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Sample records for integration chapter cis

  1. US/CIS integrated NTRE concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bulman, M.J.; Culver, D.W.; McIlwain, M.C. ); D'yakov, E.K. ); Smetannikov, V.P. ); Rochow, R. )

    1993-01-10

    The team of Aerojet, Energopool and Babcock Wilcox has prepared a near-term Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) concept that takes advantage of mature fuel technology developed in the former Soviet Union. This proven, advanced fuel appreciably shortens the development schedule of this engine for Moon and Mars exploration. Our near term engine has a number of features that provide safety, mission performance, cost and risk benefits, including: (1) High temperature, long life CIS fuel, (2) high pressure, recuperated topping cycle, (3) assured restart, (4) long life, cooled nozzle with thin inner wall, (5) long life turbopumps, (6) heat radiation and electrical power generation, and (7) component integration energy.

  2. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  3. Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  4. Low Thrust, Deep Throttling, US/CIS Integrated NTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Kolganov, Vyacheslav; Rochow, Richard F.

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 our international team performed a follow-on ``Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) Extended Life Feasibility Assessment'' study for the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) at NASAs Lewis Research Center. The main purpose of this study was to complete the 1992 study matrix to assess NTRE designs at thrust levels of 22.5, 11.3, and 6.8 tonnes, using Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) reactor technology. An additional Aerojet goal was to continue improving the NTRE concept we had generated. Deep throttling, mission performance optimized engine design parametrics, and reliability/cost enhancing engine system simplifications were studied, because they seem to be the last three basic design improvements sorely needed by post-NERVA NTRE. Deep throttling improves engine life by eliminating damaging thermal and mechanical shocks caused by after-cooling with pulsed coolant flow. Alternately, it improves mission performance with steady flow after-cooling by minimizing reactor over-cooling. Deep throttling also provides a practical transition from high pressures and powers of the high thrust power cycle to the low pressures and powers of our electric power generating mode. Two deep throttling designs are discussed; a workable system that was studied and a simplified system that is recommended for future study. Mission-optimized engine thrust/weight (T/W) and Isp predictions are included along with system flow schemes and concept sketches.

  5. Effect of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid on the integrity and functionality of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marcio Pereira; Brandelli, Adriano; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea Florez

    2013-08-01

    Plasma membranes of sperm subjected to low temperatures undergo changes in their structure and permeability. The addition of fatty acids in semen cryopreservation media may influence the sperm motility after thawing, possibly by maintaining the membrane fluidity due to their incorporation in lipid bilayers. In this work, different concentrations of the isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were added in the cryopreservation medium of bovine sperm. Four Jersey bulls were used, and the ejaculates were processed as a pool. The Tris-based extender (Dilutris®) was supplemented with 20% egg yolk (MB). The treatments with CLA (Luta-CLA®), which had oily presentation, were prepared from MB with addition of 1% sodium lauryl sulfate, and denominated MBL. The concentrations of CLA tested were 50, 100, and 150 μM. The motility characteristics of the post-thaw semen were analyzed by computerized analysis system (CASA), and plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal and mitochondrial function assessed by the association of the fluorescent probes propidium iodide, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA), JC-1 and Hoechst 33342. No significant differences were observed among treatments, excepting for a decreased mitochondrial potential of cells treated with 150 μM CLA. The addition of CLA, at the concentrations used, showed no advantages on the integrity and functionality of bovine sperm submitted to cryopreservation. PMID:23721967

  6. Integrating bioinformatic resources to predict transcription factors interacting with cis-sequences conserved in co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using motif detection programs it is fairly straightforward to identify conserved cis-sequences in promoters of co-regulated genes. In contrast, the identification of the transcription factors (TFs) interacting with these cis-sequences is much more elaborate. To facilitate this, we explore the possibility of using several bioinformatic and experimental approaches for TF identification. This starts with the selection of co-regulated gene sets and leads first to the prediction and then to the experimental validation of TFs interacting with cis-sequences conserved in the promoters of these co-regulated genes. Results Using the PathoPlant database, 32 up-regulated gene groups were identified with microarray data for drought-responsive gene expression from Arabidopsis thaliana. Application of the binding site estimation suite of tools (BEST) discovered 179 conserved sequence motifs within the corresponding promoters. Using the STAMP web-server, 49 sequence motifs were classified into 7 motif families for which similarities with known cis-regulatory sequences were identified. All motifs were subjected to a footprintDB analysis to predict interacting DNA binding domains from plant TF families. Predictions were confirmed by using a yeast-one-hybrid approach to select interacting TFs belonging to the predicted TF families. TF-DNA interactions were further experimentally validated in yeast and with a Physcomitrella patens transient expression system, leading to the discovery of several novel TF-DNA interactions. Conclusions The present work demonstrates the successful integration of several bioinformatic resources with experimental approaches to predict and validate TFs interacting with conserved sequence motifs in co-regulated genes. PMID:24773781

  7. Integration of bioinformatics and synthetic promoters leads to the discovery of novel elicitor-responsive cis-regulatory sequences in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  8. Integration of Bioinformatics and Synthetic Promoters Leads to the Discovery of Novel Elicitor-Responsive cis-Regulatory Sequences in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J.; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  9. Integrating State Systemic Reforms and Chapter 1 Programs: Insights from Early Initiatives. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechman, Ellen M.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    This report examines the effects of early efforts to link the Elementary Secondary Education Act's (ESEA's) Chapter 1 (now Title I) programs to state and district education reforms, which are standards-based. The report focuses on how Chapter 1 standards and accountability requirements connect with new state-level standards, curricula, and…

  10. PV Manufacturing R&D -- Integrated CIS Thin-Film Manufacturing Infrastructure: Phase I Technical Report, 2 August 2002--31 October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.

    2004-06-01

    This subcontract report describes Shell Solar Industries (SSI), formerly Siemens Solar Industries, pursuing research and development of CuInSe2-based thin-film PV technology since 1980. In the 1980s, SSI demonstrated a 14.1%-efficient 3.4-cm2 active-area cell; unencapsulated integrated modules with aperture efficiencies of 11.2% on 940 cm2 and 9.1% on 3900 cm2; and an encapsulated module with 8.7% efficiency on 3883 cm2 (verified by NREL). Since these early achievements, SSI has made outstanding progress in the initial commercialization of high-performance thin-film CIS technology. Line yield has been increased from about 60% in 2000 to about 85% in 2002. This major accomplishment supports attractive cost projections for CIS. Recently, NREL confirmed a champion 12.8% aperture-area conversion efficiency for a large-area (3626 cm2) CIS module. Other than definition of the aperture area, this module is simply one module from the upper end of the production distribution for standard modules. Prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization have been demonstrated at successive levels of CIS production. Remaining R&D challenges are to scale the processes to even larger areas, to reach higher production capacity, to demonstrate in-service durability over longer times, and to advance the fundamental understanding of CIS-based materials and devices with the goal of improvements for future products. SSI's thin-film CIS technology is poised to make very significant contributions to DOE/NREL/NCPV long-term goals of higher volume, lower-cost commercial products. The objective of this subcontract is to continue advancement of SSI's copper indium diselenide (CIS) technology through development and implementation of: high-throughput CIS absorber formation reactors; an XRF measurement system; a bar-code scribing system; a high-capacity ZnO monitoring system; a high-capacity continuous-light-source simulator; and integrated manufacturing infrastructure including

  11. Separate elements of the TERMINAL FLOWER 1 cis-regulatory region integrate pathways to control flowering time and shoot meristem identity.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Fernández-Nohales, Pedro; Doménech, María J; Hanzawa, Yoshie; Bradley, Desmond; Madueño, Francisco

    2016-09-15

    TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis plant architecture that responds to developmental and environmental signals to control flowering time and the fate of shoot meristems. TFL1 expression is dynamic, being found in all shoot meristems, but not in floral meristems, with the level and distribution changing throughout development. Using a variety of experimental approaches we have analysed the TFL1 promoter to elucidate its functional structure. TFL1 expression is based on distinct cis-regulatory regions, the most important being located 3' of the coding sequence. Our results indicate that TFL1 expression in the shoot apical versus lateral inflorescence meristems is controlled through distinct cis-regulatory elements, suggesting that different signals control expression in these meristem types. Moreover, we identified a cis-regulatory region necessary for TFL1 expression in the vegetative shoot and required for a wild-type flowering time, supporting that TFL1 expression in the vegetative meristem controls flowering time. Our study provides a model for the functional organisation of TFL1 cis-regulatory regions, contributing to our understanding of how developmental pathways are integrated at the genomic level of a key regulator to control plant architecture. PMID:27385013

  12. An integrated system CisGenome for analyzing ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongkai; Jiang, Hui; Ma, Wenxiu; Johnson, David S.; Myers, Richard M.; Wong, Wing H.

    2008-01-01

    CisGenome is a software system for analyzing genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data. It is designed to meet all basic needs of ChIP data analyses, including visualization, data normalization, peak detection, false discovery rate (FDR) computation, gene-peak association, and sequence and motif analysis. In addition to implementing previously published ChIP-chip analysis methods, the software contains new statistical methods designed specifically for ChIP-seq data. CisGenome has a modular design so that it supports interactive analyses through a graphic user interface as well as customized batch-mode computation for advanced data mining. A built-in browser allows visualization of array images, signals, gene structure, conservation, and DNA sequence and motif information. We illustrate the use of these tools by a comparative analysis of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq data for the transcription factor NRSF/REST, a study of ChIP-seq analysis without negative control sample, and an analysis of a novel motif in Nanog- and Sox2-binding regions. PMID:18978777

  13. Designing Adaptive Low-Dissipative High Order Schemes for Long-Time Integrations. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Helen C.; Sjoegreen, B.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A general framework for the design of adaptive low-dissipative high order schemes is presented. It encompasses a rather complete treatment of the numerical approach based on four integrated design criteria: (1) For stability considerations, condition the governing equations before the application of the appropriate numerical scheme whenever it is possible; (2) For consistency, compatible schemes that possess stability properties, including physical and numerical boundary condition treatments, similar to those of the discrete analogue of the continuum are preferred; (3) For the minimization of numerical dissipation contamination, efficient and adaptive numerical dissipation control to further improve nonlinear stability and accuracy should be used; and (4) For practical considerations, the numerical approach should be efficient and applicable to general geometries, and an efficient and reliable dynamic grid adaptation should be used if necessary. These design criteria are, in general, very useful to a wide spectrum of flow simulations. However, the demand on the overall numerical approach for nonlinear stability and accuracy is much more stringent for long-time integration of complex multiscale viscous shock/shear/turbulence/acoustics interactions and numerical combustion. Robust classical numerical methods for less complex flow physics are not suitable or practical for such applications. The present approach is designed expressly to address such flow problems, especially unsteady flows. The minimization of employing very fine grids to overcome the production of spurious numerical solutions and/or instability due to under-resolved grids is also sought. The incremental studies to illustrate the performance of the approach are summarized. Extensive testing and full implementation of the approach is forthcoming. The results shown so far are very encouraging.

  14. Integration of coral reef ecosystem process studies and remote sensing: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brook, John; Yates, Kimberly; Halley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    anthropogenic causes (Brown, 1988). Models of coral reef ecosystems, parameterized by process measurements and scaled in time-space using remote sensing, have the potential to address pressing research questions that are central to devising valid management strategies (Grigg el al., 1984; Hatcher, 1997b). To attain this goal, ecosystem-level models that integrate studies of physical and chemical forcing with observed biological and geological responses are required. This interdisciplinary approach to understanding reef biogeochemical dynamics can allow investigations that integrate the scales of time and space (Hatcher, 1997a), thereby enabling prediction of coral reef change (Andréfouët and Payri, 2001). In turn, prediction of holistic ecosystem function within various environmental focusing scenarios has substantial promise in mitigating future disturbance. Indeed, management of coral reefs at the ecosystem level has been suggested as the only meaningful approach to preserving coral reefs (Bohnsack and Ault, 1996; Christensen et al., 1996).

  15. Integrative Modeling of eQTLs and Cis-Regulatory Elements Suggests Mechanisms Underlying Cell Type Specificity of eQTLs

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher D.; Mangravite, Lara M.; Engelhardt, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE) data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human complex phenotypic

  16. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios for Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation. 5; Chapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia, Roberto O.; Antle, John M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Vervoort, Joost; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hathie, Ibrahima; Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee; Mulwa, Richard; Nhemachena, Charles; Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Rasnayaka, Herath; Singh, Harbir

    2015-01-01

    The global change research community has recognized that new pathway and scenario concepts are needed to implement impact and vulnerability assessment where precise prediction is not possible, and also that these scenarios need to be logically consistent across local, regional, and global scales. For global climate models, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been developed that provide a range of time-series of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations into the future. For impact and vulnerability assessment, new socio-economic pathway and scenario concepts have also been developed, with leadership from the Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium (IAMC).This chapter presents concepts and methods for development of regional representative agricultural pathways (RAOs) and scenarios that can be used for agricultural model intercomparison, improvement, and impact assessment in a manner consistent with the new global pathways and scenarios. The development of agriculture-specific pathways and scenarios is motivated by the need for a protocol-based approach to climate impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessment. Until now, the various global and regional models used for agricultural-impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation, public availability, and consistency across disciplines. These practices have reduced the credibility of assessments, and also hampered the advancement of the science through model intercomparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. The recognition of the need for better coordination among the agricultural modeling community, including the development of standard reference scenarios with adequate agriculture-specific detail led to the creation of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) in 2010. The development of RAPs is one of the cross-cutting themes in AgMIP's work

  17. CIS Implementation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Naomi; Wiles, Jeff

    This handbook for school and agency staff presents information on implementing a Career Information System (CIS). Section 1 describes the content, format, and use of CIS information files. Each type of file is discussed individually and sample printouts are included. Section 2 provides materials on QUEST, the twenty-one question process by which…

  18. Bioinformatic Identification of Conserved Cis-Sequences in Coregulated Genes.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Lorenz; Hehl, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools can be employed to identify conserved cis-sequences in sets of coregulated plant genes because more and more gene expression and genomic sequence data become available. Knowledge on the specific cis-sequences, their enrichment and arrangement within promoters, facilitates the design of functional synthetic plant promoters that are responsive to specific stresses. The present chapter illustrates an example for the bioinformatic identification of conserved Arabidopsis thaliana cis-sequences enriched in drought stress-responsive genes. This workflow can be applied for the identification of cis-sequences in any sets of coregulated genes. The workflow includes detailed protocols to determine sets of coregulated genes, to extract the corresponding promoter sequences, and how to install and run a software package to identify overrepresented motifs. Further bioinformatic analyses that can be performed with the results are discussed. PMID:27557771

  19. Status of flexible CIS research at ISET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Minnick, A.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells fabricated on light-weight, flexible substrates are very attractive for space applications. In this work CulnSe2 (CIS) based thin film devices were processed on metallic foil substrates using the selenization technique. CIS deposition method involved reaction of electron-bean evaporated Cu-In precursor layers with a selenizing atmosphere at around 400 C. Several metallic foils such as Mo, Ti, Al, Ni, and Cu were evaluated as possible substrates for these devices. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiencies of 9.0-9.34 percent and good mechanical integrity were demonstrated on Mo and Ti foils. Monolithic integration of these devices was also demonstrated up to 4 in x 4 in size.

