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Sample records for integrating voice synthesis

  1. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  2. Voice synthesis application

    SciTech Connect

    Lightstone, P.C.; Davidson, W.M.

    1982-01-27

    Selection of a speech synthesis system as an augmentation for a perimeter security device is described. Criteria used in selection of a system are discussed. The final system is a speech 1000 speech synthesizer board that has a 2000 word speech lexicon, a first time charge of $75 for a 32 K EPROM of custom words, and extra features such as an alternate command to adjust desired listening level.

  3. Limited vocabulary voice recognition and synthesis for HF communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    Since most military and commercial transmissions usually implement only a 256 word vocabulary for communications, then actual voice communications are not required, particularly in military jamming environments. The voice can be synthesized at the receiving end after transmission of a code sequence. A look-up table will suffice for synthesis of analog baseband signals. The system could also recognize the phonetic-letters-spelled-out (PLSO) system (e.g., Tango, Charley, Able, etc.). The technique permits HF utilization with an ionospheric hop and acceptable reception in all but very extreme jamming situations. It is noted that the simplified coding permits translation between operators who do not speak the same language.

  4. Mapping Phonetic Features for Voice-Driven Sound Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janer, Jordi; Maestre, Esteban

    In applications where the human voice controls the synthesis of musical instruments sounds, phonetics convey musical information that might be related to the sound of the imitated musical instrument. Our initial hypothesis is that phonetics are user- and instrument-dependent, but they remain constant for a single subject and instrument. We propose a user-adapted system, where mappings from voice features to synthesis parameters depend on how subjects sing musical articulations, i.e. note to note transitions. The system consists of two components. First, a voice signal segmentation module that automatically determines note-to-note transitions. Second, a classifier that determines the type of musical articulation for each transition based on a set of phonetic features. For validating our hypothesis, we run an experiment where subjects imitated real instrument recordings with their voice. Performance recordings consisted of short phrases of saxophone and violin performed in three grades of musical articulation labeled as: staccato, normal, legato. The results of a supervised training classifier (user-dependent) are compared to a classifier based on heuristic rules (user-independent). Finally, from the previous results we show how to control the articulation in a sample-concatenation synthesizer by selecting the most appropriate samples.

  5. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Socoró, Joan Claudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM) was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics. PMID:24587738

  6. Integrated voice/data protocols for satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cheng-Shong; Li, Victor O. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several integrated voice/data protocols for satellite channels are studied. The system consists of two types of traffic: voice calls which are blocked-calls-cleared and the data packets which may be stored when no channel is available. The voice calls are operated under a demand assignment protocol. Three different data protocols for data packets are introduced. Under Random Access Data (RAD), the Aloha random access scheme is used. Due to the nature of random access, the channel utilization is low. Under Demand Assignment Data (DAD), a demand assignment protocol is used to improve channel utilization. Since a satellite channel has long propagation delay, DAD may perform worse than RAD. The two protocols are combined to obtain a new protocol called Hybrid Data (HD). The proposed protocols are fully distributed and no central controller is required. Numerical results show that HD enjoys a lower delay than DAD and provides a much higher channel capacity than RAD. The effects of fixed and movable boundaries are compared in partitioning the total frequency band to voice and data users.

  7. Integrity in Postgraduate Research: The Student Voice.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Saadia; Bretag, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    There is a limited understanding of the student perspective of integrity in postgraduate research. This is of concern given that 'research trainees' may have a vulnerable position in formal investigations of research misconduct. This paper analyses qualitative data drawn from an Australian online academic integrity survey in a mixed methods research study. This analysis complements the quantitative survey data analysed earlier and sought to explore factors contributing to postgraduate research students' satisfaction with policy and process, the ways institutions can support students' understandings and practice, suggestions for improving breach processes, and students' concerns. We found that integrity training and modelling of ethical behaviour by staff were key factors contributing to students' satisfaction. Students would have liked more 'hands-on' integrity training, accompanied by consistent and transparent enforcement of policy. Respondents expressed concern about the credibility of research output and educational standards. We call for recommendations from the extensive literature on academic integrity policy and practice to be extended to the postgraduate research sphere. PMID:25488333

  8. Teachers' Voices on Integrating Metacognition into Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Adi; Orion, Nir

    2013-12-01

    This study is an attempt to gain new insight, on behalf of science teachers, into the integration of metacognition (MC) into science education. Participants were 44 elementary school science teachers attending an in-service teacher-training (INST) program. Data collection was carried out by several data sources: recordings of all verbal discussions that took place during the program, teachers' written reflections, and semi-structured individual interviews. Our study provides a qualitative analysis of the 44 teachers' voices as a group, as well as a detailed case-study narrative analysis of three teachers' stories The findings show that the teachers' intuitive (pre-instructional) thinking was incomplete and unsatisfactory and their voices were skeptical and against the integration of MC. After teachers had mastered the notion of MC in the INST program, the following outcomes have been identified: (a) teachers expressed amazement at how such an important and relevant issue had been almost invisible to them; (b) teachers identified the affective character of metacognitive experiences as the most significant facet of MC, which acts as a mediator between teaching and learning; (c) the complete lack of learning materials addressing MC and the absence of supportive in-classroom guidance were identified as the major obstacles for its implementation; (d) teachers expressed a willingness to continue their professional development toward expanding their abilities to integrate MC as an inseparable component of the science curriculum. The implications of the findings for professional development courses in the field of MC are discussed.

  9. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  10. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  11. An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Eric M.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

  12. Proposed study to determine potential flight applications and human factors design guidelines of voice recognition/synthesis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An effort to evaluate the human factors aspects and potential of voice recognition/synthesis techniques and the application of present and near-future (5 years) voice recognition/synthesis systems as a pilot/aircraft cockpit interface capability in an operational environment is discussed. The analysis will emphasize applications for single pilot instrument flight rules operations but will also include applications for other categories of aircraft with various levels of complexity.

  13. Integration of faces and voices, but not faces and names, in person recognition.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Christiane; Newell, Fiona N

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on cross-modal recognition suggest that face and voice information are linked for the purpose of person identification. We tested whether congruent associations between familiarized faces and voices facilitated subsequent person recognition relative to incongruent associations. Furthermore, we investigated whether congruent face and name associations would similarly benefit person identification relative to incongruent face and name associations. Participants were familiarized with a set of talking video-images of actors, their names, and their voices. They were then tested on their recognition of either the face, voice, or name of each actor from bimodal stimuli which were either congruent or novel (incongruent) associations between the familiarized face and voice or face and name. We found that response times to familiarity decisions based on congruent face and voice stimuli were facilitated relative to incongruent associations. In contrast, we failed to find a benefit for congruent face and name pairs. Our findings suggest that faces and voices, but not faces and names, are integrated in memory for the purpose of person recognition. These findings have important implications for current models of face perception and support growing evidence for multisensory effects in face perception areas of the brain for the purpose of person recognition. PMID:22229775

  14. Voice, Genre, and Intentionality: An Integrated Methods Study of Voice Criteria in the Evaluation of Secondary Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Jill V.

    2010-01-01

    "Voice" is widely considered to be a feature of effective writing. It's no surprise, then, that voice criteria frequently appear on rubrics used to score student essays in large-scale writing assessments. However, composition theorists hold vastly different views regarding voice and how it should be applied in the evaluation of student writing, if…

  15. Hearing facial identities: brain correlates of face--voice integration in person identification.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C

    2011-10-01

    Audiovisual integration (AVI) is a well-known aspect of speech perception, but integration of facial and vocal information is also important for speaker recognition. We recently demonstrated AVI in the recognition of familiar (but not unfamiliar) speakers. Specifically, systematic behavioural benefits and costs in recognizing a familiar voice occur when the voice is combined with a time-synchronised articulating face of corresponding or noncorresponding speaker identity, respectively (Schweinberger et al., 2007; Robertson and Schweinberger, 2010). Here we report an experiment assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in this novel paradigm, while participants recognized familiar speakers presented in (1) Voice only, (2) voice with identity-corresponding and (3) noncorresponding time-synchronised speaking faces, as well as (4) Face only conditions. Audiovisual speaker identity correspondence influenced only later ERPs around 250-600 msec, with increased negativity for noncorresponding identities at central electrodes. Strikingly, when compared with the ERPs from both unimodal conditions, both audiovisual conditions led to a much earlier onset of frontocentral negativity, with maximal differences around 50-80 msec. Moreover, audiovisual stimuli elicited larger N170 responses than Face only stimuli. These findings suggest that the perception of a voice and a time-synchronised articulating face triggers remarkably early and mandatory mechanisms of audiovisual processing, although the correspondence or discrepancy in audiovisual speaker identity may only be computed ∼200msec later. PMID:21208611

  16. A Software Defined Integrated T1 Digital Network for Voice, Data and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James R.

    The Dallas County Community College District developed and implemented a strategic plan for communications that utilizes a county-wide integrated network to carry voice, data, and video information to nine locations within the district. The network, which was installed and operational by March 1987, utilizes microwave, fiber optics, digital cross…

  17. Dissociating task difficulty from incongruence in face-voice emotion integration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Rebecca; Latinus, Marianne; Noguchi, Takao; Garrod, Oliver; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In the everyday environment, affective information is conveyed by both the face and the voice. Studies have demonstrated that a concurrently presented voice can alter the way that an emotional face expression is perceived, and vice versa, leading to emotional conflict if the information in the two modalities is mismatched. Additionally, evidence suggests that incongruence of emotional valence activates cerebral networks involved in conflict monitoring and resolution. However, it is currently unclear whether this is due to task difficulty—that incongruent stimuli are harder to categorize—or simply to the detection of mismatching information in the two modalities. The aim of the present fMRI study was to examine the neurophysiological correlates of processing incongruent emotional information, independent of task difficulty. Subjects were scanned while judging the emotion of face-voice affective stimuli. Both the face and voice were parametrically morphed between anger and happiness and then paired in all audiovisual combinations, resulting in stimuli each defined by two separate values: the degree of incongruence between the face and voice, and the degree of clarity of the combined face-voice information. Due to the specific morphing procedure utilized, we hypothesized that the clarity value, rather than incongruence value, would better reflect task difficulty. Behavioral data revealed that participants integrated face and voice affective information, and that the clarity, as opposed to incongruence value correlated with categorization difficulty. Cerebrally, incongruence was more associated with activity in the superior temporal region, which emerged after task difficulty had been accounted for. Overall, our results suggest that activation in the superior temporal region in response to incongruent information cannot be explained simply by task difficulty, and may rather be due to detection of mismatching information between the two modalities. PMID:24294196

  18. Study to determine potential flight applications and human factors design guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. W.; Parks, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential commercial aircraft flight deck applications and implementation guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis. At first, a survey of voice recognition and synthesis technology was undertaken to develop a working knowledge base. Then, numerous potential aircraft and simulator flight deck voice applications were identified and each proposed application was rated on a number of criteria in order to achieve an overall payoff rating. The potential voice recognition applications fell into five general categories: programming, interrogation, data entry, switch and mode selection, and continuous/time-critical action control. The ratings of the first three categories showed the most promise of being beneficial to flight deck operations. Possible applications of voice synthesis systems were categorized as automatic or pilot selectable and many were rated as being potentially beneficial. In addition, voice system implementation guidelines and pertinent performance criteria are proposed. Finally, the findings of this study are compared with those made in a recent NASA study of a 1995 transport concept.

  19. Novel techniques for the analysis of wireless integrated voice/data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E.; Barnhart, Craig M.; Ephremides, Anthony

    1995-07-01

    In this report, we consider the evaluation of data-packet delay in wireless integrated voice data networks. In networks that support circuit-switched voice, the voice occupancy process satisfies a product-form solution under reasonable modeling assumptions. Although this product-form solution provides an accurate characterization of equilibrium voice-traffic behavior, it does not directly provide a method to evaluate data-packet delay. However, examination of each link separately in a manner that incorporates interaction with the rest of the network permits us to take advantage of the wireless nature of the network and obtain a three-flow characterization of each link, which also satisfies a product-form solution and is hence termed a 'mini-product-form' solution. By matching the values of these flows to the average values obtained from the product-form solution of the entire network, we obtain a three-dimensional Markov chain characterization of the voice occupancy state on the link, which permits a simpler evaluation of data-packet delay. A further reduction is possible by converting the three-dimensional chain to a single-dimensional one. Performance results demonstrate that these models provide satisfactory delay estimates that also appear to be upper bounds on delay.

  20. Scientific bases of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, R W

    1995-01-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines. PMID:7479802

  1. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  2. Teachers' Voices on Integrating Metacognition into Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Adi; Orion, Nir

    2013-01-01

    This study is an attempt to gain new insight, on behalf of science teachers, into the integration of metacognition (MC) into science education. Participants were 44 elementary school science teachers attending an in-service teacher-training (INST) program. Data collection was carried out by several data sources: recordings of all verbal…

  3. Children's Literature in an Integrated Curriculum: The Authentic Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Bette, Ed.; Guth, Nancy DeVries, Ed.

    This book, a collection of essays on teaching, first explains the theoretical foundations of a collaborative, integrated, literature-based curriculum, and then links the theory to real-life accounts in individual chapters. The book shows how to put theory into practice by selecting appropriate books, creating an interactive classroom environment,…

  4. Monkeys and Humans Share a Common Computation for Face/Voice Integration

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Trubanova, Andrea; Gondan, Matthias; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech production involves the movement of the mouth and other regions of the face resulting in visual motion cues. These visual cues enhance intelligibility and detection of auditory speech. As such, face-to-face speech is fundamentally a multisensory phenomenon. If speech is fundamentally multisensory, it should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication: similar behavioral effects should be observed in other primates. Old World monkeys share with humans vocal production biomechanics and communicate face-to-face with vocalizations. It is unknown, however, if they, too, combine faces and voices to enhance their perception of vocalizations. We show that they do: monkeys combine faces and voices in noisy environments to enhance their detection of vocalizations. Their behavior parallels that of humans performing an identical task. We explored what common computational mechanism(s) could explain the pattern of results we observed across species. Standard explanations or models such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and a “race” model failed to account for their behavior patterns. Conversely, a “superposition model”, positing the linear summation of activity patterns in response to visual and auditory components of vocalizations, served as a straightforward but powerful explanatory mechanism for the observed behaviors in both species. As such, it represents a putative homologous mechanism for integrating faces and voices across primates. PMID:21998576

  5. ISSYS: An integrated synergistic Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovi, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated Synergistic Synthesis System (ISSYS), an integrated system of computer codes in which the sequence of program execution and data flow is controlled by the user, is discussed. The commands available to exert such control, the ISSYS major function and rules, and the computer codes currently available in the system are described. Computational sequences frequently used in the aircraft structural analysis and synthesis are defined. External computer codes utilized by the ISSYS system are documented. A bibliography on the programs is included.

  6. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  7. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  8. Voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Amit; McLoud, Theresa C

    2003-07-01

    Voice recognition represents one of the new technologies that are changing the practice of radiology. Thirty percent of radiology practices are either currently or plan to have voice recognition (VR) systems. VR software encompasses 4 core processes: spoken recognition of human speech, synthesis of human readable characters into speech, speaker identification and verification, and comprehension. Many software packages are available offering VR. All these packages should contain an interface with the radiology information system. The benefits include decreased turnaround time and cost savings. Its advantages include the transfer of secretarial duties to the radiologist with a result in decreased productivity. PMID:12867815

  9. Design and implementation of a microprocessor controlled integrated voice communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. J.; Moore, T. R.

