein crystallization, and optimization of the ratio between the protein and the protease is one of the key steps in the process. Seeding is a very powerful tool to optimize crystallization conditions and can be performed by most crystallization robots. Addition of protease instead of seed stock using a robot can be used to optimize the concentration of protease in in situ proteolysis experiments and has been successfully tested using two proteins. PMID:22691798

  19. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. PMID:27173550

  20. The role of Cu(I)-thiolate clusters during the proteolysis of Cu-thionein.

    PubMed

    Weser, U; Mutter, W; Hartmann, H J

    1986-03-01

    Rat liver Cu,Zn-[35S]thionein and yeast Cu-thionein were subjected to proteolysis in vitro using equilibrium dialysis. The partially copper-loaded vertebrate thionein (2-7 Cu/mol) was affected by different proteases including thermolysin, proteinase K, protease from Streptomyces griseus and lysosomal enzymes. Unlike the 2Cu-thionein the respective 7Cu-thiolate-centred metallothionein was hardly proteolytically digested. In contrast to fully copper-loaded native yeast Cu-thionein both the H2O2-oxidized and the metal-free protein were effectively cleaved in the presence of proteinase K. It is important to realize that the native Cu(I)-thiolate chromophore survives the proteolytic attack. When the copper-sulphur bonding is broken and the same amount of copper is unspecifically bound to the thionein portion, proteolysis proceeds identically with respect to the rate observed in the presence of the apoprotein. The unsuccessful proteolysis of native Cu-thionein is not attributable to a simple copper-dependent inhibition of the proteinases. It is suggested that prior to proteolysis the copper-sulphur clusters must be destroyed. PMID:3081372

  1. Suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Yakabe, Y; Ishida, A; Yamazaki, M; Abe, H

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that L-leucine suppresses myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles. In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on myofibrillar proteolysis in skeletal muscle of chicks. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (24 h) chicks were orally administered 225 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 2 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious inhibitory effect on myofibrillar proteolysis (plasma N(tau)-methylhistidine concentration) in chicks while D-leucine and alpha-KIC were much more effective. We also examined the expression of the proteolytic-related genes (ubiquitin, proteasome, m-calpain and cathepsin B) by real-time PCR of cDNA in chick skeletal muscles. Ubiquitin mRNA expression was decreased by D-leucine and alpha-KIC but not L-leucine. Proteasome and m-calpain mRNA expressions as well as cathepsin B mRNA expression were likewise decreased by L-leucine, D-leucine and alpha-KIC. These results indicate that D-leucine and alpha-KIC suppress proteolytic-related genes, resulting in an decrease in myofibrillar proteolysis while L-leucine is much less effective in skeletal muscle of chicks, may be explain by conversion of D-leucine to alpha-KIC. PMID:16998714

  2. LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS ANALYSIS OF THE RIBOSOME IS AFFECTED BY SUBUNIT ASSOCIATION

    PubMed Central

    Hamburg, Daisy-Malloy; Suh, Moo-Jin; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the structural organization of ribosome assembly intermediates, in particular those intermediates that result from mis-folding leading to their eventual degradation within the cell, is limited due to the lack of methods available to characterize assembly intermediate structures. Because conventional structural approaches, such as NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM, are not ideally suited to characterize the structural organization of these flexible and sometimes heterogeneous assembly intermediates, we have set out to develop an approach combining limited proteolysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) that might be applicable to ribonucleoprotein complexes as large as the ribosome. This study focuses on the limited proteolysis behavior of appropriately assembled ribosome subunits. Isolated subunits were analyzed using limited proteolysis and MALDI-MS and the results were compared to previous data obtained from 70S ribosomes. Generally, ribosomal proteins were found to be more stable in 70S ribosomes than in their isolated subunits, consistent with a reduction in conformational flexibility upon subunit assembly. This approach demonstrates that limited proteolysis combined with MALDI-MS can reveal structural changes to ribosomes upon subunit assembly or disassembly, and provides the appropriate benchmark data from 30S, 50S and 70S proteins to enable studies of ribosome assembly intermediates. PMID:19213046

  3. Probing the structure of GPI-less PrPSc by limited proteolysis(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited proteolysis is a very useful tool to pinpoint flexible regions within scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), but due to carbohydrate and glysosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moieties, and limitations of the analytical techniques, until now it was impossible to characterize accurately these regions. To...

  4. INSIGHTS ON SCRAPIE PRION PROTEIN (PrPSc) STRUCTURE OBTAINED BY LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS AND MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elucidation of the structure of PrPSc, essential to understand the molecular mechanism of prion transmission, continues to be one of the major challenges in prion research, and is hampered by the insolubility and polymeric character of PrPSc. Limited proteolysis is a useful tool to obtain insight on...

  5. Proteolysis sensitizes LDL particles to phospholipolysis by secretory phospholipase A2 group V and secretory sphingomyelinase

    PubMed Central

    Plihtari, Riia; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2010-01-01

    LDL particles that enter the arterial intima become exposed to proteolytic and lipolytic modifications. The extracellular hydrolases potentially involved in LDL modification include proteolytic enzymes, such as chymase, cathepsin S, and plasmin, and phospholipolytic enzymes, such as secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2-IIa and sPLA2-V) and secretory acid sphingomyelinase (sSMase). Here, LDL was first proteolyzed and then subjected to lipolysis, after which the effects of combined proteolysis and lipolysis on LDL fusion and on binding to human aortic proteoglycans (PG) were studied. Chymase and cathepsin S led to more extensive proteolysis and release of peptide fragments from LDL than did plasmin. sPLA2-IIa was not able to hydrolyze unmodified LDL, and even preproteolysis of LDL particles failed to enhance lipolysis by this enzyme. However, preproteolysis with chymase and cathepsin S accelerated lipolysis by sPLA2-V and sSMase, which resulted in enhanced fusion and proteoglycan binding of the preproteolyzed LDL particles. Taken together, the results revealed that proteolysis sensitizes the LDL particles to hydrolysis by sPLA2-V and sSMase. By promoting fusion and binding of LDL to human aortic proteoglycans, the combination of proteolysis and phospholipolysis of LDL particles potentially enhances extracellular accumulation of LDL-derived lipids during atherogenesis. PMID:20124257

  6. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression in normal-23 weight adults consuming varying levels of dietary protein during short-term energy deficit. 24 Using a randomized-bock design, 32 men and 7 women were assigned to diets providing protein 25 at 0.8 (RDA), 1...

  7. Muscle type influences u-calpain mediated troponin-T proteolysis in bovine myofibrils in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of muscle type on postmortem proteolysis remains largely unexplored. Previous attempts to classify muscle tenderness based on ‘muscle type’ indicated differences in tenderness were due to variations in proteolytic enzyme levels, but failed to account for the influence of sarcomere leng...

  8. Energy and calcium ion dependence of proteolysis during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M.B.; Hageman, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors have shown, with an optimized ({sup 14}C)leucine-labeling and chasing procedure, that intracellular protein degradation in sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) is apparently energy dependent. Sodium arsenate, sodium azide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrozone, and N,N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, at levels which did not induce appreciable lysis ({<=} 10%) over 10-h periods of sporulation, inhibited intracellular proteolysis by 13 to 93%. Exponentially growing cells acquired arsenate resistance. In contrast to earlier reports, the authors found that chloramphenicol strongly inhibited proteolysis even when added 6 h into the sporulation process. Restricting the calcium ion concentration in the medium had no effect on rates or extent of vegetative growth, strongly inhibited sporulation, and inhibited rates of proteolysis by 60% or more. Inhibitors of energy metabolism, at the same levels which inhibited proteolysis, did not affect the rate or degree of uptake of Ca{sup 2+} by cells. Restricting the Ca{sup 2+} concentration in the medium reduced by threefold of the specific activity in cells of the major intracellular serine proteinase after 12 h of sporulation. finally, cells of a mutant of B. subtilis bearing an insertionally inactivated gene for the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent intracellular proteinase-1 degraded protein in chemically defined sporulation medium at a rate indistinguishable from that of the wild-type cells for period of 8 h.

  9. Proteolysis-independent down-regulation of DELLA repression by the gibberellin receptor GID1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents evidence for proteolysis-independent regulation of DELLA repression of gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA responses including seed germination, stem elongation, and fertility. GA can stimulate GA responses by causing proteolys...

  10. Proteolysis and microstructure of Piacentinu Ennese cheese made using different farm technologies.

    PubMed

    Fallico, V; Tuminello, L; Pediliggieri, C; Horne, J; Carpino, S; Licitra, G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the biochemical and structural characterization of Piacentinu Ennese cheese and to evaluate the impact of different farm technologies on cheese proteolysis and microstructure. Fifteen cheeses were manufactured according to traditional technology, i.e., from raw milk and farmhouse rennet in the absence of starter culture. Pasteurized milk, commercial rennet, and starter were used for production of 20 nontraditional cheeses. Proteolysis in Piacentinu Ennese cheese was monitored during a 2- to 10-mo ripening time. Low rates of overall proteolysis were observed in cheese, as percentages of total N soluble at pH 4.6 and in 12% trichloroacetic acid were about 11.40 and 8.10%, respectively, after 10 mo of age. Patterns of primary proteolysis by urea-PAGE showed that alpha(s)-caseins were degraded to a larger extent than were beta-caseins, although a considerable amount of both caseins was still intact after 10 mo. Reversed phase-HPLC analysis of the cheese peptide fractions showed a slow decrease in the levels of hydrophobic peptides coupled to increasing levels of hydrophilic compounds as the cheese aged. The structural characteristics of Piacentinu Ennese cheese were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy after 2, 4, and 6 mo of age. The micrographs showed a sponge-like structural network with a well-distributed system of empty spaces, originally occupied by whey and fat. The microstructure changed during cheese ripening to become more compact with cavities of smaller size. Farm technology significantly affected cheese proteolysis and microstructure. Nontraditional cheeses had higher levels of pH 4.6-soluble N and showed a larger hydrolysis of alpha(s)-casein fractions by urea-PAGE analysis than did traditional cheeses. Large differences between cheese-types also concerned the patterns of secondary proteolysis. Nontraditional cheeses had higher levels of 12% trichloroacetic acid-soluble N and showed larger proportions of free

  11. In situ proteolysis of the Vibrio cholerae matrix protein RbmA promotes biofilm recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel R.; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Lee, Gloria; Gerard, Harry; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine gram-negative rod and human diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae synthesizes a VPS exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm matrix that allows it to form a 3D structure on surfaces. Proteins associated with the matrix include, RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1. RbmA, a protein whose crystallographic structure suggests two binding surfaces, associates with cells by means of a VPS-dependent mechanism and promotes biofilm cohesiveness and recruitment of cells to the biofilm. Here, we show that RbmA undergoes limited proteolysis within the biofilm. This proteolysis, which is carried out by the hemagglutinin/protease and accessory proteases, yields the 22-kDa C-terminal polypeptide RbmA*. RbmA* remains biofilm-associated. Unlike full-length RbmA, the association of RbmA* with cells is no longer VPS-dependent, likely due to an electropositive surface revealed by proteolysis. We provide evidence that this proteolysis event plays a role in recruitment of VPS− cells to the biofilm surface. Based on our findings, we propose that association of RbmA with the matrix reinforces the biofilm structure and leads to limited proteolysis of RbmA to RbmA*. RbmA*, in turn, promotes recruitment of cells that have not yet initiated VPS synthesis to the biofilm surface. The assignment of two functions to RbmA, separated by a proteolytic event that depends on matrix association, dictates an iterative cycle in which reinforcement of recently added biofilm layers precedes the recruitment of new VPS− cells to the biofilm. PMID:26240338

  12. Protein-protein binding affinities by pulse proteolysis: application to TEM-1/BLIP protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Melinda S; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Marqusee, Susan; Handel, Tracy M

    2010-10-01

    Efficient methods for quantifying dissociation constants have become increasingly important for high-throughput mutagenesis studies in the postgenomic era. However, experimentally determining binding affinity is often laborious, requires large amounts of purified protein, and utilizes specialized equipment. Recently, pulse proteolysis has been shown to be a robust and simple method to determine the dissociation constants for a protein-ligand pair based on the increase in thermodynamic stability upon ligand binding. Here, we extend this technique to determine binding affinities for a protein-protein complex involving the β-lactamase TEM-1 and various β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) mutants. Interaction with BLIP results in an increase in the denaturation curve midpoint, C(m), of TEM-1, which correlates with the rank order of binding affinities for several BLIP mutants. Hence, pulse proteolysis is a simple, effective method to assay for mutations that modulate binding affinity in protein-protein complexes. From a small set (n = 4) of TEM-1/BLIP mutant complexes, a linear relationship between energy of stabilization (dissociation constant) and ΔC(m) was observed. From this "calibration curve," accurate dissociation constants for two additional BLIP mutants were calculated directly from proteolysis-derived ΔC(m) values. Therefore, in addition to qualitative information, armed with knowledge of the dissociation constants from the WT protein and a limited number of mutants, accurate quantitation of binding affinities can be determined for additional mutants from pulse proteolysis. Minimal sample requirements and the suitability of impure protein preparations are important advantages that make pulse proteolysis a powerful tool for high-throughput mutagenesis binding studies. PMID:20669180

  13. Expression of terminal alpha2-6-linked sialic acid on von Willebrand factor specifically enhances proteolysis by ADAMTS13.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rachel T; McKinnon, Thomas A J; Byrne, Barry; O'Kennedy, Richard; Terraube, Virginie; McRae, Emily; Preston, Roger J S; Laffan, Mike A; O'Donnell, James S

    2010-04-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimeric composition is regulated in plasma by ADAMTS13. VWF deglycosylation enhances proteolysis by ADAMTS13. In this study, the role of terminal sialic acid residues on VWF glycans in mediating proteolysis by ADAMTS13 was investigated. Quantification and distribution of VWF sialylation was examined by sequential digestion and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Total sialic acid expression on VWF was 167nmol/mg, of which the majority (80.1%) was present on N-linked glycan chains. Enzymatic desialylation of VWF by alpha2-3,6,8,9 neuraminidase (Neu-VWF) markedly impaired ADAMTS13-mediated VWF proteolysis. Neu-VWF collagen binding activity was reduced to 50% (+/- 14%) by ADAMTS13, compared with 11% (+/- 7%) for untreated VWF. Despite this, Neu-VWF exhibited increased susceptibility to other proteases, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, and cathepsin B. VWF expressing different blood groups exhibit altered ADAMTS13 proteolysis rates (O > or = B > A > or = AB). However, ABO blood group regulation of ADAMTS13 proteolysis was ablated on VWF desialylation, as both Neu-O-VWF and Neu-AB-VWF were cleaved by ADAMTS13 at identical rates. These novel data show that sialic acid protects VWF against proteolysis by serine and cysteine proteases but specifically enhances susceptibility to ADAMTS13 proteolysis. Quantitative variation in VWF sialylation therefore represents a key determinant of VWF multimeric composition and, as such, may be of pathophysiologic significance. PMID:19965639

  14. Suppression of intralysosomal proteolysis aggravates structural damage and functional impairment of liver lysosomes in rats with toxic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Korolenko, T.A.; Gavrilova, N.I.; Kurysheva, N.G.; Malygin, A.E.; Pupyshev, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of lowering protein catabolism in the lysosomes on structural and functional properties of the latter during liver damage. For comparison, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which is inert relative to intralysosomal proteolysis, and which also accumulates largely in lysosomes of the kupffer cells of the liver, was used. The uptake of labeled bovine serum albuman (C 14-BSA) by the liver is shown and the rate of intralysosomal proteolysis is given 24 hours after administration of suramin an CCl/sub 4/ to rats. It is suggested that it is risky to use drugs which inhibit intralysosomal proteolysis in the treatment of patients with acute hepatitis.

  15. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2014-10-01

    A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL(-1) each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum. PMID:25201275

  16. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on subtilisin Carlsberg proteolysis of an immobilized ovalbumin film.

    PubMed

    Foose, Ladan L; Blanch, Harvey W; Radke, C J

    2009-03-01

    Enzymatic degradation of immobilized ovalbumin multilayer films by subtilisin Carlsberg was investigated using in situ ellipsometry. Changes in the substrate cleavage rate in the presence of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), were assessed. Exposure of the protein film to SDBS prior to introduction of the enzyme increased the measured proteolysis rate threefold. Surfactant increased the measured film thickness, absorbing into the protein film and causing swelling. Surfactant-induced film swelling was reversible upon aqueous rinsing. Nevertheless, exposure of enzyme to the surfactant-rinsed film increased the proteolysis rate, most likely due to irreversible conformational changes induced in the substrate film by the surfactant. Simultaneous addition of SDBS with enzyme after the initial surfactant exposure did not produce additional protein-removal benefit. PMID:18985613

  17. Nitrogen metabolism in the isolated perfused rat liver. Nitrogen balance, redox state and rates of proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, R; Goodman, M N

    1974-03-01

    Nitrogen balances were measured in isolated perfused rat livers in the presence and absence of nitrogen donors. In all instances the balance apparently was incomplete. The expression [alanine][alpha-oxoglutarate]/[pyruvate][glutamate] remained fairly constant under the metabolic conditions studied, indicating that it may be at near-equilibrium. The source of the extra nitrogen seems to be derived from increased hepatic proteolysis. The addition of a nitrogen donor to the perfusate arrested proteolysis, as did the addition of pyruvate. The free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio, calculated from the glutamate dehydrogenase and beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase reactants, showed similar values and exhibited parallel changes under most metabolic situations studied. These results suggest that, under the reported experimental conditions, both dehydrogenases share a common mitochondrial NAD pool. Glutamate dehydrogenase plays an important role in hepatic nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:4372991

  18. Peptides Displayed as High Density Brush Polymers Resist Proteolysis and Retain Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for rendering peptides resistant to proteolysis by formulating them as high-density brush polymers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by polymerizing well-established cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and showing that the resulting polymers are not only resistant to proteolysis but also maintain their ability to enter cells. The scope of this design concept is explored by studying the proteolytic resistance of brush polymers composed of peptides that are substrates for either thrombin or a metalloprotease. Finally, we demonstrate that the proteolytic susceptibility of peptide brush polymers can be tuned by adjusting the density of the polymer brush and offer in silico models to rationalize this finding. We contend that this strategy offers a plausible method of preparing peptides for in vivo use, where rapid digestion by proteases has traditionally restricted their utility. PMID:25314576

  19. [Effects of constant-current electric field on tissue and plasma proteolysis in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Iftodiĭ, A H

    1998-01-01

    The tissue and plasma proteolysis changes were studied up on white laboratory rats while the pancreas zone galvanization using electrical field of 0.01-0.05-0.10 mA/cm2 density during 60 minutes. It was established that intratissue electrophoresis with contrykal lowers the low molecular mass peptides lysis by 6.6 times, the high molecular mass peptides-by 4.4, collagen-by 3. PMID:9615082

  20. The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Chen, Jingsi; Cornog, Katherine H.; Zhang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. However, the role of the endomembrane system in PKGI compartmentation and processing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKGI colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, GA cisterna, and trans-Golgi network proteins in pulmonary artery SMC and cell lines. Moreover, PKGI localizes with furin, a trans-Golgi network-resident PC known to cleave PKGI. ER protein transport influences PKGI localization because overexpression of a constitutively inactive Sar1 transgene caused PKGI retention in the ER. Additionally, PKGI appears to reside within the GA because PKGI immunoreactivity was determined to be resistant to cytosolic proteinase K treatment in live cells. The GA appears to play a role in PKGI proteolysis because overexpression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate, not only tethered heterologous PKGI-β to the ER and decreased its localization to the GA, but also diminished PKGI proteolysis and nuclear translocation. Also, inhibiting intra-GA protein transport with monensin was observed to decrease PKGI cleavage. These studies detail a role for the endomembrane system in regulating PKGI compartmentation and proteolysis. Moreover, they support the investigation of mechanisms regulating PKGI-dependent nuclear cGMP signaling in the pulmonary vasculature with Golgi dysfunction. PMID:25855081

  1. Role of IL-15 in Sepsis-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee-Young; Hah, Young-Sool

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle wasting in sepsis is associated with increased proteolysis. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been characterized as an anabolic factor for skeletal muscles. Our study aims to investigate the role of IL-15 in sepsis-induced muscle atrophy and proteolysis. Methods Mice were rendered septic either by cecal ligation and puncture or by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg i.p.). Expression of IL-15 mRNA and protein was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis in the control and septic limb muscles. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were stimulated in vitro with either LPS or dexamethasone in the presence and absence of IL-15 and sampled at different time intervals (24, 48, or 72 hours). IL-15 (10µg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 6 hours before sepsis induction and limb muscles were sampled after 24 hours of sepsis. Cathepsin L activity was determined to measure muscle proteolysis. Atrogin-1 and muscle-specific ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1) expressions in limb muscle protein lysates was analyzed. Results IL-15 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the limb muscles of septic mice compared to that of controls. Cathepsin L activity in C2C12 cells was significantly lower in presence of IL-15, when compared to that observed with individual treatments of LPS or dexamethasone or tumor necrosis factor α. Further, the limb muscles of mice pre-treated with IL-15 prior to sepsis induction showed a lower expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 than those not pre-treated. Conclusion IL-15 may play a role in protection against sepsis-induced muscle wasting; thereby, serving as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis-induced skeletal muscle wasting and proteolysis. PMID:23319993

  2. The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Chen, Jingsi; Cornog, Katherine H; Zhang, Huili; Roberts, Jesse D

    2015-06-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. However, the role of the endomembrane system in PKGI compartmentation and processing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKGI colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, GA cisterna, and trans-Golgi network proteins in pulmonary artery SMC and cell lines. Moreover, PKGI localizes with furin, a trans-Golgi network-resident PC known to cleave PKGI. ER protein transport influences PKGI localization because overexpression of a constitutively inactive Sar1 transgene caused PKGI retention in the ER. Additionally, PKGI appears to reside within the GA because PKGI immunoreactivity was determined to be resistant to cytosolic proteinase K treatment in live cells. The GA appears to play a role in PKGI proteolysis because overexpression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate, not only tethered heterologous PKGI-β to the ER and decreased its localization to the GA, but also diminished PKGI proteolysis and nuclear translocation. Also, inhibiting intra-GA protein transport with monensin was observed to decrease PKGI cleavage. These studies detail a role for the endomembrane system in regulating PKGI compartmentation and proteolysis. Moreover, they support the investigation of mechanisms regulating PKGI-dependent nuclear cGMP signaling in the pulmonary vasculature with Golgi dysfunction. PMID:25855081

  3. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  4. Ectdomain shedding and regulated intracellular proteolysis in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca-B, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    The term Ectodomain Shedding (ES) refers to extracellular domain proteolytic release from cell membrane molecules. This proteolysis is mediated mainly by matrix metalloproteases (MMP) or disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM), although some other proteases may mediate it. Virtually, all functional categories of cell membrane molecules are subject of this kind of proteolysis, for this reason ES is involved in different cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration, differentiation or pathologies such as inflammation, cancer and degeneration among others. ES releases membrane molecule's extracellular domain (or ectodomain) to the extracellular milieu where it can play different biological functions. ES of transmembrane molecules also generates membrane attached terminal fragments comprising transmembrane and intracellular domains that enable their additional processing by intracellular proteases known as Regulated Intracellular Proteolysis (RIP). This second proteolytic cleavage delivers molecule's intracellular domain (ICD) that carry out intracellular functions. RIP is mediated by the group of intracellular cleaving proteases (i-CLiPs) that include presenilin from the γ-secretase complex. In the CNS the best well known ES is that of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, although many other membrane molecules expressed by cells of the CNS are also subject to ES and RIP. In this review, these molecules are summarized, and some meaningful examples are highlighted and described. In addition, ES and RIP implications in the context of cell biology are discussed. Finally, some considerations that rise from the study of ES and RIP are formulated in view of the unexpected roles of intracellular fragments. PMID:20868353

  5. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W-W; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M G; Brown, Louise J; Brown, David A; Breit, Samuel N

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1(-/-)) and wild-type (CLIC1(+/+)) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1(-/-) BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1(+/+), but not CLIC1(-/-) cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1(-/-) BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  6. Drug-induced proteolysis: a correlation with oedema-reducing ability.

    PubMed Central

    Piller, N. B.