  20. Cis-regulatory mutations in human disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences are required for the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Variation in gene expression is highly heritable and a significant determinant of human disease susceptibility. The diversity of human genetic diseases attributed, in whole or in part, to mutations in non-coding regulatory sequences is on the rise. Improvements in genome-wide methods of associating genetic variation with human disease and predicting DNA with cis-regulatory potential are two of the major reasons for these recent advances. This review will highlight select examples from the literature that have successfully integrated genetic and genomic approaches to uncover the molecular basis by which cis-regulatory mutations alter gene expression and contribute to human disease. The fine mapping of disease-causing variants has led to the discovery of novel cis-acting regulatory elements that, in some instances, are located as far away as 1.5 Mb from the target gene. In other cases, the prior knowledge of the regulatory landscape surrounding the gene of interest aided in the selection of enhancers for mutation screening. The success of these studies should provide a framework for following up on the large number of genome-wide association studies that have identified common variants in non-coding regions of the genome that associate with increased risk of human diseases including, diabetes, autism, Crohn's, colorectal cancer, and asthma, to name a few. PMID:19641089

  1. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audétat A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  2. A Versatile Theranostic Delivery Platform Integrating Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Computed Tomography, pH/cis-Diol Controlled Release, and Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Jui; Chou, Shang-Wei; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2016-06-28

    The functions of biomedical imaging, cancer targeting, and controlled release of therapeutic agents were integrated into a drug delivery platform to proof its diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. This versatile nanocomposite is based on the strategic design of wormlike mesoporous silica nanocarriers that are decorated with extremely small iron oxide nanoparticles, having a prominent T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal. The controlled release function was then achieved through the grafting of polyalcohol saccharide derivative ligands onto the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to conjugate with boronic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles, which acted as the gate and the source of computed tomography (CT) signals. This versatile platform thus exhibited a MRI/CT dual imaging property drawing on the strong points to offset the weaknesses of each, rendering more accurate diagnosis. The capping of gold nanoparticles controlled with the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds provides the reversible opening/closing process, avoiding further release of drug once the nanocomposite leaves the cell or tissue. To endow this platform with targeting ability, protocatechuic acid was utilized as a linker to connect folic acid with the boronic acid of the gold nanoparticles. The anchor of targeting moiety, folic acid, enriched this platform and enhanced the specific cellular uptake toward cells with folate receptor. This integrated drug delivery platform was then loaded with the antitumor agent doxorubicin, demonstrating its power for targeted delivery, bioimaging, and controlled release chemotherapy to reduce the undesired side effects of chemotherapy. PMID:27163375

  3. Two integral membrane proteins located in the cis-middle and trans-part of the Golgi system acquire sialylated N-linked carbohydrates and display different turnovers and sensitivity to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Barriocanal, J G; Bonifacino, J S; Sandoval, I V

    1987-07-01

    The localization and chemical characteristics of two Golgi integral membrane proteins (GIMPs) have been studied using monoclonal antibodies. The two proteins are segregated in different parts of the Golgi system and whereas GIMPc(130 kD) is located in the cis and medial cisternae, GIMPt (100 kD) is confined in the trans-most cisterna and trans-tubular network. Both GIMPs are glycoproteins that contain N- and O-linked carbohydrates. The N-linked carbohydrates were exclusively of the complex type. Although excluded from the trans-side of the Golgi system, where sialylation is believed to occur, GIMPc acquires sialic acid in both its N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Sialic acid was also detected in the N-linked carbohydrates of GIMPt. GIMPc is apparently phosphorylated in the luminal domain in vivo. Phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serine and was stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. GIMPc and GIMPt displayed half-lives of 20 and 9 h, respectively. PMID:3301866

  4. DBMS UTILIZATION: A Corporate Information System (CIS) development approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozett, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Corporate Information System (CIS), an integrated information system intended to tie the corporation together as a functioning entity, is described. In addition to being a major upgraded automated data processing system, the CIS is a management philosophy which recognizes data as a valuable corporate resource and which distinguishes between data and selected data, or information. It further recognizes that different users need different kinds of information. Plans for CIS development are discussed. It will offer its users not just after-the-fact data, but timely information in a format that is meaningful and useful to the particular user, so that the information can be applied in planning, controlling, and decision making by all levels of management. In effect, CIS will help the corporation itself to function as a total, integrated system by typing together administrative activities through information exchange. The CIS supports the operational, tactical control, and strategic planning functions of the corporation. Operational functions are the day-to-day processing necessary to support the corporation's work, such as purchasing and payroll.

  5. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  6. Transfer of the EPA/NIH Chemical Information System (CIS) to Private Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadec, Sarah T.; Jover, Antonio

    This paper discusses the programmatic concerns, the evaluation, and the ultimate decisions which led to the transfer of CIS (Chemical Information System) to the private sector. CIS is a complex, integrated system of some 20 chemical databases and data analysis programs which provide access to physical, toxicological, environmental effects, and…

  7. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  8. Thermal cis-trans isomerization of cis,cis-3,7-decadiene - A model for cis-1,4-polybutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Lee, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal cis-trans isomerization of cis,cis-3,7-decadiene (DD), a model compound for cis-PBD, is reported. It is demonstrated that the rather low E for the polyalkenamer isomerizations compared with that for the 2-olefins is not an artifact of the solid polymer structures, but rather is characteristic of both small and large molecules possessing pairs of nonconjugated vinylene double bonds in a suitable arrangement.

  9. Chapter 9: Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cis-& Trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  11. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  12. Review of AdS/CFT Integrability, Chapter III.1: Bethe Ansätze and the R-Matrix Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudacher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional Heisenberg XXX spin chain appears in a special limit of the AdS/CFT integrable system. We review various ways of proving its integrability, and discuss the associated methods of solution. In particular, we outline the coordinate and the algebraic Bethe ansatz, giving reference to literature suitable for learning these techniques. Finally, we speculate which of the methods might lift to the exact solution of the AdS/CFT system, and sketch a promising method for constructing the Baxter Q-operator of the XXX chain. It allows to find the spectrum of the model using certain algebraic techniques, while entirely avoiding Bethe's ansatz.

  13. Curricular Orientations. Chapter Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the major curricular orientations which can be found in special education settings for students with mental disabilities. Program orientations differ along two primary dimensions: the amount of time students spend in special settings or with special education personnel, and the extent to which the…

  14. Chapter 2. Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, four categories of plant genetic resources (PGR) are identified as important for breeding: Wild relatives, ecotypes, landraces, and cultivars. Fodder crops and amenity grasses differ from field crops in the relative importance of these categories, as well as in the relative importan...

  15. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  16. Vanillin, Cis-Terpin Hydrate, and Cis-Terpin as Ice Nucleators.

    PubMed

    Power, B A; Power, R F

    1965-05-21

    Vanillin, cis-terpin hydrate, and cis-terpin cause ice nucleation at relatively high threshold temperatures. Trace quantities of these substances should exist in the natural atmosphere and may act as ice nuclei. PMID:17820113

  17. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  18. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1992-93. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 29 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD). Sixteen of the schools had so many disadvantaged students that they qualified to be Chapter 1 schoolwide projects (SWPs). Chapter 1…

  19. Nutrient dynamics: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  20. Germinating the 2050 Cis-Lunar Econosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nall, Mark E.; Wright, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director and MSFC's Office of Strategic Analysis and Communications (OSAC) chartered a diverse team for a six-week "sprint" to speculate (in a disciplined manner) and paint (with broad brush strokes) a picture of how earth, space, and public/private entities might be operating and relating to each other...in the year 2100. Two 12-person groups of civil servants, one with members having 15 years or less of NASA experience and the other with more senior members, worked independently and then compared and integrated their conclusions. In 2014, the "Space 2100" team, with some new team members and different group boundaries, ran a longer sprint to a) develop more detailed estimates of the operations and economics of space activities in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon in the 2050 time frame, b) identify evolutionary steps and viable paths needed to make that a reality, and c) recommend actions to enable and invigorate those steps. This paper explores Space 2100's first two sprints and their projections of NASA's role in what will likely be a highly networked international space industry and cis-lunar infrastructure.

  1. Germinating the 2050 Cis-Lunar Econosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Curreri, Peter A.; Ferguson, Cynthia K.; Nall, Mark E.; Tinker, Michael L.; Wright, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, Marshall Space Flight Center's upper management chartered a diverse team for a six-week 'sprint' to speculate (in a disciplined manner) and paint (with broad brush strokes) a picture of how earth, space, and public/private entities might be operating and relating to each other... in the year 2100. Two 12-person groups of civil servants, one with members having 15 years or less of NASA experience and the other with more senior members, worked independently and then compared and integrated their conclusions. In 2014, the 'Space 2100' team, with some new team members and different group boundaries, ran a longer sprint to a) develop more detailed estimates of the operations and economics of space activities in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon in the 2050 time frame, b) identify evolutionary paths, barriers, and opportunities, and c) suggest actions and philosophies to enable and invigorate progress towards the vision. This paper explores Space 2100's first two sprints and their projections of NASA's role in what will likely be a highly networked, international space industry and cis-lunar infrastructure.

  2. Plant growth inhibition by cis-cinnamoyl glucosides and cis-cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiradate, Syuntaro; Morita, Sayaka; Furubayashi, Akihiro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Harada, Jiro

    2005-03-01

    Spiraea thunbergii Sieb. contains 1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (CG) and 6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (BCG) as major plant growth inhibiting constituents. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG on root elongation of germinated seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), red clover (Trifolium pratense), timothy (Phleum pratense), and bok choy (Brassica rapa var chinensis) in comparison with that of two well-known growth inhibitors, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid (cis-ABA), as well as two related chemicals of CG and BCG, cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) and trans-cinnamic acid (trans-CA). The EC50 values for CG and BCG on lettuce were roughly one-half to one-quarter of the value for cis-ABA. cis-Cinnamic acid, which is a component of CG and BCG, possessed almost the same inhibitory activity of CG and BCG, suggesting that the essential chemical structure responsible for the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG is cis-CA. The cis-stereochemistry of the methylene moiety is apparently needed for high inhibitory activity, as trans-CA had an EC50 value roughly 100 times that of CG, BCG, and cis-CA. Growth inhibition by CG, BCG, and cis-CA was influenced by the nature of the soil in the growing medium: alluvial soil preserved the bioactivity, whereas volcanic ash and calcareous soils inhibited bioactivity. These findings indicate a potential role of cis-CA and its glucosides as allelochemicals for use as plant growth regulators in agricultural fields. PMID:15898503

  3. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  4. The Molecular Structure of cis-FONO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Rice, Julia E.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The molecular structure of cis-FONO has been determined with the CCSD(T) correlation method using an spdf quality basis set. In agreement with previous coupled-cluster calculations but in disagreement with density functional theory, cis-FONO is found to exhibit normal bond distances. The quadratic and cubic force fields of cis-FONO have also been determined in order to evaluate the effect of vibrational averaging on the molecular geometry. Vibrational averaging is found to increase bond distances, as expected, but it does not affect the qualitative nature of the bonding. The CCSD(T)/spdf harmonic frequencies of cis-FONO support our previous assertion that a band observed at 1200 /cm is a combination band (upsilon(sub 3) + upsilon(sub 4)), and not a fundamental.

  5. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of cis-Nitrous Acid Anion (cis-HONO(-)).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Allan M; Lehman, Julia H; McCoy, Anne B; Lineberger, W Carl

    2016-03-17

    We report photoelectron spectra of cis-HONO(-) formed from an association reaction of OH(-) and NO in a pulsed, plasma-entrainment ion source. The experimental data are assigned to the cis-HONO(-) isomer, which is predicted to be the global minimum on the anion potential energy surface. We do not find evidence for a significant contribution from trans-HONO(-). Electron photodetachment of cis-HONO(-) with 1613, 1064, 532, 355, and 301 nm photons accesses the ground X̃ (1)A' (S0) and excited ã (3)A″ (T1) states of neutral HONO. The photoelectron spectrum resulting from detachment forming cis-HONO (S0) exhibits a long vibrational progression, dominated by overtones and combination bands involving the central O-N stretching and ONO bending vibrations. This indicates that there is a significant change in the central O-N bond length between cis-HONO(-) and cis-HONO (S0). The electron affinity (EA) of cis-HONO is determined to be 0.356(8) eV. We also report the dissociation energy (D0) of cis-HONO(-), forming OH(-) + NO, as 0.594(9) eV, which is a factor of 4 decrease in the central O-N bond strength compared to neutral cis-HONO. The T1 state of cis-HONO is shown to be ∼2.3 eV higher in energy than cis-HONO (S0). Electron photodetachment to form cis-HONO (T1) accesses a transition state along the HO-NO bond dissociation coordinate. The resulting photoelectron spectrum exhibits broad peaks spaced by the terminal N═O stretching frequency. Electronic structure calculations and photoelectron spectrum simulations reported here show very good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26886478

  6. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  7. CisSERS: Customizable in silico sequence evaluation for restriction sites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sharpe, Richard M.; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit; et al

    2016-04-12

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Here, data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated tomore » enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERSenable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3’UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERSand results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies.« less

  8. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard M; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies. PMID:27071032

  9. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Richard M.; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3’UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies. PMID:27071032

  10. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  11. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  12. The Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Cistrome: GATA Factor-Dependent cis-Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, K J; Johnson, K D; Gao, X; Keles, S; Bresnick, E H

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators mediate the genesis and function of the hematopoietic system by binding complex ensembles of cis-regulatory elements to establish genetic networks. While thousands to millions of any given cis-element resides in a genome, how transcriptional regulators select these sites and how site attributes dictate functional output is not well understood. An instructive system to address this problem involves the GATA family of transcription factors that control vital developmental and physiological processes and are linked to multiple human pathologies. Although GATA factors bind DNA motifs harboring the sequence GATA, only a very small subset of these abundant motifs are occupied in genomes. Mechanistic studies revealed a unique configuration of a GATA factor-regulated cis-element consisting of an E-box and a downstream GATA motif separated by a short DNA spacer. GATA-1- or GATA-2-containing multiprotein complexes at these composite elements control transcription of genes critical for hematopoietic stem cell emergence in the mammalian embryo, hematopoietic progenitor cell regulation, and erythroid cell maturation. Other constituents of the complex include the basic helix-loop-loop transcription factor Scl/TAL1, its heterodimeric partner E2A, and the Lim domain proteins LMO2 and LDB1. This chapter reviews the structure/function of E-box-GATA composite cis-elements, which collectively constitute an important sector of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell cistrome. PMID:27137654

  13. Chapter II. Taxonomy and Phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter presents a review of the taxonomic distribution of ornamental geophytic plants (bulbs, tubers, corms, rhizomes) and the modern classification of the families within which they belong....

  14. Cis regius, a new species of Cis Latreille (Coleoptera: Ciidae) from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Orsetti, Artur; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Cis Latreille is the most diverse genus of Ciidae with 350 species and a worldwide distribution (Oliveira et al. 2013). It houses more than a half of the described ciid species, but the available phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggest that Cis is polyphyletic (Buder et al. 2008; Lopes-Andrade & Grebennikov 2015). Currently, there is no thoroughly accepted subgeneric classification for Cis and parts of the species are organized into artificial species-groups (Lawrence 1971; Lopes-Andrade et al. 2003; Lopes-Andrade 2008; Oliveira et al. 2013). PMID:27470794

  15. Cis-acting determinants of paramutation.

    PubMed

    Hövel, Iris; Pearson, Nigel A; Stam, Maike

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is an epigenetic phenomenon whereby in trans communication between homologous sequences leads to meiotically heritable epigenetic changes at one of the alleles. Cis-acting determinants of paramutation are DNA sequences and associated epigenetic modifications that are required for paramutation. Here, we review how characteristics of the underlying DNA sequences determine whether paramutation can occur and how they affect the behavior displayed by the various paramutation phenomena. Paramutation is strongly associated with repeated sequences, especially tandemly repeated sequences. Cis-acting determinants consisting of repeated sequences are consistent with the involvement of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants and the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway in animals. In the RdDM-based model, siRNAs produced by paramutagenic loci would reinforce the silenced state of paramutagenic loci in cis and initiate transcriptional silencing of paramutable loci in trans. In this review, we discuss how sequence characteristics and epigenetic modifications of cis-acting sequences can trigger the recruitment of silencing machineries. PMID:26321497

  16. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  17. Chapter A6. Field Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A6 presents procedures and guidelines for the collection of data on air and water temperature, and on dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific electrical conductance, pH, reduction-oxidation potential, alkalinity, and turbidity in water. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A (accessed August 6, 2005).

  18. Chapter A7. Biological Indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual includes procedures for the (1) determination of biochemical oxygen demand using a 5-day bioassay test; (2) collection, identification, and enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria; (3) collection of samples and information on two laboratory methods for fecal indicator viruses (coliphages); and (4) collection of samples for protozoan pathogens. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed November 25, 2003).

  19. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1993-94. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 31 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) through the following components: (1) nonschoolwide projects of supplementary instruction; (2) schoolwide projects (SWP) in the most…

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15): BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK NRMRL-CIN-1088 Curran*, M.A., and Schenck, R.C. "Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Assessment (Chapter 15)." Published in: Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, A. Ghassemi (Ed.),New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, p. 289-320. /2000 Much has been ac...

  1. CIS product introduction: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wieting, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    Siemens Solar has now introduced its next generation of solar modules, the ST5 and ST10 modules based on thin film CuInSe{sub 2}-alloys. Experience with volume production of CIS modules is described including production statistics for 1{times}4-foot circuits with an average output of almost 40 watts, or nearly 11{percent} aperture efficiency. Module stability and package development is reviewed together with a survey of future manufacturing challenges. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. PDSS/IMC CIS user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Spacelab Payload Development Support System PDSS Image Motion Compensator (IMC) computer interface simulation (CIS) user's manual is given. The software provides a real time interface simulation for the following IMC subsystems: the Dry Rotor Reference Unit, the Advanced Star/Target Reference Optical sensor, the Ultra Violet imaging telescope, the Wisconson Ultraviolet Photopolarimetry Experiment, the Cruciform Power distributor, and the Spacelab Experiment Computer Operating System.

  3. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Aaron T.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  4. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  5. Chapter 17 Berries and Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major objective of this book is to review in detail health problems occurring with significant frequency in aging adults which are proposed to be treated or ameliorated using nutriceuticals as foods and dietary supplements as well as other complementary and alternative therapies. Chapters primar...