    The effects of implementation of microprocessors and LSI circuits to produce a new generation of integrated voice communications systems (IVCS) are explored. The IVCS includes a headset as a loudspeaker and function keys for communications over various facilities. The design concept integrates radio and telephone communications channels, push button circuit selection, push-to-talk switches, a loudspeaker in the console, and intercom dialing capability. No single component failure is permitted to make the entire system inoperative, and hard-wiring is eliminated. Additionally, rewiring is ameliorated by the flexible nature of LSI. Block diagrams are provided for the circuitry of the system, which is intended for use in ATC, air defense networks, C3 applications, public safety, police and fire systems, and corporate communications.

  10. The professional voice.

    PubMed

    Benninger, M S

    2011-02-01

    The human voice is not only the key to human communication but also serves as the primary musical instrument. Many professions rely on the voice, but the most noticeable and visible are singers. Care of the performing voice requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the anatomy and physiology of voice production, along with an awareness of the interrelationships between vocalisation, acoustic science and non-vocal components of performance. This review gives an overview of the care and prevention of professional voice disorders by describing the unique and integrated anatomy and physiology of singing, the roles of development and training, and the importance of the voice care team. PMID:21029501

  11. Two-dimensional model of vocal fold vibration for sound synthesis of voice and soprano singing.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Seiji; Yu, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Voiced sounds were simulated with a computer model of the vocal fold composed of a single mass vibrating both parallel and perpendicular to the airflow. Similarities with the two-mass model are found in the amplitudes of the glottal area and the glottal volume flow velocity, the variation in the volume flow waveform with the vocal tract shape, and the dependence of the oscillation amplitude upon the average opening area of the glottis, among other similar features. A few dissimilarities are also found in the more symmetric glottal and volume flow waveforms in the rising and falling phases. The major improvement of the present model over the two-mass model is that it yields a smooth transition between oscillations with an inductive load and a capacitive load of the vocal tract with no sudden jumps in the vibration frequency. Self-excitation is possible both below and above the first formant frequency of the vocal tract. By taking advantage of the wider continuous frequency range, the two-dimensional model can successfully be applied to the sound synthesis of a high-pitched soprano singing, where the fundamental frequency sometimes exceeds the first formant frequency. PMID:15957788

  12. Two-dimensional model of vocal fold vibration for sound synthesis of voice and soprano singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Seiji; Yu, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Voiced sounds were simulated with a computer model of the vocal fold composed of a single mass vibrating both parallel and perpendicular to the airflow. Similarities with the two-mass model are found in the amplitudes of the glottal area and the glottal volume flow velocity, the variation in the volume flow waveform with the vocal tract shape, and the dependence of the oscillation amplitude upon the average opening area of the glottis, among other similar features. A few dissimilarities are also found in the more symmetric glottal and volume flow waveforms in the rising and falling phases. The major improvement of the present model over the two-mass model is that it yields a smooth transition between oscillations with an inductive load and a capacitive load of the vocal tract with no sudden jumps in the vibration frequency. Self-excitation is possible both below and above the first formant frequency of the vocal tract. By taking advantage of the wider continuous frequency range, the two-dimensional model can successfully be applied to the sound synthesis of a high-pitched soprano singing, where the fundamental frequency sometimes exceeds the first formant frequency. .

  13. HMM-Based Style Control for Expressive Speech Synthesis with Arbitrary Speaker's Voice Using Model Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Takashi; Tachibana, Makoto; Kobayashi, Takao

    This paper presents methods for controlling the intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles of an arbitrary speaker's synthetic speech by using a small amount of his/her speech data in HMM-based speech synthesis. Model adaptation approaches are introduced into the style control technique based on the multiple-regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM). Two different approaches are proposed for training a target speaker's MRHSMMs. The first one is MRHSMM-based model adaptation in which the pretrained MRHSMM is adapted to the target speaker's model. For this purpose, we formulate the MLLR adaptation algorithm for the MRHSMM. The second method utilizes simultaneous adaptation of speaker and style from an average voice model to obtain the target speaker's style-dependent HSMMs which are used for the initialization of the MRHSMM. From the result of subjective evaluation using adaptation data of 50 sentences of each style, we show that the proposed methods outperform the conventional speaker-dependent model training when using the same size of speech data of the target speaker.

  14. An integrated voice and data multiple-access scheme for a land-mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, V. O. K.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study is performed of the satellite requirements for a land mobile satellite system (LMSS). The spacecraft (MSAT-X) would be in GEO and would be compatible with multiple access by mobile radios and antennas and fixed stations. The FCC has received a petition from NASA to reserve the 821-825 and 866-870 MHz frequencies for the LMSS, while communications with fixed earth stations would be in the Ku band. MSAT-X transponders would alter the frequencies of signal and do no processing in the original configuration considered. Channel use would be governed by an integrated demand-assigned, multiple access protocol, which would divide channels into reservation and information channels, governed by a network management center. Further analyses will cover tradeoffs between data and voice users, probability of blocking, and the performance impacts of on-board switching and variable bandwidth assignment. Initial calculations indicate that a large traffic volume can be handled with acceptable delays and voice blocking probabilities.

  15. Performance evaluation of multi-access strategies for an integrated voice/data CDMA packet radio network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraniotis, Evaggelos; Soroushnejad, Mohsen

    1990-11-01

    The problem of voice/data integration in a random-access radio network employing the ALOHA protocol in conjunction with retransmission control is investigated. Channel-access control strategies are introduced that take advantage of the capability of the code-division multiple-access (CDMA) channel to accommodate several voice calls simultaneously, while the data users contend for the remaining (if any) multiple-access capability of that channel. The retransmission probabilities of the backlogged data users are updated based on estimates of data backlog and number of established voice calls, which are obtained from the side information about the state of channel activities. A two-dimensional Markovian model is developed for the voice and data traffic. Based on this model, the voice-call blocking probability, the throughput of both traffic types, and the delay of the data packets are evaluated and the tradeoffs between the parameters of different traffic types are quantified. It is observed that by taking advantage of the multiple-access capability of the CDMA channel in the control of data traffic, we may achieve movable-boundary channel access in the code domain.

  16. A local vector coding for high-quality voice analysis/synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masashi; Yano, Masafumi

    2005-09-01

    Line-type spectrum is observed in frequency responses for voiced sound. The spectrum can be characterized by physical parameters: instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase for each component. It is difficult to estimate these parameters for natural utterances accurately by power spectrogram because the sound is usually unstationary. A new method, termed local vector coding (LVC), has been proposed to analyze these sounds. LVC assumes that the time-varying parameters for the input sound can be approximated by simple quadratic functions in a short analysis window. Utilizing the phase responses, LVC can estimate not only instantaneous amplitude and frequency for each component of the input but also their time derivatives. The validity of LVC method is examined by using naturally uttered voiced speech. The averaged estimation errors, defined by the differences between the input and resynthesized signals, are lower than 30 dB of the input energy. It indicates that LVC method is very useful for analyzing natural sounds. In addition, since the parameters of each component obtained by LVC method characterize the vowel quality, any kind of voice can be synthesized/transformed by changing each parameter independently, such as a voice of a male adult to a female voice.

  17. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  18. A Comparison of Writing Instruction Using Word Processing, Word Processing with Voice Synthesis, and No Word Processing in Kindergarten and First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Ruth J.; Kurth, Lila M.

    A study was conducted in which word processing and voice synthesis were used to teach beginning writing skills to kindergarten and first grade students. Subjects, 46 children from two elementary schools enrolled in an early education summer school class in writing, were randomly divided into three groups. One group was taught writing using a…

  19. Development of an integrated Sasang constitution diagnosis method using face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire information

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which differ in inherited characteristics, such as external appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to particular diseases, drug responses, and equilibrium among internal organ functions. According to SCM, herbs that belong to a certain constitution cannot be used in patients with other constitutions; otherwise, this practice may result in no effect or in an adverse effect. Thus, the diagnosis of SC type is the most crucial step in SCM practice. The diagnosis, however, tends to be subjective due to a lack of quantitative standards for SC diagnosis. Methods We have attempted to make the diagnosis method as objective as possible by basing it on an analysis of quantitative data from various Oriental medical clinics. Four individual diagnostic models were developed with multinomial logistic regression based on face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. Inspired by SCM practitioners’ holistic diagnostic processes, an integrated diagnostic model was then proposed by combining the four individual models. Results The diagnostic accuracies in the test set, after the four individual models had been integrated into a single model, improved to 64.0% and 55.2% in the male and female patient groups, respectively. Using a cut-off value for the integrated SC score, such as 1.6, the accuracies increased by 14.7% in male patients and by 4.6% in female patients, which showed that a higher integrated SC score corresponded to a higher diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions This study represents the first trial of integrating the objectification of SC diagnosis based on quantitative data and SCM practitioners’ holistic diagnostic processes. Although the diagnostic accuracy was not great, it is noted that the proposed diagnostic model represents common rules among

  20. Ridge 2000 Data Integration and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S.; Blackman, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Ridge 2000 (R2K) program is transitioning toward an increased emphasis on integration and synthesis of data acquired on multi-disciplinary expeditions focused on understanding the geo-biological processes associated with hydrothermal systems on mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This phase of the program will focus not only on the compilation of existing data, but also on integration of results across disciplines, and development of models that examine the linkages between spreading, hydrothermal, and ecosystem processes. During this phase of the program, data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system will be important to achieve a more holistic understanding of MOR processes and how they relate to the Ridge 2000 data sets from each Integrated Study Site (ISS). A series of workshops were held in Fall 2008 to bring together researchers from each ISS to help coordinate the integration and synthesis phase of the program. While most cruises conducted during the R2K program have been cataloged and basic metadata made available through R2K Data Portal (http://www.marine- geo.org/ridge2000), additional data, including derived and interpreted data sets from R2K-funded expeditions and other ridge-related expeditions are important to make available during this phase in the program. Once data are available, a variety of data access and visualization tools including GeoMapApp, Google Earth, and IVS-Fledermaus can be used to help coordinate analysis and integration efforts. We focus on highlighting potential scientific applications made possible with currently available software tools, and report on the R2K community feedback and utilization of data bases and visualization tools brought to light during the Fall 2008 workshops. geo.org/ridge2000

  1. The Integration of Voice and Dance Techniques in Musical Theatre: Anatomical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennie

    2015-06-01

    Musical theatre performers are required to be proficient in the three artistic disciplines of dancing, singing, and acting, although in today's modern productions, there is often a requirement to incorporate other skills such as acrobatics and the playing of an instrument. This article focuses on the issues faced by performers when dancing and voicing simultaneously, as it is between these two disciplines where we see the greatest pedagogical divide in terms of breath management and muscle recruitment patterns. The traditional teaching methods of dance and voice techniques are examined, areas of conflict highlighted, and solutions proposed through an exploration of the relevant anatomy. PMID:26046610

  2. Borderline Space for Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  3. Integrating Voice into the School Network: Benefits of Wireless VoIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatland, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Voice Communications are critical for the proper functioning of primary, secondary and higher education environments. At the K-12 level, teachers and staff must be able to communicate with each other between classrooms and the school office. Also, teachers often need to communicate between schools within a district as well as with the district…

  4. Theatre Voice Training and Technology in Teaching Oral Skills: Integrating the Components of a Speech Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.; Sonchaeng, Chayawan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a sequence of specific techniques and examples for implementing theatre voice training and technology in teaching ESL/EFL oral skills. A layered approach is proposed based on information processing theory in which the focus of learner attention is shifted in stages from the physiological to the linguistic and then to the…

  5. Integrating Youth Voice in Service-Learning. Learning in Deed Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Linda; Kaplan, Eve; Zeisler, Jennifer

    Researchers have found that high-quality service learning programs are rich with benefits for schools, communities, and students. One hallmark of successful service learning programs is that they honor youth voice (meaning that they include young people in the creation and implementation of service opportunities). Elementary, middle, and high…

  6. Learning [Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauberer, Joshua Ian

    2010-01-01

    The [voice] distinction between homorganic stops and fricatives is made by a number of acoustic correlates including voicing, segment duration, and preceding vowel duration. The present work looks at [voice] from a number of multidimensional perspectives. This dissertation's focus is a corpus study of the phonetic realization of [voice] in two…

  7. Usage of the HMM-Based Speech Synthesis for Intelligent Arabic Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Tamer S.; Khalil, Awad H.; Hegazy, Abd El-Fatah A.

    2008-06-01

    The HMM as a suitable model for time sequence modeling is used for estimation of speech synthesis parameters, A speech parameter sequence is generated from HMMs themselves whose observation vectors consists of spectral parameter vector and its dynamic feature vectors. HMMs generate cepstral coefficients and pitch parameter which are then fed to speech synthesis filter named Mel Log Spectral Approximation (MLSA), this paper explains how this approach can be applied to the Arabic language to produce intelligent Arabic speech synthesis using the HMM-Based Speech Synthesis and the influence of using of the dynamic features and the increasing of the number of mixture components on the quality enhancement of the Arabic speech synthesized.

  8. Physiological attributes of vocal fatigue and their acoustic effects: a synthesis of findings for a criterion-based prevention of acquired voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Victor J; Ayad, Tareck

    2010-05-01

    The lack of a physiological definition of "vocal fatigue" is a central problem in prevention research that seeks to identify effects of voice effort and acoustic signs of potential vocal fold lesions. This report presents a three-part synthesis of electromyographic (EMG) and acoustic observations from a study that served to define physiological features of vocal fatigue. The study used a technique of EMG to show that, contrary to views that laryngeal tissues are largely nonfatiguable, voice effort induces spectral compression in the contraction potentials of glottal adductors typically associated with muscle fatigue. In subsequent analyses, these observable attributes served to identify, in seven subjects with widely differing profiles, consistent signs of voice tremor and effects of vocal loading on the voice apparatus. Given the novel character of this criterion-based approach, the first part (section "The Rationale of Electromyographic Observations of Fatigue") describes the EMG technique and its usefulness in observing in vivo effects of vocal loading. The second part (section "Acoustic Signs of Fatigue in Muscles Involved in Voicing") summarizes the results of a test that served to determine whether the identified signs of tremor reflect muscle fatigue induced by voice effort or by "general fatigue" associated with waking hours. The third part (section "Compensatory Stabilization of Tremor and Effects of 'Critical Fatigue'") presents the results of analyses of compensatory effects in three laryngeal muscles by reference to EMG observations of one subject in conditions of vocal loading. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of an approach based on objective criterion changes in muscle fatigue and show that valid tremor signs may, nonetheless, be sporadic, given the varying compensatory behavior of muscles in fatiguing conditions. PMID:19321298

  9. Music 4C, a multi-voiced synthesis program with instruments defined in C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    2003-04-01

    Music 4C is a program which runs under Unix (including Linux) and provides a means for the synthesis of arbitrary signals as defined by the C code. The program is actually a loose translation of an earlier program, Music 4BF [H. S. Howe, Jr., Electronic Music Synthesis (Norton, 1975)]. A set of instrument definitions are driven by a numerical score which consists of a series of ``events.'' Each event gives an instrument name, start time and duration, and a number of parameters (e.g., pitch) which describe the event. Each instrument definition consists of event parameters, performance variables, initializations, and a synthesis algorithmic code. Thus, the synthetic signal, no matter how complex, is precisely defined. Moreover, the resulting sounds can be overlaid in any arbitrary pattern. The program serves as a mixer of algorithmically produced sounds or recorded sounds taken from sample files or synthesized from spectrum files. A score file can be entered by hand, generated from a program, translated from a MIDI file, or generated from an alpha-numeric score using an auxiliary program, Notepro. Output sample files are in wav, snd, or aiff format. The program is provided in the C source code for download.

