Science.gov

Sample records for intelligent collection environment

  1. Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W J

    2001-07-19

    An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or

  2. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  3. Path planning in GPS-denied environments via collective intelligence of distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Devesh K.; Chattopadhyay, Pritthi; Sarkar, Soumik; Ray, Asok

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reactive goal-directed navigation without global positioning facilities in unknown dynamic environments. A mobile sensor network is used for localising regions of interest for path planning of an autonomous mobile robot. The underlying theory is an extension of a generalised gossip algorithm that has been recently developed in a language-measure-theoretic setting. The algorithm has been used to propagate local decisions of target detection over a mobile sensor network and thus, it generates a belief map for the detected target over the network. In this setting, an autonomous mobile robot may communicate only with a few mobile sensing nodes in its own neighbourhood and localise itself relative to the communicating nodes with bounded uncertainties. The robot makes use of the knowledge based on the belief of the mobile sensors to generate a sequence of way-points, leading to a possible goal. The estimated way-points are used by a sampling-based motion planning algorithm to generate feasible trajectories for the robot. The proposed concept has been validated by numerical simulation on a mobile sensor network test-bed and a Dubin's car-like robot.

  4. Faire preuve d'intelligence collective (To Display Collective Intelligence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laferriere, Therese

    2000-01-01

    The need for lifelong learning is increasing as humanity transforms the planet into a global village. The growing number of people using the electronic infrastructure is creating new practices in which learning and work are intertwined. Professional educators must build the collective intelligence required for a knowledge-based society, and in…

  5. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Lobeck, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  6. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    2002-12-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  7. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  8. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  9. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  10. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  11. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  12. Collective Intelligence Generation from User Contributed Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solachidis, Vassilios; Mylonas, Phivos; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Lanfranchi, Vita; Scherp, Ansgar; Staab, Steffen; Contopoulos, Costis; Gkika, Ioanna; Bakaimis, Byron; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this paper we provide a foundation for a new generation of services and tools. We define new ways of capturing, sharing and reusing information and intelligence provided by single users and communities, as well as organizations by enabling the extraction, generation, interpretation and management of Collective Intelligence from user generated digital multimedia content. Different layers of intelligence are generated, which together constitute the notion of Collective Intelligence. The automatic generation of Collective Intelligence constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since information from both the multimedia content and social aspects will be merged, while at the same time the social dynamics will be taken into account. In the context of this work, we present two case studies: an Emergency Response and a Consumers Social Group case study.

  13. A Survey of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents the science of "COllective INtelligence" (COIN). A COIN is a large multi-agent systems where: i) the agents each run reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms; ii) there is little to no centralized communication or control; iii) there is a provided world utility function that, rates the possible histories of tile full system. Tile conventional approach to designing large distributed systems to optimize a world utility does not use agents running RL algorithms. Rather that approach begins with explicit modeling of the overall system's dynamics, followed by detailed hand-tuning of the interactions between the components to ensure that they "cooperate" as far as the world utility is concerned. This approach is labor-intensive, often results in highly non-robust systems, and usually results in design techniques that, have limited applicability. In contrast, with COINs we wish to solve the system design problems implicitly, via the 'adaptive' character of the RL algorithms of each of the agents. This COIN approach introduces an entirely new, profound design problem: Assuming the RL algorithms are able to achieve high rewards, what reward functions for the individual agents will, when pursued by those agents, result in high world utility? In other words, what reward functions will best ensure that we do not have phenomena like the tragedy of the commons, or Braess's paradox? Although still very young, the science of COINs has already resulted in successes in artificial domains, in particular in packet-routing, the leader-follower problem, and in variants of Arthur's "El Farol bar problem". It is expected that as it matures not only will COIN science expand greatly the range of tasks addressable by human engineers, but it will also provide much insight into already established scientific fields, such as economics, game theory, or population biology.

  14. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  15. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments.