  6. Chapter 2: Official Programmatic Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Youth civic engagement is a diverse field of practice, with each initiative claiming it has a unique approach. This chapter describes three initiatives, Youth-in-Government, Youth Science Center, and Public Achievement from the point-of-view of program staff. Their view is often privileged; it is the one used for official communication and public…

  7. Phonons of the cis-polyacetylene chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulques, Eric; Buisson, Jean-Pierre; Lefrant, Serge

    1995-12-01

    An investigation of the in-plane phonons of the cis-polyacetylene chain (CH)x and isotopic analogs (CD)x and (13CH)x is presented on the basis of a Fourier's dynamical D-matrix formalism. The conjugation is found to be similar to that of the trans-polyacetylene chain. Phonon dispersions have been calculated and follow the shapes predicted by Božović. Finally, the most interesting result is that phonon density of states exhibits van Hove singularities whose energies are close to those determined experimentally with incoherent inelastic neutron scattering.

  8. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  9. cis-Cinnamic acid selective suppressors distinct from auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), one of the allelochemicals, in plants is very similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, and thus cis-CA has long been believed to be an analog of auxin. We have reported some structure-activity relationships studies by synthesizing over 250 cis-CA derivatives and estimating their inhibitory activities on root growth inhibition in lettuce. In this study, the compounds that showed low- or no-activity on root growth inhibition were recruited as candidates suppressors against cis-CA and/or auxin and tested for their activity. In the presence of cis-CA, lettuce root growth was inhibited; however, the addition of some cis-CA derivatives restored control-level root growth. Four compounds, (Z)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-(3-butoxyphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-[3-(pentyloxy)phenyl]acrylic acid, and (Z)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)acrylic acid were selected as candidates for a cis-CA selective suppressor they allowed the recovery of root growth from inhibition by cis-CA treatment without any effects on the IAA-induced effect or elongating activity by themselves. Three candidates significantly ameliorated the root shortening by the potent inhibitor derived from cis-CA. In brief, we have found some cis-CA selective suppressors which have never been reported from inactive cis-CA derivatives for root growth inhibition. cis-CA selective suppressors will play an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant growth regulation. PMID:24881667

  10. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals widespread occurrence of novel cis-natural antisense transcripts in rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are RNAs transcribed from the antisense strand of a gene locus, and are complementary to the RNA transcribed from the sense strand. Common techniques including microarray approach and analysis of transcriptome databases are the major ways to globally identify cis-NATs in various eukaryotic organisms. Genome-wide in silico analysis has identified a large number of cis-NATs that may generate endogenous short interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs), which participate in important biogenesis mechanisms for transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in rice. However, the transcriptomes are yet to be deeply sequenced to comprehensively investigate cis-NATs. Results We applied high-throughput strand-specific complementary DNA sequencing technology (ssRNA-seq) to deeply sequence mRNA for assessing sense and antisense transcripts that were derived under salt, drought and cold stresses, and normal conditions, in the model plant rice (Oryza sativa). Combined with RAP-DB genome annotation (the Rice Annotation Project Database build-5 data set), 76,013 transcripts corresponding to 45,844 unique gene loci were assembled, in which 4873 gene loci were newly identified. Of 3819 putative rice cis-NATs, 2292 were detected as expressed and giving rise to small RNAs from their overlapping regions through integrated analysis of ssRNA-seq data and small RNA data. Among them, 503 cis-NATs seemed to be associated with specific conditions. The deep sequence data from isolated epidermal cells of rice seedlings further showed that 54.0% of cis-NATs were expressed simultaneously in a population of homogenous cells. Nearly 9.7% of rice transcripts were involved in one-to-one or many-to-many cis-NATs formation. Furthermore, only 17.4-34.7% of 223 many-to-many cis-NAT groups were all expressed and generated nat-siRNAs, indicating that only some cis-NAT groups may be involved in complex regulatory networks. Conclusions Our study profiles an

  11. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Watson, John; D'Abreton, Peter; Scire, Joseph; Zhu, Tan; Klein, Werner; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    In this chapter, the concept of exposure assessment and its evolution is introduced, and evaluated by critically appraising the pertinent literature as it applies to exposures to Particulate Matter (PM). Exposure measurement or estimation methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus on source evaluation and attribution, sources include those outdoors and indoors as well as in occupational and in-transit environments. Fate and transport models and their inputs are addressed to estimate concentrations outdoors and indoors; source attribution techniques help focus on the contributing sources. Activity pattern techniques are also reviewed and their use in exposure models to estimate inhalation exposure to PM is presented. Deterministic, regression and other stochastic models of exposure to PM are reviewed and evaluated. Strengths, limitations, assumptions and affirmations of the use of exposure assessment as an integral component of risk assessment and risk management are discussed in the conclusions and discussions section of this work. PMID:12492158

  12. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  13. The role of cis regulatory evolution in maize domestication.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Zachary H; Bukowski, Robert; Sun, Qi; Doebley, John F

    2014-11-01

    Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ∼17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However, many fewer genes (1,079 genes) show consistent cis differences with all sampled maize and teosinte lines. For ∼70% of these 1,079 genes, the cis differences are specific to a single tissue. The number of genes with cis regulatory differences is greatest for ear tissue, which underwent a drastic transformation in form during domestication. As expected from the domestication bottleneck, maize possesses less cis regulatory variation than teosinte with this deficit greatest for genes showing maize-teosinte cis regulatory divergence, suggesting selection on cis regulatory differences during domestication. Consistent with selection on cis regulatory elements, genes with cis effects correlated strongly with genes under positive selection during maize domestication and improvement, while genes with trans regulatory effects did not. We observed a directional bias such that genes with cis differences showed higher expression of the maize allele more often than the teosinte allele, suggesting domestication favored up-regulation of gene expression. Finally, this work documents the cis and trans regulatory changes between maize and teosinte in over 17,000 genes for three tissues. PMID:25375861

  14. Teaching Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Sue; Butts, Jennifer Lease

    2011-01-01

    Integrity is one of those essential yet highly ambiguous concepts. For the purpose of this chapter, integrity is defined as that combination of both attributes and actions that makes entities appear to be whole and ethical, as well as consistent. Like the concepts of leadership or wisdom or community or collaboration, integrity is a key element of…

  15. Industry group assails climate chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.

    1996-06-21

    the scientific debate about whether human activity is warming global climate subsided late last year when the world`s leading climate researchers agreed that the answer is probably yes. But recently the political debate heated up by several degrees when an industry group charged that revisions to a crucial chapter in a UN report on climate change violated peer review and amounted to scientific cleansing of doubts about human influences on climate. This article describes the controversy from both points of view - the business group and the scientists involved.

  16. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile.

    PubMed

    Floková, Kristýna; Feussner, Kirstin; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Miersch, Otto; Mik, Václav; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that integrate external stress stimuli with physiological responses. (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the natural JA ligand of COI1, a component of a known JA receptor. The upstream JA biosynthetic precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA) has been reported to act independently of COI1 as an essential signal in several stress-induced and developmental processes. Wound-induced increases in the endogenous levels of JA/JA-Ile are accompanied by two to tenfold increases in the concentration of OPDA, but its means of perception and metabolism are unknown. To screen for putative OPDA metabolites, vegetative tissues of flowering Arabidopsis thaliana were extracted with 25% aqueous methanol (v/v), purified by single-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by high throughput mass spectrometry. This enabled the detection and quantitation of a low abundant OPDA analog of the biologically active (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile in plant tissue samples. Levels of the newly identified compound and the related phytohormones JA, JA-Ile and cis-(+)-OPDA were monitored in wounded leaves of flowering Arabidopsis lines (Col-0 and Ws) and compared to the levels observed in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA (dde2-2, opr3) and JA-Ile (jar1). The observed cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile levels varied widely, raising questions concerning its role in Arabidopsis stress responses. PMID:26675361

  17. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  18. Microwave spectrum of cis-glyoxal.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Tong, C. C.; Li, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of glyoxal has been investigated in the region from 18.0 to 40.0 GHz. Only B-type transitions were observed. Both Q-branch and R-branch assignments have been made for the ground state, and the Q-branch assignment has been made for the first excited state of the internal rotational mode. From relative intensity measurements of vibrational excited states, the torsional vibration is found to have a frequency of 114 plus or minus 8 per cm. From a consideration of the rotational constants, it is concluded that the isomer giving rise to the microwave spectrum is the planar cis form and not the gauche isomer. The dipole moment was determined to be 4.8 plus or minus 0.2 D.

  19. Prepare dispersed CIS nano-scale particles and spray coating CIS absorber layers using nano-scale precursors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited by a two-stepped process, and the high-purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. From the X-ray pattern of the CIS precursor, the mainly crystalline phase was CIS, and the almost undetectable CuSe phase was observed. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into micro-scale particles and the average particle sizes were approximately 3 to 8 μm, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles, then the 6 wt.% CIS particles were dispersed into isopropyl alcohol to get the solution for spray coating method. Then, 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm × 10 mm Mo/glass substrates, and the heat treatment for the nano-scale CIS solution under various parameters was carried out in a selenization furnace. The annealing temperature was set at 550°C, and the annealing time was changed from 5 to 30 min, without extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of annealing time on the densification, crystallization, resistivity (ρ), hall mobility (μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study. PMID:24380376

  20. A Graph Based Framework to Model Virus Integration Sites.

    PubMed

    Fronza, Raffaele; Vasciaveo, Alessandro; Benso, Alfredo; Schmidt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    With next generation sequencing thousands of virus and viral vector integration genome targets are now under investigation to uncover specific integration preferences and to define clusters of integration, termed common integration sites (CIS), that may allow to assess gene therapy safety or to detect disease related genomic features such as oncogenes. Here, we addressed the challenge to: 1) define the notion of CIS on graph models, 2) demonstrate that the structure of CIS enters in the category of scale-free networks and 3) show that our network approach analyzes CIS dynamically in an integrated systems biology framework using the Retroviral Transposon Tagged Cancer Gene Database (RTCGD) as a testing dataset. PMID:27257470

  1. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  2. 26 CFR 31.3503-1 - Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong... 1954) § 31.3503-1 Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter. If, for any period, an amount is paid as tax— (a) Under chapter 21 or corresponding provisions of prior law by a person who is...

  3. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  4. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Smetanikov, Vladimir; D'Yakov, Evgenij K.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness.

  5. Automated assembly of oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Heung Sik; Hurevich, Mattan; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Automated glycan assembly (AGA) has advanced from a concept to a commercial technology that rapidly provides access to diverse oligosaccharide chains as long as 30-mers. To date, AGA was mainly employed to incorporate trans-glycosidic linkages, where C2 participating protecting groups ensure stereoselective couplings. Stereocontrol during the installation of cis-glycosidic linkages cannot rely on C2-participation and anomeric mixtures are typically formed. Here, we demonstrate that oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages can be prepared efficiently by AGA using monosaccharide building blocks equipped with remote participating protecting groups. The concept is illustrated by the automated syntheses of biologically relevant oligosaccharides bearing various cis-galactosidic and cis-glucosidic linkages. This work provides further proof that AGA facilitates the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides with multiple cis-linkages and other biologically important oligosaccharides. PMID:27580973

  6. Beyond Chapter 4.7.

    PubMed

    Bandler, Lilon Gretl

    2015-12-01

    Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work. PMID:27135116

  7. Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

  8. De novo synthesis of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has many well-documented beneficial physiological effects. Due to the insufficient natural supply of CLA and low specificity of chemically produced CLA, an effective and isomer-specific production process is required for medicinal and nutritional purposes. Results The linoleic acid isomerase gene from Propionibacterium acnes was expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica Polh. Codon usage optimization of the PAI and multi-copy integration significantly improved the expression level of PAI in Y. lipolytica. The percentage of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was six times higher in yeast carrying the codon-optimized gene than in yeast carrying the native gene. In combination with multi-copy integration, the production yield was raised to approximately 30-fold. The amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA reached 5.9% of total fatty acid yield in transformed Y. lipolytica. Conclusions This is the first report of production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA by the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica, using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes. PMID:22545818

  9. Effects of Cd{sup 2+} on cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Hiroshi

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • The effects of Cd on the dimer of cadherin in living cells was analyzed. • Cd induced cadherin dimer formation was not detected in living cell with low Ca. • Ca mediated structural cooperativity and allostery in the native cadherin. • Ca concentration-dependent competitive displacement of Cd from cadherin is proposed. - Abstract: E-cadherin, a calcium (Ca{sup 2+})-dependent cell–cell adhesion molecule, plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin functions in vivo as a cis-dimer through chemical cross-linking reagents. Ca{sup 2+} plays an important role in the cis-dimer formation of cadherin. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Ca{sup 2+} interacts with the binding sites that regulate cis-dimer structures have not been completely elucidated. As expected for a Ca{sup 2+} antagonist, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) disrupts cadherin function by displacing Ca{sup 2+} from its binding sites on the cadherin molecules. We used Cd{sup 2+} as a probe for investigating the role of Ca{sup 2+} in the dynamics of the E-cadherin extracellular region that involve cis-dimer formation and adhesion. While cell–cell adhesion assembly was completely disrupted in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, the amount of cis-dimers of E-cadherin that formed at the cell surface was not affected. In our “Cd{sup 2+}-switch” experiments, we did not find that Cd{sup 2+}-induced E-cadherin cis-dimer formation in EL cells when they were incubated in low-Ca{sup 2+} medium. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time the effects of Cd{sup 2+} on the cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells using a chemical cross-link analysis.

  10. Comprehensively Evaluating cis-Regulatory Variation in the Human Prostate Transcriptome by Using Gene-Level Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J.; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A.; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E−5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate. PMID:25983244

  11. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  12. Using CisGenome to Analyze ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongkai; Jiang, Hui; Ma, Wenxiu; Wong, Wing Hung

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with genome tiling array hybridization (ChIP-chip) and ChIP followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) are high throughput approaches to profile genome-wide protein-DNA interactions. Both technologies are increasingly used to study transcription factor binding sites and chromatin modifications. CisGenome is an integrated software system for analyzing ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq data. This unit describes basic functions of CisGenome and how to use them to find genomic regions with protein-DNA interactions, visualize binding signals, associate binding regions with nearby genes, search for novel transcription factor binding motifs, and map existing DNA sequence motifs to user-supplied genomic regions to define their exact locations. PMID:21400695

  13. Polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences as cis-acting transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Brahmachari, S K; Sarkar, P S; Raghavan, S; Narayan, M; Maiti, A K

    1997-04-29

    Genome sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that repetitive DNA sequences present within and around genes could play a important role in the regulation of gene expression. Polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences [poly(Pu/Py)] have been observed in the vicinity of promoters and within the transcribed regions of many genes. To understand whether such sequences influence the level of gene expression, we constructed several prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression vectors incorporating poly(Pu/Py) repeats both within and upstream of a reporter gene, lacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase), and studied its expression in vivo. We find that, in contrast to the situation in Escherichia coli, the presence of poly(Pu/Py) sequences within the gene does not significantly inhibit gene expression in mammalian cells. On the other hand, the presence of such sequences upstream of lacZ leads to a several-fold reduction of gene expression in mammalian cells. Similar down-regulation was observed when a structural cassette containing poly(Pu/Py) sequences upstream of lacZ was integrated into yeast chromosome V. Sequence analysis of the nine totally sequenced yeast chromosomes shows that a large number of such sequences occur upstream of ORFs. On the basis of our experimental results and DNA sequence analysis, we propose that these sequences can function as cis-acting transcriptional regulators. PMID:9185844

  14. Experimental validation of predicted mammalian erythroid cis-regulatory modules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Yong; Zhou, Yuepin; King, David C.; Taylor, James; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Kasturi, Jyotsna; Petrykowska, Hanna; Gibb, Brian; Dorman, Christine; Miller, Webb; Dore, Louis C.; Welch, John; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple alignments of genome sequences are helpful guides to functional analysis, but predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) accurately from such alignments remains an elusive goal. We predict CRMs for mammalian genes expressed in red blood cells by combining two properties gleaned from aligned, noncoding genome sequences: a positive regulatory potential (RP) score, which detects similarity to patterns in alignments distinctive for regulatory regions, and conservation of a binding site motif for the essential erythroid transcription factor GATA-1. Within eight target loci, we tested 75 noncoding segments by reporter gene assays in transiently transfected human K562 cells and/or after site-directed integration into murine erythroleukemia cells. Segments with a high RP score and a conserved exact match to the binding site consensus are validated at a good rate (50%–100%, with rates increasing at higher RP), whereas segments with lower RP scores or nonconsensus binding motifs tend to be inactive. Active DNA segments were shown to be occupied by GATA-1 protein by chromatin immunoprecipitation, whereas sites predicted to be inactive were not occupied. We verify four previously known erythroid CRMs and identify 28 novel ones. Thus, high RP in combination with another feature of a CRM, such as a conserved transcription factor binding site, is a good predictor of functional CRMs. Genome-wide predictions based on RP and a large set of well-defined transcription factor binding sites are available through servers at http://www.bx.psu.edu/. PMID:17038566

  15. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, Angus A.; Yang, Li-Chung

    1995-01-01

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe.sub.2 where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor.

  16. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, A.A.; Yang, L.C.