  10. Seeking Synthesis: An Integration Exercise for Teaching Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson plan on achieving synthesis, the integration of diverse information sources to create a new whole, vital to the intellectual task of the geographer. This is true regardless of the type of geography being conducted or studied. Synthesis remains central to geography, whether understanding a region, pulling together an…

  11. Every Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where students…

  12. Synthesis of monolithic graphene-graphite integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, Sungwoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-02-01

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems with functions defined by synthesis. Graphene has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous metal catalysts permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with a controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from the synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality through chemical synthesis and suggest the future promise of one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics.

  13. Synthesis of monolithic graphene – graphite integrated electronics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, SungWoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems1 with functions defined by synthesis2-6. Graphene7-12 has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication13-20. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically-integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous catalyst metals permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferrable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing, and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent a substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality via chemical synthesis and suggest future promise for one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics. PMID:22101813

  14. Overview of requirements and networks for voice communications and speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    The use of voice for military and civil communications are discussed. The military operational requirements are outlined in relation to air operations, including the effects of propagational factors and electronic warfare. Structures of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) are reviewed to show how they meet the requirements. It is concluded that speech coding at low-bit rates is a growing need for transmitting speech messages with a high level of security and reliability over low data-rate channels and for memory-efficient systems for voice storage, voice response, and voice mail. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the low-bit rate voice coding can ease the transition to shared channels for voice and data and can readily adopt voice messages for packet switching. The speech processing techniques and systems are then outlined as an introduction to the lectures of this series in terms of: the character of the speech signal, its generation and perception; speech coding which is mainly concerned with man-to-man voice communication; speech synthesis which deals with machine-to-man communication; speech recognition which is related to man-to-machine communication; and quality assessment of speech system and standards.

  15. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  16. Using Your Inner Voice to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.; Walcott, Crystal Y.; Kastberg, Signe E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a tool teachers can use to analyze student work and provides activity suggestions to guide instruction based on their findings. By integrating the voice of the child and the voice of the discipline, teachers can use their inner voice to build a model of the child's understanding. (Contains 8 figures.)

  17. "Listen to the Voice of Reason": The "New Orleans Tribune" as Advocate for Public, Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Kristi Richard; Hendry, Petra Munro

    2015-01-01

    The "New Orleans Tribune" (1864-1870), the first black daily newspaper in the United States, was the singular text in the public South at its time to staunchly advocate for public, integrated education, anticipating the ruling of "Brown v. Board of Education," and arguing that separate education would always be synonymous with…

  18. A Voice for White Society: The Role of "The Virginia Gazette" during School Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul

    The limited coverage of blacks in "The Virginia Gazette" during integration marked a symbolic step toward greater, or equal inclusion of black society in the newspaper but proved far from fulfilling the newspaper's role as a community newspaper. Personal interaction between blacks and whites in Williamsburg (Virginia) did not occur very often, and…

  19. Writing "Voiced" Arguments about Science Topics: Answering the CCSS Call for Integrated Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This teacher-research study responds to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) call for an integrated model of literacy that simultaneously builds deep content knowledge and develops students' proficiency in writing arguments in science. The author notes that while argument is a cornerstone of the CCSS writing standards, little attention is…

  20. Integrating voice with images and text in a workstation for radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, Torbjorn; Kileng, Frode; Rinde, Eivind; Stormer, Jan

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a system for routine teleradiology between a local clinic and a central hospital, where the dictation is digital, and sound data is transmitted in real-time over a digital 64 kbit/s network. The need to stock, transfer, and account for analog tapes is eliminated. The dictation is integrated in a program for viewing the patient images, so that the audio data is automatically connected with the current patient. The doctor uses a commercial workstation running UNIX, with image display on multiple X windows servers. The dictation is transcribed by the secretary who uses an ordinary PC equipped with a popular sound board. Sound data is transmitted over the teleradiology network during playback, and the text file containing the transcription is also connected with the patient.

  1. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, two bands of muscle that vibrate to make ... unique. Many things we do can injure our vocal cords. Talking too much, screaming, constantly clearing your throat, ...

  2. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you hoarse. They can also lead to problems such as nodules, polyps, and sores on the ... disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems can be successfully treated when diagnosed early. NIH: ...

  3. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  4. Educating Health Care Professionals in Advocacy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Their Communities: Integrating Public Health and Primary Care in the Be Our Voice Project

    PubMed Central

    Mirkin, Rachelle; Heatherley, Priya Nair; Homer, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the perceived need for and the effectiveness of the Be Our Voice advocacy training. In this training, health care professionals learned public health strategies to advocate for environmental systems changes to prevent childhood obesity in their communities. Methods. We assessed 13 trainings across 8 pilot sites. We conducted 2 rounds of surveys with participants—pre-training (n = 287, 84% response rate) and immediately post-training (n = 254, 75% response rate)—and semi-structured interviews with participants after training (n = 25). Results. We uncovered essential and promising elements of the training. Primary care providers found the Be Our Voice training effective at building their comfort with and motivation for engaging in public health advocacy; they reported achieving learning objectives, and they had positive responses to the training overall and to specific sessions. They articulated the need for the training and plans for advocacy in their communities. Conclusions. The Be Our Voice training provides an opportunity to integrate primary care providers into public health, community-based advocacy. It may be a model for future educational offerings for health care professionals in graduate and postgraduate training and in practice. PMID:22698054

  5. About Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Voice? “Voice” is the sound made by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing ... swelling of the vocal cords and changes their vibration resulting in an abnormal voice. Reduced voice use ( ...

  6. Voice Teachers on Voice, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Laurie Brooks; White, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Concludes a three-part symposium with eight prominent voice teachers on voice teaching methods. In this part, the teachers discuss placement, voice breaks, tone deafness, covered tone, and developing volume and offer some final general comments. (Editor)

  7. Integrated coastal effects study: synthesis of findings.

    PubMed

    Bay, Steven M; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Kelley, Kevin M; Maruya, Keith A; Gully, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    Municipal wastewater discharges constitute a major source of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) to coastal waters, yet uncertainty exists regarding their linkage to adverse biological effects such as endocrine disruption. Limited information is available concerning the types and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from municipal wastewater and their potential for ecological impacts. The present study investigated the impacts of CECs from ocean wastewater discharges on SCB fish. Concentrations of CECs were measured in effluents from four major municipal wastewater dischargers. Seawater, sediment, and hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from the discharge sites and a reference area were collected and analyzed for chemical and biological indicators. Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial and commercial compounds were measured in effluent. Some CECs were also detected in sediment, seawater, and fish livers near the outfalls, confirming exposure to CECs. Fish plasma hormone analyses suggested the presence of physiological effects, including a reduced stress response, altered estrogen synthesis or estrogenic exposure, and reduced thyroxine. Most fish responses were found at all sites and could not be directly associated with effluent discharges. However, concentrations of thyroxine were lower at all discharge sites relative to the reference, and estradiol concentrations were lower at three of the four outfall sites. The physiological responses found were not associated with adverse impacts on fish reproduction or populations. Interpretation of molecular and physiological measurements in field organisms such as those used in the present study is challenging because of a lack of information on baseline conditions and uncertain linkages to apical endpoints such as survival and reproduction. PMID:22987611

  8. The Integration of Voice, Data and Video Services via a Wide Area Network: Technical and Organizational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    1991-01-01

    Maricopa Community College District (Arizona) connects multiple facilities with a digital voice, data, and video wide area network. The network has been achieved through a conscious strategy of managing change and leveraging vendor partnerships. Organizational structure has also evolved, creating new job functions and need for retraining and staff…

  9. Lost Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth

    Different writing voices are linked to early adult developmental issues that are gender-related. Research by Donald Graves has shown that gender affects topic choice in girls' and boys' writing as early as age seven. Adult developmental theories provide frames for looking at the growth potential of writers and locating gender-related issues. The…

  10. Synthesis of aircraft structures using integrated design and analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Goetz, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic research is reported to develop and validate methods for structural sizing of an airframe designed with the use of composite materials and active controls. This research program includes procedures for computing aeroelastic loads, static and dynamic aeroelasticity, analysis and synthesis of active controls, and optimization techniques. Development of the methods is concerned with the most effective ways of integrating and sequencing the procedures in order to generate structural sizing and the associated active control system, which is optimal with respect to a given merit function constrained by strength and aeroelasticity requirements.

  11. Advancement of Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Emiley, Mark S.; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is a method for optimization of an engineering system, e.g., an aerospace vehicle. BLISS consists of optimizations at the subsystem (module) and system levels to divide the overall large optimization task into sets of smaller ones that can be executed concurrently. In the initial version of BLISS that was introduced and documented in previous publications, analysis in the modules was kept at the early conceptual design level. This paper reports on the next step in the BLISS development in which the fidelity of the aerodynamic drag and structural stress and displacement analyses were upgraded while the method's satisfactory convergence rate was retained.

  12. Remote voice training: A case study on space shuttle applications, appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollakarimi, Cindy; Hamid, Tamin

    1990-01-01

    The Tile Automation System includes applications of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. An integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds was developed which include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational data base architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multi-media workbenches, and human factors considerations. Remote voice training in the Tile Automation System is discussed. The user is prompted over a headset by synthesized speech for the training sequences. The voice recognition units and the voice output units are remote from the user and are connected by Ethernet to the main computer system. A supervisory channel is used to monitor the training sequences. Discussions include the training approaches as well as the human factors problems and solutions for this system utilizing remote training techniques.

  13. Using Natural Language And Voice To Control High Level Tasks In A Robotics Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, Robert G.

    1987-03-01

    RCA's Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has implemented an integrated system which permits control of high level tasks in a robotics environment through voice input in the form of natural language syntax. The paper to be presented will outline the architecture used to integrate voice recognition and synthesis hardware and natural language and intelligent reasoning software with a supervisory processor that controls robotic and vision operations in the robotic testbed. The application is intended to give the human operator of a Puma 782 industrial robot the ability to combine joystick teleoperation with voice input in order to provide a flexible man-machine interface in a hands-busy environment. The system is designed to give the operator a speech interface which is unobtrusive and undemanding in terms of predetermined syntax requirements. The voice recognizer accepts continuous speech and the natural language processor accepts full and partial sentence fragments and can perform a fair amount of disambiguation and context analysis. Output to the operator comes via the parallel channel of speech synthesis so that the operator does not have to consult the computer's CRT for messages. The messages are generated from the software and offer warnings about unacceptable situations, confirmations of actions completed, and feedback of system data.

  14. Treatment of Voice Hyperfunction in the Pre-adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Preadolescents with hyperfunctional voice disorders may respond readily to behavioral voice therapy based on education, voice conservation strategies, direct vocal function exercises, family and peer support, and relaxation. Treatment should focus on integration of health respiration, phonation, and vocal tract resonance to achieve improved…

  15. Voice Teachers on Voice, Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Laurie Brooks; White, Harvey

    1977-01-01

    Little real consensus exists among voice teachers on methodologies to achieve good vocal technique. Nevertheless, voice teachers can profit from sharing their ideas. In this first of a three part series, eight prominent voice teachers offer their views on a wide range of technical questions. (Author/RK)

  16. Enabling Integration and Synthesis through the Ridge 2000 Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, W. B.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S. M.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R. A.; Bonczkowski, J.; Chan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Achieving an integrated, holistic understanding of global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) processes through the Ridge 2000 Program relies heavily on the sharing of data across disciplinary boundaries. Although most Ridge 2000 research has been focused on three Integrated Study Sites (ISSs), data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system will also be important in the integration and synthesis phase of the program. The Ridge 2000 Data Portal (www.marine-geo.org/portals/ridge2000) is a resource established to facilitate the sharing, discovery, and integration of Ridge 2000-relevant data by providing data documentation and access. The Data Portal includes an inventory of field programs and activities, raw and derived data files, and access to publications and remote data sets in specialized data systems (e.g. PetDB, www.petdb.org; GenBank, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; NGDC, www.ngdc.noaa.gov). Access to the R2K database is provided through several pathways, including a web-based search interface (www.marine-geo.org/tools/search) that now includes basic and advanced search functionality. New versions of our data exploration and visualization tool GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) includes a newly designed menu system with cascading and tear-off menus, a new Layer Manager that lists selected layers and enables re-ordering and rendering with variable transparency, a Go To option that allows direct zooming to areas of interest, and an Add Image Overlay option for importing georeferenced images. New data sets are continually added to both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean (www.virtualocean.org), a 3D virtual globe with GeoMapApp functionality. Several Ridge 2000 data sets are also bundled for viewing in Google Earth (www.marine-geo.org/tools/kmls.php). This poster will highlight new functionality and data sets relevant to Ridge 2000 Integration and Synthesis, and will provide comparisons of several data sets that exist for each ISS.

  17. An Algorithm for Integrated Subsystem Embodiment and System Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper

    1997-01-01

    Consider the statement,'A system has two coupled subsystems, one of which dominates the design process. Each subsystem consists of discrete and continuous variables, and is solved using sequential analysis and solution.' To address this type of statement in the design of complex systems, three steps are required, namely, the embodiment of the statement in terms of entities on a computer, the mathematical formulation of subsystem models, and the resulting solution and system synthesis. In complex system decomposition, the subsystems are not isolated, self-supporting entities. Information such as constraints, goals, and design variables may be shared between entities. But many times in engineering problems, full communication and cooperation does not exist, information is incomplete, or one subsystem may dominate the design. Additionally, these engineering problems give rise to mathematical models involving nonlinear functions of both discrete and continuous design variables. In this dissertation an algorithm is developed to handle these types of scenarios for the domain-independent integration of subsystem embodiment, coordination, and system synthesis using constructs from Decision-Based Design, Game Theory, and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization. Implementation of the concept in this dissertation involves testing of the hypotheses using example problems and a motivating case study involving the design of a subsonic passenger aircraft.

  18. Catalyst synthesis and evaluation using an integrated atomic layer deposition synthesis-catalysis testing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey; Shou, Heng; Aich, Payoli; Beaulieu, David R.; Klotzsch, Helmut; Bachman, Stephen; Marshall, Christopher L.; Hock, Adam; Stair, Peter

    2015-08-01

    An integrated atomic layer deposition synthesis-catalysis (I-ALD-CAT) tool was developed. It combines an ALD manifold in-line with a plug-flow reactor system for the synthesis of supported catalytic materials by ALD and immediate evaluation of catalyst reactivity using gas-phase probe reactions. The I-ALD-CAT delivery system consists of 12 different metal ALD precursor channels, 4 oxidizing or reducing agents, and 4 catalytic reaction feeds to either of the two plug-flow reactors. The system can employ reactor pressures and temperatures in the range of 10-3 to 1 bar and 300-1000 K, respectively. The instrument is also equipped with a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer unit for the detection and quantification of volatile species from ALD and catalytic reactions. In this report, we demonstrate the use of the I-ALD-CAT tool for the synthesis of platinum active sites and Al2O3 overcoats, and evaluation of catalyst propylene hydrogenation activity.