    PubMed

    Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Kim, Yeong Gon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) light) have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance) for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods. PMID:27376288

  16. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments

    PubMed Central

    Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Kim, Yeong Gon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) light) have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance) for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods. PMID:27376288

  17. Intelligent Motion and Interaction Within Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Slater, Mel (Editor); Alexander, Thomas (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    What makes virtual actors and objects in virtual environments seem real? How can the illusion of their reality be supported? What sorts of training or user-interface applications benefit from realistic user-environment interactions? These are some of the central questions that designers of virtual environments face. To be sure simulation realism is not necessarily the major, or even a required goal, of a virtual environment intended to communicate specific information. But for some applications in entertainment, marketing, or aspects of vehicle simulation training, realism is essential. The following chapters will examine how a sense of truly interacting with dynamic, intelligent agents may arise in users of virtual environments. These chapters are based on presentations at the London conference on Intelligent Motion and Interaction within a Virtual Environments which was held at University College, London, U.K., 15-17 September 2003.

  18. End-user Customisation of Intelligent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Jeannette; Callaghan, Victor; Clarke, Graham

    One of the striking aspects of world-wide-web is how it has empowered ordinary non-technical people to participate in a digital revolution by transforming the way services such as shopping, education and entertainment are offered and consumed. The proliferation of networked appliances, sensors and actuators, such as those found in digital homes heralds a similar 'sea change' in the capabilities of ordinary people to customise and utilise the electronic spaces they inhabit. By coordinating the actions of networked devices or services, it is possible for the environment to behave in a holistic and reactive manner to satisfy the occupants needs; creating an intelligent environment. Further, by deconstructing traditional home appliances into sets of more elemental network accessible services, it is possible to reconstruct either the original appliance or to create new user defined appliances by combining basic network services in novel ways; creating a so called virtual appliance. This principle can be extended to decompose and re-compose software applications allowing users to create their own bespoke applications. Collectively, such user created entities are referred to as Meta - appliances or - applications, more generally abbreviated to MAps.

  19. Intelligent Search in an Educational Hypertext Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujihara, Hiroko; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of hypertext for computer-assisted instruction highlights SINS (Semistructured Intelligent Navigation System), a hypertext system that addresses and solves navigation problems common to hypertext environments. The semantic search mechanism of SINS is explained, and SINS is compared with HyperCard using searches performed by veterinary…

  20. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  1. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Dryer, David; Major, Debra; Fletcher, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a methodology for the assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments. This review provides the theoretical foundation upon which subsequent empirical work will be based. Our review of the team performance literature has identified the following 12 conceptually distinct team interaction processes as characteristic of effective teams. 1) Mission Analysis; 2) Resource Distribution; 3) Leadership; 4) Timing; 5) Intra-team Feedback; 6) Motivational Functions; 7) Team Orientation; 8) Communication; 9) Coordination; 10) Mutual Performance Monitoring; 11) Back-up Behaviors; and 12) Cooperation. In addition, this review summarizes how team task characteristics (i.e., task type, task complexity, motivation, and temporal changes), team characteristics (i.e., team structure and team knowledge), and individual team member characteristics (i.e., dispositions and teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities) affect team interaction processes, determine the relevance of these processes, and influence team performance. The costs and benefits of distributed team collaboration are also considered. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the nature of collaborative team engineering tasks.

  2. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Dryer, David; Major, Debra; Fletcher, Tom

    2002-10-01

    The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a methodology for the assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments. This review provides the theoretical foundation upon which subsequent empirical work will be based. Our review of the team performance literature has identified the following 12 conceptually distinct team interaction processes as characteristic of effective teams. 1) Mission Analysis; 2) Resource Distribution; 3) Leadership; 4) Timing; 5) Intra-team Feedback; 6) Motivational Functions; 7) Team Orientation; 8) Communication; 9) Coordination; 10) Mutual Performance Monitoring; 11) Back-up Behaviors; and 12) Cooperation. In addition, this review summarizes how team task characteristics (i.e., task type, task complexity, motivation, and temporal changes), team characteristics (i.e., team structure and team knowledge), and individual team member characteristics (i.e., dispositions and teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities) affect team interaction processes, determine the relevance of these processes, and influence team performance. The costs and benefits of distributed team collaboration are also considered. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the nature of collaborative team engineering tasks.