    1995-12-19

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe{sub 2} where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor. 15 figs.

  17. Two new species and nomenclatural changes in the Cis castaneus species group (Coleoptera, Ciidae).

    PubMed

    Królik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Cis hanseni A. Strand, 1965 is a junior synonym of Cis matchanus Reitter, 1915 stat. nov. The lectotype for Cis matchanus Reitter, 1915 is designated and illustrated, together with its original data labels. Two new species-Cis lasoni sp. nov. and Cis lugowoji sp. nov. from the Talysh and Alborz Mts. (Azerbaijan, Iran)-are described. The body and terminalia of males are illustrated in detail. The definition of the Cis castaneus species group is discussed. PMID:27395144

  18. Sediment transport measurements: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diplas, P.; Kuhnle, R.; Gray, J.; Glysson, D.; Edwards, T.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in fluvial systems are complex processes that are treated in detail in other sections of this book. Development of methods suitable for the collection of data that contribute to understanding these processes is a still-evolving science. Sediment and ancillary data are fundamental requirements for the proper management of river systems, including the design of structures, the determination of aspects of stream behavior, ascertaining the probable effect of removing an existing structure, estimation of bulk erosion, transport, and sediment delivery to the oceans, ascertaining the long-term usefulness of reservoirs and other public works, tracking movement of solid-phase contaminants, restoration of degraded or otherwise modified streams, and assistance in the calibration and validation of numerical models. This chapter presents techniques for measuring bed-material properties and suspended and bed-load discharges. Well-established and relatively recent, yet adequately tested, sampling equipment and methodologies, with designs that are guided by sound physical and statistical principles, are described. Where appropriate, the theory behind the development of the equipment and guidelines for its use are presented.

  19. Chapter 12: Human Microbiome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Xochitl C.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease. PMID:23300406

  20. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  1. Secondary School Mathematics Special Edition, Chapter 1. Flow Charts, Chapter 2. Structuring Space, Chapter 3. Functions, Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVenney, William S.; And Others

    Chapters 1-3 of the special materials written for low achieving students in grades 7-8 by SMSG include flow charting, elementary coordinate geometry, and functions. Included for student use are many tables which are to be used to shorten computational processes. Each chapter also includes pretest exercises, instructional lessons and exercises, and…

  2. i-cisTarget 2015 update: generalized cis-regulatory enrichment analysis in human, mouse and fly.

    PubMed

    Imrichová, Hana; Hulselmans, Gert; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Potier, Delphine; Aerts, Stein

    2015-07-01

    i-cisTarget is a web tool to predict regulators of a set of genomic regions, such as ChIP-seq peaks or co-regulated/similar enhancers. i-cisTarget can also be used to identify upstream regulators and their target enhancers starting from a set of co-expressed genes. Whereas the original version of i-cisTarget was focused on Drosophila data, the 2015 update also provides support for human and mouse data. i-cisTarget detects transcription factor motifs (position weight matrices) and experimental data tracks (e.g. from ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics) that are enriched in the input set of regions. As experimental data tracks we include transcription factor ChIP-seq data, histone modification ChIP-seq data and open chromatin data. The underlying processing method is based on a ranking-and-recovery procedure, allowing accurate determination of enrichment across heterogeneous datasets, while also discriminating direct from indirect target regions through a 'leading edge' analysis. We illustrate i-cisTarget on various Ewing sarcoma datasets to identify EWS-FLI1 targets starting from ChIP-seq, differential ATAC-seq, differential H3K27ac and differential gene expression data. Use of i-cisTarget is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://gbiomed.kuleuven.be/apps/lcb/i-cisTarget. PMID:25925574

  3. Integrity in Transactional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the impact of limited resources on the integrity of transactions between students and student affairs administrators. A framework and guiding principles for maintaining integrity are offered, and then some general principles for transactions with students are presented. Next, the chapter involves integrity…

  4. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  5. Fire as an ecosystem process: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Safford, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.

  6. Chapter 16. Fine-root Growth Response

    SciTech Connect

    J. Devereux Joslin; Mark H. Wolfe

    2002-07-31

    As part of a multiyear study to evaluate the affects of altered water inputs to an upland forest many aspects of tree growth physiology were studied. Chapter 16 of this book deals with fine root growth as studied over a 7 year period using a variety of methods. This chapter summarizes the results and conclusions from those efforts.

  7. National ESEA Chapter 1 Schoolwide Projects Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This document is a collection of schoolwide compensatory education project plans for 22 elementary schools in the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Schools system, with funding provided by Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Chapter 1 project plans are included for the following schools: (1) Alfred A. Benesch; (2) Andrew J.…

  8. Chapter 622: A Guide for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    Massachusetts's Chapter 622 and U.S. Title IX regulations both prohibit discrimination by educational institutions. This guide is designed to assist administrators, particularly in Massachusetts, in complying fully with the spirit and letter of these regulations. The guide is divided into thirteen chapters, seven of which use parallel format to…

  9. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  10. Chapter 1 Commission Issues Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Chapter 1, Baltimore, MD.

    This report presents an interim analysis by an independent commission of current moves to reform Chapter 1 of the Hawkins/Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988. Chapter 1 is the largest federal assistance program to elementary school and secondary school education. The report responds to questions on strengthening…

  11. Vestibular toxicity of cis-2-pentenenitrile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Hernández-Mir, Gerard; Sedó-Cabezón, Lara; Cutillas, Blanca; Llorens, Jordi

    2012-06-20

    cis-2-Pentenenitrile, an intermediate in the synthesis of nylon and other products, causes permanent behavioral deficits in rodents. Other low molecular weight nitriles cause degeneration either of the vestibular sensory hair cells or of selected neuronal populations in the brain. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to cis-2-pentenenitrile (0, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, or 2.0mmol/kg, oral, in corn oil) and assessed for changes in open field activity and rating scores in a test battery for vestibular dysfunction. Surface preparations of the vestibular sensory epithelia were observed for hair cell loss using scanning electron microscopy. A separate experiment examined the impact of pre-treatment with the universal CYP inhibitor,1-aminobenzotriazole, on the effect of cis-2-pentenenitrile on vestibular rating scores. The occurrence of degenerating neurons in the central nervous system was assessed by Fluoro-Jade C staining. cis-2-Pentenenitrile had a dose-dependent effect on body weight. Rats receiving 1.50mmol/kg or more of cis-2-pentenenitrile displayed reduced rearing activity in the open field and increased rating scores on the vestibular dysfunction test battery. Hair cell loss was observed in the vestibular sensory epithelia and correlated well with the behavioral deficits. Pre-treatment with 1-aminobenzotriazole blocked the behavioral effect. Fluoro-Jade C staining did not reveal significant neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system apart from neurite labeling in the olfactory glomeruli. We conclude that cis-2-pentenenitrile causes vestibular toxicity in a similar way to allylnitrile, cis-crotononitrile and 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), and also shares other targets such as the olfactory system with these other nitriles. The present data also suggest that CYP-mediated bioactivation is involved in cis-2-pentenenitrile toxicity. PMID:22546275

  12. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  13. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  14. Chapter I, Chapter II, And State Compensatory Education Program Evaluations, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherry; And Others

    This report contains administrative summaries for program evaluations of these 11 1983-84 Chapter I, Chapter II, and state compensatory education programs in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. The programs evaluated are the Elementary Resource Teacher/Aide Program; the Chapter I Parochial Reading and Mathematics Program; the…

  15. Chapter 1 in Three Easy Steps: A Manual for Rural Chapter 1 Teachers and Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page; And Others

    This manual is designed to help rural Chapter 1 program staff effectively run their programs. Upon reviewing the history of the Chapter 1 legislation and program, the document stresses program design, evaluation, and improvement as three easy ways to understanding the Chapter 1 program. Program design should determine the district eligibility for…

  16. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids, which are essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway for all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not known whether Z-ISO catalyzes isomerization alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the 15-15' carbon-carbon double bond in 9,15,9'-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the subsequent biosynthetic-pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large hydrophobic compound in a membrane was previously undescribed. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially uses a new chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  17. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H.; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway leading to all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not certain whether isomerization was achieved by Z-ISO alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-to-trans isomerization of the 15–15′ C=C bond in 9,15,9′-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the following biosynthetic pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand-switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large, hydrophobic compound in a membrane is unprecedented. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially utilizes a novel chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  18. CIS is a potent checkpoint in NK cell-mediated tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Delconte, Rebecca B; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Dagley, Laura F; Rautela, Jai; Shi, Wei; Putz, Eva M; Stannard, Kimberley; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Teh, Charis; Firth, Matt; Ushiki, Takashi; Andoniou, Christopher E; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; Sharp, Phillip P; Sanvitale, Caroline E; Infusini, Giuseppe; Liau, Nicholas P D; Linossi, Edmond M; Burns, Christopher J; Carotta, Sebastian; Gray, Daniel H D; Seillet, Cyril; Hutchinson, Dana S; Belz, Gabrielle T; Webb, Andrew I; Alexander, Warren S; Li, Shawn S; Bullock, Alex N; Babon, Jeffery J; Smyth, Mark J; Nicholson, Sandra E; Huntington, Nicholas D

    2016-07-01

    The detection of aberrant cells by natural killer (NK) cells is controlled by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory ligands and from cytokines such as IL-15. We identified cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS, encoded by Cish) as a critical negative regulator of IL-15 signaling in NK cells. Cish was rapidly induced in response to IL-15, and deletion of Cish rendered NK cells hypersensitive to IL-15, as evidenced by enhanced proliferation, survival, IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity toward tumors. This was associated with increased JAK-STAT signaling in NK cells in which Cish was deleted. Correspondingly, CIS interacted with the tyrosine kinase JAK1, inhibiting its enzymatic activity and targeting JAK for proteasomal degradation. Cish(-/-) mice were resistant to melanoma, prostate and breast cancer metastasis in vivo, and this was intrinsic to NK cell activity. Our data uncover a potent intracellular checkpoint in NK cell-mediated tumor immunity and suggest possibilities for new cancer immunotherapies directed at blocking CIS function. PMID:27213690

  19. Predominant contribution of cis-regulatory divergence in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingsong; Sun, Wei; Ballegeer, Marlies; Libert, Claude; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Divergence of alternative splicing represents one of the major driving forces to shape phenotypic diversity during evolution. However, the extent to which these divergences could be explained by the evolving cis-regulatory versus trans-acting factors remains unresolved. To globally investigate the relative contributions of the two factors for the first time in mammals, we measured splicing difference between C57BL/6J and SPRET/EiJ mouse strains and allele-specific splicing pattern in their F1 hybrid. Out of 11,818 alternative splicing events expressed in the cultured fibroblast cells, we identified 796 with significant difference between the parental strains. After integrating allele-specific data from F1 hybrid, we demonstrated that these events could be predominately attributed to cis-regulatory variants, including those residing at and beyond canonical splicing sites. Contrary to previous observations in Drosophila, such predominant contribution was consistently observed across different types of alternative splicing. Further analysis of liver tissues from the same mouse strains and reanalysis of published datasets on other strains showed similar trends, implying in general the predominant contribution of cis-regulatory changes in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing. PMID:26134616

  20. On the Mechanism of Action of the Antitumor Drug cis-Platin (cis-DDP) and its Second Generation Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Aletras, Vasilis; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Hadjiliadis, Nick

    1995-01-01

    The present article attempts to summarise the elements of the mechanism of action of the antitumor drug cis¯-Platin presented the last few years. Highlights on the discovery, of the drug and the development of it’s second generation derivatives are presented, as well as the ways that cis¯-DDP reacts with biomolecules as DNA and proteins and their models e.g. nucleosides, nucleotides. Also the hydrolysis data are presented for cis¯-DDP and its’ inactive congener trans¯-DDP, as well as for the second generation drug carboplatin. Finally, usefull conclusions are given from this work, pointing out the unanswered questions about the action of cis¯-DDP as well as its differences in action, in comparison with trans¯-DDP. PMID:18472761

  1. Organic compounds in the C 3H 6O 3 family: Microwave spectrum of cis-cis dimethyl carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Widicus Weaver, S. L.; McGuire, B. A.; Blake, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    Geometry optimization calculations on 13 members of the C 3H 6O 3 family of organic species have been carried out to determine their relative binding energies. Dimethyl carbonate [(CH 3) 2CO 3] is one of the lower energy species in this family, which includes the C 3-sugars 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde. The microwave spectrum of dimethyl carbonate has been measured over the frequency range 8.4-25.3 GHz with several pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers and from 227 GHz to 350 GHz with direct absorption spectrometers. The spectrum of the lowest-energy cis-cis conformer of dimethyl carbonate has been assigned, and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the three possible conformers have been performed. Stark effect measurements were carried out on the cis-cis conformer to provide accurate determinations of the dipole moment components.

  2. Modeling DNA sequence-based cis-regulatory gene networks.

    PubMed

    Bolouri, Hamid; Davidson, Eric H

    2002-06-01

    Gene network analysis requires computationally based models which represent the functional architecture of regulatory interactions, and which provide directly testable predictions. The type of model that is useful is constrained by the particular features of developmentally active cis-regulatory systems. These systems function by processing diverse regulatory inputs, generating novel regulatory outputs. A computational model which explicitly accommodates this basic concept was developed earlier for the cis-regulatory system of the endo16 gene of the sea urchin. This model represents the genetically mandated logic functions that the system executes, but also shows how time-varying kinetic inputs are processed in different circumstances into particular kinetic outputs. The same basic design features can be utilized to construct models that connect the large number of cis-regulatory elements constituting developmental gene networks. The ultimate aim of the network models discussed here is to represent the regulatory relationships among the genomic control systems of the genes in the network, and to state their functional meaning. The target site sequences of the cis-regulatory elements of these genes constitute the physical basis of the network architecture. Useful models for developmental regulatory networks must represent the genetic logic by which the system operates, but must also be capable of explaining the real time dynamics of cis-regulatory response as kinetic input and output data become available. Most importantly, however, such models must display in a direct and transparent manner fundamental network design features such as intra- and intercellular feedback circuitry; the sources of parallel inputs into each cis-regulatory element; gene battery organization; and use of repressive spatial inputs in specification and boundary formation. Successful network models lead to direct tests of key architectural features by targeted cis-regulatory analysis. PMID

  3. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  4. CisMiner: Genome-Wide In-Silico Cis-Regulatory Module Prediction by Fuzzy Itemset Mining

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Lopez, Francisco J.; Cano, Carlos; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Blanco, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene control regions are known to be spread throughout non-coding DNA sequences which may appear distant from the gene promoter. Transcription factors are proteins that coordinately bind to these regions at transcription factor binding sites to regulate gene expression. Several tools allow to detect significant co-occurrences of closely located binding sites (cis-regulatory modules, CRMs). However, these tools present at least one of the following limitations: 1) scope limited to promoter or conserved regions of the genome; 2) do not allow to identify combinations involving more than two motifs; 3) require prior information about target motifs. In this work we present CisMiner, a novel methodology to detect putative CRMs by means of a fuzzy itemset mining approach able to operate at genome-wide scale. CisMiner allows to perform a blind search of CRMs without any prior information about target CRMs nor limitation in the number of motifs. CisMiner tackles the combinatorial complexity of genome-wide cis-regulatory module extraction using a natural representation of motif combinations as itemsets and applying the Top-Down Fuzzy Frequent- Pattern Tree algorithm to identify significant itemsets. Fuzzy technology allows CisMiner to better handle the imprecision and noise inherent to regulatory processes. Results obtained for a set of well-known binding sites in the S. cerevisiae genome show that our method yields highly reliable predictions. Furthermore, CisMiner was also applied to putative in-silico predicted transcription factor binding sites to identify significant combinations in S. cerevisiae and D. melanogaster, proving that our approach can be further applied genome-wide to more complex genomes. CisMiner is freely accesible at: http://genome2.ugr.es/cisminer. CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding sites provided by

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of cis-diammineglycolatoplatinum in different water solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Zhao, W. W.; Gou, X. X.; Pu, X. H.

    2016-05-01

    The dissolution behavior of cis-diammineglycolatoplatinum (nedaplatin) in saline, water and glucose were studied by a microcalorimetric method. The integral heats and differential heats of the dissolution were measured to establish the equation for the solute and the heats. The corresponding half-life, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the nedaplatin solutions were determined. The results show that hydrogen bonds could be generated and the dissolution entropy of nedaplatin in different solvents is negative during the dissolution process, so as to enhance the drug stability, but there is an obvious difference in stability in different solvents.

  6. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  7. How to write a medical book chapter?