  19. Depression, Stress, and Anhedonia: Toward a Synthesis and Integrated Model

    PubMed Central

    Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant public health problem, but its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Such incomplete understanding likely arises from the fact that depression encompasses a heterogeneous set of disorders. To overcome these limitations, renewed interest in intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes) has resurfaced, and anhedonia has emerged as one of the most promising endophenotypes of depression. Here, a heuristic model is presented postulating that anhedonia arises from dysfunctional interactions between stress and brain reward systems. To this end, we review and integrate three bodies of independent literature investigating the role of (1) anhedonia, (2) dopamine, and (3) stress in depression. In a fourth section, we summarize animal data indicating that stress negatively affect mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways critically implicated in incentive motivation and reinforcement learning. In the last section, we provide a synthesis of these four literatures, present initial evidence consistent with our model, and discuss directions for future research. PMID:24471371

  20. Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1989-01-01

    Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

  1. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Russek, Steven Lee; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  2. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.; Ivanov, I.C.

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  3. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    PubMed

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included. PMID:16504471

  4. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  5. Speech synthesis by glottal excited linear prediction.

    PubMed

    Childers, D G; Hu, H T

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a linear predictive (LP) speech synthesis procedure that resynthesizes speech using a 6th-order polynomial waveform to model the glottal excitation. The coefficients of the polynomial model form a vector that represents the glottal excitation waveform for one pitch period. A glottal excitation code book with 32 entries for voiced excitation is designed and trained using two sentences spoken by different speakers. The purpose for using this approach is to demonstrate that quantization of the glottal excitation waveform does not significantly degrade the quality of speech synthesized with a glottal excitation linear predictive (GELP) synthesizer. This implementation of the LP synthesizer is patterned after both a pitch-excited LP speech synthesizer and a code excited linear predictive (CELP) speech coder. In addition to the glottal excitation codebook, we use a stochastic codebook with 256 entries for unvoiced noise excitation. Analysis techniques are described for constructing both codebooks. The GELP synthesizer, which resynthesizes speech with high quality, provides the speech scientist a simple speech synthesis procedure that uses established analysis techniques, that is able to reproduce all speed sounds, and yet also has an excitation model waveform that is related to the derivative of the glottal flow and the integral of the residue. It is conjectured that the glottal excitation codebook approach could provide a mechanism for quantitatively comparing the differences in glottal excitation codebooks for male and female speakers and for speakers with vocal disorders and for speakers with different voice types such as breathy and vocal fry voices. Conceivably, one could also convert the voice of a speaker with one voice type, e.g., breathy, to the voice of a speaker with another voice type, e.g., vocal fry, by synthesizing speech using the vocal tract LP parameters for the speaker with the breathy voice excited by the glottal excitation

  6. Writing with Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  7. Personal Genres, Public Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielewicz, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Writing in personal genres, like autobiography, leads writers to public voices. Public voice is a discursive quality of a text that conveys the writer's authority and position relative to others. To show how voice and authority depend on genre, I analyze the autobiographies of two writers who take opposing positions on the same topic. By producing…

  8. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  9. Guided by Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    While the educational project privileges signifying speech, the psychical significance of the "voice" has become an institutional "vanishing mediator." Against the commonplace assumption that the voice functions as a benign vehicle for conscious meaning-making, this article examines the sublimated privilege and function of the voice in the context…

  10. Integrating the Engineering Curriculum through the Synthesis and Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellam, Nadia; Walther, Joachim; Costantino, Tracie; Cramond, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Traditional curricular approaches within engineering education tend to be fragmented, with opportunities for content- and meta-level synthesis being mostly limited to freshman and senior year design courses. In this paper, we are proposing a curricular model, the Synthesis and Design Studio, to combat the tendency towards fragmented curricula. The…

  11. Toward a unified theory of voice production and perception

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Garellek, Marc; Samlan, Robin; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    At present, two important questions about voice remain unanswered: When voice quality changes, what physiological alteration caused this change, and if a change to the voice production system occurs, what change in perceived quality can be expected? We argue that these questions can only be answered by an integrated model of voice linking production and perception, and we describe steps towards the development of such a model. Preliminary evidence in support of this approach is also presented. We conclude that development of such a model should be a priority for scientists interested in voice, to explain what physical condition(s) might underlie a given voice quality, or what voice quality might result from a specific physical configuration. PMID:27135054

  12. Learning About Ethical Leadership Through the Giving Voice to Values Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the Giving Voice to Values curriculum, one innovative approach to integrating ethics into leadership development. The chapter describes how Giving Voice to Values is being used in educational settings across the globe. PMID:26894902

  13. Towards personalized speech synthesis for augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Mills, Timothy; Bunnell, H Timothy; Patel, Rupal

    2014-09-01

    Text-to-speech options on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are limited. Often, several individuals in a group setting use the same synthetic voice. This lack of customization may limit technology adoption and social integration. This paper describes our efforts to generate personalized synthesis for users with profoundly limited speech motor control. Existing voice banking and voice conversion techniques rely on recordings of clearly articulated speech from the target talker, which cannot be obtained from this population. Our VocaliD approach extracts prosodic properties from the target talker's source function and applies these features to a surrogate talker's database, generating a synthetic voice with the vocal identity of the target talker and the clarity of the surrogate talker. Promising intelligibility results suggest areas of further development for improved personalization. PMID:25025818

  14. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice ... try on the new ones. Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A ...

  15. Benefits for Voice Learning Caused by Concurrent Faces Develop over Time

    PubMed Central

    Zäske, Romi; Mühl, Constanze; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar voices benefits from the concurrent presentation of the corresponding speakers’ faces. This effect of audiovisual integration is most pronounced for voices combined with dynamic articulating faces. However, it is unclear if learning unfamiliar voices also benefits from audiovisual face-voice integration or, alternatively, is hampered by attentional capture of faces, i.e., “face-overshadowing”. In six study-test cycles we compared the recognition of newly-learned voices following unimodal voice learning vs. bimodal face-voice learning with either static (Exp. 1) or dynamic articulating faces (Exp. 2). Voice recognition accuracies significantly increased for bimodal learning across study-test cycles while remaining stable for unimodal learning, as reflected in numerical costs of bimodal relative to unimodal voice learning in the first two study-test cycles and benefits in the last two cycles. This was independent of whether faces were static images (Exp. 1) or dynamic videos (Exp. 2). In both experiments, slower reaction times to voices previously studied with faces compared to voices only may result from visual search for faces during memory retrieval. A general decrease of reaction times across study-test cycles suggests facilitated recognition with more speaker repetitions. Overall, our data suggest two simultaneous and opposing mechanisms during bimodal face-voice learning: while attentional capture of faces may initially impede voice learning, audiovisual integration may facilitate it thereafter. PMID:26588847

  16. Benefits for Voice Learning Caused by Concurrent Faces Develop over Time.

    PubMed

    Zäske, Romi; Mühl, Constanze; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar voices benefits from the concurrent presentation of the corresponding speakers' faces. This effect of audiovisual integration is most pronounced for voices combined with dynamic articulating faces. However, it is unclear if learning unfamiliar voices also benefits from audiovisual face-voice integration or, alternatively, is hampered by attentional capture of faces, i.e., "face-overshadowing". In six study-test cycles we compared the recognition of newly-learned voices following unimodal voice learning vs. bimodal face-voice learning with either static (Exp. 1) or dynamic articulating faces (Exp. 2). Voice recognition accuracies significantly increased for bimodal learning across study-test cycles while remaining stable for unimodal learning, as reflected in numerical costs of bimodal relative to unimodal voice learning in the first two study-test cycles and benefits in the last two cycles. This was independent of whether faces were static images (Exp. 1) or dynamic videos (Exp. 2). In both experiments, slower reaction times to voices previously studied with faces compared to voices only may result from visual search for faces during memory retrieval. A general decrease of reaction times across study-test cycles suggests facilitated recognition with more speaker repetitions. Overall, our data suggest two simultaneous and opposing mechanisms during bimodal face-voice learning: while attentional capture of faces may initially impede voice learning, audiovisual integration may facilitate it thereafter. PMID:26588847

  17. Highly integrated synthesis of heterogeneous nanostructures on nanowire heater array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chun Yan; Yun, Jeonghoon; Kim, Jung; Yang, Daejong; Kim, Dong Hwan; Ahn, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Cheol; Park, Inkyu

    2014-11-01

    We have proposed a new method for the multiplexed synthesis of heterogeneous nanostructures using a top-down fabricated nanowire heater array. Hydrothermally synthesized nanostructures can be grown only on the heated nanowire through nanoscale temperature control using a Joule heated nanowire. We have demonstrated the selective synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures, as well as their surface modification with noble metal nanoparticles, using a nanowire heater array. Furthermore, we could fabricate an array of heterogeneous nanostructures via Joule heating of individual nanowire heaters and changing of the precursor solutions in a sequential manner. We have formed a parallel array of palladium (Pd) coated ZnO nanowires and gold (Au) coated ZnO nanowires, as well as a parallel array of ZnO nanowires and CuO nanospikes, in the microscale region by using the developed method.We have proposed a new method for the multiplexed synthesis of heterogeneous nanostructures using a top-down fabricated nanowire heater array. Hydrothermally synthesized nanostructures can be grown only on the heated nanowire through nanoscale temperature control using a Joule heated nanowire. We have demonstrated the selective synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures, as well as their surface modification with noble metal nanoparticles, using a nanowire heater array. Furthermore, we could fabricate an array of heterogeneous nanostructures via Joule heating of individual nanowire heaters and changing of the precursor solutions in a sequential manner. We have formed a parallel array of palladium (Pd) coated ZnO nanowires and gold (Au) coated ZnO nanowires, as well as a parallel array of ZnO nanowires and CuO nanospikes, in the microscale region by using the developed method. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04216f

  18. Facilitating Behavioral Change in Voice Therapy: The Relevance of Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an exploration of some of the issues surrounding adherence to vocal behavioral change in voice therapy within the context of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and to explore MI's potential for integration into voice therapy (MI-adapted voice therapy). MI is a style of interpersonal communication in…

  19. Outcomes of Integrated Agriscience Processes: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Curry, Kevin W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    As the trend to integrate science and agriculture education has reemerged, so has the research related to the integration of science into secondary agricultural education. The American Association of Agricultural Education responded to this trend by creating a special interest group called "Strengthening Academic Learning through Agricultural…

  20. Changing Voices, Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friar, Kendra Kay

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the 1500-year-old belief that adolescents should not sing once their voice changes. Reviews the advances in changing-voice theory by Duncan McKenzie, Irwin Cooper, John Cooksey, Anthony Barresi, Lynn Gackle, and Ken Phillips that question this traditional belief in choral education and help adolescent boys and girls sing "through the…

  1. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  2. An Integrated First-Year Laboratory Experiment Involving Synthesis, Spectroscopy, and Chromatography of Metal Acetylacetonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidewell, Christopher; McKechnie, James S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a procedure for an integrated first year chemistry laboratory class which provides an effective and colorful procedure to develop manipulative skills in synthesis and purification. Uses thin layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy in the determination. Provides Rf values and representative NMR spectra. (MVL)

  3. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  4. A "voice inversion effect?".

    PubMed

    Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

  5. Integrated reactive absorption process for synthesis of fatty esters.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Reactive separations using green catalysts offer great opportunities for manufacturing fatty esters, involved in specialty chemicals and biodiesel production. Integrating reaction and separation into one unit provides key benefits such as: simplified operation, no waste, reduced capital investment and low operating costs. This work presents a novel heat-integrated reactive absorption process that eliminates all conventional catalyst related operations, efficiently uses the raw materials and equipment, and considerably reduces the energy requirements for biodiesel production--85% lower as compared to the base case. Rigorous simulations based on experimental results were carried out using Aspen Plus and Dynamics. Despite the high degree of integration, the process is well controllable using an efficient control structure proposed in this work. The main results are provided for a plant producing 10 ktpy fatty acid methyl esters from methanol and waste vegetable oil with high free fatty acids content, using sulfated zirconia as solid acid catalyst. PMID:20855198

  6. Voice following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease. Data on mean speaking fundamental frequency seem to indicate a trend toward lower frequencies in irradiated patients as compared with normals. A trend was also noted in both irradidated and control groups for lower speaking fundamental frequencies in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers or previous smokers. These trends would indicate some vocal cord thickening or edema in irradiated patients and in heavy smokers. It is suggested that the study of irradiated patients' voices before, during and following treatments by means of audio, aerodynamic and acoustic instrumentation would yield additional information of diagnostic value on recovery of laryngeal function. It is also suggested that the voice pathologist could

  7. An artificial intelligence method for the synthesis of heat-integrated distillation flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Fang-Yu Han; Ben-Guang Rong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Flowsheet (HIDF) is proposed. It refers to the multicomponent separation flowsheet which is composed of simple and complex columns and in which heat integration is considered so as to achieve minimum energy consumption. The HIDF is very different from the Heat-Integrated Distillation Sequences (HIDS) in the literature which only consists of simple columns. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is proposed for the synthesis of HIDF. It is based on the Database, Simulator, Heat Exchanger Network, and four Knowledge Bases which are all developed by the authors and their coworkers. A strategy of eight steps which combines the knowledge-based and rigorous algorithms is adopted for the synthesis of HIDF. The illustrated examples for the conventional distillation and extractive distillation show that the practical minimum energy consumption distillation flowsheets; can be generated with this method.

  8. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  9. Biphonation in voice signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herzel, H.; Reuter, R.

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Discourse Synthesis in Integrated Second Language Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2009-01-01

    As integrated tasks become more common in assessing writing for academic purposes, it is necessary to investigate how test takers approach these tasks. The present study explores the processes of test takers undertaking reading-to-write tasks developed for a university English placement exam. Think-aloud protocols and interviews of…

  11. Developing Voice through the Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn-Reinke, Kathryn; Chesner, Geralyn A.

    2006-01-01

    This book shows prospective teachers how to use the language arts to connect diverse students to the world around them and help them develop their own literate voices. It considers the integrated nature of the primary language arts--reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing. The authors encourage preservice and…

  12. MSAT voice modulation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Dan

    1990-01-01

    The challenge for Mobile satellite (MSAT) voice services is to provide near toll quality voice to the user, while minimizing the power and bandwidth resources of the satellite. The options for MSAT voice can be put into one of two groups: Analog and Digital. Analog, nominally narrowband single sideband techniques, have a shown robustness to the fading and shadowing environment. Digital techniques, a combination of low rate vocoders and bandwidth efficient modems, show the promise of enhanced fidelity, as well as easier networking to the emerging digital world. The problems and tradeoffs to designers are many, especially in the digital case. Processor speed vs. cost and MET power requirements, channel coding, bandwidth efficiency vs. power efficiency etc. While the list looks daunting, in fact an acceptable solution is well within the technology. The objectives are reviewed that the MSAT voice service must meet, along with the options that are seen for the future.

  13. Catecholamines up Integrates Dopamine Synthesis and Synaptic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Ferdousy, Faiza; Lawal, Hakeem; Huang, Zhinong; Daigle, J. Gavin; Izevbaye, Iyare; Doherty, Olugbenga; Thomas, Jerrad; Stathakis, Dean G; O’Donnell, Janis M.