    1976-01-01

    A very strong correlation has been shown to exist between acid and neutral protease activity levels in the skin, the acid protease activity level of the oedema fluid, and the oedema-reducing ability of the benzo-pyrones and related drugs. Macrophages, which are believed to be the main cells affected by the drugs, are very common in thermally injured tissues. Their lysosomal enzymes work at an acid pH. Since the main acid protease is cathepsin D, the overall acid protease levels are representative of changes in cathepsin D levels. Elevated levels are concomitant with more complete and rapid digestion of accumulated protein. The resulting fragments then can rapidly leave the injured tissues, freeing the oedema fluid. This form of proteolysis is very much different from that which is used by pharmacologists as a measure of inflammation. Normal proteolysis in inflammation represents an estimate of tissue derangement, but the proteolysis induced by drugs such as the benzo-pyrones represents a means of lessening some of the more injurious effects of this derangement. The results presented here strongly confirm this. PMID:952727

  7. Extracellular proteolysis in structural and functional plasticity of mossy fiber synapses in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wiera, Grzegorz; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2015-01-01

    Brain is continuously altered in response to experience and environmental changes. One of the underlying mechanisms is synaptic plasticity, which is manifested by modification of synapse structure and function. It is becoming clear that regulated extracellular proteolysis plays a pivotal role in the structural and functional remodeling of synapses during brain development, learning and memory formation. Clearly, plasticity mechanisms may substantially differ between projections. Mossy fiber synapses onto CA3 pyramidal cells display several unique functional features, including pronounced short-term facilitation, a presynaptically expressed long-term potentiation (LTP) that is independent of NMDAR activation, and NMDA-dependent metaplasticity. Moreover, structural plasticity at mossy fiber synapses ranges from the reorganization of projection topology after hippocampus-dependent learning, through intrinsically different dynamic properties of synaptic boutons to pre- and postsynaptic structural changes accompanying LTP induction. Although concomitant functional and structural plasticity in this pathway strongly suggests a role of extracellular proteolysis, its impact only starts to be investigated in this projection. In the present report, we review the role of extracellular proteolysis in various aspects of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that among perisynaptic proteases, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system, β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and metalloproteinases play a crucial role in shaping plastic changes in this projection. We discuss recent advances and emerging hypotheses on the roles of proteases in mechanisms underlying mossy fiber target specific synaptic plasticity and memory formation. PMID:26582976

  8. Molecular insights into mechanisms of intramembrane proteolysis through signal peptide peptidase (SPP).

    PubMed

    Schröder, Bernd; Saftig, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The processing of membrane-anchored signalling molecules and transcription factors by RIP (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) is a major signalling paradigm in eukaryotic cells. Intramembrane cleaving proteases liberate fragments from membrane-bound precursor proteins which typically fulfil functions such as cell signalling and regulation, immunosurveillance and intercellular communication. Furthermore, they are thought to be involved in the development and propagation of several diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and hepatitis C virus infection. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Schrul and colleagues investigate the interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum-resident intramembrane cleaving SPP (signal peptide peptidase) with different type II oriented transmembrane proteins. A combination of co-immunoprecipitation experiments using wild-type and a dominant-negative SPP with electrophoretic protein separations under native conditions revealed selectivity of the interaction. Depending on the interacting protein, SPP formed complexes of different sizes. SPP could build tight interactions not only with signal peptides, but also with pre- and mis-folded proteins. Whereas signal peptides are direct substrates for SPP proteolysis, the study suggests that SPP may be involved in the controlled sequestration of possibly toxic membrane protein species in a proteolysis-independent manner. These large oligomeric membrane protein aggregates may then be degraded by the proteasome or autophagy. PMID:20388122

  9. Domain structure of secretin PulD revealed by limited proteolysis and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nouwen, N; Stahlberg, H; Pugsley, A P; Engel, A

    2000-05-15

    Secretins, a superfamily of multimeric outer membrane proteins, mediate the transport of large macromolecules across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Limited proteolysis of secretin PulD from the Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase secretion pathway showed that it consists of an N-terminal domain and a protease-resistant C-terminal domain that remains multimeric after proteolysis. The stable C-terminal domain starts just before the region in PulD that is highly conserved in the secretin superfamily and apparently lacks the region at the C-terminal end to which the secretin-specific pilot protein PulS binds. Electron microscopy showed that the stable fragment produced by proteolysis is composed of two stacked rings that encircle a central channel and that it lacks the peripheral radial spokes that are seen in the native complex. Moreover, the electron microscopic images suggest that the N-terminal domain folds back into the large cavity of the channel that is formed by the C-terminal domain of the native complex, thereby occluding the channel, consistent with previous electrophysiological studies showing that the channel is normally closed. PMID:10811614

  10. Alternative Surfactants for Improved Efficiency of In Situ Tryptic Proteolysis of Fingermarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ekta; Clench, Malcolm R.; West, Andy; Marshall, Peter S.; Marshall, Nathan; Francese, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent improvements to in situ proteolysis strategies, a higher efficiency is still needed to increase both the number of peptides detected and the associated ion intensity, leading to a complete and reliable set of biomarkers for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. In the study presented here, an extract of a systematic study is illustrated investigating a range of surfactants assisting trypsin proteolytic activity. Method development was trialled on fingermarks; this specimen results from a transfer of sweat from an individual's fingertip to a surface upon contact. As sweat carries a plethora of biomolecules, including peptides and proteins, fingermarks are, potentially, a very valuable specimen for non-invasive prognostic or diagnostic screening. A recent study has demonstrated the opportunity to quickly detect peptides and small proteins in fingermarks using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Profiling (MALDI MSP). However, intact detection bears low sensitivity and does not allow species identification; therefore, a shotgun proteomic approach was employed involving in situ proteolysis. Data demonstrate that in fingermarks, further improvements to the existing method can be achieved using MEGA-8 as surfactant in higher percentages as well as combinations of different detergents. Also, for the first time, Rapigest SF, normally used in solution digestions, has been shown to successfully work also for in situ proteolysis.

  11. Collagen fibril architecture, domain organization, and triple-helical conformation govern its proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Perumal, Shiamalee; Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2008-06-24

    We describe the molecular structure of the collagen fibril and how it affects collagen proteolysis or 'collagenolysis.' The fibril-forming collagens are major components of all mammalian connective tissues, providing the structural and organizational framework for skin, blood vessels, bone, tendon, and other tissues. The triple helix of the collagen molecule is resistant to most proteinases, and the matrix metalloproteinases that do proteolyze collagen are affected by the architecture of collagen fibrils, which are notably more resistant to collagenolysis than lone collagen monomers. Until now, there has been no molecular explanation for this. Full or limited proteolysis of the collagen fibril is known to be a key process in normal growth, development, repair, and cell differentiation, and in cancerous tumor progression and heart disease. Peptide fragments generated by collagenolysis, and the conformation of exposed sites on the fibril as a result of limited proteolysis, regulate these processes and that of cellular attachment, but it is not known how or why. Using computational and molecular visualization methods, we found that the arrangement of collagen monomers in the fibril (its architecture) protects areas vulnerable to collagenolysis and strictly governs the process. This in turn affects the accessibility of a cell interaction site located near the cleavage region. Our observations suggest that the C-terminal telopeptide must be proteolyzed before collagenase can gain access to the cleavage site. Collagenase then binds to the substrate's 'interaction domain,' which facilitates the triple-helix unwinding/dissociation function of the enzyme before collagenolysis.

  12. Calpastatin overexpression limits calpain-mediated proteolysis and behavioral deficits following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Kathleen M.; Evans, Heather N.; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Madathil, Sindhu K.; Takano, Jiro; Saido, Takaomi C.; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in abrupt, initial cell damage leading to delayed neuronal death. The calcium-activated proteases, calpains, are known to contribute to this secondary neurodegenerative cascade. Although the specific inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin, is present within neurons, normal levels of calpastatin are unable to fully prevent the damaging proteolytic activity of calpains after injury. In this study, increased calpastatin expression was achieved using transgenic mice that overexpress the human calpastatin (hCAST) construct under control of a calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II α promoter. Naïve hCAST transgenic mice exhibited enhanced neuronal calpastatin expression and significantly reduced protease activity. Acute calpain-mediated spectrin proteolysis in the cortex and hippocampus induced by controlled cortical impact brain injury was significantly attenuated in calpastatin overexpressing mice. Aspects of posttraumatic motor and cognitive behavioral deficits were also lessened in hCAST transgenic mice compared to their wildtype littermates. However, volumetric analyses of neocortical contusion revealed no histological neuroprotection at either acute or long-term time points. Partial hippocampal neuroprotection observed at a moderate injury severity was lost after severe TBI. This study underscores the effectiveness of calpastatin overexpression in reducing calpain-mediated proteolysis and behavioral impairment after TBI, supporting the therapeutic potential for calpain inhibition. In addition, the reduction in spectrin proteolysis without accompanied neocortical neuroprotection suggests the involvement of other factors that are critical for neuronal survival after contusion brain injury. PMID:22572592

  13. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W.-W.; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Brown, Louise J.; Brown, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/−) and wild-type (CLIC1+/+) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  14. 20-hydroxyecdysone activates Forkhead box O to promote proteolysis during Helicoverpa armigera molting.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Zhao, Wen-Li; Jing, Yu-Pu; Song, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-03-15

    Insulin inhibits transcription factor Forkhead box O (FoxO) activity, and the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) activates FoxO; however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that 20E upregulates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase (PTEN) expression to activate FoxO, thereby promoting proteolysis during molting in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. FoxO expression is increased during molting and metamorphosis. The knockdown of FoxO in fifth instar larvae results in larval molting failure. 20E inhibits FoxO phosphorylation, resulting in FoxO nuclear translocation. Insulin, via Akt, induces FoxO phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization. 20E represses insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and FoxO phosphorylation. 20E, via ecdysone receptor B1 (EcRB1) and the ultraspiracle protein (USP1), upregulates PTEN expression, which represses Akt phosphorylation, thereby repressing FoxO phosphorylation. The non-phosphorylated FoxO enters the nucleus and attaches to a FoxO-binding element in the upstream region of the Broad isoform 7 (BrZ7) gene to regulate BrZ7 transcription under 20E induction. 20E upregulates FoxO expression via EcRB1 and USP1. FoxO regulation of BrZ7 expression regulates Carboxypeptidase A expression for final proteolysis during insect molting. Hence, 20E activates FoxO via upregulating PTEN expression to counteract insulin activity and promote proteolysis. PMID:26893349

  15. Hsk1- and SCF(Pof3)-dependent proteolysis of S. pombe Ams2 ensures histone homeostasis and centromere function.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuko; Mamnun, Yasmine M; Trickey, Michelle; Dhut, Susheela; Masuda, Fumie; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Toda, Takashi; Saitoh, Shigeaki

    2010-03-16

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe GATA factor Ams2 is responsible for cell cycle-dependent transcriptional activation of all the core histone genes peaking at G1/S phase. Intriguingly, its own protein level also fluctuates concurrently. Here, we show that Ams2 is ubiquitylated and degraded through the SCF (Skp1-Cdc53/Cullin-1-F-box) ubiquitin ligase, in which F box protein Pof3 binds this protein. Ams2 is phosphorylated at multiple sites, which is required for SCF(Pof3)-dependent proteolysis. Hsk1/Cdc7 kinase physically associates with and phosphorylates Ams2. Even mild overexpression of Ams2 induces constitutive histone expression and chromosome instability, and its toxicity is exaggerated when Hsk1 function is compromised. This is partly attributable to abnormal incorporation of canonical H3 into the central CENP-A/Cnp1-rich centromere, thereby reversing specific chromatin structures to apparently normal nucleosomes. We propose that Hsk1 plays a vital role during post S phase in genome stability via SCF(Pof3)-mediated degradation of Ams2, thereby maintaining centromere integrity. PMID:20230746

  16. Hsk1- and SCFPof3-Dependent Proteolysis of S. pombe Ams2 Ensures Histone Homeostasis and Centromere Function

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yuko; Mamnun, Yasmine M.; Trickey, Michelle; Dhut, Susheela; Masuda, Fumie; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Toda, Takashi; Saitoh, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary Schizosaccharomyces pombe GATA factor Ams2 is responsible for cell cycle-dependent transcriptional activation of all the core histone genes peaking at G1/S phase. Intriguingly, its own protein level also fluctuates concurrently. Here, we show that Ams2 is ubiquitylated and degraded through the SCF (Skp1-Cdc53/Cullin-1-F-box) ubiquitin ligase, in which F box protein Pof3 binds this protein. Ams2 is phosphorylated at multiple sites, which is required for SCFPof3-dependent proteolysis. Hsk1/Cdc7 kinase physically associates with and phosphorylates Ams2. Even mild overexpression of Ams2 induces constitutive histone expression and chromosome instability, and its toxicity is exaggerated when Hsk1 function is compromised. This is partly attributable to abnormal incorporation of canonical H3 into the central CENP-A/Cnp1-rich centromere, thereby reversing specific chromatin structures to apparently normal nucleosomes. We propose that Hsk1 plays a vital role during post S phase in genome stability via SCFPof3-mediated degradation of Ams2, thereby maintaining centromere integrity. PMID:20230746

  17. Cell cycle-controlled proteolysis of a flagellar motor protein that is asymmetrically distributed in the Caulobacter predivisional cell.

    PubMed Central

    Jenal, U; Shapiro, L

    1996-01-01

    Flagellar biogenesis and release are developmental events tightly coupled to the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. A single flagellum is assembled at the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell and is released later in the cell cycle. Here we show that the MS-ring monomer FliF, a central motor component that anchors the flagellum in the cell membrane, is synthesized only in the predivisional cell and is integrated into the membrane at the incipient swarmer cell pole, where it initiates flagellar assembly. FliF is proteolytically turned over during swarmer-to-stalked cell differentiation, coinciding with the loss of the flagellum, suggesting that its degradation is coupled to flagellar release. The membrane topology of FliF was determined and a region of the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain was shown to be required for the interaction with a component of the motor switch. The very C-terminal end of FliF contains a turnover determinant, required for the cell cycle-dependent degradation of the MS-ring. The cell cycle-dependent proteolysis of FliF and the targeting of FliF to the swarmer pole together contribute to the asymmetric localization of the MS-ring in the predivisional cell. Images PMID:8665847

  18. cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 is linked to JNK-signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, Hironori; Maeda, Masatomo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of a JNK activator anisomycin on the proteolysis was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisomycin stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK activated the CRM1 mediated nuclear export of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK further stimulated slowly the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. -- Abstract: A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 by proteasomes around its IC50. We further examined the effects of SP600125 on the degradation of GATA-6 in detail, since an activator of JNK (anisomycin) is available. Interestingly, anisomycin immediately stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm, and then the cytoplasmic content of GATA-6 decreased slowly through degradation by proteasomes. Such an effect of anisomycin was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that the observed phenomenon might be linked to the JNK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of SP600125 could not be ascribed to the inhibition of PKA, since phosphorylation of CREB occurred in the presence of dbcAMP and SP600125. The nuclear export of GATA-6 was inhibited by leptomycin B, suggesting that CRM1-mediated export could be activated by anisomycin. Furthermore, it seems likely that the JNK activated by anisomycin may stimulate not only the nuclear export of GATA-6 through CRM1 but also the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. In contrast, A-kinase might activate only the latter process through JNK.

  19. Expression of SPARC during development of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane: evidence for regulated proteolysis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Iruela-Arispe, M L; Lane, T F; Redmond, D; Reilly, M; Bolender, R P; Kavanagh, T J; Sage, E H

    1995-01-01

    SPARC is a secreted glycoprotein that has been shown to disrupt focal adhesions and to regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, peptides resulting from the proteolysis of SPARC exhibit angiogenic activity. Here we describe the temporal synthesis, turnover, and angiogenic potential of SPARC in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed specific expression of SPARC protein in endothelial cells, and significantly higher levels of SPARC were observed in smaller newly formed blood vessels in comparison to larger, developmentally older vessels. SPARC mRNA was detected at the earliest stages of chorioallantoic membrane morphogenesis and reached maximal levels at day 13 of embryonic development. Interestingly, steady-state levels of SPARC mRNA did not correlate directly with protein accumulation; moreover, the protein appeared to undergo limited degradation during days 10-15. Incubation of [125I]-SPARC with chorioallantoic membranes of different developmental ages confirmed that extracellular proteolysis occurred during days 9-15, but not at later stages (e.g., days 17-21). Comparison of peptides produced by incubation with chorioallantoic membranes with those generated by plasmin showed an identical pattern of proteolysis. Plasmin activity was present throughout development, and in situ zymography identified sites of plasminogen activator activity that corresponded to areas exhibiting high levels of SPARC expression. Synthetic peptides from a plasmin-sensitive region of SPARC, between amino acids 113-130, stimulated angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane in a dose-dependent manner; in contrast, intact SPARC was inactive in similar assays. We have shown that SPARC is expressed in endothelial cells of newly formed blood vessels in a manner that is both temporally and spatially restricted. Between days 9 and 15 of chorioallantoic membrane development, the protein undergoes proteolytic cleavage that

  20. MMP-9 facilitates selective proteolysis of the histone H3 tail at genes necessary for proficient osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghwan; Punj, Vasu; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Sunyoung; Ulmer, Tobias S.; Lu, Wange; Rice, Judd C.; An, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Although limited proteolysis of the histone H3 N-terminal tail (H3NT) is frequently observed during mammalian differentiation, the specific genomic sites targeted for H3NT proteolysis and the functional significance of H3NT cleavage remain largely unknown. Here we report the first method to identify and examine H3NT-cleaved regions in mammals, called chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of acetylated chromatin (ChIPac). By applying ChIPac combined with deep sequencing (ChIPac-seq) to an established cell model of osteoclast differentiation, we discovered that H3NT proteolysis is selectively targeted near transcription start sites of a small group of genes and that most H3NT-cleaved genes displayed significant expression changes during osteoclastogenesis. We also discovered that the principal H3NT protease of osteoclastogenesis is matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). In contrast to other known H3NT proteases, MMP-9 primarily cleaved H3K18-Q19 in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, our results support CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of H3K18 as a central regulator of MMP-9 H3NT protease activity both in vitro and at H3NT cleavage sites during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, we found that abrogation of H3NT proteolysis impaired osteoclastogenic gene activation concomitant with defective osteoclast differentiation. Our collective results support the necessity of MMP-9-dependent H3NT proteolysis in regulating gene pathways required for proficient osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26744418

  1. Suppression of IgM Proteolysis by Conformational Stabilization Through Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Monika; Loh, Maybelle Q. T.; Gagnon, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Protease activity from host cell lines may cause product loss or affect the quality of recombinant proteins. In this study, we showed that excipients like glycine and sorbitol reduce the proteolysis of an immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the presence of added proteases like α-chymotrypsin, papain, and pepsin. The activity of the proteases in the IgM-protective environments was conserved or even enhanced as tested using low molecular weight substrates. Thus, a higher resistance against proteolytic degradation appears to be caused by the conformational stabilization of the IgM due to preferential exclusion of sorbitol and glycine. PMID:26839826

  2. Effect of manufacturing factors, composition, and proteolysis on the functional characteristics of mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    1993-01-01

    Shredding and melting characteristics are vital to the function of low-moisture Mozzarella cheeses that are used as ingredients for pizza and related foods. Newly manufactured Mozzarella melts to a tough, extremely elastic, and somewhat granular consistency with limited stretch that is unacceptable for pizza. However, during the first few weeks of refrigerated storage, a dramatic transformation occurs as the unmelted cheese becomes softer and the melted cheese becomes more viscous, less elastic, and highly stretchable. Thus, the cheese attains optimal functionality for pizza. Over longer periods, Mozzarella becomes excessively soft and fluid when melted and is no longer acceptable for pizza. Low-moisture Mozzarella is correctly viewed as a cheese that requires aging. The functional characteristics of low-moisture Mozzarella are due initially to the chemical composition, including fat, moisture, NaCl, and mineral contents, and the structure of the paracasein curd matrix that is established during manufacture. Changes in functional characteristics during aging are directly related to proteolysis rate and possibly proteolytic specificity. Proteolysis during aging is influenced by manufacturing factors such as starter culture, coagulant, and stretching temperature, and possibly to indigenous proteases in the cheesemilk such as plasmin. PMID:8476513

  3. Extracellular proteolysis of apolipoprotein E (apoE) by secreted serine neuronal protease.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Irfan Y; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occurring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  4. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Yamashina, Shunhei; Izumi, Kousuke; Ueno, Takashi; Tanida, Isei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. {yields} Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. {yields} Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. {yields} Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmented in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α stimulates ADAM10-mediated proteolysis of APP.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-07-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derivative β-amyloid (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequential proteolysis of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase generates Aβ. Conversely, the α-secretase "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase" 10 (ADAM10) cleaves APP within the eventual Aβ sequence and precludes Aβ generation. Therefore, up-regulation of ADAM10 represents a plausible therapeutic strategy to combat overproduction of neurotoxic Aβ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Here, we determined that the Adam10 promoter harbors PPAR response elements; that knockdown of PPARα, but not PPARβ or PPARγ, decreases the expression of Adam10; and that lentiviral overexpression of PPARα restored ADAM10 expression in Ppara(-/-) neurons. Gemfibrozil, an agonist of PPARα, induced the recruitment of PPARα:retinoid x receptor α, but not PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), to the Adam10 promoter in wild-type mouse hippocampal neurons and shifted APP processing toward the α-secretase, as determined by augmented soluble APPα and decreased Aβ production. Accordingly, Ppara(-/-) mice displayed elevated SDS-stable, endogenous Aβ and Aβ1-42 relative to wild-type littermates, whereas 5XFAD mice null for PPARα (5X/α(-/-)) exhibited greater cerebral Aβ load relative to 5XFAD littermates. These results identify PPARα as an important factor regulating neuronal ADAM10 expression and, thus, α-secretase proteolysis of APP. PMID:26080426

  6. Brain injury-induced proteolysis is reduced in a novel calpastatin overexpressing transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Kathleen M.; von Reyn, Catherine R.; Bian, Jifeng; Telling, Glenn C.; Meaney, David F.; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The calpain family of calcium-dependent proteases has been implicated in a variety of diseases and neurodegenerative pathologies. Prolonged activation of calpains results in proteolysis of numerous cellular substrates including cytoskeletal components and membrane receptors, contributing to cell demise despite coincident expression of calpastatin, the specific inhibitor of calpains. Pharmacological and gene knockout strategies have targeted calpains to determine their contribution to neurodegenerative pathology; however, limitations associated with treatment paradigms, drug specificity, and genetic disruptions have produced inconsistent results and complicated interpretation. Specific, targeted calpain inhibition achieved by enhancing endogenous calpastatin levels offers unique advantages in studying pathological calpain activation. We have characterized a novel calpastatin overexpressing transgenic mouse model, demonstrating a substantial increase in calpastatin expression within nervous system and peripheral tissues and associated reduction in protease activity. Experimental activation of calpains via traumatic brain injury resulted in cleavage of α-spectrin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, and voltage-gated sodium channel, critical proteins for the maintenance of neuronal structure and function. Calpastatin overexpression significantly attenuated calpain-mediated proteolysis of these selected substrates acutely following severe controlled cortical impact injury, but with no effect on acute hippocampal neurodegeneration. Augmenting calpastatin levels may be an effective method for calpain inhibition in TBI and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23305291

  7. Extracellular Proteolysis of Apolipoprotein E (apoE) by Secreted Serine Neuronal Protease

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occuring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  8. A capillary electrophoresis method for evaluation of Aβ proteolysis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Benjamin J.; Schmidt, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ peptides are neurotoxic and underlie development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple Aβ clearance mechanisms, including destruction of the peptides by proteolytic enzymes, are hypothesized to regulate physiological Aβ peptide levels. The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is considered one of the predominant enzymes having Aβ degrading activity. Despite its putative role in protecting against AD, relatively few methods exist for studying IDE activity in vitro. We report the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a novel method for evaluating IDE-mediated Aβ 1–40 proteolysis. This method employs chemically unmodified substrates that are readily obtained from commercial sources. It involves minimal sample preparation, and requires no specialized equipment beyond a CE instrument equipped with a standard fused silica capillary. In the present analysis, we demonstrate that this CE-based method is amenable to kinetic analysis, and show that IDE-mediated Aβ proteolysis is significantly and disproportionately inhibited in the presence of insulin, an alternative IDE substrate. PMID:19071160

  9. Proteolysis inside the membrane is a rate-governed reaction not driven by substrate affinity

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Seth W.; Baker, Rosanna P.; Cho, Sangwoo; Urban, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Enzymatic cleavage of transmembrane anchors to release proteins from the membrane controls diverse signaling pathways and is implicated in over a dozen diseases. How catalysis works within the viscous, water-excluding, two-dimensional membrane is unknown. We developed an inducible reconstitution system to interrogate rhomboid proteolysis quantitatively within the membrane in real time. Remarkably, rhomboid proteases displayed no physiological affinity for substrates (Kd ~190 μM, or 0.1 mol%). Instead, ~10,000-fold differences in proteolytic efficiency with substrate mutants and diverse rhomboid proteases were reflected in kcat values alone. Analysis of gate-open mutant and solvent isotope effects revealed that substrate gating, not hydrolysis, is rate limiting. Ultimately a single proteolytic event within the membrane normally takes minutes. Rhomboid intramembrane proteolysis is thus a slow, kinetically controlled reaction not driven by transmembrane protein-protein affinity. These properties are unlike those of other studied proteases or membrane proteins but strikingly reminiscent of one subset of DNA-repair enzymes, raising important mechanistic and drug-design implications. PMID:24315097

  10. Cleavage Site Localization Differentially Controls Interleukin-6 Receptor Proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Riethmueller, Steffen; Ehlers, Johanna C.; Lokau, Juliane; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Knittler, Katharina; Dombrowsky, Gregor; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rabe, Björn; Rose-John, Stefan; Garbers, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) leads to the release of the IL-6R ectodomain. Binding of the cytokine IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) results in an agonistic IL-6/sIL-6R complex, which activates cells via gp130 irrespective of whether the cells express the IL-6R itself. This signaling pathway has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to mainly account for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are the major proteases that cleave the IL-6R. We have previously shown that deletion of a ten amino acid long stretch within the stalk region including the cleavage site prevents ADAM17-mediated cleavage, whereas the receptor retained its full biological activity. In the present study, we show that deletion of a triple serine (3S) motif (Ser-359 to Ser-361) adjacent to the cleavage site is sufficient to prevent IL-6R cleavage by ADAM17, but not ADAM10. We find that the impaired shedding is caused by the reduced distance between the cleavage site and the plasma membrane. Positioning of the cleavage site in greater distance towards the plasma membrane abrogates ADAM17-mediated shedding and reveals a novel cleavage site of ADAM10. Our findings underline functional differences in IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:27151651

  11. Huntingtin proteolysis releases non-polyQ fragments that cause toxicity through dynamin 1 dysregulation.

    PubMed

    El-Daher, Marie-Thérèse; Hangen, Emilie; Bruyère, Julie; Poizat, Ghislaine; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Pardo, Raul; Bourg, Nicolas; Souquere, Sylvie; Mayet, Céline; Pierron, Gérard; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Botas, Juan; Humbert, Sandrine; Saudou, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Cleavage of mutant huntingtin (HTT) is an essential process in Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Cleavage generates N-ter fragments that contain the polyQ stretch and whose nuclear toxicity is well established. However, the functional defects induced by cleavage of full-length HTT remain elusive. Moreover, the contribution of non-polyQ C-terminal fragments is unknown. Using time- and site-specific control of full-length HTT proteolysis, we show that specific cleavages are required to disrupt intramolecular interactions within HTT and to cause toxicity in cells and flies. Surprisingly, in addition to the canonical pathogenic N-ter fragments, the C-ter fragments generated, that do not contain the polyQ stretch, induced toxicity via dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and increased ER stress. C-ter HTT bound to dynamin 1 and subsequently impaired its activity at ER membranes. Our findings support a role for HTT on dynamin 1 function and ER homoeostasis. Proteolysis-induced alteration of this function may be relevant to disease. PMID:26165689