  3. Intelligent Controlling System of Aquiculture Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Deshen; Hu, Xuemei

    The paper has analyzed present aquiculture conditions and controlling problems of water environment factors of aquiculture, and constructed effective security aquiculture breeding intelligence controlling system suitable to Chinese situation, and presented the control strategy of neural network realizing dynamic decoupling for the factory aquiculture, and specially solved the water environment control and so on the key questions. The long term practice has shown that the system operation is simple and effective safe by applying some breeding bases in Zhenjiang, the system has met the requirements of culturists and enhanced international market competition for aquiculture.

  4. Intelligent instrumentation applied in environment management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magheti, Mihnea I.; Walsh, Patrick; Delassus, Patrick

    2005-06-01

    The use of information and communications technology in environment management and research has witnessed a renaissance in recent years. From optical sensor technology, expert systems, GIS and communications technologies to computer aided harvesting and yield prediction, these systems are increasable used for applications developing in the management sector of natural resources and biodiversity. This paper presents an environmental decision support system, used to monitor biodiversity and present a risk rating for the invasion of pests into the particular systems being examined. This system will utilise expert mobile technology coupled with artificial intelligence and predictive modelling, and will emphasize the potential for expansion into many areas of intelligent remote sensing and computer aided decision-making for environment management or certification. Monitoring and prediction in natural systems, harnessing the potential of computing and communication technologies is an emerging technology within the area of environmental management. This research will lead to the initiation of a hardware and software multi tier decision support system for environment management allowing an evaluation of areas for biodiversity or areas at risk from invasive species, based upon environmental factors/systems.

  5. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fuhua, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents" reports on the most recent advances in agent technologies for distributed learning. Chapters are devoted to the various aspects of intelligent software agents in distributed learning, including the methodological and technical issues on where and how intelligent agents…

  6. A Software Architecture for Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program is a grand attempt to develop a system to transform the way complex artifacts are engineered. This paper discusses a "middleware" architecture for enabling the development of ISE. Desirable elements of such an Intelligent Synthesis Architecture (ISA) include remote invocation; plug-and-play applications; scripting of applications; management of design artifacts, tools, and artifact and tool attributes; common system services; system management; and systematic enforcement of policies. This paper argues that the ISA extend conventional distributed object technology (DOT) such as CORBA and Product Data Managers with flexible repositories of product and tool annotations and "plug-and-play" mechanisms for inserting "ility" or orthogonal concerns into the system. I describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, an Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) environment for developing distributed systems that provides utility insertion and enables consistent annotation maintenance. This technology can be used to enforce policies such as maintaining the annotations of artifacts, particularly the provenance and access control rules of artifacts-, performing automatic datatype transformations between representations; supplying alternative servers of the same service; reporting on the status of jobs and the system; conveying privileges throughout an application; supporting long-lived transactions; maintaining version consistency; and providing software redundancy and mobility.

  7. Teaching for Intelligence I: A Collection of Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z., Ed.

    This collection of articles offers theories and thoughts presented at the 1998 Teaching for Intelligence Conference. They highlight a wide and diverse range of views on pedagogy, achievement, and the state of education. Section 1, "The Need for Intelligence in Schooling," includes "On the Habit of Informed Skepticism" (Theodore R. Sizer);…

  8. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  9. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an “intelligence” that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of “volunteered” or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the “intelligence” collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an “intelligent” end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs. PMID:25419184

  10. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in human intelligence are of interest to a wide range of psychologists and to many people outside the discipline. This overview of contributions to intelligence research covers the first decade of the twenty-first century. There is a survey of some of the major books that appeared since 2000, at different levels of expertise and from different points of view. Contributions to the phenotype of intelligence differences are discussed, as well as some contributions to causes and consequences of intelligence differences. The major causal issues covered concern the environment and genetics, and how intelligence differences are being mapped to brain differences. The major outcomes discussed are health, education, and socioeconomic status. Aging and intelligence are discussed, as are sex differences in intelligence and whether twins and singletons differ in intelligence. More generally, the degree to which intelligence has become a part of broader research in neuroscience, health, and social science is discussed. PMID:21943169