    2011-01-01

    The highly reactive nature of dopamine renders dopaminergic neurons vulnerable to oxidative damage. We recently demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila gene Catecholamines up (Catsup) elevate dopamine pools but, paradoxically, also confer resistance to paraquat, an herbicide that induces oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. We now report a novel association of the membrane protein, Catsup, with GTP cyclohydrolase rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase, rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis, which requires BH4 as a cofactor. Loss-of-function Catsup mutations cause dominant hyperactivation of both enzymes. Elevated dopamine levels in Catsup mutants coincide with several distinct characteristics, including hypermobility, minimal basal levels of 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid, an oxidative metabolite of dopamine, and resistance to the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter inhibitor, reserpine, suggesting that excess dopamine is synaptically active and that Catsup functions in the regulation of synaptic vesicle loading and release of dopamine. We conclude that Catsup regulates and links the dopamine synthesis and transport networks. PMID:21985068

  14. Finding Your Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

  15. MSAT broadcast voice services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Later this year the MSAT satellite network will be delivering mobile and remote communications throughout North America. Its services include a family of Broadcast Voice Services, the first of which will be MSAT Dispatch Radio, which will extend the features and functionality of terrestrial Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) to the entire continent. This paper describes the MSAT Broadcast Voice Services in general, and MSAT Dispatch Radio in particular, and provides examples of commercial and government applications.

  16. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us—members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners. PMID:22690044

  17. Using TTS Voices to Develop Audio Materials for Listening Comprehension: A Digital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments with text-to-speech (TTS) voices. These experiments have been conducted to develop audio materials for listening comprehension as an alternative technology to traditionally used audio equipment like the compact cassette. The new generation of TTS voices based on unit selection synthesis provides…

  18. Cellular integrity is required for inhibition of initiation of cellular DNA synthesis by reovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Roner, M R; Cox, D C

    1985-01-01

    Synchronized HeLa cells, primed for entry into the synthesis phase by amethopterin, were prevented from initiating DNA synthesis 9 h after infection with reovirus type 3. However, nuclei isolated from synchronized cells infected with reovirus for 9 or 16 h demonstrated a restored ability to synthesize DNA. The addition of enucleated cytoplasmic extracts from infected or uninfected cells did not affect this restored capacity for synthesis. The addition of ribonucleotide triphosphates to nuclei isolated from infected cells stimulated additional DNA synthesis, suggesting that these nuclei were competent to initiate new rounds of DNA replication. Permeabilization of infected cells did not restore the ability of these cells to synthesize DNA. Nucleoids isolated from intact or permeabilized cells, infected for 9 or 16 h displayed an increased rate of sedimentation when compared with nucleoids isolated from uninfected cells. Nucleoids isolated from the nuclei of infected cells demonstrated a rate of sedimentation similar to that of nucleoids isolated from the nuclei of uninfected cells. The inhibition of initiation of cellular DNA synthesis by reovirus type 3 appears not to have been due to a permanent alteration of the replication complex, but this inhibition could be reversed by the removal of that complex from factors unique to the structural or metabolic integrity of the infected cell. Images PMID:3968718

  19. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Sergent, Therese; Piront, Neil; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-06-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24 h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [{sup 3}H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-{kappa}B, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.

  20. Subtask 2.4 - Integration and Synthesis in Climate Change Predictive Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc

    2009-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a brief evaluation of the existing status of predictive modeling to assess options for integration of our previous paleohydrologic reconstructions and their synthesis with current global climate scenarios. Results of our research indicate that short-term data series available from modern instrumental records are not sufficient to reconstruct past hydrologic events or predict future ones. On the contrary, reconstruction of paleoclimate phenomena provided credible information on past climate cycles and confirmed their integration in the context of regional climate history is possible. Similarly to ice cores and other paleo proxies, acquired data represent an objective, credible tool for model calibration and validation of currently observed trends. It remains a subject of future research whether further refinement of our results and synthesis with regional and global climate observations could contribute to improvement and credibility of climate predictions on a regional and global scale.

  1. General review of military applications of voice processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, B.; Vonusa, R. S.

    1983-05-01

    Voice Interactive Systems and their role in military applications are introduced. The history and evolution of automatic speech recognition and synthesis is briefly explored and the current state of the art is reviewed. The term Voice Interactive Systems is defined and the advantages and disadvantages of Voice Interactive Systems are highlighted. Previous applications of speech systems to military problems are summarized, the major application areas are described and current development projects in the U.S. and other NATO countries are presented. Special attention is focused on the cockpit application. Several projects in this area are discussed along with a summary of important issues to consider when applying Voice Interactive Systems to the aircraft environment.

  2. Synthesis and Integration of Energy Related Tropospheric Chemistry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, George M.

    2007-01-15

    This is a final report of work done in support of DOE interests in air quality assessment or managemnt and tropospheric aerosol chemistry. A central focus for the activities was support for the North American cooperative, NARSTO. Leaderrship and oversight was provided for NARSTO products including two major state-of-science assessments on airborne particles (particulate matter) and the fundamentals of pollutant emissions characterization. In addition, review sof so-called 'policy related air quality science were prepared addressing multi-scale atmospheric phenomena, snowpack chemistry and pollution, and North American aerosol baseline or background conditions. The relationship between the identification of pollution sourcees and human exposure to outdoor particles was investigated, and results critiqued. This work led to a major review of the integration of atmospheric chemistry, epedimiology and toxicology in linking airborne particles with human health effects. The last topical area of work in the project related to the carbon component of tropospheric aerosols. Work was done in support of a project to obtain samples of power plant effluents to estimate the carbon present in palnt emissions. The results suggsted only a minor amount of ambient particles were carbon from coal-fired plants. Another studied provided a conceptual plan for using isotopic carbon data to provide a vapor and condensed phase carbon balance for particles, including fossil and biogenic sources.

  3. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  4. Effects of Medications on Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  5. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Gál, Viktor; Rudas, Gábor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-10-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training explicitly defined a voice-identity space. The pre-defined centre of the voice category was shifted from the acoustic centre each week in opposite directions, so the same stimuli had different training histories on different tests. Cortical sensitivity to voice similarity appeared over different time-scales and at different representational stages. First, there were short-term adaptation effects: increasing acoustic similarity to the directly preceding stimulus led to haemodynamic response reduction in the middle/posterior STS and in right ventrolateral prefrontal regions. Second, there were longer-term effects: response reduction was found in the orbital/insular cortex for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the acoustic mean of all preceding stimuli, and, in the anterior temporal pole, the deep posterior STS and the amygdala, for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the trained voice-identity category mean. These findings are interpreted as effects of neural sharpening of long-term stored typical acoustic and category-internal values. The analyses also reveal anatomically separable voice representations: one in a voice-acoustics space and one in a voice-identity space. Voice-identity representations flexibly followed the trained identity shift, and listeners with a greater identity effect were more accurate at recognizing familiar voices. Voice recognition is thus supported by neural voice spaces that are organized around flexible 'mean voice' representations. PMID:20553895

  6. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  7. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  8. Discovering Voice through Media Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Susan R.

    Classrooms are filled with students with confident and vibrant voices, and most educators encourage them to use these voices in their writing. Many of the strategies of the process-centered classroom (peer editing, conferences, workshops, in-house publishing) also encourage students to write in real voices to real readers; however, there is still…

  9. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  10. Voices from other lands.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, research in public understanding of science has significantly increased and become more systematic and academic. However, most of papers published by the main journals in the field have as origin the English-speaking world of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand: for example, in this very journal, PUS, two-thirds of the empirical material come from these countries. This paper aims both to call attention to unheard voices, and make space for new ones, from other parts of the world, aiming to open space for new voices. PMID:25556200

  11. Voice characteristics of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Kadriye; Turkyilmaz, Didem; Ozturk, Burak; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Ozgen, Burce; Unal, Faruk; Erbas, Tomris

    2013-03-01

    Acromegaly's effect on voice is still indefinite. We aimed to define acoustic characteristics of patients with acromegaly. Cross-sectional case-control study was designed. Thirty-seven patients with acromegaly and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Fundamental frequency (F0) and measurements related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the obtained voice sample were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Absolute jitter (Jita) and jitter percent (Jitt), shimmer in decibel and shimmer percent, noise to harmonic ratio and soft phonation index, fundamental frequency tremor frequency and frequency tremor intensity index represented the parameters related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the voice sample, respectively. Patients with acromegaly, especially the uncontrolled patients, exhibited significant differences in frequency perturbation measurements. Jitt of all patients and Jita of uncontrolled patients were significantly higher than that of control group (p = 0.044 and p = 0.043, respectively). Jitter which is a measure of frequency perturbation can be assumed as an indicator of hoarse and deepened voice. Jita of all patients and Jitt of uncontrolled patients were elevated, but not reaching a statistical significance. Controlled and active patients had similar analysis of acoustic parameters. In the correlation analysis, shimmer and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) was found to be positively correlated in all patients with acromegaly and in female patients. When the p value is adjusted according to Bonferroni correction regarding the use of ten parameters for acoustic analysis (so adjusted p is <0.005), all the statistically significant findings become insignificant. Considering the parameters test different properties of voice, it is reasonable to pay attention to the findings. Patients with acromegaly have increased frequency perturbations measures, but this increase is non-significant according to Bonferroni

  12. Memory for speech and voice identity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie A V; Badcock, Johanna C

    2009-12-01

    Memories of conversations are composed of what was said (speech content) and information about the speaker's voice (speaker identity). In the current study, we examined whether patients with schizophrenia would show difficulties integrating speech content and speaker identity in memory, as measured in a gender-identity (male/female) recognition task. Forty-one patients and a comparison group of 20 healthy controls took part in the study. In contrast to controls, patients demonstrated greater impairments in memory for female, but not male, voices. These results are consistent with studies of speech perception that show that female voices have more complex "vocal" characteristics and require greater integration compared with male voices, and with the context memory hypothesis of schizophrenia which suggests that memory binding impairments may result in degraded or incomplete representations of memory traces as the task requirements become increasing complex. PMID:20010023

  13. Military and Government Applications of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Clifford J.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs.

  14. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718

  15. Tuning of PID controllers for integrating systems using direct synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Anil, Ch; Padma Sree, R

    2015-07-01

    A PID controller is designed for various forms of integrating systems with time delay using direct synthesis method. The method is based on comparing the characteristic equation of the integrating system and PID controller with a filter with the desired characteristic equation. The desired characteristic equation comprises of multiple poles which are placed at the same desired location. The tuning parameter is adjusted so as to achieve the desired robustness. Tuning rules in terms of process parameters are given for various forms of integrating systems. The tuning parameter can be selected for the desired robustness by specifying Ms value. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the nonlinear model equations of jacketed CSTR to show its effectiveness and applicability. PMID:25800952

  16. An integrated approach to the synthesis of geometrically non-linear structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaoui, H.; Schmit, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the minimum weight design of geometrically nonlinear three-dimensional truss structures with geometric imperfections, subject to inequality constraints on static displacements, stresses, local buckling and cross sectional areas, is investigated. The integrated structural synthesis problem involves design and response quantities as independent variables and equilibrium equations, describing the finite element model, as equality constraints. The nonlinear structural analysis and the optimization are thus merged together into a single process. A computer program developed to compute the constraint values and analytical gradients is coupled with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm to solve the integrated problem. Numerical results for a geometrically nonlinear shallow dome example problem are presented for various types of imperfections. Furthermore, it is found that the algorithm is capable of detecting and guarding against system as well as element elastic instability using equilibrium information only, that is, without imposing system and local buckling inequality constraints.

  17. Integrating S-phase Checkpoint Signaling with Trans-Lesion Synthesis of Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Barkley, Laura R.; Ohmori, Haruo; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    Bulky adducts are DNA lesions generated in response to environmental agents including benzo[a]pyrene (a combustion product) and solar ultraviolet radiation. Error-prone replication of adducted DNA can cause mutations, which may result in cancer. To minimize the detrimental effects of bulky adducts and other DNA lesions, S-phase checkpoint mechanisms sense DNA damage and integrate DNA repair with ongoing DNA replication. The essential protein kinase Chk1 mediates the S-phase checkpoint, inhibiting initiation of new DNA synthesis and promoting stabilization and recovery of stalled replication forks. Here we review the mechanisms by which Chk1 is activated in response to bulky adducts and potential mechanisms by which Chk1 signaling inhibits the initiation stage of DNA synthesis. Additionally, we discuss mechanisms by which Chk1 signaling facilitates bypass of bulky lesions by specialized Y-family DNA polymerases, thereby attenuating checkpoint signaling and allowing resumption of normal cell cycle progression. PMID:17652783

  18. Modelling of integral spectra of galaxies by the method of population synthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenina, O. A.

    A detailed description of a population synthesis method for modelling the content of stellar populations in complex systems, galaxies and star clusters, from their integral spectra is given. As the original database for modelling, two banks of reference observational stellar spectra, of Pickles and Jacoby, have been selected. The method allows to define the following physical characteristics of a stellar system: detailed composition of a stellar population, average metallicity of the system and metallicities of populations it comprises, age of the last star formation in the system and contribution of young stellar component to the light flux, turn-off point of the main sequence, mass-to-luminosity ratio of the apparent stellar component of the galaxy. Using a population synthesis package of programs "SYNTHES" calculations have been performed for two normal galaxies, NGC 205 and NGC 628. Further possibilities and prospects of the proposed technique for population modelling are discussed.

  19. Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Dybvig, K.

    1981-01-01

    Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

  20. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  1. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  2. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouge, James R.; Kajiyama, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors relate a story about the transformative power of technologies for voice. They relate Brian Kajiyama's personal odyssey--what might be described as a journey from unvoiced to vocal--in learning to use a DynaWrite, a type-and-talk device that Brian uses as a communication tool.