  12. Regulation of Ci-SCFSlimb binding, Ci proteolysis and Hedgehog pathway activity by Ci phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Smelkinson, Margery G.; Zhou, Qianhe; Kalderon, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Hedgehog (Hh) proteins signal by inhibiting the proteolytic processing of Ci/Gli family transcription factors and by increasing Ci/Gli specific activity. In the absence of Hh, phosphorylation of Ci/Gli triggers binding to SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes and consequent proteolysis. Here we define the principal SCFSlimb binding site in Ci as an extended variant of a canonical Slimb/β-TRCP binding motif that can be created by PKA-priming of five successive CK1 sites. GSK3 enhances binding primarily through a nearby region of Ci, which may contact an SCF component other than Slimb. Studies of Ci variants with altered CK1 and GSK3 sites suggest that the large number of phosphorylation sites that direct SCFSlimb binding confers a Hh response that is both sensitive and graded, and that in the Drosophila wing disc, morphogenetic responses involve changes in both the level and specific activity of Ci. We also show that when Ci proteolysis is compromised, its specific activity is limited principally by Su(fu) and not by Cos2 cytoplasmic tethering or PKA phosphorylation. PMID:17925225

  13. Influence of chymosin type and curd scalding temperature on proteolysis of hard cooked cheeses.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina V; Pozza, Leila; Cuffia, Facundo; Candioti, Mario C; Hynes, Erica

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of the type of coagulant enzyme and the curd scalding temperature on the proteolysis and residual coagulant and plasmin activities of a cooked cheese, Reggianito, in the interest of reducing ripening time. A two-factor experimental design was applied in two levels: type of coagulant enzyme, bovine chymosin or camel chymosin, and curd scalding temperature, 50 or 56 °C. The experimental treatments were applied in Reggianito cheese making experiments, and the samples were ripened for 90 d at 12 °C. Scalding temperature influenced residual coagulant activity; the cheeses cooked at 50 °C had significantly higher activity than those treated at 56 °C. In contrast, scalding temperature did not modify plasmin activity. Proteolysis was primarily affected by curd cooking temperature because chymosin-mediated hydrolysis of αs1 casein was slower in cheeses treated at 56 °C. Additionally, the nitrogen content in the cheese soluble fractions was consistently lower in the cheeses scalded at 56 °C than those cooked at 50 °C. A significant influence of the type of coagulant enzyme was observed, especially in the nitrogen fractions and peptide profiles, which demonstrated that camel chymosin was slightly less proteolytic; however, these differences were lower than those caused by the scalding temperature. PMID:25876792

  14. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E; Rigby, Neil M; Mackie, Alan R; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39-40, 56-57 and 79-80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs. PMID:27458082

  15. The Putative O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase SPINDLY Inhibits Class I TCP Proteolysis to Promote Sensitivity to Cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Evyatar; Livne, Sivan; Kobinson-Katz, Tammy; Tal, Lior; Pri-Tal, Oded; Mosquna, Assaf; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mueller, Bruno; Tarkowski, Petr; Weiss, David

    2016-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) is a putative serine and threonine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). While SPY has been shown to suppress gibberellin signaling and to promote cytokinin (CK) responses, its catalytic OGT activity was never demonstrated and its effect on protein fate is not known. We previously showed that SPY interacts physically and functionally with TCP14 and TCP15 to promote CK responses. Here, we aimed to identify how SPY regulates TCP14/15 activities and how these TCPs promote CK responses. We show that SPY activity is required for TCP14 stability. Mutation in the putative OGT domain of SPY (spy-3) stimulated TCP14 proteolysis by the 26S proteasome, which was reversed by mutation in CULLIN1 (CUL1), suggesting a role for SKP, CUL1, F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in TCP14 proteolysis. TCP14 proteolysis in spy-3 suppressed all TCP14 misexpression phenotypes, including the enhanced CK responses. The increased CK activity in TCP14/15-overexpressing flowers resulted from increased sensitivity to the hormone and not from higher CK levels. TCP15 overexpression enhanced the response of the CK-induced synthetic promoter pTCS to CK, suggesting that TCP14/15 affect early steps in CK signaling. We propose that posttranslational modification of TCP14/15 by SPY inhibits their proteolysis and that the accumulated proteins promote the activity of the CK phosphorelay cascade in developing Arabidopsis leaves and flowers. PMID:27208284

  16. Relieving DELLA Repression of Stem Elongation and Flowering, Evidence for a Proteolysis Independent Mechanism for GA signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GA stimulates germination, stem elongation, and flowering by lifting DELLA protein repression of these responses via both proteolysis dependent and independent pathways. There are five members of the DELLA protein family in Arabidopsis with partially overlapping functions. GA biosynthesis lifts DELL...

  17. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs. PMID:27458082

  18. Regulation of development and cancer by the R2B subfamily of RPTPs and the implications of proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sonya E.L.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

    2014-01-01

    The initial cloning of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) was met with excitement because of their hypothesized function in counterbalancing receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. In recent years, members of a subfamily of RPTPs with homophilic cell-cell adhesion capabilities, known as the R2B subfamily, have been shown to have functions beyond that of counteracting tyrosine kinase activity, by independently influencing cell signaling in their own right and by regulating cell adhesion. The R2B subfamily is composed of four members: PTPmu (PTPRM), PTPrho (PTPRT), PTPkappa (PTPRK), and PCP-2 (PTPRU). The effects of this small subfamily of RPTPs is far reaching, influencing several developmental processes and cancer. In fact, R2B RPTPs are predicted to be tumor suppressors and are among the most frequently mutated protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in cancer. Confounding these conclusions are more recent studies suggesting that proteolysis of the full-length R2B RPTPs result in oncogenic extracellular and intracellular protein fragments. This review discusses the current knowledge of the role of R2B RPTPs in development and cancer, with special detail given to the mechanisms and implications that proteolysis has on R2B RPTP function. We also touch upon the concept of exploiting R2B proteolysis to develop cancer imaging tools, and consider the effects of R2B proteolysis on axon guidance, perineural invasion and collective cell migration. PMID:25223585

  19. Tetraspanin Proteins Regulate Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase-dependent Pericellular Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Marc A.; Xu, Daosong

    2009-01-01

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) supports tumor cell invasion through extracellular matrix barriers containing fibrin, collagen, fibronectin, and other proteins. Here, we show that simultaneous knockdown of two or three members of the tetraspanin family (CD9, CD81, and TSPAN12) markedly decreases MT1-MMP proteolytic functions in cancer cells. Affected functions include fibronectin proteolysis, invasion and growth in three-dimensional fibrin and collagen gels, and MMP-2 activation. Tetraspanin proteins (CD9, CD81, and TSPAN2) selectively coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize with MT1-MMP. Although tetraspanins do not affect the initial biosynthesis of MT1-MMP, they do protect the newly synthesized protein from lysosomal degradation and support its delivery to the cell surface. Interfering with MT1-MMP-tetraspanin collaboration may be a useful therapeutic approach to limit cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:19211836

  20. Effect of Flavourzyme on proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Qiao, Yan; Zou, Yufeng; Huang, Ming; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Flavourzyme, at levels of 0 (control) 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 LAPU/kg raw meat, on the proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage made at 50 °C for 48 h. Results showed that Flavourzyme addition in Chinese sausage accelerated protein degradation, which was reflected by the increase of non-protein nitrogen and appearance of new protein bands in both water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins. By adding Flavourzyme, texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters decreased significantly, and aroma, taste and texture scores were enhanced, respectively. The best sensory attributes were obtained at 8 and 12 LAPU/kg Flavourzyme dose. Besides, Flavourzyme addition enhanced antioxidant capacity, lowered water activity and TBARS values of Chinese sausage. Therefore, moderate Flavourzyme addition is a novel method with great potential to improve eating properties and storage stability of Chinese sausage. PMID:24831062

  1. The Use of in situ Proteolysis in the Crystallization of Murine CstF-77

    SciTech Connect

    Bai,Y.; Auperin, T.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    The cleavage-stimulation factor (CstF) is required for the cleavage of the 3'-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structure determination of the 77 kDa subunit of the murine CstF complex (CstF-77), it was serendipitously discovered that a solution infected by a fungus was crucial for the crystallization of this protein. CstF-77 was partially proteolyzed during crystallization; this was very likely to have been catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. It was found that the fungal protease can be replaced by subtilisin and this in situ proteolysis protocol produced crystals of sufficient size for structural studies. After an extensive search, it was found that 55% glucose can be used as a cryoprotectant while maintaining the diffraction quality of the crystals; most other commonly used cryoprotectants were detrimental to the diffraction quality.

  2. Temporally Variable Selection on Proteolysis-Related Reproductive Tract Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex; Turchin, Michael; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the processes underlying rapid reproductive protein evolution, we have conducted a population genetic survey of 44 reproductive tract–expressed proteases, protease inhibitors, and targets of proteolysis in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Our findings suggest that positive selection on this group of genes is temporally heterogeneous, with different patterns of selection inferred using tests sensitive at different time scales. Such variation in the strength and targets of selection through time may be expected under models of sexual conflict and/or host–pathogen interaction. Moreover, available functional information concerning the genes that show evidence of selection suggests that both sexual selection and immune processes have been important in the evolutionary history of this group of molecules. PMID:21940639

  3. The effect of proteolysis on the induction of cell death by monomeric alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Brück, Wolfram M; Gibson, Glenn R; Brück, Thomas B

    2014-02-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-la) is a major whey protein found in milk. Previous data suggested that α-la has antiproliferative effects in human adenocarcinoma cell lines such as Caco-2 and HT-29. However, the cell death inducing α-la was not a naturally occurring monomer but either a multimeric variant or an α-la:oleic acid complex (HAMLET/BAMLET). Proteolysis showed that both human and bovine α-la are susceptible to digestion. ELISA assays assessing cell death with the native undigested α-la fractions showed that undigested protein fractions did have a significant cell death effect on CaCo-2 cells. Bovine α-la was also more effective than human α-la. A reduction in activity corresponded with lower concentrations of the protein and partial digestion and fragmentation of the protein using trypsin and pepsin. This suggests that the tertiary structure is vital for the apoptotic effect. PMID:24139905

  4. MBTPS2 mutations cause defective regulated intramembrane proteolysis in X-linked osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Uschi; Cabral, Wayne A; Ausavarat, Surasawadee; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Ludin, Katja; Barnes, Aileen M; Yeetong, Patra; Weis, Maryann; Krabichler, Birgit; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Makareeva, Elena N; Janecke, Andreas R; Leikin, Sergey; Röthlisberger, Benno; Rohrbach, Marianne; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Eyre, David R; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Giunta, Cecilia; Marini, Joan C; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related bone dysplasia. We identified an X-linked recessive form of OI caused by defects in MBTPS2, which encodes site-2 metalloprotease (S2P). MBTPS2 missense mutations in two independent kindreds with moderate/severe OI cause substitutions at highly conserved S2P residues. Mutant S2P has normal stability, but impaired functioning in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of OASIS, ATF6 and SREBP transcription factors, consistent with decreased proband secretion of type I collagen. Further, hydroxylation of the collagen lysine residue (K87) critical for crosslinking is reduced in proband bone tissue, consistent with decreased lysyl hydroxylase 1 in proband osteoblasts. Reduced collagen crosslinks presumptively undermine bone strength. Also, proband osteoblasts have broadly defective differentiation. These mutations provide evidence that RIP plays a fundamental role in normal bone development. PMID:27380894

  5. Mechanisms of accelerated proteolysis in rat soleus muscle atrophy induced by unweighting or denervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Kirby, Christopher; Rosenberg, Sara; Tome, Margaret; Chase, Peter

    1991-01-01

    A hypothesis proposed by Tischler and coworkers (Henriksen et al., 1986; Tischler et al., 1990) concerning the mechanisms of atrophy induced by unweighting or denervation was tested using rat soleus muscle from animals subjected to hindlimb suspension and denervation of muscles. The procedure included (1) measuring protein degradation in isolated muscles and testing the effects of lysosome inhibitors, (2) analyzing the lysosome permeability and autophagocytosis, (3) testing the effects of altering calcium-dependent proteolysis, and (4) evaluating in vivo the effects of various agents to determine the physiological significance of the hypothesis. The results obtained suggest that there are major differences between the mechanisms of atrophies caused by unweighting and denervation, though slower protein synthesis is an important feature common for both.

  6. Cross-system excision of chaperone-mediated proteolysis in chaperone-assisted recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Villaverde, Antonio; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2010-01-01

    Main Escherichia coli cytosolic chaperones such as DnaK are key components of the control quality network designed to minimize the prevalence of polypeptides with aberrant conformations. This is achieved by both favoring refolding activities but also stimulating proteolytic degradation of folding reluctant species. This last activity is responsible for the decrease of the proteolytic stability of recombinant proteins when co-produced along with DnaK, where an increase in solubility might be associated to a decrease in protein yield. However, when DnaK and its co-chaperone DnaJ are co-produced in cultured insect cells or whole insect larvae (and expectedly, in other heterologous hosts), only positive, folding-related effects of these chaperones are observed, in absence of proteolysis-mediated reduction of recombinant protein yield. PMID:21326941

  7. Making the cut: central roles of intramembrane proteolysis in pathogenic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE Proteolysis in cellular membranes to liberate effector domains from their transmembrane anchors is a well-studied regulatory mechanism in animal biology and disease. By contrast, the function of intramembrane proteases in unicellular organisms has received little attention. Recent progress has now established that intramembrane proteases execute pivotal roles in a range of pathogens, from regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis envelope composition, cholera toxin production, bacterial adherence and conjugation, to malaria parasite invasion, fungal virulence, immune evasion by parasitic amoebae and hepatitis C virus assembly. These advances raise the exciting possibility that intramembrane proteases may serve as targets for combating a wide range of infectious diseases. I focus on summarizing the advances, evaluating the limitations and highlighting the promise of this newly emerging field. PMID:19421188

  8. Acanthamoeba castellanii: proteins involved in actin dynamics, glycolysis, and proteolysis are regulated during encystation.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Sabrina; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Guillot, Alain; Héchard, Yann

    2009-09-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a pathogenic free-living amoeba. Cyst forms are particularly important in their pathogenicity, as they are more resistant to treatments and might protect pathogenic intracellular bacteria. However, encystation is poorly understood at the molecular level and global changes at the protein level have not been completely described. In this study, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to compare protein expression in trophozoite and cyst forms. Four proteins, specifically expressed in trophozoites, and four proteins, specifically expressed in cysts, were identified. Two proteins, enolase and fructose bisphosphate aldolase, are involved in the glycolytic pathway. Three proteins are likely actin-binding proteins, which is consistent with the dramatic morphological modifications of the cells during encystation. One protein belongs to the serine protease family and has been already linked to encystation in A. castellanii. In conclusion, this study found that the proteins whose expression was modified during encystation were likely involved in actin dynamics, glycolysis, and proteolysis. PMID:19523468

  9. MBTPS2 mutations cause defective regulated intramembrane proteolysis in X-linked osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Lindert, Uschi; Cabral, Wayne A.; Ausavarat, Surasawadee; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Ludin, Katja; Barnes, Aileen M.; Yeetong, Patra; Weis, Maryann; Krabichler, Birgit; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Makareeva, Elena N.; Janecke, Andreas R.; Leikin, Sergey; Röthlisberger, Benno; Rohrbach, Marianne; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Eyre, David R.; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Giunta, Cecilia; Marini, Joan C.; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related bone dysplasia. We identified an X-linked recessive form of OI caused by defects in MBTPS2, which encodes site-2 metalloprotease (S2P). MBTPS2 missense mutations in two independent kindreds with moderate/severe OI cause substitutions at highly conserved S2P residues. Mutant S2P has normal stability, but impaired functioning in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of OASIS, ATF6 and SREBP transcription factors, consistent with decreased proband secretion of type I collagen. Further, hydroxylation of the collagen lysine residue (K87) critical for crosslinking is reduced in proband bone tissue, consistent with decreased lysyl hydroxylase 1 in proband osteoblasts. Reduced collagen crosslinks presumptively undermine bone strength. Also, proband osteoblasts have broadly defective differentiation. These mutations provide evidence that RIP plays a fundamental role in normal bone development. PMID:27380894

  10. Intramembrane proteolysis promotes trafficking of hepatitis C virus core protein to lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, John; Lemberg, Marius K; Hope, Graham; Martoglio, Bruno

    2002-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative pathogen associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The virus has a positive-sense RNA genome encoding a single polyprotein with the virion components located in the N-terminal portion. During biosynthesis of the polyprotein, an internal signal sequence between the core protein and the envelope protein E1 targets the nascent polypeptide to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for translocation of E1 into the ER. Following membrane insertion, the signal sequence is cleaved from E1 by signal peptidase. Here we provide evidence that after cleavage by signal peptidase, the signal peptide is further processed by the intramembrane-cleaving protease SPP that promotes the release of core protein from the ER membrane. Core protein is then free for subsequent trafficking to lipid droplets. This study represents an example of a potential role for intramembrane proteolysis in the maturation of a viral protein. PMID:12145199

  11. Lipolysis, proteolysis, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of different types of Spanish ostrich salchichon.

    PubMed

    Soriano, A; Garcı A Ruiz, A; Gómez, E; Pardo, R; Galán, F A; González Viñas, M A

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three different types of salchichon: made of ostrich meat, made of ostrich meat and lean pork, and made of ostrich meat and pork belly, from physicochemical and sensory viewpoints. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis and proteolysis produced during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids, the degree of rancidity, the non-protein, water-soluble and aminoacidic nitrogen content were determined. In addition, the composition of the fermented sausages (pH, a(w), moisture, fat, protein, ash, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite content) was analysed. From a sensory viewpoint, the organoleptic characteristics of the different types of salchichon were studied using free choice profiling. The fermented sausages had varying characteristics depending on their formulation (ostrich meat or ostrich meat plus pork) and all of them were well accepted by the panelists. This study helps characterise the different types of ostrich salchichon made in Spain. PMID:22064031

  12. Metabolic Control of Intracellular Proteolysis in Growing and Resting Cells of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Martin J.

    1966-01-01

    Pine, Martin J. (Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, N.Y.). Metabolic control of intracellular proteolysis in growing and resting cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:847–850. 1966.—Protein breakdown was examined in Escherichia coli under varying conditions of growth and during nutritional deprivation. Optimal breakdown rates, estimated over short time periods of protein synthesis and decay, are invariant and unrepressible by any condition of growth or starvation. A more important aspect of metabolic control is manifest in the selection imposed by the physiological state of the cell for breakdown of limited populations of proteins. During the progress of growth, one-half to three-quarters of the protein susceptible in the resting state is progressively spared, and breakdown is continued in populations that are more selected and more frequently regenerated. PMID:5333026

  13. Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis and Degradation of Murine Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule mEpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Matthias; Bobowski, Karolina D.; Hogl, Sebastian; Dislich, Bastian; Fukumori, Akio; Eggert, Carola; Mack, Brigitte; Kremling, Heidi; Sarrach, Sannia; Coscia, Fabian; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Steiner, Harald; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Gires, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-)stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM) is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at α-, β-, γ-, and ε-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble Aβ-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-β, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the α- and β-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF) are further processed to soluble Aβ-like fragments mEp-β and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the γ-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent γ-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:24009667

  14. Transcriptome analysis reveals that ClpXP proteolysis controls key virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    The ClpXP proteolytic complex is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as expression of virulence properties. However, with the exception of the Spx global regulator, the molecular mechanisms by which the ClpXP complex exerts its influence in Streptococcus mutans are not well understood. Here, microarray analysis was used to provide novel insights into the scope of ClpXP proteolysis in S. mutans. In a ΔclpP strain, 288 genes showed significant changes in relative transcript amounts (P≤0.001, twofold cut-off) as compared with the parent. Similarly, 242 genes were differentially expressed by a ΔclpX strain, 113 (47 %) of which also appeared in the ΔclpP microarrays. Several genes associated with cell growth were downregulated in both mutants, consistent with the slow-growth phenotype of the Δclp strains. Among the upregulated genes were those encoding enzymes required for the biosynthesis of intracellular polysaccharides (glg genes) and malolactic fermentation (mle genes). Enhanced expression of glg and mle genes in ΔclpP and ΔclpX strains correlated with increased storage of intracellular polysaccharide and enhanced malolactic fermentation activity, respectively. Expression of several genes known or predicted to be involved in competence and mutacin production was downregulated in the Δclp strains. Follow-up transformation efficiency and deferred antagonism assays validated the microarray data by showing that competence and mutacin production were dramatically impaired in the Δclp strains. Collectively, our results reveal the broad scope of ClpXP regulation in S. mutans homeostasis and identify several virulence-related traits that are influenced by ClpXP proteolysis. PMID:21816882

  15. Ubiquitin-Like Proteasome System Represents a Eukaryotic-Like Pathway for Targeted Proteolysis in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xian; Liu, Rui; Sanchez, Iona; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.; Cao, Shiyun; Chen, Sixue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The molecular mechanisms of targeted proteolysis in archaea are poorly understood, yet they may have deep evolutionary roots shared with the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate in archaea that TBP2, a TATA-binding protein (TBP) modified by ubiquitin-like isopeptide bonds, is phosphorylated and targeted for degradation by proteasomes. Rapid turnover of TBP2 required the functions of UbaA (the E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog of archaea), AAA ATPases (Cdc48/p97 and Rpt types), a type 2 JAB1/MPN/MOV34 metalloenzyme (JAMM/MPN+) homolog (JAMM2), and 20S proteasomes. The ubiquitin-like protein modifier small archaeal modifier protein 2 (SAMP2) stimulated the degradation of TBP2, but SAMP2 itself was not degraded. Analysis of the TBP2 fractions that were not modified by ubiquitin-like linkages revealed that TBP2 had multiple N termini, including Met1-Ser2, Ser2, and Met1-Ser2(p) [where (p) represents phosphorylation]. The evidence suggested that the Met1-Ser2(p) form accumulated in cells that were unable to degrade TBP2. We propose a model in archaea in which the attachment of ubiquitin-like tags can target proteins for degradation by proteasomes and be controlled by N-terminal degrons. In support of a proteolytic mechanism that is energy dependent and recycles the ubiquitin-like protein tags, we find that a network of AAA ATPases and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease are required, in addition to 20S proteasomes, for controlled intracellular proteolysis. PMID:27190215

  16. The Improvement of The Endogenous Antioxidant Property of Stone Fish (Actinopyga lecanora) Tissue Using Enzymatic Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-01-01

    The stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) ethanolic and methanolic tissue extracts were investigated for total phenolic contents (TPCs) as well as antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Both extracts showed low amount of phenolics (20.33 to 17.03 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried sample) and moderate antioxidant activity (39% to 34%  DPPH• radical scavenging activity and 23.95 to 22.30 mmol/100 mL FeSO4 FRAP value). Enzymatic proteolysis was carried out in order to improve the antioxidant activity using six commercially available proteases under their optimum conditions. The results revealed that the highest increase in antioxidant activity up to 85% was obtained for papain-generated proteolysate, followed by alcalase (77%), trypsin (75%), pepsin (68%), bromelain (68%), and flavourzyme (50%) as measured by DPPH• radical scavenging activity, whilst for the FRAP value, the highest increase in the antioxidant activity up to 39.2 mmol/100 mL FeSO4 was obtained for alcalase-generated proteolysate, followed by papain (29.5 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), trypsin (23.2 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), flavourzyme (24.7 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), bromelain (22.9 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), and pepsin (20.8 mmol/100 mL FeSO4). It is obvious that proteolysis of stone fish tissue by proteolytic enzymes can considerably enhance its antioxidant activity. PMID:23586061

  17. Lysosomal proteolysis inhibition selectively disrupts axonal transport of degradative organelles and causes an Alzheimer’s-like axonal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyeon; Sato, Yutaka; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    In the hallmark neuritic dystrophy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), autophagic vacuoles containing incompletely digested proteins selectively accumulate in focal axonal swellings, reflecting defects in both axonal transport and autophagy. Here, we investigated the possibility that impaired lysosomal proteolysis could be a basis for both defects leading to neuritic dystrophy. In living primary mouse cortical neurons expressing fluorescence-tagged markers, LC3-positive autophagosomes forming in axons rapidly acquired the endo-lysosomal markers, Rab7 and LAMP1, and underwent exclusive retrograde movement. Proteolytic clearance of these transported autophagic vacuoles was initiated upon fusion with bi-directionally moving lysosomes that increase in number at more proximal axon levels and in the perikaryon. Disrupting lysosomal proteolysis by either inhibiting cathepsins directly or by suppressing lysosomal acidification slowed the axonal transport of autolysosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes and caused their selective accumulation within dystrophic axonal swellings. Mitochondria and other organelles lacking cathepsins moved normally under these conditions, indicating that the general functioning of the axonal transport system was preserved. Dystrophic swellings induced by lysosomal proteolysis inhibition resembled in composition those in several mouse models of AD and also acquired other AD-like features, including immunopositivity for ubiquitin, APP, and neurofilament protein hyperphosphorylation. Restoration of lysosomal proteolysis reversed the affected movements of proteolytic Rab7 vesicles, which in turn, largely cleared autophagic substrates and reversed the axonal dystrophy. These studies identify the AD-associated defects in neuronal lysosomal proteolysis as a possible basis for the selective transport abnormalities and highly characteristic pattern of neuritic dystrophy associated with AD. PMID:21613495

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Proteolysis of the Extracellular Loop of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels and Potential Alterations in Pain Signaling.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Albert G; Kumar, Sonu; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Cieplak, Piotr; Hullugundi, Swathi; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-09-18

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) or congenital analgesia is a rare monogenic hereditary condition. This disorder is characterized by the inability to perceive any form of pain. Nonsense mutations in Nav.1.7, the main pain signaling voltage-gated sodium channel, lead to its truncations and, consequently, to the inactivation of the channel functionality. However, a non-truncating homozygously inherited missense mutation in a Bedouin family with CIP (Nav1.7-R907Q) has also been reported. Based on our currently acquired in-depth knowledge of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage preferences, we developed the specialized software that predicts the presence of the MMP cleavage sites in the peptide sequences. According to our in silico predictions, the peptide sequence of the exposed extracellular unstructured region linking the S5-S6 transmembrane segments in the DII domain of the human Nav1.7 sodium channel is highly sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis. Intriguingly, the CIP R907Q mutation overlaps with the predicted MMP-9 cleavage site sequence. Using MMP-9 proteolysis of the wild-type, CIP, and control peptides followed by mass spectrometry of the digests, we demonstrated that the mutant sequence is severalfold more sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis relative to the wild type. Because of the substantial level of sequence homology among sodium channels, our data also implicate MMP proteolysis in regulating the cell surface levels of the Nav1.7, Nav1.6, and Nav1.8 channels, but not Nav1.9. It is likely that the aberrantly accelerated MMP-9 proteolysis during neurogenesis is a biochemical rational for the functional inactivation in Nav1.7 and that the enhanced cleavage of the Nav1.7-R907Q mutant is a cause of CIP in the Bedouin family. PMID:26283785

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Cleavage Site in the Proteolysis of Orf Virus 086 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoping; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Jiafeng; Chen, Daxiang; Li, Wei; Li, Ming; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    The orf virus (ORFV) is among the parapoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family, but little is known about the proteolytic pathways of ORFV encoding proteins. By contrast, the proteolysis mechanism of the vaccinia virus (VV) has been extensively explored. Vaccinia virus core protein P4a undergoes a proteolytic process that takes place at a conserved cleavage site Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid) and participates in virus assembly. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that an ORFV encoding protein, ORFV086, has a similar structure to the vaccinia virus P4a core protein. In this study, we focus on the kinetic analysis and proteolysis mechanism of ORFV086. We found, via kinetic analysis, that ORFV086 is a late gene that starts to express at 8 h post infection at mRNA level and 12–24 h post infection at the protein level. The ORFV086 precursor and a 21 kDa fragment can be observed in mature ORFV virions. The same bands were detected at only 3 h post infection, suggesting that both the ORFV086 precursor and the 21 kDa fragment are viral structural proteins. ORFV086 was cleaved from 12 to 24 h post infection. The cleavage took place at different sites, resulting in seven bands with differing molecular weights. Sequence alignment revealed that five putative cleavage sites were predicted at C-terminal and internal regions of ORFV086. To investigate whether those cleavage sites are involved in proteolytic processing, full length and several deletion mutant ORFV086 recombinant proteins were expressed and probed. The GGS site that produced a 21 kDa cleavage fragment was confirmed by identification of N/C-terminal FLAG epitope recombinant proteins, site-directed mutagenesis and pulse-chase analysis. Interestingly, chase results demonstrated that, at late times, ORFV086 is partially cleaved. Taken together, we concluded that GGS is a cleavage site in ORFV086 and produces a 21 kDa fragment post infection. Both ORFV086 precursor and the 21 kDa fragment are structural proteins of

  20. Correlation between the rate of proteolysis of mitochondrial translation products and fluidity of the mitochondrial inner membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Alteration of the rate of proteolysis under glucose repression.