  11. INITIATE: An Intelligent Adaptive Alert Environment.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Ahmad, Ahmad Marwan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a large volume of alerts generated by medical Alert Generating Systems (AGS) such as drug-drug interaction softwares or clinical decision support systems over-whelms users and causes alert fatigue in them. Some of alert fatigue effects are ignoring crucial alerts and longer response times. A common approach to avoid alert fatigue is to devise mechanisms in AGS to stop them from generating alerts that are deemed irrelevant. In this paper, we present a novel framework called INITIATE: an INtellIgent adapTIve AlerT Environment to avoid alert fatigue by managing alerts generated by one or more AGS. We have identified and categories the lifecycle of different alerts and have developed alert management logic as per the alerts' lifecycle. Our framework incorporates an ontology that represents the alert management strategy and an alert management engine that executes this strategy. Our alert management framework offers the following features: (1) Adaptability based on users' feedback; (2) Personalization and aggregation of messages; and (3) Connection to Electronic Medical Records by implementing a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture parser. PMID:26262056

  12. Forecasting rain events - Meteorological models or collective intelligence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arazy, Ofer; Halfon, Noam; Malkinson, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Collective intelligence is shared (or group) intelligence that emerges from the collective efforts of many individuals. Collective intelligence is the aggregate of individual contributions: from simple collective decision making to more sophisticated aggregations such as in crowdsourcing and peer-production systems. In particular, collective intelligence could be used in making predictions about future events, for example by using prediction markets to forecast election results, stock prices, or the outcomes of sport events. To date, there is little research regarding the use of collective intelligence for prediction of weather forecasting. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which collective intelligence could be utilized to accurately predict weather events, and in particular rainfall. Our analyses employ metrics of group intelligence, as well as compare the accuracy of groups' predictions against the predictions of the standard model used by the National Meteorological Services. We report on preliminary results from a study conducted over the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters. We have built a web site that allows people to make predictions on precipitation levels on certain locations. During each competition participants were allowed to enter their precipitation forecasts (i.e. 'bets') at three locations and these locations changed between competitions. A precipitation competition was defined as a 48-96 hour period (depending on the expected weather conditions), bets were open 24-48 hours prior to the competition, and during betting period participants were allowed to change their bets with no limitation. In order to explore the effect of transparency, betting mechanisms varied across study's sites: full transparency (participants able to see each other's bets); partial transparency (participants see the group's average bet); and no transparency (no information of others' bets is made available). Several interesting findings emerged from

  13. Intelligent Tutoring Environments as Teacher Substitutes: Use and Feasibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callear, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses course-oriented intelligent tutoring environments and the role of the teacher, and describes the development of WITS (Whole-course Intelligent Tutoring System), an expert system that teaches a course on solid state electronics independently of a human teacher. Includes results of student evaluations of WITS. (LRW)

  14. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the

  15. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  16. Study of the Effect of Education and Academic Environment on Emotional Intelligence on Accounting Students in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mahdi; Zadeh, Mohammadreza Abbas; Ghaderi, Alireza; Tabasi, Alaleh Zhian

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the relation between education and academic environment on emotional intelligence of accounting students in state and non-state universities in Iran. In order to collecting data Bar-on emotional intelligence test and SCL 90 questionnaire administrated among 476 students in different subjects including…

  17. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-31

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  18. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  19. Artificial intelligence: Collective behaviors of synthetic micromachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wentao

    Synthetic nano- and micromotors function through the conversion of chemical free energy or forms of energy into mechanical motion. Ever since the first reports, such motors have been the subject of growing interest. In addition to motility in response to gradients, these motors interact with each other, resulting in emergent collective behavior like schooling, exclusion, and predator-prey. However, most of these systems only exhibit a single type of collective behavior in response to a certain stimuli. The research projects in the disseratation aim at designing synthetic micromotors that can exhibit transition between various collective behaviors in response to different stimuli, as well as quantitative understanding on the pairwise interaction and propulsion mechanism of such motors. Chapter 1 offers an overview on development of synthetic micromachines. Interactions and collective behaviors of micromotors are also summarized and included. Chapter 2 presents a silver orthophosphate microparticle system that exhibits collective behaviors. Transition between two collective patterns, clustering and dispersion, can be triggered by shift in chemical equilibrium upon the addition or removal of ammonia, in response to UV light, or under two orthogonal stimuli (UV and acoustic field) and powering mechanisms. The transitions can be explained by the self-diffusiophoresis mechanism resulting from either ionic or neutral solute gradients. Potential applications of the reported system in logic gates, microscale pumping, and hierarchical assembly have been demonstrated. Chapter 3 introduces a self-powered oscillatory micromotor system in which active colloids form clusters whose size changes periodically. The system consists of an aqueous suspension of silver orthophosphate particles under UV radiation, in the presence of a mixture of glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The colloid particles first attract with each other to form clusters. After a lag time of around 5min, chemical

  20. Causal Model Progressions as a Foundation for Intelligent Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Y.; Frederiksen, John R.