  3. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  4. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  5. Giving Voice to Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This author is struck by two communication models she observes repeatedly that involve women's voices in meetings. In one model, the super-educated, pellucid, articulate woman, in meeting after meeting, makes suggestions, "points," or recommendations for initiatives, problem-solving, future direction, program improvement, decision making, or…

  6. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  7. Mending Misused Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoer, Vicki L.; Swank, Helen

    1978-01-01

    This article, addressed to singing and choral teachers, examines functional voice disorders resulting from incorrect or abused functions of the laryngeal mechanism. Symptoms, testing methods, and correction techniques, short of medical help, are outlined for disorders of resonance, registration, articulation, and of the vocal fold mass.…

  8. Voices from the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The author, a Manhattan-based psychotherapist, contrasts the fascinating but profound differences between the autobiographical narratives of young college students and the free-associative unconscious voices of patients engaged in the process of psychotherapy. The author begins by recounting the immense impact of his own divorce upon his…

  9. Voices of Columbine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Emily

    2004-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Columbine school shootings, Principal Frank DeAngelis felt, in his own words, "the weight of the world on my shoulders." Five years later, he still struggles for answers--and still loves his job. In this article, the author presents excerpts of her interview with DeAngelis, a man whose face and voice have become…

  10. Creative Reading: Other Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses subvocalization and other ways in which people read silently. Comments on authorial voice and offers ways to experiment with creative reading aloud. Notes how the proliferation of advertising, the media "explosion," and the influence of modernism in literature has changed the fundamental sense of what reading is and how to do it. (MG)

  11. Integration of acupuncture into conventional medicine from health professionals' perspective: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    García-Escamilla, Esther; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    Acupuncture is a prominent Complementary Medicine. Although health professionals' conceptions of acupuncture may affect its utilisation and integration within conventional medicine, these aspects have not been well studied. The aim of this review was to analyse the integration of acupuncture into conventional medicine from the perspective of health professionals. We conducted a systematic review and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that analysed the integration of acupuncture into conventional medicine grounded in participants' perspectives. A systematic search was undertaken in PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library Plus, Scopus and CINAHL. This review included 18 articles: 6 analysed the viewpoint of physicians, 3 of nurses and 9 comprised different health-related professionals. Most of these studies included healthcare professionals practising acupuncture and took place in sites where the relation between acupuncture and biomedicine is favourable. The most used research techniques were convenience sampling, semi-structured interviews and interpretative approach. The holistic approach of acupuncture and its lack of adverse effects were highlighted by the analysed studies. This led to health professionals encouraging its integration into conventional medicine. The main obstacles perceived for the integration were lack of knowledge and institutional support. In general, acupuncture has been adapted to the biomedical model (often practised in an unsystematic and individual manner), and it is conceived as a supplement of Western medicine. 'Working together' and overcoming the biomedical model are recognised by the participants as key conditions for successful integration of acupuncture. PMID:25788323

  12. A meta-synthesis of team members' voices: what we need and what we do to support students who use AAC.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Stoner, Julia B

    2016-09-01

    The ultimate goal of AAC provision is to promote students' active participation across settings through interactions involving a variety of partners and functions. To achieve such outcomes, educational teams must collaborate and consider the characteristics of students, their families, and relevant environments during AAC assessment and intervention. To date, AAC team collaboration has rarely been evaluated collectively outside intervention or case study research. In this investigation, a meta-synthesis was conducted to review qualitative studies of perspectives of team members on supporting students who used AAC, ranging in age from kindergarten to post-secondary, in public schools in the United States. Analyses yielded three primary themes necessary for effective AAC services; inputs, activities, and outcomes. Implications and recommendations for service providers and future researchers are described. PMID:27615203

  13. Voices in Suicide. The Relationship between the Firestone Voice Scale for Self-Destructive Behavior and Self-Destructive Life-Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    This article presents findings from recent research demonstrating a significant relationship between parental introjects or "voices," and self-destructive behavior. The "voice" is defined as a systematized, integrated pattern of negative thoughts accompanied by angry affect, that is the basis of an individual's maladaptive behavior. The…

  14. Catalyst synthesis and evaluation using an integrated atomic layer deposition synthesis–catalysis testing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey; Shou, Heng; Marshall, Christopher L.; Aich, Payoli; Beaulieu, David R.; Klotzsch, Helmut; Bachman, Stephen; Hock, Adam; Stair, Peter

    2015-08-15

    An integrated atomic layer deposition synthesis-catalysis (I-ALD-CAT) tool was developed. It combines an ALD manifold in-line with a plug-flow reactor system for the synthesis of supported catalytic materials by ALD and immediate evaluation of catalyst reactivity using gas-phase probe reactions. The I-ALD-CAT delivery system consists of 12 different metal ALD precursor channels, 4 oxidizing or reducing agents, and 4 catalytic reaction feeds to either of the two plug-flow reactors. The system can employ reactor pressures and temperatures in the range of 10{sup −3} to 1 bar and 300–1000 K, respectively. The instrument is also equipped with a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer unit for the detection and quantification of volatile species from ALD and catalytic reactions. In this report, we demonstrate the use of the I-ALD-CAT tool for the synthesis of platinum active sites and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoats, and evaluation of catalyst propylene hydrogenation activity.

  15. An integrated analysis-synthesis array system for spatial sound fields.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hua, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Hao; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2015-03-01

    An integrated recording and reproduction array system for spatial audio is presented within a generic framework akin to the analysis-synthesis filterbanks in discrete time signal processing. In the analysis stage, a microphone array "encodes" the sound field by using the plane-wave decomposition. Direction of arrival of plane-wave components that comprise the sound field of interest are estimated by multiple signal classification. Next, the source signals are extracted by using a deconvolution procedure. In the synthesis stage, a loudspeaker array "decodes" the sound field by reconstructing the plane-wave components obtained in the analysis stage. This synthesis stage is carried out by pressure matching in the interior domain of the loudspeaker array. The deconvolution problem is solved by truncated singular value decomposition or convex optimization algorithms. For high-frequency reproduction that suffers from the spatial aliasing problem, vector panning is utilized. Listening tests are undertaken to evaluate the deconvolution method, vector panning, and a hybrid approach that combines both methods to cover frequency ranges below and above the spatial aliasing frequency. Localization and timbral attributes are considered in the subjective evaluation. The results show that the hybrid approach performs the best in overall preference. In addition, there is a trade-off between reproduction performance and the external radiation. PMID:25786949

  16. Voices to reckon with: perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi

    2013-01-01

    The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e., real, external) voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress) and behavioral (help-seeking) response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgments. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of AVH associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis. PMID:23565088

  17. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  18. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  19. A STUDY OF INNER VOICES IN SCHIZOPHERNICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve schizophrenics with inner voices were examined and were compared to 12 - schizophrenics with external voices. The inner voices group was largely heterogenous. The inner voice group had shorter interval between onset of illness and onset of hallucinations, higher intensity of emotions outside the hallucinatory episodes but concerning the voices and longer duration of individual episodes of hallucinations. PMID:21847312

  20. a Study of Multiplexing Schemes for Voice and Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Kotikalapudi

    Voice traffic variations are characterized by on/off transitions of voice calls, and talkspurt/silence transitions of speakers in conversations. A speaker is known to be in silence for more than half the time during a telephone conversation. In this dissertation, we study some schemes which exploit speaker silences for an efficient utilization of the transmission capacity in integrated voice/data multiplexing and in digital speech interpolation. We study two voice/data multiplexing schemes. In each scheme, any time slots momentarily unutilized by the voice traffic are made available to data. In the first scheme, the multiplexer does not use speech activity detectors (SAD), and hence the voice traffic variations are due to call on/off only. In the second scheme, the multiplexer detects speaker silences using SAD and transmits voice only during talkspurts. The multiplexer with SAD performs digital speech interpolation (DSI) as well as dynamic channel allocation to voice and data. The performance of the two schemes is evaluated using discrete-time modeling and analysis. The data delay performance for the case of English speech is compared with that for the case of Japanese speech. A closed form expression for the mean data message delay is derived for the single-channel single-talker case. In a DSI system, occasional speech losses occur whenever the number of speakers in simultaneous talkspurt exceeds the number of TDM voice channels. In a buffered DSI system, speech loss is further reduced at the cost of delay. We propose a novel fixed-delay buffered DSI scheme. In this scheme, speech fill-in/hangover is not required because there are no variable delays. Hence, all silences that naturally occur in speech are fully utilized. Consequently, a substantial improvement in the DSI performance is made possible. The scheme is modeled and analyzed in discrete -time. Its performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of speech clipping, packet rejection ratio, DSI

  1. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.

    1999-01-01

    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  2. Integrated design and synthesis of smart material systems: an overview of the ARPA SPICES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1995-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Each team member possesses a specialty in the area of smart structures which has been focused towards the development of several actively controlled smart material systems. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it is the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multiorganizational team for future incorporation of this new technology into each members respective product lines. To accomplish this task, the disciplines of materials, manufacturing, analytical modeling, actuation, sensing, signal processing, and control had to be synthesized into a unified approach between all ten consortium members. The process developed for intelligent structural systems can truly be classified as multiorganization/multidiciplined Integrated Product Development. This process is described in detail as it applies to the SPICES development articles and smart material fabrication in general.

  3. Cell-free synthesis, functional refolding, and spectroscopic characterization of bacteriorhodopsin, an integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S; Patel, N; Fischer, W; Rothschild, K J

    1993-12-21

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is an integral membrane protein which functions as a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium halobium (also known as Halobacterium salinarium). The cell-free synthesis of bR in quantities sufficient for FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and the ability to selectively isotope label bR using aminoacylated suppressor tRNAs would provide a powerful approach for studying the role of specific amino acid residues. However, no integral membrane protein has yet been expressed in a cell-free system in quantities sufficient for such biophysical studies. We report the cell-free synthesis of bacterioopsin, its purification, its refolding in polar lipids from H. halobium, and its regeneration with all-trans-retinal to yield bacteriorhodopsin in a form functionally similar to bR in purple membrane. Importantly, the yields obtained from in vitro and in vivo expression are comparable. Functionality of the cell-free expressed bR is established using static and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy and FTIR difference spectroscopy. PMID:8268152

  4. Where Cultural Games Count: The Voices of Primary Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabie, Michael Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Ghanaian primary school teachers' values and challenges of integrating cultural games in teaching mathematics. Using an In-depth conversational interview, ten (10) certificated teachers' voices on the values and challenges of integrating games were examined. Thematic data analysis was applied to the qualitative data from the…

  5. Phonetography in voice diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Heylen, L G; Wuyts, F L; Mertens, F W; Pattyn, J E

    1996-01-01

    Phonetography has been defined by SCHUTTE and SEIDNER in 1983. Nevertheless publications on phonetography go back to the thirties. Due to publications in the last decade and the development of computer phonetography this testing method has been used for various purposes in voice evaluation. This article gives a historical background, with the different ways of phonetogram recording and describes variables who have their effect on phonetogram results and interpretation. Secondly the range of application with normative and reference phonetograms is discussed. PMID:9001639

  6. Keyboard With Voice Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  7. Do the elderly have a voice? Advance care planning discussions with frail and older individuals: a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tim; Moran, Emily; Kuhn, Isla; Barclay, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen marked improvements in end-of-life care, however concerns have been expressed that services are focused on the needs of patients with cancer. This review focuses on conversations about end-of-life care with frail and older people who have no main overriding diagnosis who are estimated to account for around 40% of deaths. Aim To investigate the attitudes of the public and healthcare professionals to advance care planning discussions with frail and older people. Design and setting Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Method Articles that related to frail or older individuals and either advance care plans or discussions on end-of-life care were included. Studies of specific conditions or that focused on prognosis, capacity, or resuscitation decisions were excluded. Results While a significant minority of frail older individuals would find them unwelcome, the majority would appreciate the chance to discuss end-of-life care, yet most do not have this opportunity. Attitudes to the timing of these discussions were variable, but most perceived the risk of leaving them too late. Most doctors believed it was their professional responsibility to initiate discussions, but felt limited by time pressures and the absence of a precipitating event. A wide range of barriers were identified including the reluctance of family members to discuss end-of-life care, the passive expectation that someone else would decide on an individual’s behalf, and significant uncertainty concerning future illness and decline. Conclusion The marked disparity between the majority of older individuals who would like the opportunity to discuss their end-of-life care and the minority that currently have this opportunity raises important questions if the wishes of this large group in society are to be respected. The challenge is to find effective ways of encouraging dialogue and choice within the constraints of the current healthcare systems and personal

  8. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. This work may be of use dealing with nuclear materials.

  9. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Norm-Based Coding of Voice Identity in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Latinus, Marianne; McAleer, Phil; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Summary Listeners exploit small interindividual variations around a generic acoustical structure to discriminate and identify individuals from their voice—a key requirement for social interactions. The human brain contains temporal voice areas (TVA) [1] involved in an acoustic-based representation of voice identity [2–6], but the underlying coding mechanisms remain unknown. Indirect evidence suggests that identity representation in these areas could rely on a norm-based coding mechanism [4, 7–11]. Here, we show by using fMRI that voice identity is coded in the TVA as a function of acoustical distance to two internal voice prototypes (one male, one female)—approximated here by averaging a large number of same-gender voices by using morphing [12]. Voices more distant from their prototype are perceived as more distinctive and elicit greater neuronal activity in voice-sensitive cortex than closer voices—a phenomenon not merely explained by neuronal adaptation [13, 14]. Moreover, explicit manipulations of distance-to-mean by morphing voices toward (or away from) their prototype elicit reduced (or enhanced) neuronal activity. These results indicate that voice-sensitive cortex integrates relevant acoustical features into a complex representation referenced to idealized male and female voice prototypes. More generally, they shed light on remarkable similarities in cerebral representations of facial and vocal identity. PMID:23707425

  11. Voice preprocessor for digital voice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G. S.; Fransen, L. J.; Moran, T. M.

    1989-09-01

    A voice processor operating satisfactorily in laboratory environments with carefully prerecorded speech samples often fails to operate satisfactorily with live speech. Potential reasons are: (1) the speech level may be too high or too low; (2) the speech signal may have too much interference (ambient noise, breath noise, 60 Hz hum, digital noise in analog circuits, a DC bias (caused by component aging, etc.) generated at the analog-to-digital converter output); (3) the microphone frequency may be severely distorted; (4) the speech signal from the existing audio system, in certain operating environments, may be improperly coupled to the front-end circuit; (5) the speaker may be talking too fast or may have an improper mouth-to-microphone distance, or the speech may lack high-frequency energies. In this report, we have generated a comprehensive design for a speech preprocessor that removes interferences, adaptively equalizes frequency anomalies, and conditions speech for speech encoding, speech recognition, speaker recognition, or extraction of verbal or nonverbal information from speech.

  12. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices

    PubMed Central

    Klofstad, Casey A.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Nowicki, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three. PMID:26252894

  13. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices.

    PubMed

    Klofstad, Casey A; Anderson, Rindy C; Nowicki, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three. PMID:26252894

  14. Investigating the Lived Experience of Recovery in People Who Hear Voices.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Adèle; Rhodes, Paul; Beavan, Vanessa; Holmes, Douglas; McCabe, Kathryn; Thomas, Neil; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Lampshire, Debra; Hayward, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Although there is evidence of both clinical and personal recovery from distressing voices, the process of recovery over time is unclear. Narrative inquiry was used to investigate 11 voice-hearers' lived experience of recovery. After a period of despair/exhaustion, two recovery typologies emerged: (a) turning toward/empowerment, which involved developing a normalized account of voices, building voice-specific skills, integration of voices into daily life, and a transformation of identity, and (b) turning away/protective hibernation, which involved harnessing all available resources to survive the experience, with the importance of medication in recovery being emphasized. Results indicated the importance of services being sensitive and responsive to a person's recovery style at any given time and their readiness for change. Coming to hold a normalized account of voice-hearing and the self and witnessing of preferred narratives by others were essential in the more robust turning toward recovery typology. PMID:25896792

  15. Voices Carry: A Content Analysis of "Voices from the Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Blady, Shannon; Kumar, Tracey; Moorman, Honor; Prior, Lori; Willson, Angeli

    2011-01-01

    As educators who have been strongly influenced by this journal, the authors decided to do a content analysis of the "voices" from "Voices from the Middle," from its inception to today. They listened closely to who is talking, what the authors are (and are not) discussing, the educational contexts of these conversations, and how the dialogue has…

  16. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  17. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees' perception of their…

  18. Synthesis and Integration of Nanostructured Carbon: Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulotty, Richard Stephen

    Nanostructured carbon, in the form of tubes or sheets, exhibits exceptional thermal and electrical properties. Graphene, a single atomic sheet of hexagonal sp2 bonded carbon, posesses a thermal conductivity higher than diamond, with an extremely high electron mobility. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), which are tubes composed of one or more graphene sheets, also posess high thermal conductivity and electron mobility. One of the major problems facing the application of nanomaterials is integration into already existing material systems. A second challenge is controlled synthesis of nanomaterials. In this dissertation research novel methods were investigated for coupling carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices, as well as new approaches for controlling the synthesis of graphene and reduced graphene oxide like carbon (R-GOC) on copper (Cu) foils via chemical vapor deposition. It was determined that carboxylic functionalization of carbon nanotubes was effective in improving the coupling of CNTs to polymer matrices, affecting the thermal transport of the resulting CNT-polymer nanocomposites. From the CVD studies it was established that the cooling phase gases flowed after deposition influence the growth mechanics of graphene on Cu foil. Further CVD studies showed that methane may be decomposed directly onto quartz to form reduced graphene oxide like carbon thin films. The obtained thermal characterization results are important for development of CNTs as fillers for composite pastes with high thermal conductivity, and the results of the CVD studies are important for developing further understanding of growth mechanics of bilayer graphene and other nanostructured carbon. In addition to the fundamental study of CVD synthesis of graphene and R-GOC, this dissertation work includes engineering of graphene and R-GOC to various applications, including the development of the thinnest flexible transistor with active materials made from all-2D materials, as well as large-scale electron