    PubMed Central

    Luzikov, V N; Novikova, L A; Tikhonov, A N; Zubatov, A S

    1983-01-01

    Our previous results [Kalnov, Novikova, Zubatov & Luzikov (1979) FEBS Lett. 101, 355-358; Biochem. J. 182, 195-202] suggested that in yeast the mitochondrial translation products localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane are rapidly broken down by a proteolytic system inherent in the membrane. In the present work, it is demonstrated that, on glucose repression in undividing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is no proteolysis of the mitochondrial translation products. This effect is not likely to be associated with lower activity of the proteolytic system of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Nor is the cessation of proteolysis due to qualitative changes in the composition of mitochondrial translation products. What repression does cause is a considerable alteration in the physical state (i.e. structure of the lipid bilayer) of the mitochondrial inner membrane; this was established by experiments involving lipid-soluble spin probes. The conclusion is reached that the rate of proteolysis of mitochondrial translation products in the mitochondrial inner membrane depends on the physical state of the membrane, which in its turn is controlled by the relative content of unsaturated fatty acid chains in the mitochondrial phospholipids. PMID:6354177

  1. A serendipitous discovery that in situ proteolysis is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Corey R.; Gebauer, Damara; Zhang, Hailong; Tong, Liang

    2006-10-01

    Proteolysis in situ by a protease secreted by a contaminating fungus is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100. The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3′-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant.

  2. Effects of in vitro ozone treatment on proteolysis of purified rubisco from two hybrid poplar clones. [Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, L.G.; Pell, E.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Plants exposed to ozone (O{sub 3}) exhibited symptoms of premature senescence, including early decline in quantity of rubisco. O{sub 3}-induced oxidation may cause changes in protein conformation of rubisco, resulting in enhanced proteolysis. To test this hypothesis, rubisco was purified from two hybrid clones of Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa, clones 388 and 245, and treated in vitro with O{sub 3} or air. Rubisco was then challenged with bromelain, papain, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, or endoproteinase Glu-C and percent degradation measured by SDS-PAGE and densitometric scanning of the gels. Degree of rubisco sensitivity to oxidation may be related to available sulfhydryl (SH) groups on the protein. The number of SH groups in native and denatured rubisco was measured for purified rubisco of both clones by DTNB titration method. The relationship between sensitivity to proteolysis and number and availability of SH groups is discussed.

  3. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exhibit Increased Levels of Lysosomal Proteolysis as Compared to Other Human Dendritic Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCurley, Nathanael; Mellman, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Background Fine control of lysosomal degradation for limited processing of internalized antigens is a hallmark of professional antigen presenting cells. Previous work in mice has shown that dendritic cells (DCs) contain lysosomes with remarkably low protease content. Combined with the ability to modulate lysosomal pH during phagocytosis and maturation, murine DCs enhance their production of class II MHC-peptide complexes for presentation to T cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extend these findings to human DCs and distinguish between different subsets of DCs based on their ability to preserve internalized antigen. Whereas DCs derived in vitro from CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells or isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors are protease poor, DCs derived in vitro from monocytes (MDDCs) are more similar to macrophages (MΦs) in protease content. Unlike other DCs, MDDCs also fail to reduce their intralysosomal pH in response to maturation stimuli. Indeed, functional characterization of lysosomal proteolysis indicates that MDDCs are comparable to MΦs in the rapid degradation of antigen while other human DC subtypes are attenuated in this capacity. Conclusions/Significance Human DCs are comparable to murine DCs in exhibiting a markedly reduced level of lysosomal proteolysis. However, as an important exception to this, human MDDCs stand apart from all other DCs by a heightened capacity for proteolysis that resembles that of MΦs. Thus, caution should be exercised when using human MDDCs as a model for DC function and cell biology. PMID:20689855

  4. Structural and functional studies on the sodium- and chloride-coupled. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter: Deglycosylation and limited proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, B.I.; Keynan, S.; Radian, R. )

    1989-05-02

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled {gamma}-aminobutyric transporter, an 80-kDa glycoprotein, has been subjected to deglycosylation and limited proteolysis. The treatment of the 80-kDa band with endoglycosidase F results in its disappearance and reveals the presence of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa, which is devoid of {sup 125}I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is nevertheless recognized by the antibodies against the 80-kDa band. Upon limited proteolysis with papain or Pronase, the 80-kDa band was degraded to one with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa. This polypeptide still contains the {sup 125}I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is not recognized by the antibody. The effect of proteolysis on function is examined. The transporter was purified by use of all steps except that for the lectin chromatography. After papain treatment and lectin chromatography, {gamma}-aminobutyric transport activity was eluted with N-acetylglucosamine. The characteristics of transport were the same as those of the pure transporter, but the preparation contained instead of the 80-kDa polypeptide two fragments of about 66 and 60 kDa. The ability of the anti-80-kDa antibody to recognize these fragments was relatively low. The observations indicate that the transporter contains exposed domains which are not important for function.

  5. DNA Stimulates ATP-Dependent Proteolysis and Protein-Dependent ATPase Activity of Protease La from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chin Ha; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    1982-02-01

    The product of the lon gene in Escherichia coli is an ATP-dependent protease, protease La, that also binds strongly to DNA. Addition of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA to the protease in the presence of ATP was found to stimulate the hydrolysis of casein or globin 2- to 7-fold, depending on the DNA concentration. Native DNA from several sources (plasmid pBR322, phage T7, or calf thymus) had similar effects, but after denaturation the DNA was 20-100% more effective than the native form. Although poly(rA), globin mRNA, and various tRNAs did not stimulate proteolysis, poly(rC) and poly(rU) were effective. Poly(dT) was stimulatory but (dT)10 was not. In the presence of DNA as in its absence, proteolysis required concomitant ATP hydrolysis, and the addition of DNA also enhanced ATP hydrolysis by protease La 2-fold, but only in the presence of casein. At much higher concentrations, DNA inhibited proteolysis as well as ATP cleavage. Thus, association of this enzyme with DNA may regulate the degradation of cell proteins in vivo.

  6. A comparison of the folding characteristics of free and ribosome-tethered polypeptide chains using limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Khadijeh; Reuther, Julia; Deuerling, Elke; Radford, Sheena E; Ashcroft, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of protein folding are commonly studied in vitro by denaturing/renaturing intact protein sequences. How these folding mechanisms relate to de novo folding that occurs as the nascent polypeptide emerges from the ribosome is much less well understood. Here, we have employed limited proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry analyses to compare directly free and ribosome-tethered polypeptide chains of the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and its unfolded variant, SH3-m10. The disordered variant was found to undergo faster proteolysis than SH3. Furthermore, the trypsin cleavage patterns observed show minor, but significant, differences for the free and ribosome-bound nascent chains, with significantly fewer tryptic peptides detected in the presence of ribosome. The results highlight the utility of limited proteolysis coupled with mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of these complex systems, and pave the way for detailed future analyses by combining this technique with chemical labeling methods (for example, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, photochemical oxidation) to analyze protein folding in real time, including in the presence of additional ribosome-associated factors. PMID:25970093

  7. Limited proteolysis of myoglobin opens channel in ferrochelatase-globin complex for iron to zinc transmetallation.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Marcella O; Grossi, Alberto B; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Borges, Julio C; Cardoso, Daniel R; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant ferrochelatase (BsFECH) from Bacillus subtilis expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was found by UV-visible spectroscopy to bind the model substrate tetraphenylporphyrin-sulfonate, TPPS, with Ka=3.8 10(5)mol/L in aqueous phosphate buffer pH 5.7 at 30°C, and to interact with metmyoglobin with Ka=1.07±0.13 10(5)mol/L at 30°C. The iron/zinc exchange in myoglobin occurring during maturation of Parma hams seems to depend on such substrate binding to BsFECH and was facilitated by limited pepsin proteolysis of myoglobin to open a reaction channel for metal exchange still with BsFECH associated to globin. BsFECH increased rate of zinc insertion in TPPS significantly and showed saturation kinetics with an apparent binding constant of Zn(II) to the [enzyme-TPPS] complex of 1.3 10(4)mol/L and a first-order rate constant of 6.6 10(-1)s(-1) for dissociation of the tertiary complex, a similar pattern was found for zinc/iron transmetallation in myoglobin. PMID:27211675

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinases are Modifiers of Huntingtin Proteolysis and Toxicity in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John P.; Holcomb, Jennifer; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; de Haro, Maria; Gafni, Juliette; Zhang, Ningzhe; Kim, Eugene; Sanhueza, Mario; Torcassi, Cameron; Kwak, Seung; Botas, Juan; Hughes, Robert E.; Ellerby, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Proteolytic cleavage of huntingtin (Htt) is known to be a key event in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease (HD). Our understanding of proteolytic processing of Htt has thus far focused on the cysteine protease families of caspases and calpains. Identifying critical protease families involved in Htt proteolysis and toxicity using an unbiased approach has not been reported. To accomplish this, we designed a high-throughput western blot-based screen to examine the generation of the smallest N-terminal polyglutamine-containing Htt fragment. Using this approach, we screened a set of 514 siRNAs targeting the repertoire of human protease genes. This screen identified 11 proteases that, when inhibited, reduced Htt fragment accumulation. Three of these belonged to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. One family member, MMP-10, directly cleaves Htt, and prevents cell death when knocked down in striatal Hdh111Q/111Q cells. Correspondingly, we found MMPs are activated in mouse models of HD, and loss of function of Drosophila homologs of MMPs and four other proteases suppress Htt-induced neuronal dysfunction in vivo. PMID:20670829

  9. Influence of curd heating on proteolysis and volatiles of Kashkaval cheese.

    PubMed

    Sulejmani, Erhan; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2016-11-15

    Kashkaval is the most popular hard cheese in Macedonia and other countries of Balkan peninsula. The aim of this research is to assess the differences of heat treatments effect (60, 70 and 90°C for 5min) in several biochemical and technological characteristics of Kashkaval cheese. Proteolysis was observed to take place at a faster rate in the Kashkaval cheeses made using the lower heat treatment. The residual enzyme activity of cheeses averaged 67.7, 43.7 and 8.4% for the cheeses heated at 60, 70 and 90°C, respectively. Acids and esters constituted the main chemical class of the cheeses during ripening (mean abundances of these were 57.1% and 26.8% w/w of total volatiles, respectively). The colour (L(∗)) and meltability values decreased significantly during ripening. In conclusion, powerful correlations were observed between extents of the heat treatment and levels of residual coagulant activity, breakdown of proteins and formation of volatiles. PMID:27283619

  10. Exposure of fibrinogen receptors in human platelets by surface proteolysis with elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Kornecki, E; Ehrlich, Y H; De Mars, D D; Lenox, R H

    1986-01-01

    Human platelets that were preincubated with porcine elastase aggregated spontaneously upon the addition of fibrinogen. Maximal aggregation to fibrinogen was observed with platelets pretreated with an elastase concentration of 111 micrograms/ml, and half-maximal aggregation occurred after treatment with 11 micrograms/ml elastase. Binding of radiolabeled fibrinogen to elastase-treated platelets was specific, saturable, and showed a single class of 48,400 +/- 9,697 fibrinogen-binding sites per platelet with a dissociation constant of 6.30 +/- 1.48 X 10(-7) M. ATP, apyrase, and the stimulators of platelet adenylate cyclase forskolin, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, and N6, 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not inhibit the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. EDTA completely blocked the initiation of aggregation and reversed the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa completely blocked the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Immunoprecipitates with these antibodies obtained from detergent extracts of surface-radiolabeled, intact, and elastase-treated platelets contained the glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. We conclude that surface proteolysis by low concentrations of elastase can expose fibrinogen-binding sites associated with GPIIb and GPIIIa on the platelet surface, resulting in spontaneous aggregation upon the addition of fibrinogen. These findings may be relevant to hemostatic changes observed in patients with increased levels of circulating elastase. Images PMID:3005363

  11. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins. PMID:25842331

  12. Role of ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis in nervous system disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ashok N.; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is now widely recognized as a molecular mechanism controlling myriad normal functions in the nervous system. Also, this pathway is intimately linked to many diseases and disorders of the brain. Among the diseases connected to the UPP are neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases. Perturbation in the UPP is also believed to play a causative role in mental disorders such as Angelman syndrome. The pathology of neurodegenerative diseases is characterized by abnormal deposition of insoluble protein aggregates or inclusion bodies within neurons. The ubiquitinated protein aggregates are believed to result from dysfunction of the UPP or from structural changes in the protein substrates which prevent their recognition and degradation by the UPP. An early effect of abnormal UPP in diseases of the nervous system is likely to be impairment of synaptic function. Here we discuss the UPP and its physiological roles in the nervous system and how alterations in the UPP relate to development of nervous system diseases. PMID:20674814

  13. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA.

    PubMed

    Leslie, David J; Heinen, Christian; Schramm, Frederic D; Thüring, Marietta; Aakre, Christopher D; Murray, Sean M; Laub, Michael T; Jonas, Kristina

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs. PMID:26134530

  14. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Frederic D.; Thüring, Marietta; Aakre, Christopher D.; Murray, Sean M.; Laub, Michael T.; Jonas, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs. PMID:26134530

  15. A unified mechanism for proteolysis and autocatalytic activation in the 20S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Huber, Eva M; Heinemeyer, Wolfgang; Li, Xia; Arendt, Cassandra S; Hochstrasser, Mark; Groll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of the 20S proteasome is tightly regulated. The N-terminal propeptides protecting the active-site threonines are autocatalytically released only on completion of assembly. However, the trigger for the self-activation and the reason for the strict conservation of threonine as the active site nucleophile remain enigmatic. Here we use mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography and biochemical assays to suggest that Lys33 initiates nucleophilic attack of the propeptide by deprotonating the Thr1 hydroxyl group and that both residues together with Asp17 are part of a catalytic triad. Substitution of Thr1 by Cys disrupts the interaction with Lys33 and inactivates the proteasome. Although a Thr1Ser mutant is active, it is less efficient compared with wild type because of the unfavourable orientation of Ser1 towards incoming substrates. This work provides insights into the basic mechanism of proteolysis and propeptide autolysis, as well as the evolutionary pressures that drove the proteasome to become a threonine protease. PMID:26964885

  16. A unified mechanism for proteolysis and autocatalytic activation in the 20S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Eva M.; Heinemeyer, Wolfgang; Li, Xia; Arendt, Cassandra S.; Hochstrasser, Mark; Groll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of the 20S proteasome is tightly regulated. The N-terminal propeptides protecting the active-site threonines are autocatalytically released only on completion of assembly. However, the trigger for the self-activation and the reason for the strict conservation of threonine as the active site nucleophile remain enigmatic. Here we use mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography and biochemical assays to suggest that Lys33 initiates nucleophilic attack of the propeptide by deprotonating the Thr1 hydroxyl group and that both residues together with Asp17 are part of a catalytic triad. Substitution of Thr1 by Cys disrupts the interaction with Lys33 and inactivates the proteasome. Although a Thr1Ser mutant is active, it is less efficient compared with wild type because of the unfavourable orientation of Ser1 towards incoming substrates. This work provides insights into the basic mechanism of proteolysis and propeptide autolysis, as well as the evolutionary pressures that drove the proteasome to become a threonine protease. PMID:26964885

  17. Identification of novel secreted proteases during extracellular proteolysis by dermatophytes at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Sriranganadane, Dev; Waridel, Patrice; Salamin, Karine; Feuermann, Marc; Mignon, Bernard; Staib, Peter; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Quadroni, Manfredo; Monod, Michel

    2011-11-01

    The dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi which are responsible for the great majority of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Among various potential virulence factors, their secreted proteolytic activity attracts a lot of attention. Most dermatophyte-secreted proteases which have so far been isolated in vitro are neutral or alkaline enzymes. However, inspection of the recently decoded dermatophyte genomes revealed many other hypothetical secreted proteases, in particular acidic proteases similar to those characterized in Aspergillus spp. The validation of such genome predictions instigated the present study on two dermatophyte species, Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae. Both fungi were found to grow well in a protein medium at acidic pH, accompanied by extracellular proteolysis. Shotgun MS analysis of secreted protein revealed fundamentally different protease profiles during fungal growth in acidic versus neutral pH conditions. Most notably, novel dermatophyte-secreted proteases were identified at acidic pH such as pepsins, sedolisins and acidic carboxypeptidases. Therefore, our results not only support genome predictions, but demonstrate for the first time the secretion of acidic proteases by dermatophytes. Our findings also suggest the existence of different pathways of protein degradation into amino acids and short peptides in these highly specialized pathogenic fungi. PMID:21919205

  18. Effect of proteolysis of low-density serum lipoproteins on their interaction with macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Karmanskii, I.M.; Kovaleva, G.G.; Viktorova, L.N.; Shpikiter, V.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously postulated, on the basis of changes observed in the structural stability of low-density lipoproteins during treatment with pepsin or aortic cathepsin, that enzymatic modifications may lead to potentiation of the atherogenic properties of the lipoproteins. They also reported that treatment of lipoproteins with trypsin causes an increase in their binding with aortic glycosaminoglycans and to increased degradation by fibroblasts of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia. Limited proteolysis of lipoproteins with pepsin facilitated their binding with fibronectin. In this paper the authors investigate the uptake and degradation of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages after their limited hydrolysis by pepsin, an analog of tissue cathepsin D. The lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of healthy blood donors by ultracentrifugation. Iodination of the proteins with I 125 was carried out by the iodine monochloride method. Uptake and retention of the labelled lipoprotein were measured with a gamma counter. The increased uptake of the proteins, partially hydrolized by pepsin, was accompanied by their more intense degradation by macrophages.

  19. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Gareth W.; Smith, Gina A.; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T.; Zachary, Ian C.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. PMID:27044325

  20. The role of limited proteolysis of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in thermoregulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.

    1982-01-01

    Cyclo (His-Pro) is a biologiclly active cyclic dipeptide derived from thyrotropin-releasing hormone by its limited proteolysis. We have developed a specific radioimmunoassay for this cyclic peptide and shown its presence throughout rat and monkey brains. The normal rat brain concentration of cyclo (His-Pro) ranged from 35-61 pmols/brain. The elution profiles of rat brain cyclo (His-Pro)-like immunoreactivity and synthetic radioactive cyclo (His-Pro) following gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography were similar. An analysis of the regional distribution of cyclo (His-Pro) and TRH in rat and monkey brains exhibited no apparent precursor-product relationship. Studies on the neuroanatomic sites for the thermoregulatory effects of cyclo (His-Pro) suggested that the neural loci responsible for cyclo (His-Pro)-induced hypothermia resides within POA/AHA. The endogenous levels of brain cyclo (His-Pro) were elevated when rats were made either hypothyroid by surgical thyroidectomy or forced to drink alcohol for six weeks. These studies demonstrate that cyclo (His-Pro) is present throughout the central nervous system in physiologically relevant concentrations which can be modified by appropriate physiological and pharamacological manipulations. These data in conjunction with earlier reports of multiple biological activities of exogenous cyclo (His-Pro), suggest that endogenous cyclo (His-Pro) is a biological active peptide and it may play a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role in the central nervous system.

  1. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T; Zachary, Ian C; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A-VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. PMID:27044325

  2. Calpain proteolysis of alpha II-spectrin in the normal adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Huh, G Y; Glantz, S B; Je, S; Morrow, J S; Kim, J H

    2001-12-01

    The proteolysis of alphaII-spectrin by calpain may be physiologically involved with synaptic remodeling, long-term potentiation, and memory formation. Calpain activation may also mediate neuronal apoptosis, responses to hypoxic insult, and excitotoxic injury. Surprisingly little is known of the activity of these calpain-mediated processes in the adult human brain. Using an antibody that specifically recognizes calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin, we have mapped the topographic distribution of the major alphaII-spectrin break-down product (alphaII-bdp1) in six adult brains examined post-mortem. All brains were from patients without evident neurological disease. Focally positive alphaII-bdp1 was consistently detected in the neuropil of the cortical gray matter, in occasional pyramidal neurons, and in rare reactive astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cerebellar Purkinje cells were more frequently, and more intensely, immunopositive. In all fields, staining was most intense in the soma and dendrites of neurons. There was no correlation of the frequency of positive cells with the postmortem interval or clinical condition. While these findings do not rigorously exclude contributions from postmortem calpain activation, they do suggest that a low-level of calpain processing of alphaII-spectrin is likely to be a constitutive process in the adult human brain. PMID:11720774

  3. Imbalanced Matriptase Pericellular Proteolysis Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Malignant B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Feng-Pai; Chen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Xianfeng F.; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Young, Ken H.; Gartenhaus, Ronald B.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Zuo, Annie H.; Barndt, Robert J.; Johnson, Michael; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-associated serine protease matriptase is widely expressed by epithelial/carcinoma cells in which its proteolytic activity is tightly controlled by the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI-1). We demonstrate that, although matriptase is not expressed in lymphoid hyperplasia, roughly half of the non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas analyzed express significant amounts of matriptase. Furthermore, a significant proportion of these tumors express matriptase in the absence of HAI-1. Aggressive Burkitt lymphoma was more likely than indolent follicular lymphoma to express matriptase alone (86% versus 36%). In the absence of significant HAI-1 expression, the lymphoma cells activate and shed active matriptase when the cells are stimulated with mildly acidic buffer or the hypoxia-mimicking agent, CoCl2. The shed active matriptase can initiate pericellular proteolytic cascades by activating urokinase-type plasminogen activator on the cell surface of monocytes, and it can activate prohepatocyte growth factor. In addition, matriptase knockdown suppressed proliferation and colony-forming ability of neoplastic B cells in culture and growth as tumor xenografts in mice. Furthermore, exogenous expression of HAI-1 significantly suppressed proliferation of neoplastic B cells. These studies suggest that dysregulated pericellular proteolysis as a result of unregulated matriptase expression with limited HAI-1 may contribute to the pathological characteristics of several human B-cell lymphomas through modulation of the tumor microenvironment and enhanced tumor growth. PMID:24070417

  4. Soyacystatin N inhibits proteolysis of wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and potentiates toxicity against cowpea weevil.