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  8. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  9. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  10. Student Loan Bankruptcies: A Chapter 13 Revival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Unless legislative or judicial action is taken, the current high volume of student loans will likely encourage frequent utilization of Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 for unintended purposes. (Author/IRT)

  11. Innovative front end processing for next generation CIS module production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Volker; Jasenek, Axel; Sandfort, Christian; Letsch, Andreas; Koetschau, Immo; Hahn, Thomas; Feichtinger, Jochen; Eschrich, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The successful implementation of two new process steps into an existing Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIS) production line was achieved. One, a newly developed back contact, aims for a better process control, as far as the transition of the metallic back contact to a selenide/metal bi-layer during CIS-formation is concerned. This was done by the introduction of a corrosion resistant barrier layer, which reliably stops chalcogenide diffusion from the top. By doing so, a back contact layer is obtained, with well defined properties in which the functionalities of the back electrode now is divided between two separated layers. The other development presented in this paper, tackles the complexity of CIS-module production and the interferences between the different processes required. By shifting the P1-scribing process after i-ZnO deposition, the process sequence for CIS is simplified and it will be shown that this new P1i exhibits superior properties as far as CIS morphology and groove quality is concerned.

  12. Cis-regulatory mechanisms governing stem and progenitor cell transitions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kong, Guangyao; Gao, Xin; Chang, Yuan-I; Hewitt, Kyle J.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Prathibha, Rajalekshmi; Ranheim, Erik A.; Dewey, Colin N.; Zhang, Jing; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2015-01-01

    Cis-element encyclopedias provide information on phenotypic diversity and disease mechanisms. Although cis-element polymorphisms and mutations are instructive, deciphering function remains challenging. Mutation of an intronic GATA motif (+9.5) in GATA2, encoding a master regulator of hematopoiesis, underlies an immunodeficiency associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whereas an inversion relocalizes another GATA2 cis-element (−77) to the proto-oncogene EVI1, inducing EVI1 expression and AML, whether this reflects ectopic or physiological activity is unknown. We describe a mouse strain that decouples −77 function from proto-oncogene deregulation. The −77−/− mice exhibited a novel phenotypic constellation including late embryonic lethality and anemia. The −77 established a vital sector of the myeloid progenitor transcriptome, conferring multipotentiality. Unlike the +9.5−/− embryos, hematopoietic stem cell genesis was unaffected in −77−/− embryos. These results illustrate a paradigm in which cis-elements in a locus differentially control stem and progenitor cell transitions, and therefore the individual cis-element alterations cause unique and overlapping disease phenotypes. PMID:26601269

  13. Ultrafast cis-trans photoswitching: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Susanne; Stock, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical model description of a molecular photoswitch is developed. It takes into account (i) the electronic curve crossing arising from the cis-trans twisting of a double bond, resulting in an ultrafast internal-conversion process of the system and (ii) the coupling of the initially excited chromophore (the "system") to the remaining degrees of freedom (the "bath"), affecting a vibrational cooling of the hot photoproducts. The latter mechanism is responsible for the localization of the molecule in the cis and trans configuration, respectively, thus determining the quantum yield of the photoreaction. Following a discussion of the validity and the numerical implementation of the Redfield formulation employed, detailed numerical studies of the time-dependent dissipative photoisomerization dynamics are presented. While the short-time dynamics (≲1 ps) is dominated by the coherent wave-packet motion of the system, the time evolution at larger times mainly reflects the interaction between system and bath. The quantum yield of the cis-trans forward reaction (Yc→t) and the trans-cis backward reaction (Yt→c) is shown to depend on the energy storage of the photoreaction and, in particular, on the form of the system-bath coupling. On the other hand, it is found that Yt→c=1-Yc→t, that is the population probabilities of the cis and trans configuration at long times do not depend on the initial preparation of the system.

  14. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  15. Oxidative and reductive metabolism of 9-cis-retinoic acid in the rat. Identification of 13,14-dihydro-9-cis-retinoic acid and its taurine conjugate.

    PubMed

    Shirley, M A; Bennani, Y L; Boehm, M F; Breau, A P; Pathirana, C; Ulm, E H

    1996-03-01

    9-cis-Retinoic acid (9-cis-RA), a hormone that binds and activates all known retinoid receptor subtypes, is structurally similar to all-trans-retinoic acid and may share common metabolic fates. Both oral and intravenous doses of 9-cis-RA to rats led to hydroxylation and ketone formation at carbon-4. 9-Cis-RA also isomerized in vivo to 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and all-trans-retinoic acid. After administration of [11-3H]9-cis-RA, the proportion of plasma radioactivity that was volatile increased over time, which suggested that beta-oxidative chain-shortening of 9-cis-RA might occur. An equimolar mixture of [1-13C2H3]9-cis-RA and 9-cis-RA was administered to rats for stable-isotope-labeled metabolite production. A chromatographic peak that had a lambdamax = 290 nm vs. 348 nm for the parent compound, had a retention time similar to the parent, and yielded a 1:1 positive-ion isotope cluster at m/z 303/307 in its mass spectrum. NMR analysis revealed 9-cis and 13,14-dihydro configurations, indicating that 9-cis-RA can be metabolized in rat by reduction to 13,14-dihydro-9-cis-RA. An earlier-eluting HPLC peak that exhibited a lambdamax at 290 nm, and a negative-ion-MS isotope cluster at m/z 408/412 was observed during separations of rat liver extracts. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed product ions for this peak diagnostic for carboxylic acid taurine conjugates. In rats, reduction of 9-cis-RA to 13,14-dihydro-9-cis-RA may represent an initial step leading to beta-oxidation, although available data demonstrate it is conjugated with taurine to form a novel metabolite. PMID:8820419

  16. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  17. Oxidative trans to cis Isomerization of Olefins in Polyketide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Hara, Kodai; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kishimoto, Shinji; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Tang, Yi; Hotta, Kinya; Watanabe, Kenji

    2016-05-17

    Geometric isomerization can expand the scope of biological activities of natural products. The observed chemical diversity among the pseurotin-type fungal secondary metabolites is in part generated by a trans to cis isomerization of an olefin. In vitro characterizations of pseurotin biosynthetic enzymes revealed that the glutathione S-transferase PsoE requires participation of the bifunctional C-methyltransferase/epoxidase PsoF to complete the trans to cis isomerization of the pathway intermediate presynerazol. The crystal structure of the PsoE/glutathione/presynerazol complex indicated stereospecific glutathione-presynerazol conjugate formation is the principal function of PsoE. Moreover, PsoF was identified to have an additional, unexpected oxidative isomerase activity, thus making it a trifunctional enzyme which is key to the complexity generation in pseurotin biosynthesis. Through the study, we identified a novel mechanism of accomplishing a seemingly simple trans to cis isomerization reaction. PMID:27072782

  18. From Cis-Regulatory Elements to Complex RNPs and Back

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Fátima; Preiss, Thomas; Hentze, Matthias W.

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the templates for translation, have evolved to harbor abundant cis-acting sequences that affect their posttranscriptional fates. These elements are frequently located in the untranslated regions and serve as binding sites for trans-acting factors, RNA-binding proteins, and/or small non-coding RNAs. This article provides a systematic synopsis of cis-acting elements, trans-acting factors, and the mechanisms by which they affect translation. It also highlights recent technical advances that have ushered in the era of transcriptome-wide studies of the ribonucleoprotein complexes formed by mRNAs and their trans-acting factors. PMID:22751153

  19. Cis-retinol dehydrogenase: 9-cis-retinol metabolism and its effect on proliferation of human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, Jisun; Blaner, William S.; Swisshelm, Karen . E-mail: kswiss@u.washington.edu

    2005-02-01

    9-Cis-retinoic acid (RA) suppresses cancer cell proliferation via binding and activation of nuclear receptors, retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In vivo, 9-cis-RA is formed through oxidation of 9-cis-retinol by cis-retinol dehydrogenase (cRDH), an enzyme that we characterized previously. Since 9-cis-RA is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell proliferation, we hypothesized that overexpression of cRDH in breast cancer cells would result in increased production of 9-cis-RA, which in turn would suppress cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells were transduced with cRDH cDNA (LRDHSN/MCF7), and the growth kinetics and retinoid profiles of cells were examined following treatment with 9-cis-retinol. LRDHSN/MCF7 cells showed a marked reduction in cell numbers (60-80%) upon treatment with 9-cis-retinol compared to vehicle alone. Within 24 h of treatment, approximately 75% of the 9-cis-retinol was taken up and metabolized by LRDHSN/MCF7 cells. Despite the rapid uptake and oxidation of 9-cis-retinol to 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-RA was not formed in these cells. We detect at least one novel metabolite formed from both 9-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinal that may play a role in inhibition of MCF7 cell proliferation. Our studies demonstrate that 9-cis-retinol in combination with cRDH inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by production of retinol metabolites other than RA.

  20. Studies on the s-cis-trans isomerism for some furan derivatives through IR and NMR spectroscopies and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Roberto; Ducati, Lucas C.; Tormena, Cláudio F.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Fiorin, Barbara C.; Braga, Carolyne B.; Abraham, Raymond J.

    2013-02-01

    The s-cis-trans isomerism of two furan derivatives [2-acetyl- (AF) and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran, (AMF)] was analyzed, using data from the deconvolution of their carbonyl absorption band in two solvents (CH2Cl2 and CH3CN). These infrared data showed that the O,O-trans conformers predominate in the less polar solvent (CH2Cl2), but these equilibria change in a more polar solvent (CH3CN) leading to a slight predominance of the O,O-cis conformers, in agreement with the theoretical calculations. The later results were obtained using B3LYP-IEFPCM/6-31++g(3df,3p) level of theory, which taking into account the solvent effects at IEFPCM (Integral Equation Formalism Polarizable Continuum Model). Low temperature 13C NMR spectra in CD2Cl2 (ca. -75 °C) showed pairs of signals for each carbon, due to the known high energy barrier for the cis-trans interconversion leading to a large predominance of the trans isomers, which decreases in acetone-d6. This was confirmed by their 1H NMR spectra at the same temperatures. Moreover, despite the larger hyperconjugative interactions for the O,O-cis isomers, obtained from NBO data, these isomers are destabilized by the their Lewis energy.

  1. Epistatic Interactions in the Arabinose Cis-Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Lagator, Mato; Igler, Claudia; Moreno, Anaísa B.; Guet, Călin C.; Bollback, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are an important mode of evolution; however, the proximate mechanism of these changes is poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the effects of mutations within cis binding sites for transcription factors, or the nature of epistatic interactions between these mutations. Here, we tested the effects of single and double mutants in two cis binding sites involved in the transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon, a component of arabinose metabolism, using a synthetic system. This system decouples transcriptional control from any posttranslational effects on fitness, allowing a precise estimate of the effect of single and double mutations, and hence epistasis, on gene expression. We found that epistatic interactions between mutations in the araBAD cis-regulatory element are common, and that the predominant form of epistasis is negative. The magnitude of the interactions depended on whether the mutations are located in the same or in different operator sites. Importantly, these epistatic interactions were dependent on the presence of arabinose, a native inducer of the araBAD operon in vivo, with some interactions changing in sign (e.g., from negative to positive) in its presence. This study thus reveals that mutations in even relatively simple cis-regulatory elements interact in complex ways such that selection on the level of gene expression in one environment might perturb regulation in the other environment in an unpredictable and uncorrelated manner. PMID:26589997

  2. Peer Tutoring in the CIS Sandbox: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a student-created and facilitated peer-tutoring activity to assist first-year students in preparing for their final exam in an introductory information technology course. Tutors at the CIS Sandbox, a collaborative learning lab at an American university, offered a series of "Crunch Sessions" to their peers. This…

  3. Epistatic Interactions in the Arabinose Cis-Regulatory Element.

    PubMed

    Lagator, Mato; Igler, Claudia; Moreno, Anaísa B; Guet, Călin C; Bollback, Jonathan P

    2016-03-01

    Changes in gene expression are an important mode of evolution; however, the proximate mechanism of these changes is poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the effects of mutations within cis binding sites for transcription factors, or the nature of epistatic interactions between these mutations. Here, we tested the effects of single and double mutants in two cis binding sites involved in the transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon, a component of arabinose metabolism, using a synthetic system. This system decouples transcriptional control from any posttranslational effects on fitness, allowing a precise estimate of the effect of single and double mutations, and hence epistasis, on gene expression. We found that epistatic interactions between mutations in the araBAD cis-regulatory element are common, and that the predominant form of epistasis is negative. The magnitude of the interactions depended on whether the mutations are located in the same or in different operator sites. Importantly, these epistatic interactions were dependent on the presence of arabinose, a native inducer of the araBAD operon in vivo, with some interactions changing in sign (e.g., from negative to positive) in its presence. This study thus reveals that mutations in even relatively simple cis-regulatory elements interact in complex ways such that selection on the level of gene expression in one environment might perturb regulation in the other environment in an unpredictable and uncorrelated manner. PMID:26589997

  4. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  5. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  6. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  7. The CIS Database: Occupational Health and Safety Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Herbert; Scurr, Erica

    1985-01-01

    Describes document acquisition, selection, indexing, and abstracting and discusses online searching of the CIS database, an online system produced by the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre. This database comprehensively covers information in the field of occupational health and safety. Sample searches and search…

  8. Efficient direct ZnO/CIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; William Addis, F.; Lei, Wenhua; Li, Jun

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes investigations of CIS solar cells with ZnO window layers deposited by MOCVD. These studies have been conducted with graded absorber CIS substrates obtained from Siemens Solar. Cell fabrication involves surface preparation of the Siemens substrate, growth of 200 to 400 Å of undoped ZnO by MOCVD, deposition of a highly conducting ZnO top contact layer and deposition of a Ni/Ag collector grid. MOCVD growth of ZnO is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor by reacting a zinc adduct and tetrahydrofuran. Processing development has been conducted by forming test cells on ZnO/CIS structures by depositing thin, transparent Al contacts 2.8 mm in diameter on top of the ZnO window layer to serve as contacts. Several cells have been completed with a total area efficiency ≥11.0%, with the best result being 11.3%. The best active area efficiency is approximately 12%. Other topics discussed include current-voltage characteristics of direct ZnO/CIS cells.

  9. Creating a Collaborative Learning Community in the CIS Sandbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of transforming a traditional university computer lab to create a collaborative learning community known as the CIS Sandbox, by remodeling a physical space and supporting it with a virtual presence through the use of social media tools. The discussion applies Selander's "designs for…

  10. A Survey of Current Computer Information Science (CIS) Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Institutional Research.

    This document is a survey designed to be completed by current students of Computer Information Science (CIS) in the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), which consists of three community colleges: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. The students are asked about their educational goals and how…

  11. cis- and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic Separation and Photochemical Isomerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Samuel G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment that is to be performed midway in the first semester of an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory coinciding with the students' introduction to cis-trans isomerism in the study of alkenes. Discusses the apparatus, materials, experimental procedure, historical significance, and results. (CW)

  12. CIS and Information Technology Certifications: Education Program Trends and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, David; Reimers, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The fields of Computer Information Systems (CIS) and Information Technology (IT) are experiencing rapid change. In 2003, an analysis of IT degree programs and those of competing disciplines at 10 post-secondary institutions concluded that an information technology program is perceived differently from information systems and computer science. In…

  13. Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses methods to be used in processing water samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical substances, including the bottling of composite, pumped, and bailed samples and subsamples; sample filtration; solid-phase extraction for pesticide analyses; sample preservation; and sample handling and shipping. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http:/ /water.usgs.gov/lookup/get?newpubs.

  14. Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses field-trip preparations, including selection of sample-collection sites for studies of surface-water quality, site reconnaissance and well selection for studies of groundwater quality, and the establishment of electronic files and field files and folders for a sampling site. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed Jan. 31, 2005).