  19. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability. PMID:19783358

  20. Central Nervous System Control of Voice and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review of the central nervous control systems for voice and swallowing has suggested that the traditional concepts of a separation between cortical and limbic and brain stem control should be refined and more integrative. For voice production, a separation of the non-human vocalization system from the human learned voice production system has been posited based primarily on studies of non-human primates. However, recent humans studies of emotionally based vocalizations and human volitional voice production has shown more integration between these two systems than previously proposed. Recent human studies have shown that reflexive vocalization as well as learned voice production not involving speech, involve a common integrative system. On the other hand, recent studies of non-human primates have provided evidence of some cortical activity during vocalization and cortical changes with training during vocal behavior. For swallowing, evidence from the macaque and functional brain imaging in humans indicates that the control for the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is not primarily under brain stem mechanisms as previously proposed. Studies suggest that the initiation and patterning of swallowing for the pharyngeal phase is also under active cortical control for both spontaneous as well as volitional swallowing in awake humans and non-human primates. PMID:26241238

  1. Integrating gene synthesis and microfluidic protein analysis for rapid protein engineering

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Matthew C.; Petrova, Ekaterina; Correia, Bruno E.; Maerkl, Sebastian J.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to rapidly design proteins with novel functions will have a significant impact on medicine, biotechnology and synthetic biology. Synthetic genes are becoming a commodity, but integrated approaches have yet to be developed that take full advantage of gene synthesis. We developed a solid-phase gene synthesis method based on asymmetric primer extension (APE) and coupled this process directly to high-throughput, on-chip protein expression, purification and characterization (via mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions, MITOMI). By completely circumventing molecular cloning and cell-based steps, APE-MITOMI reduces the time between protein design and quantitative characterization to 3–4 days. With APE-MITOMI we synthesized and characterized over 400 zinc-finger (ZF) transcription factors (TF), showing that although ZF TFs can be readily engineered to recognize a particular DNA sequence, engineering the precise binding energy landscape remains challenging. We also found that it is possible to engineer ZF–DNA affinity precisely and independently of sequence specificity and that in silico modeling can explain some of the observed affinity differences. APE-MITOMI is a generic approach that should facilitate fundamental studies in protein biophysics, and protein design/engineering. PMID:26704969

  2. Perception of synthesized voice quality in connected speech by Cantonese speakers.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly

    2002-09-01

    Perceptual voice analysis is a subjective process. However, despite reports of varying degrees of intrajudge and interjudge reliability, it is widely used in clinical voice evaluation. One of the ways to improve the reliability of this procedure is to provide judges with signals as external standards so that comparison can be made in relation to these "anchor" signals. The present study used a Klatt speech synthesizer to create a set of speech signals with varying degree of three different voice qualities based on a Cantonese sentence. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether different abnormal voice qualities could be synthesized using the "built-in" synthesis parameters using a perceptual study. The second objective was to determine the relationship between acoustic characteristics of the synthesized signals and perceptual judgment. Twenty Cantonese-speaking speech pathologists with at least three years of clinical experience in perceptual voice evaluation were asked to undertake two tasks. The first was to decide whether the voice quality of the synthesized signals was normal or not. The second was to decide whether the abnormal signals should be described as rough, breathy, or vocal fry. The results showed that signals generated with a small degree of aspiration noise were perceived as breathiness while signals with a small degree of flutter or double pulsing were perceived as roughness. When the flutter or double pulsing increased further, tremor and vocal fry, rather than roughness, were perceived. Furthermore, the amount of aspiration noise, flutter, or double pulsing required for male voice stimuli was different from that required for the female voice stimuli with a similar level of perceptual breathiness and roughness. These findings showed that changes in perceived vocal quality could be achieved by systematic modifications of synthesis parameters. This opens up the possibility of using synthesized voice signals as external standards or

  3. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems. PMID:22408484

  4. Flexible Approximation Model Approach for Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Kim, Hongman; Ragon, Scott; Soremekun, Grant; Malone, Brett

    2004-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is an approach that allows design problems to be naturally decomposed into a set of subsystem optimizations and a single system optimization. In the BLISS approach, approximate mathematical models are used to transfer information from the subsystem optimizations to the system optimization. Accurate approximation models are therefore critical to the success of the BLISS procedure. In this paper, new capabilities that are being developed to generate accurate approximation models for BLISS procedure will be described. The benefits of using flexible approximation models such as Kriging will be demonstrated in terms of convergence characteristics and computational cost. An approach of dealing with cases where subsystem optimization cannot find a feasible design will be investigated by using the new flexible approximation models for the violated local constraints.

  5. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  6. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  7. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  8. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  9. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  10. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  11. Teacher Development and Pupil Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flutter, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The principle of "pupil voice" has attained a high profile over the past decade and its key principles of encouraging pupil consultation and participation are evident in official policy and guidance in many countries around the world. While there has been official endorsement of the notions that pupils have a right to voice their opinions and…

  12. Voices for Illinois Children, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter published during 1998. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These three newsletter issues explore topics…

  13. Voices for Illinois Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter issues published during 1999. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These newsletter issues explore topics pertaining…

  14. Unheard Voices among Faculty Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Joy; Ouellett, Mathew L.; Stanley, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    If one looks at the current literature and practice of faculty development through various lenses, one thing remains clear: there are voices that are missing from the discourse. In this article, the authors discuss "unheard voices" which they define as those who are still on the margins of the profession--faculty developers who are diverse in…

  15. Why Is My Voice Changing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Complexes with a Tridentate Nitrogen-Donor Ligand: An Integrated Research Experiment for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Katherine A.; Cavalier, Annie R.; Connell, Jennifer R.; Mraz, Margaret E.; Holderread, Ashley S.; Oshin, Kayode D.; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    An integrated laboratory experiment applying concepts and techniques developed in organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and instrumental analysis is presented for use by students interested in undergraduate research. The experiment incorporates some advanced laboratory practices such as multistep organic synthesis and purification, detailed…

  18. ECL gate array with integrated PLL-based clock recovery and synthesis for high-speed data and telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosky, David S.; Coy, Bruce H.; Friedmann, Marc D.

    1992-03-01

    A 2500 gate mixed signal gate array has been developed that integrates custom PLL-based clock recovery and clock synthesis functions with 2500 gates of configurable logic cells to provide a single chip solution for 200 - 1244 MHz fiber based digital interface applications. By customizing the digital logic cells, any of the popular telecom and datacom standards may be implemented.

  19. Fatigue estimation using voice analysis.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Harold P; Berg, Joel; Friets, Eric; Wilson, John; Greenough, Glen; Picone, Joseph; Whitmore, Jeffrey; Nesthus, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    In the present article, we present a means to remotely and transparently estimate an individual's level of fatigue by quantifying changes in his or her voice characteristics. Using Voice analysis to estimate fatigue is unique from established cognitive measures in a number of ways: (1) speaking is a natural activity requiring no initial training or learning curve, (2) voice recording is a unobtrusive operation allowing the speakers to go about their normal work activities, (3) using telecommunication infrastructure (radio, telephone, etc.) a diffuse set of remote populations can be monitored at a central location, and (4) often, previously recorded voice data are available for post hoc analysis. By quantifying changes in the mathematical coefficients that describe the human speech production process, we were able to demonstrate that for speech sounds requiring a large average air flow, a speaker's voice changes in synchrony with both direct measures of fatigue and with changes predicted by the length of time awake. PMID:17958175

  20. An integrated process: ester synthesis in an enzymatic membrane reactor and water sorption.

    PubMed

    Trusek-Holownia, Anna; Noworyta, Andrzej

    2007-05-31

    In the case of such reactions as ester synthesis, water is produced during the reaction. Because these reactions are carried out in hydrophobic solvents an additional (water) phase in the system must not be allowed, i.e. the concentration of water saturation in the organic solvent should not be exceeded. In such a case, the reaction kinetics and product equilibrium concentration undergo undesirable changes because of the partition coefficient of the components and hampered process of product separation. Hence, removal of the water produced in the reaction determines whether the process is successful or not. For this purpose, the integrated process with water sorption in the column with molecular sieves was applied. Integration of the process of synthesis and dehydration of a reaction phase, in which a biocatalyst is suspended and not dissolved as in water solutions, requires holding up of the catalyst in the reactor before directing the stream of reaction mixture to dehydration process. This hold-up and a possibility of multiple use of the catalyst may be accomplished by using a separating barrier, e.g. an ultrafiltration membrane or by permanent fixing of the catalyst to the matrix, e.g. a polymeric membrane. The efficiency and activity of a biocatalyst (lipase CAL-B) immobilized on a polymer membrane by sorption and chemical binding, were determined. A subject of study was the synthesis of geranyl acetate, one of the most known aromatic compound. A hydrophobic (polypropylene) matrix was shown to be a much better carrier in the reactions performed in an organic solvent than a hydrophilic (polyamide) membrane being tested. The reaction kinetics of geranyl acetate synthesis with the use of geraniol and acetic acid as substrates, was described by the equation defining the "Ping-Pong Bi Bi" mechanism that was related additionally to the inhibition of a substrate (acetic acid). The following constants of kinetic equation were obtained k(3)(')=0.344 mol g(-1)h(-1), K

  1. Lunar module voice recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility unit suitable for use as a voice recorder on the space shuttle was developed. A modification, development, and test program is described. A LM-DSEA recorder was modified to achieve the following goals: (1) redesign case to allow in-flight cartridge change; (2) time code change from LM code to IRIG-B 100 pps code; (3) delete cold plate requirements (also requires deletion of long-term thermal vacuum operation at 0.00001 MMHg); (4) implement track sequence reset during cartridge change; (5) reduce record time per cartridge because of unavailability of LM thin-base tape; and (6) add an internal Vox key circuit to turn on/off transport and electronics with voice data input signal. The recorder was tested at both the LM and shuttle vibration levels. The modified recorder achieved the same level of flutter during vibration as the DSEA recorder prior to modification. Several improvements were made over the specification requirements. The high manufacturing cost is discussed.

  2. DLMS voice data entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. B.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of an Advanced Development Model of a voice recognition system (VRS) which can serve to input cartographic data to a computer. The completed system has been installed at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC) at St. Louis, MO, for evaluation and testing. The VRS is intended for use in entering by voice cartographic data to the Digital Landmass System (DLMS) Data Base. It was designed to satisfy the DMAAC product specifications. The software developed for the VRS includes two complete stand-alone programs. Performance tests conducted at TTI disclosed an average system word recognition accuracy of just under 99 percent for five talkers. The recognition tests were conducted by the use of tape recordings. These tape recordings were made during a previous contract involving cartographic data entry. Each person spoke approximately 536 words after uttering five training repetitions. The test results were virtually identical to those obtained during the previous contract.

  3. Success with voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  4. Emotional Voice and Emotional Body Postures Influence Each Other Independently of Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Bernard M. C.; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from −50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness. PMID:22003396

  5. Emotional voice and emotional body postures influence each other independently of visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Bernard M C; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from -50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness. PMID:22003396

  6. Model-integrated program synthesis environment for parallel/real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael S.; Sztipanovitz, Janos; Karsai, Gabor; Nichols, James A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, it is shown that, through the use of model- integrated program synthesis (MIPS), parallel real-time implementations of image processing data flows can be synthesized from high level graphical specifications. The complex details in inherent to parallel and real-time software development become transparent to the programmer, enabling the cost-effective exploitation of parallel hardware for building more flexible and powerful real-time imaging systems. The model integrated real-time image processing system (MIRTIS) is presented as an example. MIRTIS employs the multigraph architecture (MGA), a framework and set of tools for building MIPS systems, to generate parallel real-time image processing software which runs under the control of a parallel run-time kernel on a network of Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSPs (C40s). The MIRTIS models contain graphical declarations of the image processing computations to be performed, the available hardware resources, and the timing constraints of the application. The MIRTIS model interpreter performs the parallelization, scaling, and mapping of the computations to the resources automatically or determines that the timing constraints cannot be met with the available resources. MIRTIS is a clear example of how parallel real-time image processing systems can be built which are (1) cost-effectively programmable, (2) flexible, (3) scalable, and (4) built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  7. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis. PMID:25592808

  8. Integration of Social, Cultural, and Biomedical Strategies into an Existing Couple-Based Behavioral HIV/STI Prevention Intervention: Voices of Latino Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Levine, Ethan C.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Moya, Eva M.; Frasca, Timothy; Chavez-Baray, Silvia; Icard, Larry D.; Ovejero, Hugo; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Successful HIV prevention and treatment requires evidence-based approaches that combine biomedical strategies with behavioral interventions that are socially and culturally appropriate for the population or community being prioritized. Although there has been a push for a combination approach, how best to integrate different strategies into existing behavioral HIV prevention interventions remains unclear. The need to develop effective combination approaches is of particular importance for men who have sex with men (MSM), who face a disproportionately high risk of HIV acquisition. Materials and Methods We collaborated with Latino male couples and providers to adapt Connect ‘n Unite, an evidence-based intervention for Black male couples, for Latino male couples. We conducted a series of three focus groups, each with two cohorts of couples, and one focus group with providers. A purposive stratified sample of 20 couples (N = 40, divided into two cohorts) and 10 providers provided insights into how to adapt and integrate social, cultural, and biomedical approaches in a couples-based HIV/AIDS behavioral intervention. Results The majority (N = 37) of the couple participants had no prior knowledge of the following new biomedical strategies: non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP); pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); and HIV self-testing kits. After they were introduced to these biomedical interventions, all participants expressed a need for information and empowerment through knowledge and awareness of these interventions. In particular, participants suggested that we provide PrEP and HIV self-testing kits by the middle or end of the intervention. Providers suggested a need to address behavioral, social and structural issues, such as language barriers; and the promotion of client-centered approaches to increase access to, adaptation of, and adherence to biomedical strategies. Corroborating what couple participants suggested, providers agreed that

  9. Can We Hear the Student Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Su

    2008-01-01

    The Student Voice project was launched in January 2007. The aim was to provide a method of encouraging students to become actively involved in decisions about their own learning and empowering them with appropriate ways to do so. Ninety-two pupils were divided up into specific focus groups (a voice). These "voices" include: (1) the "Blue Voice",…

  10. Integrating patient voices into health information for self-care and patient-clinician partnerships: Veterans Affairs design recommendations for patient-generated data applications.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan S; Evans, Neil C; Frisbee, Kathleen L

    2016-05-01

    Electronic health record content is created by clinicians and is driven largely by intermittent and brief encounters with patients. Collecting data directly from patients in the form of patient-generated data (PGD) provides an unprecedented opportunity to capture personal, contextual patient information that can supplement clinical data and enhance patients' self-care. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is striving to implement the enterprise-wide capability to collect and use PGD in order to partner with patients in their care, improve the patient healthcare experience, and promote shared decision making. Through knowledge gained from Veterans' and healthcare teams' perspectives, VA created a taxonomy and an evolving framework on which to design and develop applications that capture and help physicians utilize PGD. Ten recommendations for effectively collecting and integrating PGD into patient care are discussed, addressing health system culture, data value, architecture, policy, data standards, clinical workflow, data visualization, and analytics and population reach. PMID:26911810

  11. Voice use in professional soccer management.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jenna; McMenamin, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Vocal load related to heavy voice use in particular professions increases the risk of occupational voice disorders. Research on professional voice use has primarily focused on educators, singers, and call-centre advisors. This paper describes the daily experiences of professional soccer managers' occupational voice use through qualitative methods. Four global themes were identified: 1) voice uses, 2) factors affecting voice change, 3) impact of voice use, and 4) the importance of voice in soccer management. All describe the nature of soccer managers' vocal demands. Risk factors for voice disorders include intense and prolonged voice use in environments with adverse acoustic properties for speakers and poor phonation methods. Research on vocal behaviours and early prevention programmes for this population group is warranted. PMID:23971728

  12. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  13. Voice entry of hybrid microcircuit inspection data

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, M.W.