    PubMed

    Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    Genetic engineering may be used to introduce multiple insect resistance genes with different modes of action into crop plants. We explored the possible interactions of two differing gene products fed in the diet of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculates (F.), a stored grain pest. The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor soyacystatin N (scN) and alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) from wheat have defensive function against this coleopteran. When artificial seeds containing both scN and alpha(AI) were infested with eggs of C. maculatus, the delays in larval development were longer than was predicted by summing the developmental delays seen when larvae were fed a diet containing the individual proteins, indicating that the effects of scN and alpha(AI) are synergistic. Alpha(AI) was readily hydrolyzed when incubated with insect gut extract. This proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN, but not by Kunitz inhibitor (a serine protease inhibitor). Thus, degradation of alpha(AI) was due to proteolysis by insect digestive cysteine proteases. These data suggest that C. maculatus uses digestive enzymes not only to function in food protein digestion but also to defend the insects themselves by helping reduce the concentration of a toxic dietary protein. PMID:15666770

  5. Proteolysis in dry fermented sausages: The effect of selected exogenous proteases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, O; Fernandez, M; De Fernando, G D; de la Hoz, L; Ordoñez, J A

    1997-05-01

    The effect of three commercial proteases (pronase E from Streptomyces griseus, aspartyl proteinase from Aspergillus oryzae and papain) on protein breakdown and the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water soluble, non-protein, 5% phosphotungstic acid soluble, 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble and total volatile basic nitrogen contents increased during fermentation, stabilizing later until the end of ripening (26th day). Nitrogen values were always greater in the aspartyl proteinase added batch in comparison with the other protease added batches. Total free amino acid changes showed a similar pattern to those observed for the 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble nitrogen. The electrophoretic studies demonstrated that proteolysis of high molecular weight myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins was more prominent in protease added batches. It was especially intensive in papain one. The dominant amino acids at the end of ripening were similar in all batches. Tyramine and histamine increased throughout ripening. No significant differences in sensory properties were found between control and pronase E and papain added batches, but they were significantly different (p < 0.01) from the sausages containing aspartyl proteinase, due to an excessive softening. The effect of exogenous enzyme addition on the flavour potentiation of dry fermented sausage is discussed. PMID:22061850

  6. HEMERA Couples the Proteolysis and Transcriptional Activity of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs in Arabidopsis Photomorphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yongjian; Li, Meina; Pasoreck, Elise K.; Long, Lingyun; Shi, Yiting; Galvão, Rafaelo M.; Chou, Conrad L.; Wang, He; Sun, Amanda Y.; Zhang, Yiyin C.; Jiang, Anna; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes (phys) are red and far-red photoreceptors that control plant development and growth by promoting the proteolysis of a family of antagonistically acting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs). We have previously shown that the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 requires HEMERA (HMR). However, the biochemical function of HMR and the mechanism by which it mediates PIF degradation remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that HMR acts upstream of PIFs in regulating hypocotyl growth. Surprisingly, genome-wide analysis of HMR- and PIF-dependent genes reveals that HMR is also required for the transactivation of a subset of PIF direct-target genes. We show that HMR interacts with all PIFs. The HMR-PIF interaction is mediated mainly by HMR’s N-terminal half and PIFs’ conserved active-phytochrome B binding motif. In addition, HMR possesses an acidic nine-amino-acid transcriptional activation domain (9aaTAD) and a loss-of-function mutation in this 9aaTAD impairs the expression of PIF target genes and the destruction of PIF1 and PIF3. Together, these in vivo results support a regulatory mechanism for PIFs in which HMR is a transcriptional coactivator binding directly to PIFs and the 9aaTAD of HMR couples the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 with the transactivation of PIF target genes. PMID:25944101

  7. Study of proteolysis in river buffalo mozzarella cheese using a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Petrella, G; Pati, S; Gagliardi, R; Rizzuti, A; Mastrorilli, P; la Gatta, B; Di Luccia, A

    2015-11-01

    The guarantee of the origin and quality of raw material is essential for the protection and valorization of Campana buffalo mozzarella cheese. The risk of utilization of semifinished products and stored milk in substitution for fresh milk is increasing, due to the continuous desire to reduce production costs. A proteomics approach and electrophoresis survey of retail mozzarella cheeses indicated different rates of proteolysis in the production of dairy industries. The use of fresh milk and correct cheesemaking protocol yielded only γ-caseins, which are derived from β-casein by plasmin, and para-κ-casein, which is derived from κ-casein by chymosin. The detection of abnormal hydrolysis resulting in β- and αS1-casein fragments, identified by mass spectrometry, indicates the use of stored milk or stored and pressed curd, or the reuse of unsold mozzarella cheese, to produce mozzarella. The formation of γ-caseins and other fragments during a long storage of raw materials at room or refrigeration temperature was ascribed to plasmin (endogenous milk enzyme), whereas formation of αS1-casein fragments, mainly αS1-I(6P)- and αS1-I(7P)-casein during the storage of curd was ascribed to the action of chymosin (exogenous enzyme) from rennet. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and alkaline urea-PAGE permitted us to evaluate the freshness of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of buffalo mozzarella cheese and to reveal possible inappropriate preservation. PMID:26364106

  8. Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Mauro; Miriani, Matteo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption on the surface of sub-micrometric oil droplets resulted in significant changes in the tertiary structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein broadly used as a food ingredient and a major food allergen. The adsorbed protein had increased sensitivity to trypsin, and increased immunoreactivity towards specific monoclonal antibodies. In spite of the extensive tryptic breakdown of emulsion-bound BLG, some sequence stretches in BLG became trypsin-insensitive upon absorption of the protein on the fat droplets. As a consequence - at contrast with free BLG - proteolysis of emulsion-bound BLG did not decrease the immunoreactivity of the protein, and some of the large peptides generated by trypsinolysis of emulsion-bound BLG were still recognizable by specific monoclonal antibodies. Structural changes occurring in emulsion-bound BLG and their consequences are discussed in comparison with those occurring when the tertiary structure of BLG is modified by lipophilic salts, by urea, or upon interaction with solid hydrophobic surfaces. Such a comparison highlights the relevance of situation-specific structural modifications, that in turn may affect physiologically relevant features of the protein. PMID:27085639

  9. Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/IκB proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Márcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate IκB proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NFκB activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster IκB homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NFκB function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NFκB/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. PMID:23864715

  10. Effect of proteolysis on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Gänzle, Michael; Field, Catherine J; Wu, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    Ovomucin, accounting for ∼3.5% of egg white proteins, contains 2.6-7.4% of sialic acid; sialic acid is suggested to play important roles in host-recognition, cognition and memory development. However, ovomucin's limited water solubility might restrict its future applications. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of proteolysis of ovomucin on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates. Ovomucin extract was hydrolyzed by 14 proteases with yields and DHs ranging from 42.6% (flavourzyme) to 97.4% (protease N), and 2.4% (flavourzyme) to 46.3% (pronase), respectively. Ovomucin hydrolyzed by pronase and protex 26L showed molecular weight (Mw) distributions less than 40kDa while others larger than 200kDa. Allergenicity of ovomucin hydrolysates was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison to ovomucin extract. The content of sialic acid in hydrolysates ranged from 0.1% (protex 26L) to 3.7% (pronase). Ovomucin hydrolysates did not generally support growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in vitro. PMID:27374509

  11. Dietary L-Lysine Suppresses Autophagic Proteolysis and Stimulates Akt/mTOR Signaling in the Skeletal Muscle of Rats Fed a Low-Protein Diet.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonori; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2015-09-23

    Amino acids, especially L-leucine, regulate protein turnover in skeletal muscle and have attracted attention as a means of increasing muscle mass in people suffering from malnutrition, aging (sarcopenia), or a bedridden state. We previously showed that oral administration of L-lysine (Lys) by gavage suppressed proteolysis in skeletal muscles of fasted rats. However, the intake of Lys in the absence of other dietary components is unlikely in a non-experimental setting, and other dietary components may interfere with the suppressive effect of Lys on proteolysis. We supplemented Lys to a 10% casein diet and investigated the effect of Lys on proteolysis and autophagy, a major proteolytic system, in the skeletal muscle of rats. The rate of proteolysis was evaluated from 3-methylhisitidine (MeHis) released from isolated muscles, in plasma, and excreted in urine. Supplementing lysine with the 10% casein diet decreased the rate of proteolysis induced by intake of a low-protein diet. The upregulated autophagy activity [light chain 3 (LC3)-II/total LC3] caused by a low-protein diet was reduced, and the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was activated by Lys. Importantly, continuous feeding of a Lys-rich 10% casein diet for 15 days increased the masses of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Taken together, supplementation of Lys to a low-protein diet suppresses autophagic proteolysis through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and continuous feeding of a Lys-rich diet may increase skeletal muscle mass. PMID:26366928

  12. Hst3 is regulated by Mec1-dependent proteolysis and controls the S phase checkpoint and sister chromatid cohesion by deacetylating histone H3 at lysine 56.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, Safia; Newcomb, Benjamin; Kim, Jessica; Gatbonton, Tonibelle; Foss, Eric; Simon, Julian; Bedalov, Antonio

    2007-12-28

    The SIR2 homologues HST3 and HST4 have been implicated in maintenance of genome integrity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Hst3 has NAD-dependent histone deacetylase activity in vitro and that it functions during S phase to deacetylate the core domain of histone H3 at lysine 56 (H3K56). In response to genotoxic stress, Hst3 undergoes rapid Mec1-dependent phosphorylation and is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, thus providing a mechanism for the previously observed checkpoint-dependent accumulation of Ac-H3K56 at sites of DNA damage. Loss of Hst3-mediated regulation of H3K56 acetylation results in a defect in the S phase DNA damage checkpoint. The pathway that regulates H3K56 acetylation acts in parallel with the Rad9 pathway to transmit a DNA damage signal from Mec1 to Rad53. We also observe that loss of Hst3 function impairs sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). Both S phase checkpoint and SCC defects are phenocopied by H3K56 point mutants. Our findings demonstrate that Hst3-regulated H3K56 acetylation safeguards genome stability by controlling the S phase DNA damage response and promoting SCC. PMID:17977840

  13. In Situ Proteolysis for Crystallization of Membrane Bound Cytochrome P450 17A1 and 17A2 Proteins from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lei, Li; Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyze both steroid 17α-hydroxylation and 17α,20-lyase reactions. Fish P450 17A2 catalyzes only 17α-hydroxylation. Both enzymes are microsomal-type P450s, integral membrane proteins that bind to the membrane through their N-terminal hydrophobic segment, the signal anchor sequence. The presence of this N-terminal region renders expression of full-length proteins challenging or impossible. For some proteins, variable truncation of the signal anchor sequence precludes expression or results in poor expression levels. To crystallize P450 17A1 and 17A2 in order to gain insight into their different activities, we used an alternative N-terminal sequence to boost expression together with in situ proteolysis. Key features of our approach to identify crystallizable P450 fragments were the use of an N-terminal leader sequence, a screen composed of 12 proteases to establish optimal cleavage, variations of protease concentration in combination with an SDS-PAGE assay, and analysis of the resulting fragments using Edman sequencing. Described in this unit are protocols for vector preparation, expression, purification, and in situ proteolytic crystallization of two membrane-bound P450 proteins. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27038268

  14. SCF-FBXO31 E3 Ligase Targets DNA Replication Factor Cdt1 for Proteolysis in the G2 Phase of Cell Cycle to Prevent Re-replication*

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pegah; Jeffery, Jessie; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Schulz, Renèe B.; Callen, David F.; Kumar, Raman; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2014-01-01

    FBXO31 was originally identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene in breast, ovarian, hepatocellular, and prostate cancers. By screening a set of cell cycle-regulated proteins as potential FBXO31 interaction partners, we have now identified Cdt1 as a novel substrate. Cdt1 DNA replication licensing factor is part of the pre-replication complex and essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show that FBXO31 specifically interacts with Cdt1 and regulates its abundance by ubiquitylation leading to subsequent degradation. We also show that Cdt1 regulation by FBXO31 is limited to the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is independent of the pathways previously described for Cdt1 proteolysis in S and G2 phase. FBXO31 targeting of Cdt1 is mediated through the N terminus of Cdt1, a region previously shown to be responsible for its cell cycle regulation. Finally, we show that Cdt1 stabilization due to FBXO31 depletion results in re-replication. Our data present an additional pathway that contributes to the FBXO31 function as a tumor suppressor. PMID:24828503

  15. HtrA1 Proteolysis of ApoE In Vitro Is Allele Selective.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qian; Diedrich, Jolene K; Vaughan, Joan M; Donaldson, Cynthia J; Nunn, Michael F; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) belongs to a large class of proteins that solubilize lipids for physiological transport. Humans have three different APOE alleles, APOE ε2, APOE ε3, and APOE ε4, and genetic studies identified ApoE4 as the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). People who are homozygous for ApoE4 (i.e., ApoE4/E4) are an order of magnitude more likely to develop late-onset AD (LOAD) than ApoE3/E3 carriers. Several differences between ApoE3 and ApoE4 may contribute to AD including the observation that ApoE4 is degraded to a greater extent than ApoE3 in the human brain. Experiments with high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HtrA1), which is found in the nervous system, demonstrate that HtrA1 is an allele-selective ApoE-degrading enzyme that degrades ApoE4 more quickly than ApoE3. This activity is specific to HtrA1, as similar assays with HtrA2 showed minimal ApoE4 proteolysis and trypsin had no preference between ApoE4 and ApoE3. HtrA1 has also been reported to cleave the tau protein (Tau) and the amyloid protein precursor (APP) to hinder the formation of toxic amyloid deposits associated with AD. Competition assays with ApoE4, ApoE3, and Tau revealed that ApoE4 inhibits Tau degradation. Thus, the identification of ApoE4 as an in vitro HtrA1 substrate suggests a potential biochemical mechanism that links ApoE4 regulation of AD proteins such as Tau. PMID:27379525

  16. Carbohydrate binding and resistance to proteolysis control insecticidal activity of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II

    PubMed Central

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Shade, Richard E.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Salzman, Ron A.; Narasimhan, Meena; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Murdock, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia leaf lectin II (GSII), a plant defense protein against certain insects, consists of an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding large subunit with a small subunit having sequence homology to class III chitinases. Much of the insecticidal activity of GSII is attributable to the large lectin subunit, because bacterially expressed recombinant large subunit (rGSII) inhibited growth and development of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). Site-specific mutations were introduced into rGSII to generate proteins with altered GlcNAc binding, and the different rGSII proteins were evaluated for insecticidal activity when added to the diet of the cowpea bruchid. At pH 5.5, close to the physiological pH of the cowpea bruchid midgut lumen, rGSII recombinant proteins were categorized as having high (rGSII, rGSII-Y134F, and rGSII-N196D mutant proteins), low (rGSII-N136D), or no (rGSII-D88N, rGSII-Y134G, rGSII-Y134D, and rGSII-N136Q) GlcNAc-binding activity. Insecticidal activity of the recombinant proteins correlated with their GlcNAc-binding activity. Furthermore, insecticidal activity correlated with the resistance to proteolytic degradation by cowpea bruchid midgut extracts and with GlcNAc-specific binding to the insect digestive tract. Together, these results establish that insecticidal activity of GSII is functionally linked to carbohydrate binding, presumably to the midgut epithelium or the peritrophic matrix, and to biochemical stability of the protein to digestive proteolysis. PMID:9844026

  17. Oxidization without substrate unfolding triggers proteolysis of the peroxide-sensor, PerR.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Bo-Eun; Baker, Tania A

    2016-01-01

    Peroxide operon regulator (PerR) is a broadly conserved hydrogen peroxide sensor in bacteria, and oxidation of PerR at its regulatory metal-binding site is considered irreversible. Here, we tested whether this oxidation specifically targets PerR for proteolysis. We find that oxidizing conditions stimulate PerR degradation in vivo, and LonA is the principal AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protease that degrades PerR. Degradation of PerR by LonA is recapitulated in vitro, and biochemical dissection of this degradation reveals that the presence of regulatory metal and PerR-binding DNA dramatically extends the half-life of the protein. We identified a LonA-recognition site critical for oxidation-controlled PerR turnover. Key residues for LonA-interaction are exposed to solvent in PerR lacking metal, but are buried in the metal-bound form. Furthermore, one residue critical for Lon recognition is also essential for specific DNA-binding by PerR, thus explaining how both the metal and DNA ligands prevent PerR degradation. This ligand-controlled allosteric mechanism for protease recognition provides a compelling explanation for how the oxidation-induced conformational change in PerR triggers degradation. Interestingly, the critical residues recognized by LonA and exposed by oxidation do not function as a degron, because they are not sufficient to convert a nonsubstrate protein into a LonA substrate. Rather, these residues are a conformation-discriminator sequence, which must work together with other residues in PerR to evoke efficient degradation. This mechanism provides a useful example of how other proteins with only mild or localized oxidative damage can be targeted for degradation without the need for extensive oxidation-dependent protein denaturation. PMID:26677871

  18. Pharmacological strategies in lung cancer-induced cachexia: effects on muscle proteolysis, autophagy, structure, and weakness.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Fermoselle, Clara; Urtreger, Alejandro J; Mateu-Jimenez, Mercè; Diament, Miriam J; de Kier Joffé, Elisa D Bal; Sandri, Marco; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-11-01

    Cachexia is a relevant comorbid condition of chronic diseases including cancer. Inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, ubiquitin-proteasome system, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia. Currently available treatment is limited and data demonstrating effectiveness in in vivo models are lacking. Our objectives were to explore in respiratory and limb muscles of lung cancer (LC) cachectic mice whether proteasome, NF-κB, and MAPK inhibitors improve muscle mass and function loss through several molecular mechanisms. Body and muscle weights, limb muscle force, protein degradation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, signaling pathways, oxidative stress and inflammation, autophagy, contractile and functional proteins, myostatin and myogenin, and muscle structure were evaluated in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius of LC (LP07 adenocarcinoma) bearing cachectic mice (BALB/c), with and without concomitant treatment with NF-κB (sulfasalazine), MAPK (U0126), and proteasome (bortezomib) inhibitors. Compared to control animals, in both respiratory and limb muscles of LC cachectic mice: muscle proteolysis, ubiquitinated proteins, autophagy, myostatin, protein oxidation, FoxO-1, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, and muscle abnormalities were increased, while myosin, creatine kinase, myogenin, and slow- and fast-twitch muscle fiber size were decreased. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK, but not the proteasome system, induced in cancer cachectic animals, a substantial restoration of muscle mass and force through a decrease in muscle protein oxidation and catabolism, myostatin, and autophagy, together with a greater content of myogenin, and contractile and functional proteins. Attenuation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway effects on muscles is beneficial in cancer-induced cachexia. PMID:24615622

  19. Role of troponin I proteolysis in the pathogenesis of stunned myocardium.

    PubMed

    Gao, W D; Atar, D; Liu, Y; Perez, N G; Murphy, A M; Marban, E

    1997-03-01

    Myocardial stunning is characterized by decreased myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness. To investigate the molecular basis of stunned myocardium, we performed PAGE and Western immunoblot analysis of the contractile proteins. Isolated rat hearts were retrogradely perfused at 37 degrees C for either 50 minutes (control group) or for 10 minutes, followed by 20-minute global ischemia and 20-minute reperfusion (stunned group), or for 20-minute ischemia without reflow. Another group consisted of hearts subjected to 20-minute ischemia in which stunning was mitigated by 10-minute reperfusion with low Ca2+/low pH solution. Myocardial tissue samples subjected to PAGE revealed no obvious differences among groups. Western immunoblots for actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin T, myosin light chain-1, and myosin light chain-2 showed highly selective recognition of the appropriate full-length molecular weight bands in all groups. Troponin I (TnI) Western blots revealed an additional band (approximately 26 kD, compared with 32 kD for the full-length protein) in stunned myocardial samples only. In parallel experiments, skinned trabeculae were treated with calpain I for 20 minutes; Western blots showed a TnI degradation pattern similar to that observed in stunned myocardium. Such TnI degradation was prevented by calpastatin, a naturally occurring calpain inhibitor. The results show that (1) TnI is partially and selectively degraded in stunned myocardium; (2) this degradation could be prevented by low Ca2+/low pH reperfusion, which also prevented the contractile dysfunction of stunning; and (3) calpain I could similarly degrade TnI, supporting the idea that Ca(2+)-dependent myofilament proteolysis underlies myocardial stunning. PMID:9048660

  20. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  1. Role of Ca2+ in proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF)-induced atrophy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mirza, K A; Tisdale, M J

    2012-11-01

    Proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) induces muscle loss in cancer cachexia through a high affinity membrane bound receptor. This study investigates the mechanism by which the PIF receptor communicates to intracellular signalling pathways. C(2)C(12) murine myoblasts were used as a model using PIF purified from MAC16 tumours. Calcium imaging was determined using fura-4-acetoxymethyl ester (Fura-4-AM). PIF induced a rapid rise in Ca(2+)(i), which was completely attenuated by a anti-receptor antibody, or peptides representing 20 mers of the N-terminus of the PIF receptor. Other agents catabolic for skeletal muscle including angiotensin II (AngII) tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also induced a rise in Ca(2+)(i), but this was not attenuated by anti-PIF-receptor antibody. The rise in Ca(2+)(i) induced by PIF and AngII was completely attenuated by the Zn(2+) chelator D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-triphosphate, and this was reversed by administration of exogenous Zn(2+). The Ca(2+)(i) rise induced by PIF was independent of the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), and attenuated by the Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin, suggesting that the Ca(2+)(i) rise was due to release from intracellular stores. This rise in Ca(2+)(i) induced by PIF was attenuated by both the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and 2-APB, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Binding of the PIF to its receptor in skeletal muscle triggers a rise in Ca(2+)(i), which initiates a signalling cascade leading to a depression in protein synthesis, and an increase in protein degradation. PMID:22820507

  2. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation. PMID:27114461

  3. The selective biotin tagging and thermolysin proteolysis of chloroplast outer envelope proteins reveals information on protein topology and association into complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hardré, Hélène; Kuhn, Lauriane; Albrieux, Catherine; Jouhet, Juliette; Michaud, Morgane; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Falconet, Denis; Block, Maryse A.; Maréchal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of chloroplast function requires the precise localization of proteins in each of its sub-compartments. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry has allowed the inventory of proteins in thylakoid, stroma, and envelope fractions. Concerning membrane association, proteins can be either integral or peripheral or even soluble proteins bound transiently to a membrane complex. We sought a method providing information at the surface of the outer envelope membrane (OEM), based on specific tagging with biotin or proteolysis using thermolysin, a non-membrane permeable protease. To evaluate this method, envelope, thylakoid, and stroma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed by immunostaining and mass spectrometry. A short selection of proteins associated to the chloroplast envelope fraction was checked after superficial treatments of intact chloroplasts. We showed that this method could allow the characterization of OEM embedded proteins facing the cytosol, as well as peripheral and soluble proteins associated via tight or lose interactions. Some stromal proteins were associated with biotinylated spots and analyzes are still needed to determine whether polypeptides were tagged prior import or if they co-migrated with OEM proteins. This method also suggests that some proteins associated with the inner envelope membrane (IEM) might need the integrity of a trans-envelope (IEM–OEM) protein complex (e.g., division ring-forming components) or at least an intact OEM partner. Following this evaluation, proteomic analyzes should be refined and the putative role of inter-membrane space components stabilizing trans-envelope complexes demonstrated. For future comprehensive studies, perspectives include the dynamic analyses of OEM proteins and IEM–OEM complexes in various physiological contexts and using virtually any other purified membrane organelle. PMID:24999344

  4. Regulation of Progranulin Expression in Human Microglia and Proteolysis of Progranulin by Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12)

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Choi, Namjong; Tarassishin, Leonid; Lee, Sunhee C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The essential role of progranulin (PGRN) as a neurotrophic factor has been demonstrated by the discovery that haploinsufficiency due to GRN gene mutations causes frontotemporal lobar dementia. In addition to neurons, microglia in vivo express PGRN, but little is known about the regulation of PGRN expression by microglia. Goal In the current study, we examined the regulation of expression and function of PGRN, its proteolytic enzyme macrophage elastase (MMP-12), as well as the inhibitor of PGRN proteolysis, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), in human CNS cells. Methods Cultures of primary human microglia and astrocytes were stimulated with the TLR ligands (LPS or poly IC), Th1 cytokines (IL-1/IFNγ), or Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13). Results were analyzed by Q-PCR, immunoblotting or ELISA. The roles of MMP-12 and SLPI in PGRN cleavage were also examined. Results Unstimulated microglia produced nanogram levels of PGRN, and PGRN release from microglia was suppressed by the TLR ligands or IL-1/IFNγ, but increased by IL-4 or IL-13. Unexpectedly, while astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory factors released large amounts of SLPI, none were detected in microglial cultures. We also identified MMP-12 as a PGRN proteolytic enzyme, and SLPI as an inhibitor of MMP-12-induced PGRN proteolysis. Experiments employing PGRN siRNA demonstrated that microglial PGRN was involved in the cytokine and chemokine production following TLR3/4 activation, with its effect on TNFα being the most conspicuous. Conclusions Our study is the first detailed examination of PGRN in human microglia. Our results establish microglia as a significant source of PGRN, and MMP-12 and SLPI as modulators of PGRN proteolysis. Negative and positive regulation of microglial PGRN release by the proinflammatory/Th1 and the Th2 stimuli, respectively, suggests a fundamentally different aspect of PGRN regulation compared to other known microglial activation products. Microglial PGRN appears

  5. Proteolysis of Virulence Regulator ToxR Is Associated with Entry of Vibrio cholerae into a Dormant State

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Kim, Tae K.; Skorupski, Karen; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and causes the diarrheal disease, cholera. Two of its primary virulence regulators, TcpP and ToxR, are localized in the inner membrane. TcpP is encoded on the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI), a horizontally acquired mobile genetic element, and functions primarily in virulence gene regulation. TcpP has been shown to undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in response to environmental conditions that are unfavorable for virulence gene expression. ToxR is encoded in the ancestral genome and is present in non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae, indicating it has roles outside of the human host. In this study, we show that ToxR undergoes RIP in V. cholerae in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH, a condition that occurs during the stationary phase of growth. This process involves the site-2 protease RseP (YaeL), and is dependent upon the RpoE-mediated periplasmic stress response, as deletion mutants for the genes encoding these two proteins cannot proteolyze ToxR under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. We determined that the loss of ToxR, genetically or by proteolysis, is associated with entry of V. cholerae into a dormant state in which the bacterium is normally found in the aquatic environment called viable but nonculturable (VBNC). Strains that can proteolyze ToxR, or do not encode it, lose culturability, experience a change in morphology associated with cells in VBNC, yet remain viable under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. On the other hand, mutant strains that cannot proteolyze ToxR remain culturable and maintain the morphology of cells in an active state of growth. Overall, our findings provide a link between the proteolysis of a virulence regulator and the entry of a pathogen into an environmentally persistent state. PMID:25849031

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis through cAMP/PKA signaling in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliano; Manfredi, Leandro H; Silveira, Wilian A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Lustrino, Danilo; Zanon, Neusa M; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C

    2016-03-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide released by motor neuron in skeletal muscle and modulates the neuromuscular transmission by induction of synthesis and insertion of acetylcholine receptor on postsynaptic muscle membrane; however, its role in skeletal muscle protein metabolism remains unclear. We examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CGRP on protein breakdown and signaling pathways in control skeletal muscles and muscles following denervation (DEN) in rats. In isolated muscles, CGRP (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) reduced basal and DEN-induced activation of overall proteolysis in a concentration-dependent manner. The in vitro anti-proteolytic effect of CGRP was completely abolished by CGRP8-37, a CGRP receptor antagonist. CGRP down-regulated the lysosomal proteolysis, the mRNA levels of LC3b, Gabarapl1 and cathepsin L and the protein content of LC3-II in control and denervated muscles. In parallel, CGRP elevated cAMP levels, stimulated PKA/CREB signaling and increased Foxo1 phosphorylation in both conditions. In denervated muscles and starved C2C12 cells, Rp-8-Br-cAMPs or PKI, two PKA inhibitors, completely abolished the inhibitory effect of CGRP on Foxo1, 3 and 4 and LC3 lipidation. A single injection of CGRP (100 μg kg(-1)) in denervated rats increased the phosphorylation levels of CREB and Akt, inhibited Foxo transcriptional activity, the LC3 lipidation as well as the mRNA levels of LC3b and cathepsin L, two bona fide targets of Foxo. This study shows for the first time that CGRP exerts a direct inhibitory action on autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis in control and denervated skeletal muscle by recruiting cAMP/PKA signaling, effects that are related to inhibition of Foxo activity and LC3 lipidation. PMID:26718975

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis of the mycobacterial HSP65 protein as a potential source of immunogenic peptides in human tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Cieplak, Piotr; Aleshin, Alexander E; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Sloutsky, Alexander; Strongin, Alex Y

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial secretory protein ESAT-6 induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in epithelial cells neighboring infected macrophages. MMP-9 then enhances recruitment of uninfected macrophages, which contribute to nascent granuloma maturation and bacterial growth. Disruption of MMP-9 function attenuates granuloma formation and bacterial growth. The abundant mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (HSP65) chaperone is the major target for the immune response and a critical component in M. tuberculosis adhesion to macrophages. We hypothesized that HSP65 is susceptible to MMP-9 proteolysis and that the resulting HSP65 immunogenic peptides affect host adaptive immunity. To identify MMPs that cleave HSP65, we used MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases, the simple hemopexin domain MMP-8, membrane-associated MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16 and MMP-24, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked MMP-17 and MMP-25. We determined both the relative cleavage efficiency of MMPs against the HSP65 substrate and the peptide sequence of the cleavage sites. Cleavage of the unstructured PAGHG474L C-terminal region initiates the degradation of HSP65 by MMPs. This initial cleavage destroys the substrate-binding capacity of the HSP65 chaperone. Multiple additional cleavages of the unfolded HSP65 then follow. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-14, MMP-15 and MMP-16, in addition to MMP-9, generate the known highly immunogenic N-terminal peptide of HSP65. Based on our biochemical data, we now suspect that MMP proteolysis of HSP65 in vivo, including MMP-9 proteolysis, also results in the abundant generation of the N-terminal immunogenic peptide and that this peptide, in addition to intact HSP65, contributes to the complex immunomodulatory interplay in the course of TB infection. PMID:21752195

  8. The splicing factor U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghee; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Identification of U2AF65 as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. •U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. •U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4. •U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres. -- Abstract: The human telomeric protein TRF1 is a component of the six-subunit protein complex shelterin, which provides telomere protection by organizing the telomere into a high-order structure. TRF1 functions as a negative regulator of telomere length by controlling the access of telomerase to telomeres. Thus, the cellular abundance of TRF1 at telomeres should be maintained and tightly regulated to ensure proper telomere function. Here, we identify U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65), an essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. U2AF65 interacts with TRF1 in vitro and in vivo and is capable of stabilizing TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We also found that U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TRF1. Depletion of endogenous U2AF65 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the stability of endogenous TRF1 whereas overexpression of U2AF65 significantly extended the half-life of TRF1. These findings demonstrate that U2AF65 plays a critical role in regulating the level of TRF1 through physical interaction and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Hence, U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres.