  15. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  16. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    SciTech Connect

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  17. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  18. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  19. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 27, Logic, Chapter 28, Applications of Probability and Statistics. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    One chapter in the fourteenth unit of this SMSG series deals with logic; simple and compound statements, truth tables, logical equivalence, rules of a logical argument, proof, quantifiers, and negations are the topics covered. The second chapter of the unit discusses applications of probability and statistics, including random sampling,…

  20. [Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1930, No. 16. Chapter I - Chapter XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    This document contains the first twenty chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education document, covering the years 1926-1928. The following chapters are included in this document: (1) Higher education (Arthur J. Klein); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Legal education (Alfred Z. Reed); (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W.…

  1. Structural Brain Network Characteristics Can Differentiate CIS from Early RRMS

    PubMed Central

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Kolber, Pierre; Luessi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Groppa, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Focal demyelinated lesions, diffuse white matter (WM) damage, and gray matter (GM) atrophy influence directly the disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify specific characteristics of GM and WM structural networks in subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in comparison to patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Twenty patients with CIS, 33 with RRMS, and 40 healthy subjects were investigated using 3 T-MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied, together with probabilistic tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps for WM and cortical thickness correlation analysis for GM, to determine the structural connectivity patterns. A network topology analysis with the aid of graph theoretical approaches was used to characterize the network at different community levels (modularity, clustering coefficient, global, and local efficiencies). Finally, we applied support vector machines (SVM) to automatically discriminate the two groups. In comparison to CIS subjects, patients with RRMS were found to have increased modular connectivity and higher local clustering, highlighting increased local processing in both GM and WM. Both groups presented increased modularity and clustering coefficients in comparison to healthy controls. SVM algorithms achieved 97% accuracy using the clustering coefficient as classifier derived from GM and 65% using WM from probabilistic tractography and 67% from modularity of FA maps to differentiate between CIS and RRMS patients. We demonstrate a clear increase of modular and local connectivity in patients with early RRMS in comparison to CIS and healthy subjects. Based only on a single anatomic scan and without a priori information, we developed an automated and investigator-independent paradigm that can accurately discriminate between patients with these clinically similar disease entities, and could thus complement the current dissemination-in-time criteria for

  2. Structural Brain Network Characteristics Can Differentiate CIS from Early RRMS.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Kolber, Pierre; Luessi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Groppa, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Focal demyelinated lesions, diffuse white matter (WM) damage, and gray matter (GM) atrophy influence directly the disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify specific characteristics of GM and WM structural networks in subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in comparison to patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Twenty patients with CIS, 33 with RRMS, and 40 healthy subjects were investigated using 3 T-MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied, together with probabilistic tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps for WM and cortical thickness correlation analysis for GM, to determine the structural connectivity patterns. A network topology analysis with the aid of graph theoretical approaches was used to characterize the network at different community levels (modularity, clustering coefficient, global, and local efficiencies). Finally, we applied support vector machines (SVM) to automatically discriminate the two groups. In comparison to CIS subjects, patients with RRMS were found to have increased modular connectivity and higher local clustering, highlighting increased local processing in both GM and WM. Both groups presented increased modularity and clustering coefficients in comparison to healthy controls. SVM algorithms achieved 97% accuracy using the clustering coefficient as classifier derived from GM and 65% using WM from probabilistic tractography and 67% from modularity of FA maps to differentiate between CIS and RRMS patients. We demonstrate a clear increase of modular and local connectivity in patients with early RRMS in comparison to CIS and healthy subjects. Based only on a single anatomic scan and without a priori information, we developed an automated and investigator-independent paradigm that can accurately discriminate between patients with these clinically similar disease entities, and could thus complement the current dissemination-in-time criteria for

  3. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  4. Use of a Drosophila Genome-Wide Conserved Sequence Database to Identify Functionally Related cis-Regulatory Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Thomas; Yavatkar, Amarendra S; Kuzin, Alexander; Kundu, Mukta; Tyson, Leonard J; Ross, Jermaine; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Lee, Chi-Hon; Awasaki, Takeshi; Lee, Tzumin; Odenwald, Ward F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phylogenetic footprinting has revealed that cis-regulatory enhancers consist of conserved DNA sequence clusters (CSCs). Currently, there is no systematic approach for enhancer discovery and analysis that takes full-advantage of the sequence information within enhancer CSCs. Results: We have generated a Drosophila genome-wide database of conserved DNA consisting of >100,000 CSCs derived from EvoPrints spanning over 90% of the genome. cis-Decoder database search and alignment algorithms enable the discovery of functionally related enhancers. The program first identifies conserved repeat elements within an input enhancer and then searches the database for CSCs that score highly against the input CSC. Scoring is based on shared repeats as well as uniquely shared matches, and includes measures of the balance of shared elements, a diagnostic that has proven to be useful in predicting cis-regulatory function. To demonstrate the utility of these tools, a temporally-restricted CNS neuroblast enhancer was used to identify other functionally related enhancers and analyze their structural organization. Conclusions: cis-Decoder reveals that co-regulating enhancers consist of combinations of overlapping shared sequence elements, providing insights into the mode of integration of multiple regulating transcription factors. The database and accompanying algorithms should prove useful in the discovery and analysis of enhancers involved in any developmental process. Developmental Dynamics 241:169–189, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key findings A genome-wide catalog of Drosophila conserved DNA sequence clusters. cis-Decoder discovers functionally related enhancers. Functionally related enhancers share balanced sequence element copy numbers. Many enhancers function during multiple phases of development. PMID:22174086

  5. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (CHAPTER 58)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discussses indoor air quality (IAQ) modeling. Such modeling provides a way to investigate many IAQ problems without the expense of large field experiments. Where experiments are planned, IAQ models can be used to help design experiments by providing information on exp...

  6. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  7. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  8. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  9. Chapter 4. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors attempt not only to discern aspects that relate to age, place, and the amount of time devoted to playing computer games in adolescence, but also to study content characteristics of their attitudes such as: the developmental dynamic in the change of their genre preferences in computer games, changes in factors that…

  10. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  11. Chapter 1 Pre-Kindergarten Program Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Support Programs.

    This document is designed to assist administrators and teachers in developing high quality pre-kindergarten programs which comply with Chapter 1 regulations and guidelines. Information is provided on administration, design, and implementation of programs for disadvantaged young children, as well as on appropriate instructional practices for…

  12. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 5 (Chapters 38-44)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    Chapter 38. Photons and Matter Waves. Chapter 39. More About Matter Waves. Chapter 40. All About Atoms. Chapter 41. Conduction of Electricity in Solids. Chapter 42. Nuclear Physics. Chapter 43. Energy from the Nucleus. Chapter 44. Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang. Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI). Appendix B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. Appendix C: Some Astronomical Data. Appendix D: Conversion Factors. Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas. Appendix F: Properties of the Elements. Appendix G: Periodic Tables of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions, Exercises, and Problems. Index.

  13. Proper Use of Allele-Specific Expression Improves Statistical Power for cis-eQTL Mapping with RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    HU, Yi-Juan; SUN, Wei; TZENG, Jung-Ying; PEROU, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) offer insight into the molecular mechanisms of loci that were found to be associated with complex diseases and the mechanisms can be classified into cis- and trans-acting regulation. At present, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is rapidly replacing expression microarrays to assess gene expression abundance. Unlike microarrays that only measure the total expression of each gene, RNA-seq also provides information on allele-specific expression (ASE), which can be used to distinguish cis-eQTLs from trans-eQTLs and, more importantly, enhance cis-eQTL mapping. However, assessing the cis-effect of a candidate eQTL on a gene requires knowledge of the haplotypes connecting the candidate eQTL and the gene, which cannot be inferred with certainty. The existing two-stage approach that first phases the candidate eQTL against the gene and then treats the inferred phase as observed in the association analysis tends to attenuate the estimated cis-effect and reduce the power for detecting a cis-eQTL. In this article, we provide a maximum-likelihood framework for cis-eQTL mapping with RNA-seq data. Our approach integrates the inference of haplotypes and the association analysis into a single stage, and is thus unbiased and statistically powerful. We also develop a pipeline for performing a comprehensive scan of all local eQTLs for all genes in the genome by controlling for false discovery rate, and implement the methods in a computationally efficient software program. The advantages of the proposed methods over the existing ones are demonstrated through realistic simulation studies and an application to empirical breast cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. PMID:26568645

  14. FootprintDB: Analysis of Plant Cis-Regulatory Elements, Transcription Factors, and Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Sebastian, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    FootprintDB is a database and search engine that compiles regulatory sequences from open access libraries of curated DNA cis-elements and motifs, and their associated transcription factors (TFs). It systematically annotates the binding interfaces of the TFs by exploiting protein-DNA complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Each entry in footprintDB is thus a DNA motif linked to the protein sequence of the TF(s) known to recognize it, and in most cases, the set of predicted interface residues involved in specific recognition. This chapter explains step-by-step how to search for DNA motifs and protein sequences in footprintDB and how to focus the search to a particular organism. Two real-world examples are shown where this software was used to analyze transcriptional regulation in plants. Results are described with the aim of guiding users on their interpretation, and special attention is given to the choices users might face when performing similar analyses. PMID:27557773

  15. Near-UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bongartz, A.; Kames, J.; Welter, F.; Schurath, U. )

    1991-02-07

    The A {sup 1}A{double prime} {l arrow} X {sup 1}A{prime} absorption spectrum of gaseous nitrous acid has been measured in the 300-400-nm range. Absolute cross sections were determined by a combination of gas-phase and wet chemical analysis. The cross sections of prominent bands are 25% larger than the recommended values of Stockwell and Calvert. The influence of spectral resolution on absolute and differential absorption cross sections was also investigated. The integrated band area of the n{pi}* transition yields an oscillator strength f = (8.90 {plus minus} 0.36) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, less than the reported liquid phase value of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. The equilibrium constant K = p{sub trans}/p{sub cis}, based on the assumption that the oscillator strength of the n{pi}* transition is the same for both rotamers, was found to be 3.25 {plus minus} 0.30 at 277 K. This yields an energy difference {Delta}E between trans- and cis-HONO of -2,700 J mol{sup {minus}1} in the electronic ground state, and -6,000 J mol{sup {minus}1} in the excited state.

  16. cis-active elements from mouse chromosomal DNA suppress simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, M; Willnow, T; Fanning, E

    1990-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40)-containing DNA was rescued after the fusion of SV40-transformed VLM cells with permissive COS1 monkey cells and cloned, and prototype plasmid clones were characterized. A 2-kilobase mouse DNA fragment fused with the rescued SV40 DNA, and derived from mouse DNA flanking the single insert of SV40 DNA in VLM cells, was sequenced. Insertion of the intact rescued mouse sequence, or two nonoverlapping fragments of it, into wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA suppressed replication of the plasmid in TC7 monkey cells, although the plasmids expressed replication-competent T antigen. Rat cells were transformed with linearized wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA with or without fragments of the mouse DNA in cis. Although all of the rat cell lines expressed approximately equal amounts of T antigen and p53, transformants carrying SV40 DNA linked to either of the same two replication suppressor fragments produced significantly less free SV40 DNA after fusion with permissive cells than those transformed by SV40 DNA without a cellular insert or with a cellular insert lacking suppressor activity. The results suggest that two independent segments of cellular DNA act in cis to suppress SV40 replication in vivo, either as a plasmid or integrated in chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:2159549

  17. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  18. [Transsexual wish and and cis-sexual defense].

    PubMed

    Sigusch, V

    1995-01-01

    The desire of trans-sexual patients to appropriate the physical attributes of the opposite sex via hormone treatment or surgery confronts psychoanalysis and sex research with problems that are not only psychological in nature. Sigusch uses the term "defence" here not only in a technical sense but also in an epistemological, discourse-analytic and disposition-analytic register. The general dispositions determining the reality of gender and gender difference are "cis-sexual" in nature. The polarity they display extends to the physical and manifests itself in the form of sexual binarism. The author coins the consciously neologistic term "cis-sexual" to describe individuals where physical gender and gender identity are completely and "naturally" co-extensive. Only the realization that "second-nature" is in reality primary can trigger the detotalization of so-called trans-sexuality that Sigusch is concerned to call into question. PMID:7480808

  19. Multicomponent reactions of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bykova, Tetiana; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-01-21

    This paper reports the preparation of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes prepared from a Birch reduction of benzoic acid, worked up with a methyl iodide quench. The resultant methylcyclohexadiene carboxylic acid was reduced to the alcohol, protected as an ether and then a sequence of functional group manipulations carried out to introduce four fluorines. The cyclohexadienyl ring was then epoxidised and the C-O bonds sequentially converted through deoxyfluorination reactions to two sets of isomers of all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane isomers. The blocking methyl group renders the ring safe to hydrogen fluoride elimination. Deprotection of the benzylic ether and then oxidation gave aldehydes which were then used in Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions, allowing this facially polarised cyclohexane to be incorporated into peptidic structural motifs. PMID:26646211

  20. DNA interaction with cis- and trans- isomers of photosensitive surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unksov, I. N.; Kasyanenko, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between DNA and photosensitive cationic surfactant in a solution is studied. Studies were conducted to examine the impact of the surfactant in its cis- conformation on the size of DNA molecule and also to investigate the phase behavior of the system depending on DNA and surfactant concentration. We conclude that trans- isomer of surfactant requires its smaller concentration to reach the DNA compaction compared with cis- isomer received by UV radiation of solutions. Studies of DNA-surfactant systems were performed by means of spectrophotometry and viscometry. Variation of surfactant concentration enables us to determine the precipitation zone on phase diagram. From the viscosity study it can be indicated that precipitation zone is narrower for UV-radiated surfactant and it shifts to higher surfactant concentration. Also we examine the reversibility of DNA compaction in systems with the surfactant in its trans- form.

  1. Cis- and trans-zeatin differentially modulate plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Großkinsky, Dominik; Edelsbrunner, Kerstin; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Phytohormones are essential regulators of various processes in plant growth and development. Several phytohormones are also known to regulate plant responses to environmental stress and pathogens. Only recently, cytokinins have been demonstrated to play an important role in plant immunity. Increased levels of cytokinins such as trans-zeatin, which are considered highly active, induced resistance against mainly (hemi)biotrophic pathogens in different plant species. In contrast, cis-zeatin is commonly regarded as a cytokinin exhibiting low or no activity. Here we comparatively study the impact of both zeatin isomers on the infection of Nicotiana tabacum by the (hemi)biotrophic microbial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We demonstrate a biological effect of cis-zeatin and a differential effect of the two zeatin isomers on symptom development, defense responses and bacterial multiplication. PMID:23656869

  2. cis-platinum and ovarian carcinoma. In vitro chemosensitivity of cultured tumour cells from patients receiving high dose cis-platinum as first line treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A. P.; Ford, C. H.; Newman, C. E.; Howell, A.

    1987-01-01

    A study on the in vitro sensitivity of tumour cells from patients with ovarian cancer has been carried out in parallel with a clinical study designed to evaluate the role of high-dose cis-platinum (CIS) as first-line chemotherapy. A total of 50 samples from 102 patients have been successfully cultured and screened for in vitro chemosensitivity to 7 drugs, including CIS. The malignant nature of cells growing in culture was confirmed using a combination of karyology, morphology and immunohistochemical staining with HMFG2. Tumours were graded as sensitive (less than 40% of control 3H-leucine incorporation), intermediate (41-60% of control) or resistant (greater than 61% of control) to CIS. Correlation of in vitro sensitivity to cis-platinum with clinical response to cis-platinum assessed using CT scan and second-look laparotomy, showed positive correlation in 9/11 (89%) patients (8 = S/S; 1 = R/R); positive correlation between in vitro sensitivity to phosphoramide mustard and clinical response was also found in 4/6 patients receiving cyclophosphamide (3 = S/S; 1 = R/R). All patients with sensitive tumours showed a clinical response to cis-platinum. Comparison of cis-platinum sensitivity with sensitivity to phosphoramide mustard and melphalan showed that some tumours were sensitive only to cis-platinum; resistance to cis-platinum and sensitivity to phosphoramide mustard/melphalan was an infrequent occurrence. Some tumours which were resistant to cis-platinum showed sensitivity to adriamycin and bleomycin, particularly those from untreated patients. Sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and resistance to cis-platinum was found in approximately equal proportions of tumours in both the treated and untreated groups. PMID:3435704

  3. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  4. Thermodynamic State Ensemble Models of cis-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Marc S.; Cohen, Barak A.

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in computational biology is to develop models that accurately predict a gene's expression from its surrounding regulatory DNA. Here we present one class of such models, thermodynamic state ensemble models. We describe the biochemical derivation of the thermodynamic framework in simple terms, and lay out the mathematical components that comprise each model. These components include (1) the possible states of a promoter, where a state is defined as a particular arrangement of transcription factors bound to a DNA promoter, (2) the binding constants that describe the affinity of the protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions that occur in each state, and (3) whether each state is capable of transcribing. Using these components, we demonstrate how to compute a cis-regulatory function that encodes the probability of a promoter being active. Our intention is to provide enough detail so that readers with little background in thermodynamics can compose their own cis-regulatory functions. To facilitate this goal, we also describe a matrix form of the model that can be easily coded in any programming language. This formalism has great flexibility, which we show by illustrating how phenomena such as competition between transcription factors and cooperativity are readily incorporated into these models. Using this framework, we also demonstrate that Michaelis-like functions, another class of cis-regulatory models, are a subset of the thermodynamic framework with specific assumptions. By recasting Michaelis-like functions as thermodynamic functions, we emphasize the relationship between these models and delineate the specific circumstances representable by each approach. Application of thermodynamic state ensemble models is likely to be an important tool in unraveling the physical basis of combinatorial cis-regulation and in generating formalisms that accurately predict gene expression from DNA sequence. PMID:22479169

  5. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) Data Archiving in the CAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandouras, I. S.; Barthe, A.; Penou, E.; Brunato, S.; Reme, H.; Kistler, L. M.; Blagau, A.; Facsko, G.; Kronberg, E.; Laakso, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Cluster Active Archive (CAA) aims at preserving the four Cluster spacecraft data, so that they are usable in the long-term by the scientific community as well as by the instrument team PIs and Co-Is. This implies that the data are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the four Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. The CIS package consists of two different instruments, a Hot Ion Analyser (HIA) and a time-of-flight ion Composition Distribution Function (CODIF) analyser. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CAA archival includes processed raw data (Level 1 data), moments of the ion distribution functions (Level 2 data), and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units (Level 3 data). The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions and 2-D pitch-angle distributions. In addition, a software package has been developed to allow the CAA user to interactively calculate partial or total moments of the ion distributions. Instrument cross-calibration has been an important activity in preparing the data for archival. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, and data caveats. In addition, data quality indexes are under preparation, to help the user. Given the complexity of an ion spectrometer, and the variety of its operational modes, each one being optimised for a different magnetospheric region or measurement objective, consultation of the data caveats by the end user will always be a necessary step in the data analysis.