    This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings and architecture of a new type of learning environment that incorporates features of microworlds and of intelligent tutoring systems. The environment is based on a progression of increasingly sophisticated causal models that simulate domain phenomena, generate explanations, and serve as student…

  1. Artificial intelligence: Collective behaviors of synthetic micromachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wentao

    Synthetic nano- and micromotors function through the conversion of chemical free energy or forms of energy into mechanical motion. Ever since the first reports, such motors have been the subject of growing interest. In addition to motility in response to gradients, these motors interact with each other, resulting in emergent collective behavior like schooling, exclusion, and predator-prey. However, most of these systems only exhibit a single type of collective behavior in response to a certain stimuli. The research projects in the disseratation aim at designing synthetic micromotors that can exhibit transition between various collective behaviors in response to different stimuli, as well as quantitative understanding on the pairwise interaction and propulsion mechanism of such motors. Chapter 1 offers an overview on development of synthetic micromachines. Interactions and collective behaviors of micromotors are also summarized and included. Chapter 2 presents a silver orthophosphate microparticle system that exhibits collective behaviors. Transition between two collective patterns, clustering and dispersion, can be triggered by shift in chemical equilibrium upon the addition or removal of ammonia, in response to UV light, or under two orthogonal stimuli (UV and acoustic field) and powering mechanisms. The transitions can be explained by the self-diffusiophoresis mechanism resulting from either ionic or neutral solute gradients. Potential applications of the reported system in logic gates, microscale pumping, and hierarchical assembly have been demonstrated. Chapter 3 introduces a self-powered oscillatory micromotor system in which active colloids form clusters whose size changes periodically. The system consists of an aqueous suspension of silver orthophosphate particles under UV radiation, in the presence of a mixture of glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The colloid particles first attract with each other to form clusters. After a lag time of around 5min, chemical

  2. Artificial intelligence in a mission operations and satellite test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1988-01-01

    A Generic Mission Operations System using Expert System technology to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) automated monitor and control functions in a Mission Operations and Satellite Test environment will be developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Expert system techniques in a real time operation environment are being studied and applied to science and engineering data processing. Advanced decommutation schemes and intelligent display technology will be examined to develop imaginative improvements in rapid interpretation and distribution of information. The Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC) will demonstrate improved data handling accuracy, flexibility, and responsiveness in a complex mission environment. The ultimate goal is to automate repetitious mission operations, instrument, and satellite test functions by the applications of expert system technology and artificial intelligence resources and to enhance the level of man-machine sophistication.

  3. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from past experience and, in general, to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Aspects of intelligence are measured by standardized tests of intelligence. Average raw (number-correct) scores on such tests vary across the life span and also across generations, as well as across ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex. Measured values correlate with brain size, at least within humans. The heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between 0.4 and 0.8. But genes always express themselves through environment. Heritability varies as a function of a number of factors, including socioeconomic status and range of environments. Racial-group differences in measured intelligence have been reported, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable. As a result, these differences are difficult to interpret. Different cultures have different conceptions of the nature of intelligence, and also require different skills in order to express intelligence in the environment. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1193 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302705

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Staff Training in After-School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle; MacPhee, Marybeth

    2004-01-01

    The core concept of emotional intelligence is the ever-emerging process of self-awareness, where individuals are able to identify their emotions and manage them in various social environments. This capacity is viewed as an asset in child care because new insights in human development have highlighted the importance of children's social and…

  5. Structural Identification and Comparison of Intelligent Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Vishnu Prakash

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology using graph theory, matrix algebra and permanent function to compare different architecture (structure) design of intelligent mobile learning environment. The current work deals with the development/selection of optimum architecture (structural) model of iMLE. This can be done using the criterion as discussed in…