  9. Proteolysis of virulence regulator ToxR is associated with entry of Vibrio cholerae into a dormant state.

    PubMed

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Kim, Tae K; Skorupski, Karen; Taylor, Ronald K

    2015-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and causes the diarrheal disease, cholera. Two of its primary virulence regulators, TcpP and ToxR, are localized in the inner membrane. TcpP is encoded on the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI), a horizontally acquired mobile genetic element, and functions primarily in virulence gene regulation. TcpP has been shown to undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in response to environmental conditions that are unfavorable for virulence gene expression. ToxR is encoded in the ancestral genome and is present in non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae, indicating it has roles outside of the human host. In this study, we show that ToxR undergoes RIP in V. cholerae in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH, a condition that occurs during the stationary phase of growth. This process involves the site-2 protease RseP (YaeL), and is dependent upon the RpoE-mediated periplasmic stress response, as deletion mutants for the genes encoding these two proteins cannot proteolyze ToxR under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. We determined that the loss of ToxR, genetically or by proteolysis, is associated with entry of V. cholerae into a dormant state in which the bacterium is normally found in the aquatic environment called viable but nonculturable (VBNC). Strains that can proteolyze ToxR, or do not encode it, lose culturability, experience a change in morphology associated with cells in VBNC, yet remain viable under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. On the other hand, mutant strains that cannot proteolyze ToxR remain culturable and maintain the morphology of cells in an active state of growth. Overall, our findings provide a link between the proteolysis of a virulence regulator and the entry of a pathogen into an environmentally persistent state. PMID:25849031

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis of the mycobacterial HSP65 protein as a potential source of immunogenic peptides in human tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Cieplak, Piotr; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Sloutsky, Alexander; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial secretory protein ESAT-6 induces MMP-9 in epithelial cells neighboring infected macrophages. MMP-9 then enhances recruitment of uninfected macrophages, which contribute to nascent granuloma maturation and bacterial growth. Disruption of MMP-9 function attenuates granuloma formation and bacterial growth. The abundant mycobacterial HSP65 chaperone is the major target for immune response and a critical component in M. tuberculosis adhesion to macrophages. We hypothesized that HSP65 is susceptible to MMP-9 proteolysis and that the resulting HSP65 immunogenic peptides affect host adaptive immunity. To identify MMPs which cleave HSP65, we used the MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases, the simple hemopexin domain MMP-8, the membrane associated MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16 and MMP-24, and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked MMP-17 and MMP-25 in our studies. We determined both the relative cleavage efficiency of MMPs against the HSP65 substrate and the peptide sequence of the cleavage sites. Cleavage of the unstructured PAGHG474L C-terminal region initiates the degradation of HSP65 by MMPs. This initial cleavage destroys the substrate-binding capacity of the HSP65 chaperone. Multiple additional cleavages of the unfolded HSP65 then follows. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-14, MMP-15 and MMP-16, in addition to MMP-9, generate the known highly immunogenic N-terminal peptide of HSP65. Based on our biochemical data, we now suspect that MMP proteolysis of HSP65 in vivo, including MMP-9 proteolysis, also results in the abundant generation of the N-terminal immunogenic peptide and that this peptide, in addition to intact HSP65, contributes to the complex immunomodulatory interplay in the course of TB infection. PMID:21752195

  11. Cigarette smoke-induced protein oxidation and proteolysis is exclusively caused by its tar phase: prevention by vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Panda, K; Chattopadhyay, R; Chattopadhyay, D; Chatterjee, I B

    2001-08-01

    We have reported before that whole phase cigarette smoke (CS) contains stable oxidants that cause oxidative damage and increased proteolysis of proteins [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 27 (1999) 1064]. Here, we demonstrate that these oxidants are exclusively present in the tar phase of the CS and not its gas phase and can almost wholly account for the observed whole phase CS-induced oxidation of human plasma proteins as well as extensive oxidative proteolysis of guinea pig lung and heart microsomal proteins in vitro. The mechanism of the tar phase CS-induced proteolysis of microsomal proteins involves two-steps: (i) initial oxidation of the proteins by oxidants present in the tar extract followed by (ii) rapid proteolytic degradation of the oxidized proteins by proteases present in the microsomes. Like the whole phase CS, the oxidative damage of proteins caused by the tar phase CS, as evidenced by the formation of protein carbonyl and bityrosine as well as loss of tryptophan residues and thiol groups, is also almost completely prevented by ascorbic acid and only partially by glutathione. Other antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin E, beta-carotene and mannitol are ineffective. This again leads us to suggest that adequate intake of vitamin C may help smokers to evade the CS-induced degenerative diseases associated with oxidative damage. The revelation of the acute toxicity of the tar phase with respect to CS-induced oxidative damage also urges the necessity of trapping it more effectively by suitable cigarette filters to reduce the health damage caused to smokers. PMID:11514102

  12. Regulated proteolysis of the alternative sigma factor SigX in Streptococcus mutans: implication in the escape from competence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SigX (σX), the alternative sigma factor of Streptococcus mutans, is the key regulator for transcriptional activation of late competence genes essential for taking up exogenous DNA. Recent studies reveal that adaptor protein MecA and the protease ClpC act as negative regulators of competence by a mechanism that involves MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX by the ClpC in S. mutans. However, the molecular detail how MecA and ClpC negatively regulate competence in this species remains to be determined. Here, we provide evidence that adaptor protein MecA targets SigX for degradation by the protease complex ClpC/ClpP when S. mutans is grown in a complex medium. Results By analyzing the cellular levels of SigX, we demonstrate that the synthesis of SigX is transiently induced by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), but the SigX is rapidly degraded during the escape from competence. A deletion of MecA, ClpC or ClpP results in the cellular accumulation of SigX and a prolonged competence state, while an overexpression of MecA enhances proteolysis of SigX and accelerates the escape from competence. In vitro protein-protein interaction assays confirm that MecA interacts with SigX via its N-terminal domain (NTD1–82) and with ClpC via its C-terminal domain (CTD123–240). Such an interaction mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex, triggering the ATP-dependent degradation of SigX in the presence of ClpP. A deletion of the N-terminal or C-terminal domain of MecA abolishes its binding to SigX or ClpC. We have also found that MecA-regulated proteolysis of SigX appears to be ineffective when S. mutans is grown in a chemically defined medium (CDM), suggesting the possibility that an unknown mechanism may be involved in negative regulation of MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX under this condition. Conclusion Adaptor protein MecA in S. mutans plays a crucial role in recognizing and targeting SigX for degradation by the protease ClpC/ClpP. Thus, Mec

  13. On-chip enzymatic microreactor using trypsin-immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Lin, Shuang; Qi, Dawei; Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-12-28

    An easily replaceable microchip enzymatic microreactor has been fabricated based on the glass microchip with trypsin-immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles with small size (50 nm in diameter) and strong magnetism were synthesized. At first, amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic responsivity and excellent dispersibility were prepared through a facile one-pot strategy. Then, magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with numerous aldehyde (-CHO) groups by treating the as-synthesized, amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with glutaraldehyde. Finally, immobilization of trypsin onto the aldehyde-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was achieved through reaction of the aldehyde groups with amine groups of trypsin. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were then locally packed onto the glass microchip by the application of a strong magnetic field using a magnet to form an on-chip magnetic nanoparticles packing bed. Capability of the proteolytic microreactor was demonstrated by cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin and myoglobin as model proteins. The digestion products were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with sequence coverage of 83%, 43% and 79% observed, respectively. Complete protein digestion was achieved in a short time (10 s) under the flow rate of 5 microL/min. These results are expected to open up a new possibility for the proteolysis analysis as well as a new application of magnetic nanoparticles. It is easy to replace the nanoparticles and make the new microreactor. It takes less than 1 min under the condition of extra magnetic to form a new packing bed. The packing bed can be used for at least five times without any treatments. Additionally, since the preparation and surface functionality of magnetic nanoparticles is low-cost and reproducible, the preparation method and application approach of the magnetic nanoparticles may find much

  14. Domain organization of phytochelatin synthase: functional properties of truncated enzyme species identified by limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Roberta; Peracchi, Alessio; Bolchi, Angelo; Infusini, Giuseppe; Amoresano, Angela; Ottonello, Simone

    2004-04-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is a major determinant of heavy metal tolerance in plants and other organisms. No structural information on this enzyme is as yet available. It is generally believed, however, that the active site region is located in the more conserved N-terminal portion of PCS, whereas various, as yet unidentified (but supposedly less critical) roles have been proposed for the C-terminal region. To gain insight into the structural/functional organization of PCS, we have conducted a limited proteolysis analysis of the enzyme from Arabidopsis (AtPCS1), followed by functional characterization of the resulting polypeptide fragments. Two N-terminal fragments ending at positions 372 (PCS_Nt1) and 283 (PCS_Nt2) were produced sequentially upon V8 protease digestion, without any detectable accumulation of the corresponding C-terminal fragments. As revealed by the results of in vivo and in vitro functional assays, the core PCS_Nt2 fragment is biosynthetically active in the presence of cadmium ions and supports phytochelatin formation at a rate that is only approximately 5-fold lower than that of full-length AtPCS1. The loss of the C-terminal region, however, substantially decreases the thermal stability of the enzyme and impairs phytochelatin formation in the presence of certain heavy metals (e.g. mercury and zinc, but not cadmium or copper). The latter phenotype was shared by PCS_Nt2 and by its precursor fragment PCS_Nt1, which, on the other hand, was almost as stable and biosynthetically active (in the presence of cadmium) as the full-length enzyme. AtPCS1 thus appears to be composed of a protease-resistant (and hence presumably highly structured) N-terminal domain, flanked by an intrinsically unstable C-terminal region. The most upstream part of such a region (positions 284-372) is important for enzyme stabilization, whereas its most terminal part (positions 373-485) appears to be required to determine enzyme responsiveness to a broader range of heavy metals

  15. FliT Selectively Enhances Proteolysis of FlhC Subunit in FlhD4C2 Complex by an ATP-dependent Protease, ClpXP*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Takaya, Akiko; Mouslim, Chakib; Hughes, Kelly T.; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the ClpXP ATP-dependent protease specifically recognizes and degrades the flagellar master transcriptional activator complex, FlhD4C2, to negatively control flagellar biogenesis. The flagellum-related protein, FliT, is also a negative regulator of flagellar regulon by inhibiting the binding of FlhD4C2 to the promoter DNA. We have found a novel pathway of FliT inhibition of FlhD4C2 activity connected to ClpXP proteolysis. An in vitro degradation assay using purified proteins shows that FliT selectively increases ClpXP proteolysis of the FlhC subunit in the FlhD4C2 complex. FliT behaves specifically to ClpXP-dependent proteolysis of FlhC. An in vitro interaction assay detects the ternary complex of FliT-FlhD4C2-ClpX. FliT promotes the affinity of ClpX against FlhD4C2 complex, whereas FliT does not directly interact with ClpX. Thus, FliT interacts with the FlhC in FlhD4C2 complex and increases the presentation of the FlhC recognition region to ClpX. The DNA-bound form of FlhD4C2 complex is resistant to ClpXP proteolysis. We suggest that the role of FliT in negatively controlling the flagellar gene expression involves increasing free molecules of FlhD4C2 sensitive to ClpXP proteolysis by inhibiting the binding to the promoter DNA as well as enhancing the selective proteolysis of FlhC subunit by ClpXP. PMID:25278020

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: evidence for spatially distinct subunit domains obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and limited proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.G.; Vanoni, M.A.; Hainfeld, J.F.; Wall, J.

    1984-10-10

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy of individual unfixed molecules of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase has been used to determine the molecular mass distribution of the protein. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which has a subunit molecular mass of 77 kilodaltons, was found to exist predominantly as a dimer with an apparent molecular mass of 136 +/- 29 kilodaltons. The mass distribution of the enzyme molecules was unchanged in the presence of the allosteric inhibitor S-adenosylmethionine. Examination of negatively stained protein molecules suggested that each subunit of the dimer consists of two globular domains of approximately equal size. Limited proteolysis of the enzyme by trypsin gave results which were entirely consistent with that view. In the presence of 1% trypsin, the enzyme was cleaved into two fragments. The masses of these fragments were 39 and 36 kilodaltons as assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Tryptic cleavage did not lead to loss of NADPH-menadione or NADPH-methylenetetrahydrofolate oxidoreductase activity, and the flavin prosthetic group remained bound to the protein. However, the cleaved protein was completely desensitized with respect to inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine. These results suggest that each subunit of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase contains two domains and that allosteric inhibition requires specific interactions between these domains. The region between these two domains appears to be very sensitive to proteolysis, while the domains themselves are relatively resistant to further degradation. 14 references, 3 figures.

  17. The Growth and Tumor Suppressors NORE1A and RASSF1A Are Targets for Calpain-Mediated Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Khokhlatchev, Andrei V.

    2008-01-01

    Background NORE1A and RASSF1A are growth and tumour suppressors inactivated in a variety of cancers. Methylation of NORE1A and RASSF1A promoters is the predominant mechanism for downregulation of these proteins; however, other mechanisms are likely to exist. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a proteolysis of NORE1A and RASSF1A by calpains as alternative mechanism of their downregulation. Extracts of H358 cell line, a human bronchoalveolar carcinoma, and H460, a large cell carcinoma, were capable of proteolysis of NORE1A protein in the calpain-dependent manner. Likewise, RASSF1A tumor suppressor was proteolyzed by the H358 cell extract. Addition of calpain inhibitor to H358 and H460 cells growing in tissue culture resulted in re-expression of endogenous NORE1A. A survey of 10 human lung tumours revealed that three of them contain an activity capable of inducing NORE1A degradation. Conclusions/Significance Thus, degradation by calpains is a novel mechanism for downregulation of NORE1A and RASSF1A proteins and might be the mechanism allowing cancer cells to escape growth suppression. PMID:19098985

  18. Signal-peptide-peptidase-like 2a is required for CD74 intramembrane proteolysis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneppenheim, Janna; Hüttl, Susann; Kruchen, Anne; Fluhrer, Regina; Müller, Ingo; Saftig, Paul; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Martin, Christa L; Schröder, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The invariant chain (CD74) mediates targeting of the MHCII complex to endosomal compartments, where CD74 undergoes degradation allowing MHCII to acquire peptides. We demonstrated recently that intramembrane proteolysis of the final membrane-bound N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 is catalysed by Signal-peptide-peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) and that this process is indispensable for development and function of B lymphocytes in mice. In SPPL2a−/− mice, homeostasis of these cells is disturbed by the accumulation of the unprocessed CD74 NTF. So far, evidence for this essential role of SPPL2a is restricted to mice. Nevertheless, inhibition of SPPL2a has been suggested as novel approach to target B cells for treating autoimmunity. Here, we characterize human B cell lines with a homozygous microdeletion on chromosome 15. We demonstrate that this deletion disrupts the SPPL2a genomic locus and leads to loss of SPPL2a transcript. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with this deletion exhibit absence of SPPL2a at the protein level and show an accumulation of the CD74 NTF comparable to B cells from SPPL2a−/− mice. By this means, we present evidence that the role of SPPL2a in CD74 proteolysis is conserved in human B cells and provide support for modulation of SPPL2a activity as a therapeutic concept. PMID:25035924

  19. Controlled Biodegradation of Self-Assembling β-hairpin Peptide Hydrogels by Proteolysis with Matrix Metalloproteinase-13

    PubMed Central

    Giano, Michael C.; Pochan, Darrin J.; Schneider, Joel P.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled biodegradation specific to matrix metalloproteinase-13 was incorporated into the design of self-assembling β-hairpin peptide hydrogels. Degrading Peptides (DP peptides) are a series of five peptides that have varying proteolytic susceptibilities towards MMP-13. These peptides undergo environmentally triggered folding and self-assembly under physiologically relevant conditions (150 mM NaCl, pH 7.6) to form self supporting hydrogels. In the presence of enzyme, gels prepared from distinct peptides are degraded at rates that differ according to the primary sequence of the single peptide comprising the gel. Material degradation was monitored by oscillatory shear rheology over the course of 14 days, where overall degradation of the gels vary from 5% to 70%. Degradation products were analyzed by HPLC and identified by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. This data shows that proteolysis of the parent peptides constituting each gel occurs at the intended sequence location. DP hydrogels show specificity to MMP-13 and are only minimally cleaved by matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), another common enzyme present during tissue injury. In vitro migration assays performed with SW1353 cells show that migration rates through each gel differs according to peptide sequence, which is consistent with the proteolysis studies using exogenous MMP-13. PMID:21683437

  20. Cerebral metabolic disturbances in the brain during acute liver failure: from hyperammonemia to energy failure and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Ott, Peter; Clemmesen, Otto; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2005-07-01

    Several observations suggest that patients with fulminant hepatic failure may suffer from disturbances in cerebral metabolism that can be related to elevated levels of arterial ammonia. One effect of ammonia is the inhibition of the rate limiting TCA cycle enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alphaKGDH) and possibly also pyruvate dehydrogenase, but this has been regarded to be of no quantitative importance. However, recent studies justify a revision of this point of view. Based on published data, the following sequence of events is proposed. Inhibition of alphaKGDH both enhances the detoxification of ammonia by formation of glutamine from alpha-ketoglutarate and reduces the rate of NADH and oxidative ATP production in astrocytic mitochondria. In the astrocytic cytosol this will lead to formation of lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen supply. Since the aspartate-malate shuttle is compromised, there is a risk of depletion of mitochondrial NADH and ATP unless compensatory mechanisms are recruited. One likely compensatory mechanism is the use of amino acids for energy production. Branched chain amino acids, like isoleucine and valine can supply carbon skeletons that bypass the alphaKGDH inhibition and maintain TCA cycle activity. Large-scale consumption of certain amino acids can only be maintained by cerebral proteolysis, as has been observed in these patients. This hypothesis provides a link between hyperammonemia, ammonia detoxification by glutamine production, cerebral lactate production, and cerebral catabolic proteolysis in patients with FHF. PMID:15921824

  1. Phosphorylation-Coupled Proteolysis of the Transcription Factor MYC2 Is Important for Jasmonate-Signaled Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qingzhe; Yan, Liuhua; Tan, Dan; Chen, Rong; Sun, Jiaqiang; Gao, Liyan; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Chuanyou

    2013-01-01

    As a master regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)–signaled plant immune responses, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Leu zipper transcription factor MYC2 differentially regulates different subsets of JA–responsive genes through distinct mechanisms. However, how MYC2 itself is regulated at the protein level remains unknown. Here, we show that proteolysis of MYC2 plays a positive role in regulating the transcription of its target genes. We discovered a 12-amino-acid element in the transcription activation domain (TAD) of MYC2 that is required for both the proteolysis and the transcriptional activity of MYC2. Interestingly, MYC2 phosphorylation at residue Thr328, which facilitates its turnover, is also required for the MYC2 function to regulate gene transcription. Together, these results reveal that phosphorylation-coupled turnover of MYC2 stimulates its transcription activity. Our results exemplify that, as with animals, plants employ an “activation by destruction” mechanism to fine-tune their transcriptome to adapt to their ever-changing environment. PMID:23593022

  2. Composition, proteolysis indices and coagulating properties of ewe milk as affected by bulk tank somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Martí-De Olives, Ana; Navarro-Ríos, María Jesús; Rubert-Alemán, Joaquín; Fernández, Nemesio; Molina, Maria Pilar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ovine bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) on composition, proteose-peptone (p-p) content and casein fractions as indicating parameters for proteolysis and coagulating properties of milk. A total of 97 samples of bulk tank milk from Manchega breed ewe flocks were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into four classes: fewer than 500,000 cells/ml, from 500,000 to 10,00000 cells/ml, from 10,00000 to 15,00000 and more than 15,00000 cells/ml. The casein : protein ratio and lactose content decreased with BTSCC. Proteolysis increased with BTSCC, causing a drop in β-casein and an increase in the γ-caseins from a concentration of 500,000 cells/ml. Regarding coagulation behaviour, the rennet clotting time (RCT) and firming time (k20) rose from 10,00000-15,00000 cells/ml of milk. The results showed that the impairment of milk quality and milk ability to make cheese as affected by intramammary infection (IMI) can be inferred from the bulk tank milk of flocks with poor udder health. PMID:26104824

  3. Effect of fiber type on postmortem proteolysis in longissimus muscle of Landrace and Korean native black pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, B Y; Kim, N K; Lee, C S; Hwang, I H

    2007-12-01

    The current study was conducted to characterize objective meat quality, fiber type and their relations to postmortem proteolysis in longissimus muscle of Landrace and Korean native black (KNP) pigs. Longissimus muscles from each 10 market-weighted male pigs were removed after conventional slaughtering and chilling procedures, and aged for 1 or 7 days at 4°C to determine WB-shear force, objective meat color, proportion of myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I), intramuscular fat content and rate of proteolysis by a proteomics approach. KNP had a significantly (p<0.05) higher content of MyHC I, and that concurred with greatly (p<0.05) higher intramuscular fat content and Hunter a(∗) value, and significantly (p<0.05) lower drip loss than those seen in Landrace. One-dimension SDS-PAGE indicated that GAPDH, troponin I and creatine kinase were prominent proteolytic products during chiller ageing. By applying a gel-based proteome analysis, 26 proteins were identified, which showed different degradation properties during ageing between the breeds. Biopsied sample revealed that myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain isotype v/sb, fatty acid-binding protein and albumin were expressed at a greatly higher level for KNP, but their relation to fiber type (or genetic background) is unclear. It was particular noticeable that different actin isoforms showed various degradation behavior during ageing time. PMID:22061932

  4. Effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Pereira, L.; Hampar, B.; Zweig, M.; Cohen, G.H.

    1982-02-01

    We examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (gD-1) and HSV-2 (gD-2). The antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gD, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. The determinants were distributed as follows: three were gD-1 specific, one was gD-2 specific, and four were type common. Several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. We developed a procedure for examining the effect that binding of monoclonal antibody has on proteolysis of native gD-1 by Staphylococcus aureus protease V8. We showed that several different patterns of protease V8 cleavage were obtained, depending on the monoclonal antibody used. The proteolysis patterns were generally consistent with the immunological groupings. With four groups of antibodies, we found that fragments of gD-1 remained bound to antibody after V8 treatment. A 38,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies in three different groups of monoclonal antibodies. This fragment appeared to contain one type-common and two type-specific determinants. A 12,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies belonging to one type-common group of monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide analysis revealed that the 12,000-dalton fragment represented a portion of the 38,000-dalton fragment and was enriched in a type-common arginine tryptic peptide.