  6. City of Troitsk and Sooty Snow, Chelyabinsk, CIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view shows the industrial pollution around the Siberian city of Troitsk (54.0N, 61.0E). Troitsk is the smallest of a group of three heavy industrial cities east of the Urals, the others being Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk. All have been cited as being some of the worst industrial polluted cities in the CIS. Despite being the smallest of the three, Troitsk has the largest area of soot blackened snow. Respiratory diseases among the citizens are chronic.

  7. Proton irradiation of the CIS115 for the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M. R.; Allanwood, E. A. H.; Holland, A. D.; Winstone, G. P.; Gow, J. P. D.; Stefanov, K.; Leese, M.

    2015-09-01

    The CIS115 is one of the latest CMOS Imaging Sensors designed by e2v technologies, with 1504x2000 pixels on a 7 μm pitch. Each pixel in the array is a pinned photodiode with a 4T architecture, achieving an average dark current of 22 electrons pixel-1 s-1 at 21°C measured in a front-faced device. The sensor aims for high optical sensitivity by utilising e2v's back-thinning and processing capabilities, providing a sensitive silicon thickness approximately 9 μm to 12 μm thick with a tuned anti-reflective coating. The sensor operates in a rolling shutter mode incorporating reset level subtraction resulting in a mean pixel readout noise of 4.25 electrons rms. The full well has been measured to be 34000 electrons in a previous study, resulting in a dynamic range of up to 8000. These performance characteristics have led to the CIS115 being chosen for JANUS, the high-resolution and wide-angle optical camera on the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). The three year science phase of JUICE is in the harsh radiation environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, primarily studying Jupiter and its icy moons. Analysis of the expected radiation environment and shielding levels from the spacecraft and instrument design predict the End Of Life (EOL) displacement and ionising damage for the CIS115 to be equivalent to 1010 10 MeV protons cm-2 and 100 krad(Si) respectively. Dark current and image lag characterisation results following initial proton irradiations are presented, detailing the initial phase of space qualification of the CIS115. Results are compared to the pre-irradiation performance and the instrument specifications and further qualification plans are outlined.

  8. CREME: Cis-Regulatory Module Explorer for the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G G; Sharan, R; Ovcharenko, I; Ben-Hur, A

    2004-02-11

    The binding of transcription factors to specific regulatory sequence elements is a primary mechanism for controlling gene transcription. Eukaryotic genes are often regulated by several transcription factors, whose binding sites are tightly clustered and form cis-regulatory modules. In this paper we present a web-server, CREME, for identifying and visualizing cis-regulatory modules in the promoter regions of a given set of potentially co-regulated genes. CREME relies on a database of putative transcription factor binding sites that have been annotated across the human genome using a library of position weight matrices and evolutionary conservation with the mouse and rat genomes. A search algorithm is applied to this dataset to identify combinations of transcription factors whose binding sites tend to co-occur in close proximity in the promoter regions of the input gene set. The identified cis-regulatory modules are statistically scored and significant combinations are reported and graphically visualized. Our web-server is available at http://creme.dcode.org/.

  9. Cis and trans interactions between atlastin molecules during membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tina Y.; Bian, Xin; Romano, Fabian B.; Shemesh, Tom; Rapoport, Tom A.; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Atlastin (ATL), a membrane-anchored GTPase that mediates homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, is required for formation of the tubular network of the peripheral ER. How exactly ATL mediates membrane fusion is only poorly understood. Here we show that fusion is preceded by the transient tethering of ATL-containing vesicles caused by the dimerization of ATL molecules in opposing membranes. Tethering requires GTP hydrolysis, not just GTP binding, because the two ATL molecules are pulled together most strongly in the transition state of GTP hydrolysis. Most tethering events are futile, so that multiple rounds of GTP hydrolysis are required for successful fusion. Supported lipid bilayer experiments show that ATL molecules sitting on the same (cis) membrane can also undergo nucleotide-dependent dimerization. These results suggest that GTP hydrolysis is required to dissociate cis dimers, generating a pool of ATL monomers that can dimerize with molecules on a different (trans) membrane. In addition, tethering and fusion require the cooperation of multiple ATL molecules in each membrane. We propose a comprehensive model for ATL-mediated fusion that takes into account futile tethering and competition between cis and trans interactions. PMID:25825753

  10. Cis-elements governing trinucleotide repeat instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rolfsmeier, M L; Dixon, M J; Pessoa-Brandão, L; Pelletier, R; Miret, J J; Lahue, R S

    2001-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) instability in humans is governed by unique cis-elements. One element is a threshold, or minimal repeat length, conferring frequent mutations. Since thresholds have not been directly demonstrated in model systems, their molecular nature remains uncertain. Another element is sequence specificity. Unstable TNR sequences are almost always CNG, whose hairpin-forming ability is thought to promote instability by inhibiting DNA repair. To understand these cis-elements further, TNR expansions and contractions were monitored by yeast genetic assays. A threshold of approximately 15--17 repeats was observed for CTG expansions and contractions, indicating that thresholds function in organisms besides humans. Mutants lacking the flap endonuclease Rad27p showed little change in the expansion threshold, suggesting that this element is not altered by the presence or absence of flap processing. CNG or GNC sequences yielded frequent mutations, whereas A-T rich sequences were substantially more stable. This sequence analysis further supports a hairpin-mediated mechanism of TNR instability. Expansions and contractions occurred at comparable rates for CTG tract lengths between 15 and 25 repeats, indicating that expansions can comprise a significant fraction of mutations in yeast. These results indicate that several unique cis-elements of human TNR instability are functional in yeast. PMID:11290713

  11. Ready access to functionally embellished cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins: protecting group-free total syntheses of (±)-Nootkatone and (±)-Noreremophilane.

    PubMed

    Handore, Kishor L; Seetharamsingh, B; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2013-08-16

    A simple and efficient synthesis of functionalized cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins was achieved using a sequential Diels-Alder/aldol approach in a highly diastereoselective manner. The scope of this method was tested with a variety of substrates and was successfully applied to the synthesis of two natural products in racemic form. The highlights of the present work provide ready access to 13 new cis-hydrindanes/cis-decalins, a protecting group-free total synthesis of an insect repellent Nootkatone, and the first synthesis of a Noreremophilane using the shortest sequence. PMID:23855542

  12. Retention of configuration in nucleophilic vinylic halide substitution - Proton magnetic resonance spectra of cis- and trans- beta-styryldiphenylphosphine oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, A. M.; Daigle, D.

    1965-01-01

    Cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrene reaction with lithium diphenylphosphide in tetrahydrofuran producing cis- and trans-beta- styryldiphenylphosphine, discussing proton magnetic resonance and configuration retention

  13. An Integrated Biology and Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Clayton R.

    This document describes a two-year integrated biology and chemistry curriculum for ninth and tenth grade students. The first chapter outlines the rationale for integrating biology and chemistry and presents the topic sequence for the integrated curriculum. Chapter 2 discusses the developmental, cognitive, and philosophical issues that form the…

  14. Binding affinities of CRBPI and CRBPII for 9-cis-retinoids

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Maureen A.; Bright, Frank V.; Napoli, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular retinol binding-protein I (CRBPI) and cellular retinol binding-protein II (CRBPII) serve as intracellular retinoid chaperones that bind retinol and retinal with high affinity and facilitate substrate delivery to select enzymes that catalyze retinoic acid (RA) and retinyl ester biosynthesis. Recently, 9-cis-RA has been identified in vivo in the pancreas, where it contributes to regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In vitro, 9-cis-RA activates RXR (retinoid×receptors), which serve as therapeutic targets for treating cancer and metabolic diseases. Binding affinities and structure–function relationships have been well characterized for CRBPI and CRBPII with all-trans-retinoids, but not for 9-cis-retinoids. This study extended current knowledge by establishing binding affinities for CRBPI and CRBPII with 9-cis-retinoids. Methods We have determined apparent dissociation constants, Kd′, through monitoring binding of 9-cis-retinol, 9-cis-retinal, and 9-cis-RA with CRBPI and CRBPII by fluorescence spectroscopy, and analyzing the data with non-linear regression. We compared these data to the data we obtained for all-trans- and 13-cis-retinoids under identical conditions. Results CRBPI and CRBPII, respectively, bind 9-cis-retinol ( Kd′, 11 nM and 68 nM) and 9-cis-retinal ( Kd′, 8 nM and 5 nM) with high affinity. No significant 9-cis-RA binding was observed with CRBPI or CRBPII. Conclusions CRBPI and CRBPII bind 9-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinal with high affinities, albeit with affinities somewhat lower than for all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinal. General significance These data provide further insight into structure–binding relationships of cellular retinol binding-proteins and are consistent with a model of 9-cis-RA biosynthesis that involves chaperoned delivery of 9-cis-retinoids to enzymes that recognize retinoid binding-proteins. PMID:21382444

  15. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  16. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  17. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  18. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    PubMed

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation. PMID:22557515

  19. Program Evaluation Project Report, 1969-1973. Chapter Two: Activities of the Follow-Up Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audette, Donna M.

    The P.E.P. Report 1969-1973 focuses on the various findings and activities of the Program Evaluation Project. Followup is an integral part of a goal oriented evaluation, providing the opportunity for the collection of various forms of outcome data as well as consumer satisfaction information. This chapter discusses the history and implementation…

  20. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  1. Latino Voices in Children's Literature: Instructional Approaches for Developing Cultural Understanding in the Classroom. Chapter 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, John M.

    As Mexican Americans are the largest language-minority population in U.S. public schools, an investigation of literature that authentically reflects Mexican American students' cultural experience is necessary for any teacher. This chapter outlines strategies for integrating Mexican American children's literature into the structure of a classroom…

  2. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2000-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on the friction and wear properties of selected solid lubricating films to aid users in choosing the best lubricant, deposition conditions, and operational variables. For simplicity, discussion of the tribological properties of concern is separated into two parts. The first part of the chapter discusses the different solid lubricating films selected for study including commercially developed solid film lubricants: (1) bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), (2) magnetron-sputtered MoS2, (3) ion-plated silver, (4) ion-plated lead, (5) magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and (6) plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited diamondlike carbon (PACVD DEC) films. Marked differences in the friction and wear properties of the different films resulted from the different environmental conditions (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, and dry nitrogen) and the solid film lubricant materials. The second part of the chapter discusses the physical and chemical characteristics, friction behavior, and endurance life of the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The role of interface species and the effects of applied load, film thickness, oxygen pressure, environment, and temperature on the friction and wear properties are considered.

  3. Chapter A9. Safety in Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Susan L.; Ray, Ronald G.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols (requirements and recommendations) and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses topics related to personal safety to be used in the collection of water-quality data, including: policies and general regulations on field safety; transportation of people and equipment; implementation of surface-water and ground-water activities; procedures for handling chemicals; and information on potentially hazardous environmental conditions, animals, and plants. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/ index.html.

  4. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  5. Overview of NATO Background on Scramjet Technology. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Bouchez, Marc; McClinton, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present overview is to summarize the current knowledge of the NATO contributors. All the topics will be addressed in this chapter, with references and some examples. This background enhances the level of knowledge of the NATO scramjet community, which will be used for writing the specific chapters of the Report. Some previous overviews have been published on scramjet technology worldwide. NASA, DOD, the U.S. industry and global community have studied scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicles for over 40 years. Within the U.S. alone, NASA, DOD (DARPA, U.S. Navy and USAF), and industry have participated in hypersonic technology development. Over this time NASA Langley Research Center continuously studied hypersonic system design, aerothermodynamics, scramjet propulsion, propulsion-airframe integration, high temperature materials and structural architectures, and associated facilities, instrumentation and test methods. These modestly funded programs were substantially augmented during the National Aero-Space Plane (X-30) Program, which spent more than $3B between 1984 and 1995, and brought the DOD and other NASA Centers, universities and industry back into hypersonics. In addition, significant progress was achieved in all technologies required for hypersonic flight, and much of that technology was transferred into other programs, such as X-33, DC-X, X-37, X-43, etc. In addition, technology transfer impacted numerous other industries, including automotive, medical, sports and aerospace.

  6. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  7. Modulation of multiple sclerosis by sunlight exposure: role of cis-urocanic acid.

    PubMed

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F

    2013-08-15

    The role of cis-urocanic acid (UCA) as a UV-mediated immunomodulator in MS patients was investigated. Plasma levels of cis-UCA were significantly lower in MS patients compared to controls. Stimulation of MBP- and MOG-specific T cells in the presence of cis-UCA, significantly increased IL-10, and inhibited IFN-γ production. PBMCs cultured in the presence of cis-UCA increased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cell percentages. Dendritic cells cultured in the presence of cis-UCA significantly reduced Ag presentation capacity. Finally, cis-UCA activated the 5-HT2A receptor, inducing the increase in phosphorylated forms of ERK 1/2 and JNK2. Thus, in addition to vitamin D, cis-UCA also appears to be an additional UV-mediated immunomodulator. PMID:23800457

  8. Role of cis-Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Joris, Peter J; Mensink, Ronald P

    2016-07-01

    The effects of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and on CHD mortality are not clear. Also, dietary recommendations for cis-MUFA as derived by various organizations are not in agreement. Earlier studies have mainly focused on the effects of cis-MUFA on serum lipids and lipoproteins. More recent studies, however, have also addressed effects of cis-MUFA on other non-traditional CHD risk markers such as vascular function markers, postprandial vascular function, and energy intake and metabolism. Although well-designed randomized controlled trials with CHD events as endpoints are missing, several large prospective cohort studies have recently been published on the relationship between cis-MUFA and CHD risk. The aim of this paper is to review these new studies that have been published in the last 3 years on the effects of cis-MUFA on cardiovascular risk markers and CHD. PMID:27221500

  9. Functional conservation of cis-regulatory elements of heat-shock genes over long evolutionary distances.

    PubMed

    He, Zhengying; Eichel, Kelsie; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene regulation is an intricate process that requires precise orchestration of a number of molecular components. Studying its evolution can serve as a useful model for understanding how complex molecular machines evolve. One way to investigate evolution of transcriptional regulation is to test the functions of cis-elements from one species in a distant relative. Previous results suggested that few, if any, tissue-specific promoters from Drosophila are faithfully expressed in C. elegans. Here we show that, in contrast, promoters of fly and human heat-shock genes are upregulated in C. elegans upon exposure to heat. Inducibility under conditions of heat shock may represent a relatively simple "on-off" response, whereas complex expression patterns require integration of multiple signals. Our results suggest that simpler aspects of regulatory logic may be retained over longer periods of evolutionary time, while more complex ones may be diverging more rapidly. PMID:21799932

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  11. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  12. cis-to-trans isomerization of azobenzene investigated by using thin films of metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Zhengbang; Buchholz, Maria; Füllgrabe, Nena; Grosjean, Sylvain; Bebensee, Fabian; Bräse, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Heinke, Lars

    2015-09-21

    The activation barrier for cis-to-trans isomerization is a key parameter for governing the properties of photoswitchable molecules. This quantity can be computed by using theoretical methods, but experimental determination is not straightforward. Photoswitchable molecules typically do not change their conformation in the pure crystalline state. When the molecules are in solution, the switching is affected by the viscosity and polarity of the solvent and when embedded in polymers, the conformational change is affected by the polymer matrix. Here, we describe a novel approach where the photoswitchable group is integrated in a highly crystalline, porous molecular framework. Sufficiently large pore sizes in such metal-organic frameworks, MOFs, allow unhindered switching and the strictly periodic structure of the lattice eliminates virtually all contributions from inhomogeneities. Using IR spectroscopy to probe the conformational state of azobenzene, the energy barrier separating the cis and the trans state could be determined by an Arrhenius analysis of the data accumulated in a temperature regime between 314 K and 385 K. The result, 1.09 ± 0.09 eV, is in very good agreement with the activation energy reported for the thermal cis-to-trans isomerization of free azobenzene as computed by DFT calculations. PMID:26255748

  13. Anatomy and physiology of plant conductive systems. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical models considered in the book are representations of the physical features and chemical reactions that define interactions between plants and their environment. By centering attention on equations, it is easy to lose sight of the intricate and complex nature of the problem. The particular chapter describes the anatomy of important plant features and briefly discuss some physiological principles that will help to visualize and perceive the conditions which are represented in the models. Because of the many competing interactions, the fate of chemicals in the soil/plant/air environment is not obvious. Models were thus developed to intelligently integrate available knowledge, to increase understanding of the complex interactions, to aid in presentation of plant functions, and to help make predictions about chemical fate.

  14. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  15. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  16. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  17. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  18. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  19. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  20. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  1. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  2. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  3. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix E to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false E Appendix E to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendix E to Chapter 7...