    1987-07-01

    Because every major manufacturer is trying to keep a competitive edge, millions of dollars are being spent on factory automation. However, automation alone does not provide the total answer. If processes are not characterized and then controlled as an integral part of factory automation, a less than optimum process with low yields resulting in either high rework costs or larger scrap piles will occur. Many good articles have been written on how to setup control charts to monitor processes, however, the key to a control chart working properly is to have accurate and timely data. Voice data entry provides the means of getting accurate and timely data.

  14. Patient participation as an integral part of patient-reported outcomes development ensures the representation of the patient voice: a case study from the field of rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, M P T; Kvien, T K; Gossec, L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are important instruments to evaluate healthcare interventions, both in clinical practice and clinical research. Objective To describe how representation of the perspective of people with psoriatic arthritis was obtained through active participation on different levels in the development of PROs. Methods This case study focuses on the methods of involving patients in the elaboration and validation of the Psoriatic Arthritis Impact of Disease (PsAID) score. We used the concept of the participation ladder and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the involvement of patient representatives in scientific projects to analyse the variety of ways patients participated in this process. Results Two patient experts were part of the steering group. 12 patient research partners, coming from 12 different European countries, participated in identifying domains, formulating items for the questionnaire and determining the number of items, the recall period and the questionnaire format. They also helped with the translation of the items into different European languages. Then, 139 patients took part in ranking and prioritising the domains for importance; 65 patients were involved in cognitive debriefing interviews; 499 new patients were recruited for the validation study. Challenges of patient participation in PRO development, such as the representation of patients, are discussed. Conclusions Making patient participation an integral part of the PRO development and validation process is an important requisite for outcome research. The variety of patient contributions at different phases in this case study resulted in an instrument with high face validity. PMID:26509075

  15. Science Teachers' Voice on Homework: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukliansky, Ida; Shosberger, Itai; Eshach, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Homework (HW) is an integral part of the learning process. Currently, there is renewed interest and controversy about its effectiveness. The present study explores the voices of the science teachers on this matter. Adopting the view that reporting both teachers' views and actual classroom practices is necessary for obtaining a more complete view…

  16. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  17. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  18. What does voice-processing technology support today?

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, R; Suzuki, Y

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the state of the art in applications of voice-processing technologies. In the first part, technologies concerning the implementation of speech recognition and synthesis algorithms are described. Hardware technologies such as microprocessors and DSPs (digital signal processors) are discussed. Software development environment, which is a key technology in developing applications software, ranging from DSP software to support software also is described. In the second part, the state of the art of algorithms from the standpoint of applications is discussed. Several issues concerning evaluation of speech recognition/synthesis algorithms are covered, as well as issues concerning the robustness of algorithms in adverse conditions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479720

  19. Voice and choice by delegation.

    PubMed

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness. PMID:23052688

  20. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    PubMed Central

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  1. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:22073098

  2. Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) for Concurrent and Distributed Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Altus, Troy D.; Phillips, Matthew; Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduces a new version of the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) methods intended for optimization of engineering systems conducted by distributed specialty groups working concurrently and using a multiprocessor computing environment. The method decomposes the overall optimization task into subtasks associated with disciplines or subsystems where the local design variables are numerous and a single, system-level optimization whose design variables are relatively few. The subtasks are fully autonomous as to their inner operations and decision making. Their purpose is to eliminate the local design variables and generate a wide spectrum of feasible designs whose behavior is represented by Response Surfaces to be accessed by a system-level optimization. It is shown that, if the problem is convex, the solution of the decomposed problem is the same as that obtained without decomposition. A simplified example of an aircraft design shows the method working as intended. The paper includes a discussion of the method merits and demerits and recommendations for further research.

  3. Redefining giant quantum dot functionality through synthesis and integration: from multifunctionality to directed photoluminescence (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2015-09-01

    Thick-shell or "giant" core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (gQDs) are efficient and stable emitters. Their characteristic properties of non-blinking and non-photobleaching emission, as well as suppressed non-radiative Auger recombination and minimal self-reabsorption (due to a large effective Stokes shift) make them relevant to both single-emitter and many-emitter applications, e.g., live-cell single-molecule tracking in the biosciences and down-conversion phosphors for solid-state lighting. Here, I will discuss how gQDs are also ideal "building blocks" for achieving additive functionalities through synthesis and modified emission properties through integration with fabricated photonic structures. gQDs have been synthetically incorporated into the interior of a gold shell, resulting in "plasmonic gQDs" that exhibit efficient photoluminescence combined with efficient photothermal transduction and thermometry. Furthermore, through direct patterning of gQDs into all-dielectric antennas, we show an approach for realizing emitter-antenna couples (toward controlling the motion of photons) that is both deterministic and reproducible.

  4. COMBINATORIAL MATERIALS SYNTHESIS AND SCREENING: An Integrated Materials Chip Approach to Discovery and Optimization of Functional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, X.-D.

    1999-08-01

    Combinatorial materials synthesis methods and high throughput evaluation techniques have been developed to accelerate the process of materials discovery and optimization. Analogous to integrated circuit chips, integrated materials chips containing thousands, possibly millions, of different compounds/materials, often in the form of high-quality epitaxial thin film can be fabricated and screened for interesting physical or chemical properties. Microspot X-ray methods, various optical measurement techniques, and a novel evanescent microwave microscope have been used to characterize the structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of samples on materials chips. These techniques are routinely used to discover and optimize luminescent, ferroelectric, dielectric, and magnetic materials.

  5. Anti-Voice Adaptation Suggests Prototype-Based Coding of Voice Identity

    PubMed Central

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A). In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non-anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype. PMID:21847384

  6. Integrated voice and visual systems research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

  7. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories. PMID:23664949

  8. Comparison of voice types for helicopter voice warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.; Navarro, T.

    1984-01-01

    Three related studies were conducted to compare different types of human voice warnings. In the first study, a comparison of three LPC-encoded voices, human female, human male, and phoneme-synthesized, by the criteria of pilot flight task performance showed no differences due to the voice type. In the second study, pilots' preferences were investigated, by comparing preference for direct synthesized speech to the LPC-encoded human female speech and to LPC-encoded synthesized speech. Most pilots were found to prefer direct synthesized speech over both LPC-encoded human female speech and the LPC-encoded synthesized speech. In the third study, phonetically balanced (PB) words heard in simulated helicopter noise were used to compare the intelligibility of direct synthesized and LPC-encoded phoneme-synthesized speech types. PB word intelligibility was found to be better for direct synthesized speech than for the LPC-encodes synthesized speech.

  9. Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice?

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice is an important participatory research tool for advancing health equity. Our purpose is to critically review how participant voice is promoted through the photovoice process of taking and discussing photos and adding text/captions. PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from the years 2008 to 2014 using the keywords photovoice, photonovella, photovoice and social justice, and photovoice and participatory action research. Research articles were reviewed for how participant voice was (a) analyzed, (b) exhibited in community forums, and (c) disseminated through published manuscripts. Of 21 studies, 13 described participant voice in the data analysis, 14 described participants' control over exhibiting photo-texts, seven manuscripts included a comprehensive set of photo-texts, and none described participant input on choice of manuscript photo-texts. Photovoice designs vary in the advancement of participant voice, with the least advancement occurring in manuscript publication. Future photovoice researchers should expand approaches to advancing participant voice. PMID:26786953

  10. Listening to the Voices of Students with Disabilities: Can Such Voices Inform Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Rickards, Field W.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates issues to do with student voice. Much attention is given within the literature to including the voice of students without disabilities in educational debate. Indeed, clear connections have been made between the use of student voice and raising student achievement (Mitra, 2004). Given the validation of such voices, it is…

  11. The Mirror and the Canyon: Reflected Images, Echoed Voices How Evidence of GW's Performing Arts Integration Model Is Used to Build Support for Arts Education Integration and to Promote Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellrodt, John Charles; Fico, Maria; Harnett, Susanne; Ramsey, Lori Gerstein; Lopez, Angelina

    2014-01-01

    The Global Writes (GW) model is a well-designed performing arts integrated literacy program that builds local and global support among students, teachers, and arts partners through the use of innovative technologies. Through local partnerships between schools and arts organizations forged by GW, classroom teachers and local teaching artists build…

  12. All-Integrated Bifunctional Separator for Li Dendrite Detection via Novel Solution Synthesis of a Thermostable Polyimide Separator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dingchang; Zhuo, Denys; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Yi

    2016-08-31

    Safe operation is crucial for lithium (Li) batteries, and therefore, developing separators with dendrite-detection function is of great scientific and technological interest. However, challenges have been encountered when integrating the function into commercial polyolefin separators. Among all polymer candidates, polyimides (PIs) are prominent due to their good thermal/mechanical stability and electrolyte wettability. Nevertheless, it is still a challenge to efficiently synthesize PI separators, let alone integrate additional functions. In this work, a novel yet facile solution synthesis was developed to fabricate a nanoporous PI separator. Specifically, recyclable LiBr was utilized as the template for nanopores creation while the polymer was processed at the intermediate stage. This method proves not only to be a facile synthesis with basic lab facility but also to have promising potential for low-cost industrial production. The as-synthesized PI separator exhibited excellent thermal/mechanical stability and electrolyte wettability, the latter of which further improves the ionic conductivity and thus battery rate capability. Notably, stable full-cell cycling for over 200 cycles with a PI separator was further achieved. Based on this method, the fabrication of an all-integrated PI/Cu/PI bifunctional separator for dendrite detection can be fulfilled. The as-fabricated all-integrated separators prove efficient as early alarms of Li penetration, opening up the opportunity for safer battery design by separator engineering. PMID:27498838

  13. Web-based application for voice telediagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusawa, Adam; Grzanka, Antoni

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a web-based system for distance acoustic investigation of human voice. The system is dedicated to diagnosis of speech disorders, and can also be used in evaluating voice rehabilitation results. The fundamental part of the paper contains an extensive description of the system for voice telediagnostics. The paper also presents a review of presently applied technologies and methods of voice transmission over the Internet.

  14. [Care of voice among transgender people].

    PubMed

    Sellman, Jaana; Rihkanen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In some cases transgender people spontaneously find vocal expression that is acceptable. The testosterone medication usually lowers the female voice (F to M) enough. Feminization of the male voice (M to F) needs more often care. Speech and voice therapy is usually the primary treatment. In some cases pitch-elevating surgery is needed. This will raise the pitch or at least eliminate spontaneous male voicing (cough, laughter). If cosmetically unacceptable, a prominent Adam's apple will be removed. PMID:26237931

  15. English Voicing in Dimensional Theory*

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Gregory K.; Ahn, Sang-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a framework of privative features, this paper interprets two apparently disparate phenomena in English phonology as structurally related: the lexically specific voicing of fricatives in plural nouns like wives or thieves and the prosodically governed “flapping” of medial /t/ (and /d/) in North American varieties, which we claim is itself not a rule per se, but rather a consequence of the laryngeal weakening of fortis /t/ in interaction with speech-rate determined segmental abbreviation. Taking as our point of departure the Dimensional Theory of laryngeal representation developed by Avery & Idsardi (2001), along with their assumption that English marks voiceless obstruents but not voiced ones (Iverson & Salmons 1995), we find that an unexpected connection between fricative voicing and coronal flapping emerges from the interplay of familiar phonemic and phonetic factors in the phonological system. PMID:18496590

  16. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  17. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  18. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged. PMID:26418837

  19. The future of voice-processing technology in the world of computers and communications.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y

    1995-01-01

    This talk, which was the keynote address of the NAS Colloquium on Human-Machine Communication by Voice, discusses the past, present, and future of human-machine communications, especially speech recognition and speech synthesis. Progress in these technologies is reviewed in the context of the general progress in computer and communications technologies. PMID:7479726

  20. Examining Literacy Teachers' Perceptions of the Use of VoiceThread in an Elementary, Middle School, and a High School Classroom for Enhancing Instructional Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Katie; Kissel, Brian; Wood, Karen; Putman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In today's digital age, Web 2.0 tools such as VoiceThread allow users to integrate images, voices, and responses within one digital platform, providing students with the opportunity to add another layer of meaning to their texts. We conducted this research to expand our understanding of the processes necessary for integrating digital tools into…

  1. Voice technology and BBN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Jared J.

    1977-01-01

    The following research was discussed: (1) speech signal processing; (2) automatic speech recognition; (3) continuous speech understanding; (4) speaker recognition; (5) speech compression; (6) subjective and objective evaluation of speech communication system; (7) measurement of the intelligibility and quality of speech when degraded by noise or other masking stimuli; (8) speech synthesis; (9) instructional aids for second-language learning and for training of the deaf; and (10) investigation of speech correlates of psychological stress. Experimental psychology, control systems, and human factors engineering, which are often relevant to the proper design and operation of speech systems are described.

  2. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  3. Voice discrimination in four primates.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Agnès; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-10-01

    One accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. Yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. This is well documented for African forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. Although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and vocally, it is currently unknown whether they can discriminate familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecific group members. We addressed this question with playbacks on monkey species known to form polyspecific associations in the wild: red-capped mangabeys, Campbell's monkeys and Guereza colobus monkeys. We tested subjects' discrimination abilities of contact calls of familiar and unfamiliar female De Brazza monkeys. When pooling all species, subjects looked more often towards the speaker when hearing contact calls of unfamiliar than familiar callers. When testing De Brazza monkeys with their own calls, we found the same effect with the longest gaze durations after hearing unfamiliar voices. This suggests that primates can discriminate, not only between familiar and unfamiliar voices of conspecifics, but also between familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecifics living within a close proximity. PMID:23800631

  4. Taking Care of Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... printed list of organizations, contact us at: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ... us on Contact ... Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC 2320, Bethesda, MD ...

  5. Children's Voices through Dramatic Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Zayda

    Dramatic play provides children an excellent way to express their feelings and perceptions of the world that surrounds them. It is also an alternative way for researchers and teachers to capture, understand, and interpret children's voices because of the difficulties that children have in expressing ideas through oral and written language. While…

  6. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  7. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25 chapters are:…

  8. The Voice of the People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2003-01-01

    Elected school boards' skeptical eyes can guard against bad management practices and ensure that different voices get heard. Problems with board governance are a product of too little democracy. A democratic reform strategy would make board elections partisan, hold them on the same day as elections for more prominent state or national offices,…

  9. Clinical Management of Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donna Russell; Blechman, Mark

    Presented for the practicing speech clinician is a guide for appropriate management of voice disorders. The value of a clinician's awareness of vocal dysfunction is stressed, and various techniques (such as indirect laryngoscopy) used in laryngeal examinations are described briefly. A chapter on procedures for evaluation and quantification of…

  10. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.