  5. Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-02-01

    The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ageing (3, 7, 14 and 21 days) on the shear force, protein profile, and post-mortem proteolysis of beef loins (M. Longissimus lumborum, LL) and topsides (M. Semimembranosus, SM) were investigated using a range of pulsed electric field treatments [voltages (5 and 10 kV) and frequencies (20, 50, and 90 Hz)]. PEF treatment decreased the shear force of beef LL and SM muscles by up to 19%. The reduction in the shear force in the LL was not affected by the treatment intensity whereas the reduction in the SM was dependent on PEF frequency. PEF treated beef loins showed increased proteolysis, both early post-mortem and during subsequent post-mortem storage reflected by increased degradation of troponin-T and desmin. The most prominent troponin-T degradation was found in samples treated with 5 kV-90 Hz, 10 kV-20 Hz at day 3 and day 7 post-treatment in addition to 10 kV-50 Hz in subsequent post-treatment times. The degradation of desmin in PEF treated beef loins increased with ageing time. PMID:25460129

  6. A RelA-dependent two-tiered regulated proteolysis cascade controls synthesis of a contact-dependent intercellular signal in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Löbach, Stephanie; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-04-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of precursor proteins to generate intercellular signals is a common mechanism in all cells. In Myxococcus xanthus the contact-dependent intercellular C-signal is a 17 kDa protein (p17) generated by proteolytic cleavage of the 25 kDa csgA protein (p25), and is essential for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. p25 accumulates in the outer membrane and PopC, the protease that cleaves p25, in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells. PopC is secreted in response to starvation, therefore, restricting p25 cleavage to starving cells. We focused on identifying proteins critical for PopC secretion in response to starvation. PopC secretion depends on the (p)ppGpp synthase RelA and the stringent response, and is regulated post-translationally. PopD, which is encoded in an operon with PopC, forms a soluble complex with PopC and inhibits PopC secretion whereas the integral membrane AAA+ protease FtsH(D) is required for PopC secretion. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggest that in response to starvation, RelA is activated and induces the degradation of PopD thereby releasing pre-formed PopC for secretion and that FtsH(D) is important for PopD degradation. Hence, regulated PopC secretion depends on regulated proteolysis. Accordingly, p17 synthesis depends on a proteolytic cascade including FtsH(D) -dependent degradation of PopD and PopC-dependent cleavage of p25. PMID:22404381

  7. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  8. Causal Relationship between Microbial Ecology Dynamics and Proteolysis during Manufacture and Ripening of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Cheese Canestrato Pugliese

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Calasso, Maria; Mancini, Leonardo; Ercolini, Danilo; La Storia, Antonietta; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, community-level physiological profiles determined by the use of Biolog EcoPlates, and proteolysis analyses were used to characterize Canestrato Pugliese Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese. The number of presumptive mesophilic lactococci in raw ewes' milk was higher than that of presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli. The numbers of these microbial groups increased during ripening, showing temporal and numerical differences. Urea-PAGE showed limited primary proteolysis, whereas the analysis of the pH 4.6-soluble fraction of the cheese revealed that secondary proteolysis increased mainly from 45 to 75 days of ripening. This agreed with the concentration of free amino acids. Raw ewes' milk was contaminated by several bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria (68%; mainly Pseudomonas), Firmicutes (30%; mainly Carnobacterium and Lactococcus), Bacteroidetes (0.05%), and Actinobacteria (0.02%). Almost the same microbial composition persisted in the curd after molding. From day 1 of ripening onwards, the phylum Firmicutes dominated. Lactococcus dominated throughout ripening, and most of the Lactobacillus species appeared only at 7 or 15 days. At 90 days, Lactococcus (87.2%), Lactobacillus (4.8%; mainly Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei), and Leuconostoc (3.9%) dominated. The relative utilization of carbon sources by the bacterial community reflected the succession. This study identified strategic phases that characterized the manufacture and ripening of Canestrato Pugliese cheese and established a causal relationship between mesophilic lactobacilli and proteolysis. PMID:24771032

  9. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  10. Increased proteolysis of diphtheria toxin by human monocytes after heat shock: a subsidiary role for heat-shock protein 70 in antigen processing

    PubMed Central

    Polla, Barbara S; Gabert, Françoise; Peyrusse, Brigitte M-N; Jacquier-Sarlin, Muriel R

    2007-01-01

    The expression of heat-shock proteins (hsp) increases after exposure to various stresses including elevated temperatures, oxidative injury, infection and inflammation. As molecular chaperones, hsp have been shown to participate in antigen processing and presentation, in part through increasing the stability and expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules. Heat shock selectively increases human T-cell responses to processed antigen, but does not affect T-cell proliferation induced by non-processed antigens. Here, we have analysed the mechanisms by which stress such as heat shock, and the ensuing hsp over-expression affect the processing of diphtheria toxin (DT) in peripheral blood monocytes. We found that heat shock increased DT proteolysis in endosomes and lysosomes while the activities of the cathepsins B and D, classically involved in DT proteolysis, were decreased. These effects correlated with the heat-shock-mediated increase in hsp 70 expression observed in endosomes and lysosomes. Actinomycin D or blocking anti-hsp 70 antibodies abolished the heat-shock-mediated increase in DT proteolysis. These data indicate that the increased expression of hsp 70 constitutes a subsidiary mechanism that facilitates antigen proteolysis in stressed cells. Confirming these data, presentation by formaldehyde-fixed cells of DT proteolysates that were obtained with endosomes and lysosomes from heat-shocked peripheral blood monocytes showed higher stimulation of T cells than those generated with endosomes and lysosomes from control peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:17116171

  11. Limited proteolysis and peptide mapping for comparability of biopharmaceuticals: An evaluation of repeatability, intra-assay precision and capability to detect structural change.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Camille; Burkitt, Will; Perraud, Xavier; O'Hara, John; Jone, Carl

    2016-05-10

    The use of limited proteolysis followed by peptide mapping for the comparability of the higher-order structure of biopharmaceuticals was investigated. In this approach the proteolysis is performed under non-reducing and non-denaturing conditions, and the resulting peptide map is determined by the samples primary and higher order structures. This allows comparability of biopharmaceuticals to be made in terms of their higher order structure, using a method that is relatively simple to implement. The digestion of a monoclonal antibody under non-denaturing conditions was analyzed using peptide mapping, circular dichroism (CD) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This allowed an optimal digestion time to be chosen. This method was then assessed for its ability to detect structural change using a monoclonal antibody, which had been subjected to a range of stresses; deglycosylation, mild denaturation and a batch that had failed specifications due to in-process reduction. The repeatability and inter-assay precision were assessed. It was demonstrated that the limited proteolysis peptide maps of the three stressed samples were significantly different to control samples and that the differences observed were consistent between the occasions when the assays were run. A combination of limited proteolysis and CD or SDS-PAGE analysis was shown to enhance the capacity of these techniques to detect structural change, which otherwise would not have been observed. PMID:26918895

  12. Causal relationship between microbial ecology dynamics and proteolysis during manufacture and ripening of protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese Canestrato Pugliese.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Calasso, Maria; Mancini, Leonardo; Ercolini, Danilo; La Storia, Antonietta; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, community-level physiological profiles determined by the use of Biolog EcoPlates, and proteolysis analyses were used to characterize Canestrato Pugliese Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese. The number of presumptive mesophilic lactococci in raw ewes' milk was higher than that of presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli. The numbers of these microbial groups increased during ripening, showing temporal and numerical differences. Urea-PAGE showed limited primary proteolysis, whereas the analysis of the pH 4.6-soluble fraction of the cheese revealed that secondary proteolysis increased mainly from 45 to 75 days of ripening. This agreed with the concentration of free amino acids. Raw ewes' milk was contaminated by several bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria (68%; mainly Pseudomonas), Firmicutes (30%; mainly Carnobacterium and Lactococcus), Bacteroidetes (0.05%), and Actinobacteria (0.02%). Almost the same microbial composition persisted in the curd after molding. From day 1 of ripening onwards, the phylum Firmicutes dominated. Lactococcus dominated throughout ripening, and most of the Lactobacillus species appeared only at 7 or 15 days. At 90 days, Lactococcus (87.2%), Lactobacillus (4.8%; mainly Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei), and Leuconostoc (3.9%) dominated. The relative utilization of carbon sources by the bacterial community reflected the succession. This study identified strategic phases that characterized the manufacture and ripening of Canestrato Pugliese cheese and established a causal relationship between mesophilic lactobacilli and proteolysis. PMID:24771032

  13. A Serendipitous Discover that in situ Proteolysis is Essential for the Crystallization of Yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel,C.; Gebauer, D.; Zhang, H.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant.

  14. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. PMID:27283620

  15. Hair follicle aging is driven by transepidermal elimination of stem cells via COL17A1 proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroyuki; Mohri, Yasuaki; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Morinaga, Hironobu; Fukuda, Makoto; Ito, Mayumi; Kurata, Sotaro; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Nishimura, Emi K

    2016-02-01

    Hair thinning and loss are prominent aging phenotypes but have an unknown mechanism. We show that hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) aging causes the stepwise miniaturization of hair follicles and eventual hair loss in wild-type mice and in humans. In vivo fate analysis of HFSCs revealed that the DNA damage response in HFSCs causes proteolysis of type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BP180), a critical molecule for HFSC maintenance, to trigger HFSC aging, characterized by the loss of stemness signatures and by epidermal commitment. Aged HFSCs are cyclically eliminated from the skin through terminal epidermal differentiation, thereby causing hair follicle miniaturization. The aging process can be recapitulated by Col17a1 deficiency and prevented by the forced maintenance of COL17A1 in HFSCs, demonstrating that COL17A1 in HFSCs orchestrates the stem cell-centric aging program of the epithelial mini-organ. PMID:26912707

  16. Matriptase Complexes and Prostasin Complexes with HAI-1 and HAI-2 in Human Milk: Significant Proteolysis in Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jung J.; Chou, Feng-Pai; Chang, Hsiang-Hua D.; Tseng, Chun-Che; Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Significant proteolysis may occur during milk synthesis and secretion, as evidenced by the presence of protease-protease inhibitor complex containing the activated form of the type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase and the transmembrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor HAI-1. In order to identify other proteolysis events that may occur during lactation, human milk was analyzed for species containing HAI-1 and HAI-2 which is closely related to HAI-1. In addition to the previously demonstrated matriptase-HAI-1 complex, HAI-1 was also detected in complex with prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease. HAI-2 was also detected in complexes, the majority of which appear to be part of higher-order complexes, which do not bind to ionic exchange columns or immunoaffinity columns, suggesting that HAI-2 and its target proteases may be incorporated into special protein structures during lactation. The small proportion HAI-2 species that could be purified contain matriptase or prostasin. Human mammary epithelial cells are the likely cellular sources for these HAI-1 and HAI-2 complexes with matriptase and prostasin given that these protease-inhibitor complexes with the exception of prostasin-HAI-2 complex were detected in milk-derived mammary epithelial cells. The presence of these protease-inhibitor complexes in human milk provides in vivo evidence that the proteolytic activity of matriptase and prostasin are significantly elevated at least during lactation, and possibly contribute to the process of lactation, and that they are under tight control by HAI-1 and HAI-2. PMID:27043831

  17. Andrographolide alleviates imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fenli; Tan, Tao; Tan, Yang; Sun, Yang; Wu, Xingxin; Xu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with excessive activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in developing psoriasis. Targeting TLR signaling remains a challenge for treating psoriasis. Here, we found that andrographolide (Andro), a small-molecule natural product, alleviated imiquimod- but not interleukin 23 (IL-23)-induced psoriasis in mice with reducing expressions of IL-23 and IL-1β in the skin. The improvement in imiquimod-induced psoriasis by Andro was not observed in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B) knockout mice. Furthermore, Andro inhibited mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-1β but not CD80 and CD86 in bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a MAP1LC3B-dependent manner. In addition, Andro inhibited imiquimod-induced mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6, IL-1β, CD80 and CD86 in BMDCs from mice. Interestingly, Andro induced a degradation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and blocked the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to MyD88 upon LPS stimulation in BMDCs from mice. Blockade of autophagic proteolysis using NH4Cl or MAP1LC3B(-/-) BMDCs abolished the Andro-induced MyD88 degradation. In conclusion, Andro controls activation of MyD88-dependent cytokines and alleviates psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88, which could be a novel strategy to treat psoriasis. PMID:27265145

  18. Detection of Plasma Protease Activity Using Microsphere-Cytometry Assays with E. coli Derived Substrates: VWF Proteolysis by ADAMTS13.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Shobhit; Lo, Chi Y; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Protease levels in human blood are often prognostic indicators of inflammatory, thrombotic or oncogenic disorders. The measurement of such enzyme activities in substrate-based assays is complicated due to the low prevalence of these enzymes and steric hindrance of the substrates by the more abundant blood proteins. To address these limitations, we developed a molecular construct that is suitable for microsphere-cytometer based assays in the milieu of human blood plasma. In this proof of principle study, we demonstrate the utility of this substrate to measure metalloprotease ADAMTS13 activity. The substrate, expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein, contains the partial A2-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF amino acids 1594-1670) that is mutated to include a single primary amine at the N-terminus and free cysteines at the C-terminus. N-terminus fluorescence conjugation was possible using NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. Maleimide-PEG(Polyethylene glycol)n-biotin coupling at the C-terminus allowed biotinylation with variable PEG spacer lengths. Once bound to streptavidin-bearing microspheres, the substrate fluorescence signal decreased in proportion with ADAMTS13 concentration. Whereas recombinant ADAMTS13 activity could be quantified using substrates with all PEG repeat-lengths, only the construct with the longer 77 PEG-unit could quantify proteolysis in blood plasma. Using this longer substrate, plasma ADAMTS13 down to 5% of normal levels could be detected within 30 min. Such measurements could also be readily performed under conditions resembling hyperbilirubinemia. Enzyme catalytic activity was tuned by varying buffer calcium, with lower divalent ion concentrations enhancing cleavage. Overall, the study highlights the substrate design features important for the creation of efficient proteolysis assays in the setting of human plasma. In particular, it emphasizes the need to introduce PEG spacers in plasma-based experiments, a design attribute commonly

  19. Ascorbate attenuates pulmonary emphysema by inhibiting tobacco smoke and Rtp801-triggered lung protein modification and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indranil; Ganguly, Souradipta; Rozanas, Christine R; Stuehr, Dennis J; Panda, Koustubh

    2016-07-19

    Cigarette smoking causes emphysema, a fatal disease involving extensive structural and functional damage of the lung. Using a guinea pig model and human lung cells, we show that oxidant(s) present in tobacco smoke not only cause direct oxidative damage of lung proteins, contributing to the major share of lung injury, but also activate Rtp801, a key proinflammatory cellular factor involved in tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. Rtp801 triggers nuclear factor κB and consequent inducible NOS (iNOS)-mediated overproduction of NO, which in combination with excess superoxide produced during Rtp801 activation, contribute to increased oxido-nitrosative stress and lung protein nitration. However, lung-specific inhibition of iNOS with a iNOS-specific inhibitor, N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine, dihydrochloride (L-NIL) solely restricts lung protein nitration but fails to prevent or reverse the major tobacco smoke-induced oxidative lung injury. In comparison, the dietary antioxidant, ascorbate or vitamin C, can substantially prevent such damage by inhibiting both tobacco smoke-induced lung protein oxidation as well as activation of pulmonary Rtp801 and consequent iNOS/NO-induced nitration of lung proteins, that otherwise lead to increased proteolysis of such oxidized or nitrated proteins by endogenous lung proteases, resulting in emphysematous lung damage. Vitamin C also restricts the up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-9, the major lung protease involved in the proteolysis of such modified lung proteins during tobacco smoke-induced emphysema. Overall, our findings implicate tobacco-smoke oxidant(s) as the primary etiopathogenic factor behind both the noncellular and cellular damage mechanisms governing emphysematous lung injury and demonstrate the potential of vitamin C to accomplish holistic prevention of such damage. PMID:27382160

  20. Detection of Plasma Protease Activity Using Microsphere-Cytometry Assays with E. coli Derived Substrates: VWF Proteolysis by ADAMTS13

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Shobhit; Lo, Chi Y.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Protease levels in human blood are often prognostic indicators of inflammatory, thrombotic or oncogenic disorders. The measurement of such enzyme activities in substrate-based assays is complicated due to the low prevalence of these enzymes and steric hindrance of the substrates by the more abundant blood proteins. To address these limitations, we developed a molecular construct that is suitable for microsphere-cytometer based assays in the milieu of human blood plasma. In this proof of principle study, we demonstrate the utility of this substrate to measure metalloprotease ADAMTS13 activity. The substrate, expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein, contains the partial A2-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF amino acids 1594–1670) that is mutated to include a single primary amine at the N-terminus and free cysteines at the C-terminus. N-terminus fluorescence conjugation was possible using NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. Maleimide-PEG(Polyethylene glycol)n-biotin coupling at the C-terminus allowed biotinylation with variable PEG spacer lengths. Once bound to streptavidin-bearing microspheres, the substrate fluorescence signal decreased in proportion with ADAMTS13 concentration. Whereas recombinant ADAMTS13 activity could be quantified using substrates with all PEG repeat-lengths, only the construct with the longer 77 PEG-unit could quantify proteolysis in blood plasma. Using this longer substrate, plasma ADAMTS13 down to 5% of normal levels could be detected within 30 min. Such measurements could also be readily performed under conditions resembling hyperbilirubinemia. Enzyme catalytic activity was tuned by varying buffer calcium, with lower divalent ion concentrations enhancing cleavage. Overall, the study highlights the substrate design features important for the creation of efficient proteolysis assays in the setting of human plasma. In particular, it emphasizes the need to introduce PEG spacers in plasma-based experiments, a design attribute commonly

  1. The roles of the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis in tenderization during the aging of chicken muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Xu, X; Zhou, G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the changes in the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis on meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Following slaughter, chicken breast muscles were removed and stored at 4°C. Changes in the actin-myosin interaction over 48 h of aging were determined by monitoring the Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Shear force values, pH, protein degradation, calpain activities, and myofibrillar ultrastructures were also investigated. Results showed that the initial weak actin-myosin interaction strengthened at 12 h postmortem followed by a gradual weakening, which was supported by a decrease in Mg(2+)-ATPase activities and a lengthening of the sarcomeres. According to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses, the 30-kDa troponin-T fragment could not be readily detected until 12 h, whereas, at the same time, desmin had been rapidly degraded. However, there was a gradual decline in μ-calpain activity, commencing after about 6 h. Meanwhile, the largest decline in shear force was observed between 12 and 24 h postmortem. These findings suggest that weakening of the strong actin-myosin interaction formed at rigor may play a large role in meat tenderization during the early period of storage. It is proposed that weakening of the actin-myosin interaction results in lengthening of the sarcomeres, and then activated calpains are more able to reach their targeted sites, enabling proteolysis. These 2 factors may be involved in the conversion of muscle to tender meat during postmortem storage. PMID:22184440

  2. Regulation of limited N-terminal proteolysis of APE1 in tumor via acetylation and its role in cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bhakat, Kishor K.; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Adeniyi, Victor F.; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Nath, Somsubhra; Bellot, Larry J.; Feng, Dan; Mantha, Anil K.; Sinha, Mala; Qiu, Suimin; Luxon, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous and multifunctional protein, plays an essential role in the repair of both endogenous and drug-induced DNA damages in the genome. Unlike its E.coli counterpart Xth, mammalian APE1 has a unique N-terminal domain and possesses both DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulatory functions. Although the overexpression of APE1 in diverse cancer types and the association of APE1 expression with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis are well documented, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that alter APE1 functions during tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Here, we show the presence of full-length APE1 and N-terminal truncated isoforms of APE1 in tumor tissue samples of various cancer types. However, primary tumor tissue has higher levels of acetylated APE1 (AcAPE1) as well as full-length APE1 compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. We found that APE1 is proteolytically cleaved by an unknown serine protease at its N-terminus following residue lysine (Lys) Lys6 and/or Lys7 and after Lys27 and Lys31 or Lys32. Acetylation of these Lys residues in APE1 prevents this proteolysis. The N-terminal domain of APE1 and its acetylation are required for modulation of the expression of hundreds of genes. Importantly, we found that AcAPE1 is essential for sustained cell proliferation. Together, our study demonstrates that increased acetylation levels of APE1 in tumor cells inhibit the limited N-terminal proteolysis of APE1 and thereby maintain the functions of APE1 to promote tumor cells' sustained proliferation and survival. PMID:26981776

  3. Hyperammonaemia in V1a vasopressin receptor knockout mice caused by the promoted proteolysis and reduced intrahepatic blood volume.

    PubMed

    Hiroyama, Masami; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko; Oshikawa, Sayuri; Sanbe, Atsushi; Endo, Fumio; Tanoue, Akito

    2007-06-15

    An analysis of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1a receptor-deficient (V1aR-/-) mice revealed that glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism were altered in the mutant mice. Here, we used V1aR-/- mice to investigate whether the deficiency of the V1a receptor, which led to altered insulin sensitivity, affected protein metabolism. The serum 3-methylhistidine levels were increased in V1aR-/- mice under feeding conditions, indicating that proteolysis was enhanced in muscle tissue from V1aR-/- mice. Furthermore, serum amino acid profiling revealed that the amino acid levels, including glycogenic and branched-chain amino acids, were reduced in V1aR-/- mice. In addition, an alanine-loading test showed that gluconeogenesis was enhanced in V1aR-/- mice. Blood ammonia, which is a by-product of amino acid catabolism, was two times higher in V1aR-/- mice without hepatopathy under the feeding and fasting conditions than in wild-type mice. Amino acid profiling also revealed that the amino acid pattern was not typical of a urea-cycle enzymatic disorder. An ammonia tolerance test and an indocyanine green elimination test showed that V1aR-/- mice had lower ammonia clearance due to a decreased intrahepatic circulating blood volume. Metabolic acidosis, including lactic- and keto-acidosis, was not observed in V1aR-/- mice. These results provide evidence that proteolysis promotes the production of glucose in the muscles of V1aR-/- mice and that hyperammonaemia is caused by promoted protein catabolism and reduced intrahepatic blood volume. Thus, our study with V1aR-/- mice indicates that AVP plays a physiological role via the V1a receptor in regulating both protein catabolism and glucose homeostasis. PMID:17379633

  4. Validated LC/MS Bioanalysis of Rituximab CDR Peptides Using Nano-surface and Molecular-Orientation Limited (nSMOL) Proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Noriko; Takanashi, Megumi; Hamada, Akinobu; Shimada, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Presently, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapeutics have big global sales and are starting to receive competition from biosimilars. We previously reported that the nano-surface and molecular-orientation limited (nSMOL) proteolysis which is optimal method for bioanalysis of antibody drugs in plasma. The nSMOL is a Fab-selective limited proteolysis, which utilize the difference of protease nanoparticle diameter (200 nm) and antibody resin pore diameter (100 nm). In this report, we have demonstrated that the full validation for chimeric antibody Rituximab bioanalysis in human plasma using nSMOL proteolysis. The immunoglobulin fraction was collected using Protein A resin from plasma, which was then followed by the nSMOL proteolysis using the FG nanoparticle-immobilized trypsin under a nondenaturing condition at 50°C for 6 h. After removal of resin and nanoparticles, Rituximab signature peptides (GLEWIGAIYPGNGDTSYNQK, ASGYTFTSYNMHWVK, and FSGSGSGTSYSLTISR) including complementarity-determining region (CDR) and internal standard P14R were simultaneously quantified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). This quantification of Rituximab using nSMOL proteolysis showed lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.586 µg/mL and linearity of 0.586 to 300 µg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precision of LLOQ, low quality control (LQC), middle quality control (MQC), and high quality control (HQC) was 5.45-12.9% and 11.8, 5.77-8.84% and 9.22, 2.58-6.39 and 6.48%, and 2.69-7.29 and 4.77%, respectively. These results indicate that nSMOL can be applied to clinical pharmacokinetics study of Rituximab, based on the precise analysis. PMID:27150271

  5. In vivo effect of an antilipolytic drug (3,5'-dimethylpyrazole) on autophagic proteolysis and autophagy-related gene expression in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Donati, Alessio; Ventruti, Annamaria; Cavallini, Gabriella; Masini, Matilde; Vittorini, Simona; Chantret, Isabelle; Codogno, Patrice; Bergamini, Ettore

    2008-02-15

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway induced by starvation, inhibited by nutrients, that is responsible for degradation of long-lived proteins and altered cell organelles. This process is involved in cell maintenance could be induced by antilipolytic drugs and may have anti-aging effects [A. Donati, The involvement of macroautophagy in aging and anti-aging interventions, Mol. Aspects Med. 27 (2006) 455-470]. We analyzed the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of an antilipolytic agent (3,5'-dimethylpyrazole, DMP, 12 mg/kg b.w.), that mimics nutrient shortage on autophagy and expression of autophagic genes in the liver of male 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley albino rats. Autophagy was evaluated by observing electron micrographs of the liver autophagosomal compartment and by monitoring protein degradation assessed by the release of valine into the bloodstream. LC3 gene expression, whose product is one of the best known markers of autophagy, was also monitored. As expected, DMP decreased the plasma levels of free fatty acids, glucose, and insulin and increased autophagic vacuoles and proteolysis. DMP treatment caused an increase in the expression of the LC3 gene although this occurred later than the induction of authophagic proteolysis caused by DMP. Glucose treatment rescued the effects caused by DMP on glucose and insulin plasma levels and negatively affected the rate of autophagic proteolysis, but did not suppress the positive regulatory effect on LC3 mRNA levels. In conclusion, antilipolytic drugs may induce both autophagic proteolysis and higher expression of an autophagy-related gene and the effect on autophagy gene expression might not be secondary to the stimulation of autophagic proteolysis.

  6. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 regulates proteolysis of centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4 and prevents its mislocalization to euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuni, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fulp, Alyona; Lawrimore, Josh; Au, Wei-Chun; Pasupala, Nagesh; Levy-Myers, Reuben; Warren, Jack; Strunnikov, Alexander; Baker, Richard E.; Kerscher, Oliver; Bloom, Kerry; Basrai, Munira A.