  5. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  6. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  7. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter describes powerful analytical techniques capable of sampling tribological surfaces and solid-film lubricants. Some of these techniques may also be used to determine the locus of failure in a bonded structure or coated substrate; such information is important when seeking improved adhesion between a solid-film lubricant and a substrate and when seeking improved performance and long life expectancy of solid lubricants. Many examples are given here and through-out the book on the nature and character of solid surfaces and their significance in lubrication, friction, and wear. The analytical techniques used include the late spectroscopic methods.

  8. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  9. Sulfinyl and sulfonyl derivatives of aryl substituted cis-1-thiadecalins

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenko, S.K.; Sorokin, N.N.; Tyrina, T.I.; Stolbova, T.V.

    1987-10-01

    Individual 2..cap alpha..-aryl- and 2..cap alpha..,4..cap alpha..-diaryl-cis-thiadecalin-1..beta..-oxides and 1,1-dioxides have been synthesized. The effect of sulfinyl and sulfonyl groups has been observed on the chemical shifts of carbon atoms in these conformationally homogeneous, stereochemically similar systems. IR spectra were obtained in mineral oil with a UR-20 spectrometer. /sup 13/C NMR spectra were obtained with a Varian FT-80A instrument (20 MHz) at 30/sup 0/. The spectra were parametrized with respect to the signal of the secondary standard, for which the signal of CDCl/sub 3/ solvent was used.

  10. Developing a Chapter 1 Program Improvement Plan: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda W.

    A new Chapter 1 law, P.L. 100-297, was passed in 1988. Chapter 1 schools must examine the program operated during the previous school year. Schools that fail to demonstrate overall achievement gains must develop a Program Improvement Plan (PIP), a document describing how the Chapter 1 program in that school will be modified. This guide provides a…

  11. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2000: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide presents the Future Farmers of America (FFA) 2000 Model of Innovation award winners' projects. Chapters demonstrated abilities to identify goals and objectives, create a workable plan of action, attain and evaluate results, and identify items learned and ways to improve. Chapter 1 discusses the FFA National Chapter Award program that…

  12. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  13. Columbia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. Chapters 21-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugale, Marcelo M., Ed.; Lafourcade, Olivier, Ed.; Luff, Connie, Ed.

    This document contains 8 chapters of a 35-chapter book that presents a comprehensive diagnosis of current economic, social, and educational conditions in Colombia and their importance to development prospects and the quest for peace. The eight chapters covered here are part of a section titled "Sharing the Fruits of Growth with All Colombians."…

  14. Isomerization of 11-cis-retinol to all-trans-retinol in bovine rod outer segments.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ishiguro, S; Tamai, M

    1998-05-01

    It is known that exogenous 11-cis-retinol inhibits the recovery of photosensitivity of bleached rod outer segments (ROS) and 11-cis-retinol exists in the interphotorecepter matrix. We examined the conversion of 11-cis-retinol with bovine ROS. ROS was incubated with 11-cis-retinol under dim red light. Retinoids were extracted from the reaction mixture with hexane and analyzed by HPLC coupled with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Isomerization of 11-cis-retinol to all-trans-retinol was observed in the presence of ROS. This isomerization was not suppressed by heat treatment and did not have stereospecificity. In addition, we incubated purified rhodopsin and phospholipids extracted from ROS with 11-cis-retinol. Rhodopsin was found to isomerize 11-cis-retinol to all-trans-retinol as well as ROS, but phospholipids did not. In contrast, the phospholipids inhibited the isomerization of 11-cis-retinol to all-trans-retinol by the purified rhodopsin. Commercially available phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine, also inhibited the isomerization. Our results suggest that rhodopsin has activity for the isomerization of 11-cis-retinol to all-trans-retinol and may play an important role in the detoxification of 11-cis-retinol in the ROS. PMID:9562631

  15. Occurrence of a novel cis,cis,cis-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic (Z,Z,Z-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic) acid in Chrysanthemum (tanacetum) zawadskii herb. (Compositae) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Tsevegsuren, Nanzad; Fujimoto, Kenshiro; Christie, William W; Endo, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    A new octadecatrienoic acid (6.9%), found as a component of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herb. (Asteraceae) seed oil, was shown to be the hitherto unknown cis,cis,cis-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic acid. The oil also contained 8.6% of crepenynic acid in addition to the other common FA. The structures of the new unusual FA and other FA were confirmed by chromatographic (TLC, GC), spectroscopic (IR, UV, and NMR), and MS methods by using different chemical derivatizations (preparation of methyl ester, pyrrolidide, picolinyl esters, and dimethyloxazoline derivatives). PMID:12880115

  16. Methods of assessing responses of trees, stands, and ecosystems to air pollution (Chapter 7). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.W.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Cook, E.R.; Cline, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter focuses on three main types of assessments of pollution effects used in the case studies chronicled in Chapter 8 through 12 (Regional Studies of conifer forests in the west). These are measures of crown condition of individual trees; impacts on populations and communities; and temporal patterns in radial growth. The concepts behind the development of each approach are introduced with references to previous work, leading to a discussion of the state of science. The importance of quality assurance techniques to the success of any assessment of air pollution effects is also discussed.

  17. Integrity in Student Affairs Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    "Integrity" is a term that is intuitively appealing, but hard to define and implement. This chapter discusses those conceptual complexities as well as an ideal portrait of organizations with integrity, a description of the challenges to the integrity of organizations, a discussion of the enhancement of integrity through compliance programs and…

  18. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  19. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  20. Cis-trans photoisomerization of fluorescent-protein chromophores.

    PubMed

    Voliani, Valerio; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Nifosì, Riccardo; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Grandi, Elena; Viappiani, Cristiano; Beltram, Fabio

    2008-08-28

    Photochromic variants of fluorescent proteins are opening the way to a number of opportunities for high-sensitivity regioselective studies in the cellular environment and may even lead to applications in information and communication technology. Yet, the detailed photophysical processes at the basis of photoswitching have not been fully clarified. In this paper, we used synthetic FP chromophores to clarify the photophysical processes associated with the photochromic behavior. In particular, we investigated the spectral modification of synthetic chromophore analogues of wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y66F GFP (BFPF), and Y66W GFP (CFP) upon irradiation in solutions of different polarities. We found that the cis-trans photoisomerization mechanism can be induced in all the chromophores. The structural assignments were carried out both by NMR measurements and DFT calculations. Remarkably, we determined for the first time the spectra of neutral trans isomers in different solvents. Finally, we calculated the photoconversion quantum yields by absorption measurements under continuous illumination at different times and by a nanosecond laser-flash photolysis method. Our results indicate that cis-trans photoisomerization is a general mechanism of FP chromophores whose efficiency is modulated by the detailed mutant-specific protein environment. PMID:18671358

  1. Active Ageing in CIS Countries: Semantics, Challenges, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, Alexandre; Zaidi, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Although the CIS countries are connected together by the legacy of breaking away from the Soviet Union, they have had a distinctive transition course and are rather diverse in terms of the population ageing challenges and policy responses in place. The commonality is that a comprehensive national strategy on ageing is lacking, and many of necessary reforms were put aside owing to political uncertainties, lack of societal consensus, and financial instability. The notion of active ageing is associated with the term “accelerated ageing,” which is understood to be an individual living a life under harsh living conditions or a society experiencing rapid increases in the relative number of older persons, and therefore it carries a negative connotation. Yet, in the same spirit as the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012, the CIS countries have initiated sectoral programmes towards enhancing employment of older workers, social participation of older people in the society in a wider sense and also measures promoting health and independent living of older persons. PMID:23346109

  2. Wavelength Dependent Cis-Trans Isomerization in Vision†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Judy E.; Tauber, Michael J.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary event in vision is the light-driven cis-trans isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin. Early measurements showed that this photoisomerization has a reaction quantum yield Φ of ∼0.67 [Dartnall (1936) Proc. R. Soc. A 156, 158-170; Dartnall (1968) Vision Res. 8, 339-358] and suggested that the quantum yield was wavelength independent [Schneider (1939) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 170, 102-112]. Here we more accurately determine Φ 500) = 0.65 ± 0.01 and reveal that Φ surprisingly depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Although there is no difference in the quantum yield between 450 and 480 nm, the quantum yield falls significantly as the photon energy is reduced below 20 000 cm-1 (500 nm). At the reddest wavelength measured (570 nm), the quantum yield is reduced by 5 ± 1% relative to the 500 nm value. These experiments correct the long-held presumption that the quantum yield in vision is wavelength independent, and support the hypothesis that the 200 fs photoisomerization reaction that initiates vision is dictated by nonstationary excited-state vibrational wave packet dynamics. PMID:11705366

  3. Wavelength dependent cis-trans isomerization in vision.

    PubMed

    Kim, J E; Tauber, M J; Mathies, R A

    2001-11-20

    The primary event in vision is the light-driven cis-trans isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin. Early measurements showed that this photoisomerization has a reaction quantum yield phi of approximately 0.67 [Dartnall (1936) Proc. R. Soc. A 156, 158-170; Dartnall (1968) Vision Res. 8, 339-358] and suggested that the quantum yield was wavelength independent [Schneider (1939) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 170, 102-112]. Here we more accurately determine phi(500) = 0.65 +/- 0.01 and reveal that phi surprisingly depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Although there is no difference in the quantum yield between 450 and 480 nm, the quantum yield falls significantly as the photon energy is reduced below 20 000 cm(-1) (500 nm). At the reddest wavelength measured (570 nm), the quantum yield is reduced by 5 +/- 1% relative to the 500 nm value. These experiments correct the long-held presumption that the quantum yield in vision is wavelength independent, and support the hypothesis that the 200 fs photoisomerization reaction that initiates vision is dictated by nonstationary excited-state vibrational wave packet dynamics. PMID:11705366

  4. Project on Social Architecture in Education. Final Report. Part II: Research Methods. Chapter 4: Project Overview. Chapter 5: Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    This document contains chapters 4 and 5 of the final report of the Project on Social Architecture in Education. Chapter 4 provides a brief overview of the activities of the project in order to sketch the context out of which the case studies, conclusions, and learning materials emerged. Chapter 5 discusses and evaluates six major strands of…

  5. A primer on regression methods for decoding cis-regulatory logic

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debopriya; Pellegrini, Matteo; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-03-03

    The rapidly emerging field of systems biology is helping us to understand the molecular determinants of phenotype on a genomic scale [1]. Cis-regulatory elements are major sequence-based determinants of biological processes in cells and tissues [2]. For instance, during transcriptional regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to very specific regions on the promoter DNA [2,3] and recruit the basal transcriptional machinery, which ultimately initiates mRNA transcription (Figure 1A). Learning cis-Regulatory Elements from Omics Data A vast amount of work over the past decade has shown that omics data can be used to learn cis-regulatory logic on a genome-wide scale [4-6]--in particular, by integrating sequence data with mRNA expression profiles. The most popular approach has been to identify over-represented motifs in promoters of genes that are coexpressed [4,7,8]. Though widely used, such an approach can be limiting for a variety of reasons. First, the combinatorial nature of gene regulation is difficult to explicitly model in this framework. Moreover, in many applications of this approach, expression data from multiple conditions are necessary to obtain reliable predictions. This can potentially limit the use of this method to only large data sets [9]. Although these methods can be adapted to analyze mRNA expression data from a pair of biological conditions, such comparisons are often confounded by the fact that primary and secondary response genes are clustered together--whereas only the primary response genes are expected to contain the functional motifs [10]. A set of approaches based on regression has been developed to overcome the above limitations [11-32]. These approaches have their foundations in certain biophysical aspects of gene regulation [26,33-35]. That is, the models are motivated by the expected transcriptional response of genes due to the binding of TFs to their promoters. While such methods have gathered popularity in the computational domain

  6. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 5, Number Theory, Chapter 6, The Integers. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The third student text in this SMSG series of 14 covers the following topics from number theory: the division algorithm, divisibility, prime numbers, prime factorization, common divisors and common multiples, and properties of the whole number system. A second chapter discusses properties and operations with integers. For a special edition of this…

  7. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  8. Electronic optical response of molecules in intense fields: comparison of TD-HF, TD-CIS, and TD-CIS(D) approaches.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, H Bernhard; Smith, Stanley M; Li, Xiaosong

    2007-06-28

    Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) and time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI) methods with Gaussian basis sets have been compared in modeling the response of hydrogen molecule, butadiene, and hexatriene exposed to very short, intense laser pulses (760 nm, 3 cycles). After the electric field of the pulse returns to zero, the molecular dipole continues to oscillate due to the coherent superposition of excited states resulting from the nonadiabatic excitation caused by the pulse. The Fourier transform of this residual dipole gives a measure of the nonadiabatic excitation. For low fields, only the lowest excited states are populated, and TD-CI simulations using singly excited states with and without perturbative corrections for double excitations [TD-CIS(D) and TD-CIS, respectively] are generally in good agreement with the TD-HF simulations. At higher field strengths, higher states are populated and the methods begin to differ significantly if the coefficients of the excited states become larger than approximately 0.1. The response of individual excited states does not grow linearly with intensity because of excited state to excited state transitions. Beyond a threshold in the field strength, there is a rapid increase in the population of many higher excited states, possibly signaling an approach to ionization. However, without continuum functions, the present TD-HF and TD-CI calculations cannot model ionization directly. The TD-HF and TD-CIS simulations are in good accord because the excitation energies obtained by linear response TD-HF [also known as random phase approximation (RPA)] agree very well with those obtained from singly excited configuration interaction (CIS) calculations. Because CIS excitation energies with the perturbative doubles corrections [CIS(D)] are on average lower than the CIS excitation energies, the TD-CIS(D) response is generally stronger than TD-CIS. PMID:17614540

  9. An AB initio study of the cis- and trans -conformers of 1,3-butadiene, acrolein and glyoxal: evidence for a stabilizing interaction in cis-acrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel

    1980-12-01

    The cis- and trans-conformers of 1,3-butadiene, acrolein and glyoxal have been studied using the 4-31G and (7, 3) basis sets with full geometry optimization. The changes in geometry in going from the cis- to the trans-structures indicate that the terminal carbon and oxygen atoms in cis-acrolein are closer together than would otherwise be expected from the butadiene and glyoxal data, and that the hydrogens of the CH 2 group are also affected. These results, together with a comparison of the changes in force constants for key structural elements, suggest that some sort of attractive interaction is present in cis-acrolein. Δ ET, Δ EK, Δ Vee, Δ Vnn and Δ Ven are reported for the cis- trans isomerizations, the special geometrical features of the cis-conformer being reflected in Δ Vnn for the acrolein reaction. The positive Δ ET values for the disproportionation reactions of both conformers 2 acrolein → 1,3-butadiene + glyoxal show that the acrolein framework provides the most stable combination of the H 2C, CH- and O structural elements, while the bigger value for the cis-conformers affords additional evidence that the interaction in cis-acrolein is stabilizing in nature. However, in going from the trans- to the cis-structure neither the change in fC-H,C-H for the C-H that would be involved in an H- bond, nor the change in charge on the atoms in the C-H ⋯ O unit. based on Mulliken population analyses, are in accord with what would be expected for a hydrogen-bonding type of interaction. Instead the stabilization may be a manifestation of the different pattern of charge distribution along the polyene chain of acrolein, i.e. with the ends oppositely charged, compared to butadiene and glyoxal, in which the ends carry the same charge.

  10. Evaluation of 9-cis retinoic acid and mitotane as antitumoral agents in an adrenocortical xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zoltán; Baghy, Kornélia; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Micsik, Tamás; Nyírő, Gábor; Rácz, Gergely; Butz, Henriett; Perge, Pál; Kovalszky, Ilona; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The available drug treatment options for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are limited. In our previous studies, the in vitro activity of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA) on adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells was shown along with its antitumoral effects in a small pilot xenograft study. Our aim was to dissect the antitumoral effects of 9-cisRA on ACC in a large-scale xenograft study involving mitotane, 9-cisRA and their combination. 43 male SCID mice inoculated with NCI-H295R cells were treated in four groups (i. control, ii. 9-cisRA, iii. mitotane, iv. 9-cisRA + mitotane) for 28 days. Tumor size follow-up, histological and immunohistochemical (Ki-67) analysis, tissue gene expression microarray, quantitative real-time-PCR for the validation of microarray results and to detect circulating microRNAs were performed. Protein expression was studied by proteomics and Western-blot validation. Only mitotane alone and the combination of 9-cisRA and mitotane resulted in significant tumor size reduction. The Ki-67 index was significantly reduced in both 9-cisRA and 9-cisRA+mitotane groups. Only modest changes at the mRNA level were found: the 9-cisRA-induced overexpression of apolipoprotein A4 and down-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4A was validated. The expression of circulating hsa-miR-483-5p was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group. The SET protein was validated as being significantly down-regulated in the combined mitotane+9-cisRA group. 9-cisRA might be a helpful additive agent in the treatment of ACC in combination with mitotane. Circulating hsa-miR-483-5p could be utilized for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ACC patients, and the treatment-induced reduction in protein SET expression might raise its relevance in ACC biology. PMID:26885453