    2016-01-01

    Centromeric histone H3, CENP-ACse4, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Stringent regulation of cellular levels of CENP-ACse4 restricts its localization to centromeres. Mislocalization of CENP-ACse4 is associated with aneuploidy in yeast and flies and tumorigenesis in human cells; thus defining pathways that regulate CENP-A levels is critical for understanding how mislocalization of CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in human cancers. Previous work in budding yeast shows that ubiquitination of overexpressed Cse4 by Psh1, an E3 ligase, partially contributes to proteolysis of Cse4. Here we provide the first evidence that Cse4 is sumoylated by E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in vivo and in vitro. Ubiquitination of Cse4 by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 plays a critical role in proteolysis of Cse4 and prevents mislocalization of Cse4 to euchromatin under normal physiological conditions. Accumulation of sumoylated Cse4 species and increased stability of Cse4 in slx5∆ strains suggest that sumoylation precedes ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4. Slx5-mediated Cse4 proteolysis is independent of Psh1, since slx5∆ psh1∆ strains exhibit higher levels of Cse4 stability and mislocalization than either slx5∆ or psh1∆ strains. Our results demonstrate a role for Slx5 in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 to prevent its mislocalization and maintain genome stability. PMID:26960795

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolysis of the Myelin Basic Protein Isoforms Is a Source of Immunogenic Peptides in Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Savinov, Alexei Y.; Cieplak, Piotr; Ratnikov, Boris I.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in the fragmentation of myelin basic protein (MBP) and demyelination leading to autoimmune multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The classic MBP isoforms are predominantly expressed in the oligodendrocytes of the CNS. The splice variants of the single MBP gene (Golli-MBP BG21 and J37) are widely expressed in the neurons and also in the immune cells. The relative contribution of the individual MMPs to the MBP cleavage is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate which MMP plays the primary role in cleaving MBP, we determined the efficiency of MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MT3-MMP, MT4-MMP, MT5-MMP and MT6-MMP in the cleavage of the MBP, BG21 and J37 isoforms in the in vitro cleavage reactions followed by mass-spectroscopy analysis of the cleavage fragments. As a result, we identified the MMP cleavage sites and the sequence of the resulting fragments. We determined that MBP, BG21 and J37 are highly sensitive to redundant MMP proteolysis. MT6-MMP (initially called leukolysin), however, was superior over all of the other MMPs in cleaving the MBP isoforms. Using the mixed lymphocyte culture assay, we demonstrated that MT6-MMP proteolysis of the MBP isoforms readily generated, with a near quantitative yield, the immunogenic N-terminal 1–15 MBP peptide. This peptide selectively stimulated the proliferation of the PGPR7.5 T cell clone isolated from mice with EAE and specific for the 1–15 MBP fragment presented in the MHC H-2U context. Conclusions/Significance In sum, our biochemical observations led us to hypothesize that MT6-MMP, which is activated by furin and associated with the lipid rafts, plays an important role in MS pathology and that MT6-MMP is a novel and promising drug target in MS especially when compared with other individual MMPs. PMID:19300513

  8. Cytoplasmic domain of the beta-amyloid protein precursor of Alzheimer's disease: function, regulation of proteolysis, and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Megan L; Small, David H

    2005-04-15

    The beta-amyloid protein precursor (APP) has been extensively studied for its role in amyloid production and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the normal function of APP and its biological interactions. In this Mini-Review, the role of the cytoplasmic domain of APP in APP trafficking and proteolysis is described. These studies suggest that proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic domain may be important targets for drug development in AD. PMID:15672415

  9. Enhancement by heparin of thrombin-induced antithrombin III proteolysis: its relation to the molecular weight and anticoagulant activity of heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, E.; Gora-Maslak, G.

    1982-11-01

    Previous findings indicated that binding of heparin to antithrombin III (AT III) facilitates thrombin-induced proteolysis of the inhibitor. Researchers now studied this property of heparin in regard to its molecular weight and anticoagulant activity. Commercial heparin was resolved on Sephadex G-200 into six fractions of decreasing molecular weight. From each fraction high affinity (HA) heparin was isolated by chromatography on AT III-Sepharose and examined in reaction of alpha-thrombin with a molar excess of /sup 125/I AT III. Proteolysis of the inhibitor was assessed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the presence of the HA heparin from 18% to 38% of AT III participating in reaction appeared in the form of inactive 50,000-dalton fragment, as opposed to 7% of AT III fragmented in the absence of heparin. Although the ability to potentiate proteolysis was at its peak in the medium-molecular-size heparin fraction, the amount of degraded inhibitor relative to anticoagulant activity increased with decreasing molecular weight of the polysaccharide. These findings are consistent with the possibility that the ability of bound heparin to facilitate the cleavage of AT III by thrombin is generally less contingent upon secondary characteristics of the polysaccharide than the anticoagulant activity.

  10. Escherichia coli HflK and HflC can individually inhibit the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of lambdaCII in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Parua, Pabitra Kumar; Datta, Ajit Bikram; Parrack, Pradeep

    2010-09-15

    LambdaCII is the key protein that influences the lysis/lysogeny decision of lambda by activating several phage promoters. The effect of CII is modulated by a number of phage and host proteins including Escherichia coli HflK and HflC. These membrane proteins copurify as a tightly bound complex 'HflKC' that inhibits the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of CII both in vitro and in vivo. Individual purification of HflK and HflC has not been possible so far, since each requires the presence of the other for proper folding. We report the first purification of HflK and HflC separately as active and functional proteins and show that each can interact with HflB on its own and each inhibits the proteolysis of CII. They also inhibit the proteolysis of E. coli sigma(32) by HflB. We show that at low concentrations each protein is dimeric, based on which we propose a scheme for the mutual interactions of HflB, HflK and HflC in a supramolecular HflBKC protease complex. PMID:20599668

  11. Closing the cell cycle circle in yeast: G2 cyclin proteolysis initiated at mitosis persists until the activation of G1 cyclins in the next cycle.

    PubMed

    Amon, A; Irniger, S; Nasmyth, K

    1994-07-01

    It is thought that DNA replication and mitosis in yeast are triggered by oscillations in the level of G1-specific (CLN1 and CLN2) and G2-specific (CLB1-CLB4) cyclins, which determine the substrate specificity of the CDC28 protein kinase. It is not understood how the time and order of appearance of different cyclin types are determined. We show here that CLB2 proteolysis, which is important for transition from mitosis to G1, is not confined to a narrow window at the end of mitosis as previously thought but continues until reactivation of CDC28 by CLN cyclins toward the end of the subsequent G1 period. Thus, cell cycle-regulated proteolysis prevents accumulation of G2-specific CLB cyclins during G1 and thereby ensures that the CLN-associated forms of the CDC28 kinase are activated without interference from CLB cyclins. Accumulation of CLN cyclins leads to inactivation of CLB cyclin proteolysis, which is a precondition for subsequent activation of G2-specific B-type cyclins. PMID:8020094

  12. Secretion and proteolysis of heterologous proteins fused to the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Leung, Wilson; Yon, Amy; Nguyen, John; Perez, Vincent C; Vu, Jane; Giang, William; Luong, Linda T; Phan, Tracy; Salazar, Kate A; Gomez, Seth R; Au, Colin; Xiang, Fan; Thomas, David W; Franz, Andreas H; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2010-07-01

    The Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) has been utilized as a translational fusion partner to improve the expression of foreign proteins made in E. coli. When located N-terminal to its cargo protein, MBP increases the solubility of intracellular proteins and improves the export of secreted proteins in bacterial systems. We initially explored whether MBP would have the same effect in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, a popular eukaryotic host for heterologous protein expression. When MBP was fused as an N-terminal partner to several C-terminal cargo proteins expressed in this yeast, proteolysis occurred between the two peptides, and MBP reached the extracellular region unattached to its cargo. However, in two of three instances, the cargo protein reached the extracellular region as well, and its initial attachment to MBP enhanced its secretion from the cell. Extensive mutagenesis of the spacer region between MBP and its C-terminal cargo protein could not inhibit the cleavage although it did cause changes in the protease target sites in the fusion proteins, as determined by mass spectrometry. Taken together, these results suggested that an uncharacterized P. pastoris protease attacked at different locations in the region C-terminal of the MBP domain, including the spacer and cargo regions, but the MBP domain could still act to enhance the secretion of certain cargo proteins. PMID:20230898

  13. Physical and functional interaction between the α- and γ-secretases: A new model of regulated intramembrane proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Allen C.; Kim, Sumin; Shepardson, Nina; Patel, Sarvagna; Hong, Soyon

    2015-01-01

    Many single-transmembrane proteins are sequentially cleaved by ectodomain-shedding α-secretases and the γ-secretase complex, a process called regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). These cleavages are thought to be spatially and temporally separate. In contrast, we provide evidence for a hitherto unrecognized multiprotease complex containing both α- and γ-secretase. ADAM10 (A10), the principal neuronal α-secretase, interacted and cofractionated with γ-secretase endogenously in cells and mouse brain. A10 immunoprecipitation yielded γ-secretase proteolytic activity and vice versa. In agreement, superresolution microscopy showed that portions of A10 and γ-secretase colocalize. Moreover, multiple γ-secretase inhibitors significantly increased α-secretase processing (r = −0.86) and decreased β-secretase processing of β-amyloid precursor protein. Select members of the tetraspanin web were important both in the association between A10 and γ-secretase and the γ→α feedback mechanism. Portions of endogenous BACE1 coimmunoprecipitated with γ-secretase but not A10, suggesting that β- and α-secretases can form distinct complexes with γ-secretase. Thus, cells possess large multiprotease complexes capable of sequentially and efficiently processing transmembrane substrates through a spatially coordinated RIP mechanism. PMID:26694839

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RsdA provides a conformational rationale for selective regulation of σ-factor activity by proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Ravi K.; Prabha, Tangirala Surya; Manjeera, Gowravaram; Gopal, Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    The relative levels of different σ factors dictate the expression profile of a bacterium. Extracytoplasmic function σ factors synchronize the transcriptional profile with environmental conditions. The cellular concentration of free extracytoplasmic function σ factors is regulated by the localization of this protein in a σ/anti-σ complex. Anti-σ factors are multi-domain proteins with a receptor to sense environmental stimuli and a conserved anti-σ domain (ASD) that binds a σ factor. Here we describe the structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis anti-σD (RsdA) in complex with the -35 promoter binding domain of σD (σD4). We note distinct conformational features that enable the release of σD by the selective proteolysis of the ASD in RsdA. The structural and biochemical features of the σD/RsdA complex provide a basis to reconcile diverse regulatory mechanisms that govern σ/anti-σ interactions despite high overall structural similarity. Multiple regulatory mechanisms embedded in an ASD scaffold thus provide an elegant route to rapidly re-engineer the expression profile of a bacterium in response to an environmental stimulus. PMID:23314154

  15. A Brucella spp. Protease Inhibitor Limits Antigen Lysosomal Proteolysis, Increases Cross-Presentation, and Enhances CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Coria, Lorena M; Ibañez, Andrés E; Tkach, Mercedes; Sabbione, Florencia; Bruno, Laura; Carabajal, Marianela V; Berguer, Paula M; Barrionuevo, Paula; Schillaci, Roxana; Trevani, Analía S; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Pasquevich, Karina A; Cassataro, Juliana

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the unlipidated (U) outer membrane protein (Omp) 19 from Brucella spp. is a competitive inhibitor of human cathepsin L. U-Omp19 inhibits lysosome cathepsins and APC-derived microsome activity in vitro and partially inhibits lysosomal cathepsin L activity within live APCs. Codelivery of U-Omp19 with the Ag can reduce intracellular Ag digestion and increases Ag half-life in dendritic cells (DCs). U-Omp19 retains the Ag in Lamp-2(+) compartments after its internalization and promotes a sustained expression of MHC class I/peptide complexes in the cell surface of DCs. Consequently, U-Omp19 enhances Ag cross-presentation by DCs to CD8(+) T cells. U-Omp19 s.c. delivery induces the recruitment of CD11c(+)CD8α(+) DCs and monocytes to lymph nodes whereas it partially limits in vivo Ag proteolysis inside DCs. Accordingly, this protein is able to induce CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo against codelivered Ag. Antitumor responses were elicited after U-Omp19 coadministration, increasing survival of mice in a murine melanoma challenge model. Collectively, these results indicate that a cysteine protease inhibitor from bacterial origin could be a suitable component of vaccine formulations against tumors. PMID:27084100

  16. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Stromeck, Achim; Hu, Ying; Chen, Lingyun; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-02-23

    This study aimed to achieve the conversion of cereal proteins to the alternative end products glutamate or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Rye malt, fungal proteases, and lactobacilli were employed to convert wheat gluten or barley proteins. Glutamate and GABA formations were strain-dependent. Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 and Lactobacillus rossiae 34J accumulated glutamate; L. reuteri LTH5448 and LTH5795 accumulated GABA. Glutamate and GABA accumulation by L. reuteri TMW1.106 and LTH5448 increased throughout fermentation time over 96 h, respectively. Peptides rather than amino acids were the main products of proteolysis in all doughs, and barley proteins were more resistant to degradation by rye malt proteases than wheat gluten. However, addition of fungal protease resulted in comparable degradation of both substrates. Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment. PMID:21271723

  17. Dynamic regulation of FGF23 by Fam20C phosphorylation, GalNAc-T3 glycosylation, and furin proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Engel, James L.; Wiley, Sandra E.; Xiao, Junyu; Gonzalez, David J.; Nidumanda Appaiah, Hitesh; Koller, Antonius; Nizet, Victor; White, Kenneth E.; Dixon, Jack E.

    2014-01-01

    The family with sequence similarity 20, member C (Fam20C) has recently been identified as the Golgi casein kinase. Fam20C phosphorylates secreted proteins on Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs and loss-of-function mutations in the kinase cause Raine syndrome, an often-fatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Fam20C is potentially an upstream regulator of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), because humans with FAM20C mutations and Fam20C KO mice develop hypophosphatemia due to an increase in full-length, biologically active FGF23. However, the mechanism by which Fam20C regulates FGF23 is unknown. Here we show that Fam20C directly phosphorylates FGF23 on Ser180, within the FGF23 R176XXR179/S180AE subtilisin-like proprotein convertase motif. This phosphorylation event inhibits O-glycosylation of FGF23 by polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GalNAc-T3), and promotes FGF23 cleavage and inactivation by the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase furin. Collectively, our results provide a molecular mechanism by which FGF23 is dynamically regulated by phosphorylation, glycosylation, and proteolysis. Furthermore, our findings suggest that cross-talk between phosphorylation and O-glycosylation of proteins in the secretory pathway may be an important mechanism by which secreted proteins are regulated. PMID:24706917

  18. SCFCdc4 acts antagonistically to the PGC-1α transcriptional coactivator by targeting it for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brian L.; Hock, M. Benjamin; Ekholm-Reed, Susanna; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Dev, Kumlesh K.; Kralli, Anastasia; Reed, Steven I.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a highly regulated transcriptional coactivator that coordinates energy metabolism in mammals. Misregulation of PGC-1α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurological disorders. We identified SCFCdc4 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates PGC-1α through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. PGC-1α contains two Cdc4 phosphodegrons that bind Cdc4 when phosphorylated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β) and p38 MAPK, leading to SCFCdc4-dependent ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of PGC-1α. Furthermore, SCFCdc4 negatively regulates PGC-1α-dependent transcription. We demonstrate that RNAi-mediated reduction of Cdc4 in primary neurons results in an increase of endogenous PGC-1α protein, while ectopic expression of Cdc4 leads to a reduction of endogenous PGC-1α protein. Finally, under conditions of oxidative stress in neurons, Cdc4 levels are decreased, leading to an increase in PGC-1α protein and PGC-1α-dependent transcription. These results suggest that attenuation of SCFCdc4-dependent proteasomal degradation of PGC-1α has a role in mediating the PGC-1α-dependent transcriptional response to oxidative stress. PMID:18198341

  19. The proteolysis of mitotic cyclins in mammalian cells persists from the end of mitosis until the onset of S phase.

    PubMed

    Brandeis, M; Hunt, T

    1996-10-01

    We have studied how the cell cycle-specific oscillations of mitotic B-type cyclins are generated in mouse fibroblasts. A reporter enzyme comprising the N-terminus of a B-type cyclin fused to bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) was degraded at the end of mitosis like endogenous cyclins. Point mutations in the destruction box of this construct completely abolished its mitotic instability. When the destructible reporter was driven by the cyclin B2 promoter, CAT activity mimicked the oscillations in the level of the endogenous cyclin B2. These oscillations were largely conserved when the reporter was transcribed constitutively from the SV40 promoter. Pulse-chase experiments or addition of the proteasome inhibitors lactacystin and ALLN showed that cyclin synthesis continued after the end of mitosis. The destruction box-specific degradation of cyclins normally ceases at the onset of S phase, and is active in fibroblasts arrested in G0 and in differentiated C2 myoblasts. We were able to reproduce this proteolysis in vitro in extracts of synchronized cells. Extracts of G1 cells degraded cyclin B1 whereas p27Kip1 was stable, in contrast, cyclin B1 remained stable and p27Kip1 was degraded in extracts of S phase cells. PMID:8895573

  20. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  1. Suppression of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth by the Inhibitor K1-5 Generated by Plasmin-Mediated Proteolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Renhai; Wu, Hua-Lin; Veitonmaki, Niina; Linden, Philip; Farnebo, Jacob; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Cao, Yihai

    1999-05-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are involved in generation of a number of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. Previously, we reported that angiostatin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, is a protcolytic fragment containing the first four kringle modules of plasminogen. In this report, we demonstrate that urokinase-activated plasmin can process plasminogen to release an angiogenesis inhibitor, K1-5 (protease-activated kringles 1-5). K1-5 inhibits endothelial-cell proliferation with a half-maximal concentration of approximately 50 pM. This inhibitory effect is endothelial-cell-specific and appears to be at least approximately 50-fold greater than that of angiostatin. A synergistic efficacy of endothelial inhibition was observed when angiostatin and kringle 5 (K5) were coincubated with capillary endothelial cells. The synergistic effect is comparable to that produced by K1-5 alone. Systemic treatment of mice with K1-5 at a low dose significantly blocked the fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization, whereas angiostatin had no effect at the same dose. K1-5 also suppressed angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Systemic administration of K1-5 at a low dose at which angiostatin was ineffective significantly suppressed the growth of a murine T241 fibrosarcoma in mice. The antitumor effect correlates with the reduced neovascularization. These findings suggest that the plasmin-mediated proteolysis may be involved in the negative switch of angiogenesis.

  2. Limited Proteolysis Combined with Stable Isotope Labeling Reveals Conformational Changes in Protein (Pseudo)kinases upon Binding Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Di Michele, Michela; Stes, Elisabeth; Vandermarliere, Elien; Arora, Rohit; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; van Heerde, Erika; Zubarev, Roman; Bonnet, Pascal; Linders, Joannes T M; Jacoby, Edgar; Brehmer, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Gevaert, Kris

    2015-10-01

    Likely due to conformational rearrangements, small molecule inhibitors may stabilize the active conformation of protein kinases and paradoxically promote tumorigenesis. We combined limited proteolysis with stable isotope labeling MS to monitor protein conformational changes upon binding of small molecules. Applying this method to the human serine/threonine kinase B-Raf, frequently mutated in cancer, we found that binding of ATP or its nonhydrolyzable analogue AMP-PNP, but not ADP, stabilized the structure of both B-Raf(WT) and B-Raf(V600E). The ATP-competitive type I B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib and the type II inhibitor sorafenib stabilized the kinase domain (KD) but had distinct effects on the Ras-binding domain. Stabilization of the B-Raf(WT) KD was confirmed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results are further supported by cellular assays in which we assessed cell viability and phosphorylation profiles in cells expressing B-Raf(WT) or B-Raf(V600E) in response to vemurafenib or sorafenib. Our data indicate that an overall stabilization of the B-Raf structure by specific inhibitors activates MAPK signaling and increases cell survival, helping to explain clinical treatment failure. We also applied our method to monitor conformational changes upon nucleotide binding of the pseudokinase KSR1, which holds high potential for inhibition in human diseases. PMID:26293246

  3. Hyperosmotic Shock Engages Two Positive Feedback Loops through Caspase-3-dependent Proteolysis of JNK1-2 and Bid.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jicheng; Ben Messaoud, Nabil; López, José M

    2015-12-18

    Hyperosmotic shock induces early calpain activation, Smac/DIABLO release from the mitochondria, and p38/JNK activation in Xenopus oocytes. These pathways regulate late cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Here, we show that JNK1-1 and JNK1-2 are activated early by osmostress, and sustained activation of both isoforms accelerates the apoptotic program. When caspase-3 is activated, JNK1-2 is proteolyzed at Asp-385 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activity, thereby creating a positive feedback loop. Expression of Bcl-xL markedly reduces hyperosmotic shock-induced apoptosis. In contrast, expression of Bid induces rapid caspase-3 activation, even in the absence of osmostress, which is blocked by Bcl-xL co-expression. In these conditions a significant amount of Bid in the cytosol is mono- and bi-ubiquitinated. Caspase-3 activation by hyperosmotic shock induces proteolysis of Bid and mono-ubiquitinated Bid at Asp-52 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation, and thus creating a second positive feedback loop. Revealing the JNK isoforms and the loops activated by osmostress could help to design better treatments for human diseases caused by perturbations in fluid osmolarity. PMID:26511318

  4. Selective Oma1 protease-mediated proteolysis of Cox1 subunit of cytochrome oxidase in assembly mutants.

    PubMed

    Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Jeong, Mi-Young; Watts, Talina; Ferris, Elliott; Winge, Dennis R

    2012-03-01

    Stalled biogenesis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) complex results in degradation of subunits containing redox cofactors. The conserved Oma1 metalloproteinase mediates facile Cox1 degradation in cells lacking the Coa2 assembly factor, but not in a series of other mutants stalled in CcO maturation. Oma1 is activated in coa2Δ cells, but the selective Cox1 degradation does not arise merely from its activation. Oma1 is also active in cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and cox11Δ cells impaired in CcO maturation, but this activation does not result in Oma1-mediated Cox1 degradation. The facile and selective degradation of Cox1 in coa2Δ cells, relative to other CcO assembly mutants, is likely due to impaired hemylation and subsequent misfolding of the subunit. Specific Cox1 proteolysis in coa2Δ cells arises from a combination of Oma1 activation and a susceptible conformation of Cox1. PMID:22219186

  5. Selective proteolysis of apolipoprotein B-100 by Arg-gingipain mediates atherosclerosis progression accelerated by bacterial exposure.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Munetaka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest the association of periodontal infections with atherosclerosis, however, the mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the primary etiologic agent of adult periodontitis and produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases consisting of Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). To elucidate key mechanisms for progression of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection, we tested the effects of the disruption of genes encoding Rgp and/or Kgp and inhibitors specific for the respective enzymes on atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Repeated intravenous injection of wild-type P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in atherosclerotic lesions as well as an increase in the serum LDL cholesterol and a decrease of HDL cholesterol in these animals. LDL particles in P. gingivalis-injected animals were modified as a result of selective proteolysis of apoB-100 in LDL particles. This modification of LDL by P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in LDL uptake by macrophages and consequent foam cell formation in vitro. The atherosclerotic changes induced by P. gingivalis infection were attenuated by disruption of Rgp-encoding genes or by an Rgp-specific inhibitor. Our results indicate that degradation of apoB-100 by Rgp plays a crucial role in the promotion of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection. PMID:17030507

  6. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gina A.; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR–VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome–lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR–VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. PMID:26285805

  7. A microfluidic reactor for rapid, low-pressure proteolysis with on-chip electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Liuni, Peter; Rob, Tamanna; Wilson, Derek J

    2010-02-01

    A microfluidic reactor that enables rapid digestion of proteins prior to on-line analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is introduced. The device incorporates a wide (1.5 cm), shallow (10 microm) reactor 'well' that is functionalized with pepsin-agarose, a design that facilitates low-pressure operation and high clogging resistance. Electrospray ionization is carried out directly from a short metal capillary integrated into the chip outlet. Fabrication, involving laser ablation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), is exceedingly straightforward and inexpensive. High sequence coverage spectra of myoglobin (Mb), ubiquitin (Ub) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) digests were obtained after <4 s of residence time in the reactor. Stress testing showed little loss of performance over approximately 2 h continuous use at high flow rates (30 microL/min). The device provides a convenient platform for a range of applications in proteomics and structural biology, i.e. to enable high-throughput workflows or to limit back-exchange in spatially resolved hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. PMID:20049884

  8. Ste24p Mediates Proteolysis of Both Isoprenylated and Non-prenylated Oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Emily R; Arachea, Buenafe T; Wiener, Michael C; Schmidt, Walter K

    2016-07-01

    Rce1p and Ste24p are integral membrane proteins involved in the proteolytic maturation of isoprenylated proteins. Extensive published evidence indicates that Rce1p requires the isoprenyl moiety as an important substrate determinant. By contrast, we report that Ste24p can cleave both isoprenylated and non-prenylated substrates in vitro, indicating that the isoprenyl moiety is not required for substrate recognition. Steady-state enzyme kinetics are significantly different for prenylated versus non-prenylated substrates, strongly suggestive of a role for substrate-membrane interaction in protease function. Mass spectroscopy analyses identify a cleavage preference at bonds where P1' is aliphatic in both isoprenylated and non-prenylated substrates, although this is not necessarily predictive. The identified cleavage sites are not at a fixed distance position relative to the C terminus. In this study, the substrates cleaved by Ste24p are based on known isoprenylated proteins (i.e. K-Ras4b and the yeast a-factor mating pheromone) and non-prenylated biological peptides (Aβ and insulin chains) that are known substrates of the M16A family of soluble zinc-dependent metalloproteases. These results establish that the substrate profile of Ste24p is broader than anticipated, being more similar to that of the M16A protease family than that of the Rce1p CAAX protease with which it has been functionally associated. PMID:27129777

  9. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. PMID:22118069

  10. Therapeutic Approaches in Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Proteolysis, and Structural Alterations of Diaphragm and Gastrocnemius in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Esther; Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Marin-Corral, Judith; Chacón-Cabrera, Alba; Salazar-Degracia, Anna; Mateu, Xavier; Puente-Maestu, Luis; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Molina, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience exercise intolerance, fatigue and muscle wasting, which negatively influence their survival. We hypothesized that treatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib of rats with monocrotaline-induced CHF may restore inspiratory and limb muscle mass, function, and structure through several molecular mechanisms involved in protein breakdown and metabolism in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius. In these muscles of CHF-cachectic rats with and without treatment with NAC or bortezomib (N = 10/group) and non-cachectic controls, proteolysis (tyrosine release, proteasome activities, ubiquitin-proteasome markers), oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial function, myosin, NF-κB transcriptional activity, muscle structural abnormalities, and fiber morphometry were analyzed together with muscle and cardiac functions. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of CHF-cachectic rats, tyrosine release, proteasome activity, protein ubiquitination, atrogin-1, MURF-1, NF-κB activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and structural abnormalities were increased, while muscle and cardiac functions, myosin content, slow- and fast-twitch fiber sizes, and mitochondrial activity were decreased. Concomitant treatment of CHF-cachectic rats with NAC or bortezomib improved protein catabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle fiber sizes, function and damage, superoxide dismutase and myosin levels, mitochondrial function (complex I, gastrocnemius), cardiac function and decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity in both muscles. Treatment of CHF-cachectic animals with NAC or bortezomib attenuated the functional (heart, muscles), biological, and structural alterations in muscles. Nonetheless, future studies conducted in actual clinical settings are warranted in order to assess the potential beneficial effects and safety concerns of these pharmacological agents on muscle mass loss and wasting in