  6. Intelligent Tutor, Environment and Manual for Introductory Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the integrated Intelligent Tutor, Environment and Manual for Introductory Programing (ITEM/IP), which supports a course on computer programing based on the minilanguage Turingal. Discussion covers system design, including design philosophy, system overview, concepts included and information structure, programing laboratory mode,…

  7. Multiple Intelligences in Virtual and Traditional Skill Instructional Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKethan, Robert; Rabinowitz, Erik; Kernodle, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) how Multiple Intelligence (MI) strengths correlate to learning in virtual and traditional environments and (b) the effectiveness of learning with and without an authority figure in attendance. Participants (N=69) were randomly assigned to four groups, administered the Multiple Intelligences…

  8. An Intelligent System for Document Retrieval in Distributed Office Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Uttam; And Others

    1986-01-01

    MINDS (Multiple Intelligent Node Document Servers) is a distributed system of knowledge-based query engines for efficiently retrieving multimedia documents in an office environment of distributed workstations. By learning document distribution patterns and user interests and preferences during system usage, it customizes document retrievals for…

  9. An intelligent processing environment for real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Wells, Buren Earl, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a highly efficient and thus truly intelligent processing environment for real-time general purpose simulation of continuous systems is described. Such an environment can be created by mapping the simulation process directly onto the University of Alamba's OPERA architecture. To facilitate this effort, the field of continuous simulation is explored, highlighting areas in which efficiency can be improved. Areas in which parallel processing can be applied are also identified, and several general OPERA type hardware configurations that support improved simulation are investigated. Three direct execution parallel processing environments are introduced, each of which greatly improves efficiency by exploiting distinct areas of the simulation process. These suggested environments are candidate architectures around which a highly intelligent real-time simulation configuration can be developed.

  10. A Framework for the Systematic Collection of Open Source Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, Line Catherine; Trien, Joseph P; Dobson, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Following legislative directions, the Intelligence Community has been mandated to make greater use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Efforts are underway to increase the use of OSINT but there are many obstacles. One of these obstacles is the lack of tools helping to manage the volume of available data and ascertain its credibility. We propose a unique system for selecting, collecting and storing Open Source data from the Web and the Open Source Center. Some data management tasks are automated, document source is retained, and metadata containing geographical coordinates are added to the documents. Analysts are thus empowered to search, view, store, and analyze Web data within a single tool. We present ORCAT I and ORCAT II, two implementations of the system.

  11. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  12. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  13. 3 CFR - Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection... August 12, 2013 Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies Memorandum for the Director of National Intelligence The United States, like all nations,...

  14. Automata in random environments with application to machine intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, E.J.; Gould, J.

    1982-09-01

    Computers and brains are modeled by finite and probabilistic automata, respectively. Probabilistic automata are known to be strictly more powerful than finite automata. The observation that the environment affects behavior of both computer and brain is made. Automata are then modeled in an environment. Theorem 1 shows that useful environmental models are those which are infinite sets. A probabilistic structure is placed on the environment set. Theorem 2 compares the behavior of finite (deterministic) and probabilistic automata in random environments. Several interpretations of theorem 2 are discussed which offer some insight into some mathematical limits of machine intelligence. 15 references.

  15. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-04-01

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics.

  16. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics.

  17. 78 FR 49653 - Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 12, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-19960 Filed 8-14-13; 8:45 am... Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies Memorandum for the Director of National Intelligence The United States, like all nations, gathers intelligence in order to protect its...

  18. Execution environment for intelligent real-time control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    1987-01-01

    Modern telerobot control technology requires the integration of symbolic and non-symbolic programming techniques, different models of parallel computations, and various programming paradigms. The Multigraph Architecture, which has been developed for the implementation of intelligent real-time control systems is described. The layered architecture includes specific computational models, integrated execution environment and various high-level tools. A special feature of the architecture is the tight coupling between the symbolic and non-symbolic computations. It supports not only a data interface, but also the integration of the control structures in a parallel computing environment.

  19. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Virtual Environment for Improving Speaking and Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kaveh; Nahvi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an intelligent architecture, called intelligent virtual environment for language learning, with embedded pedagogical agents for improving listening and speaking skills of non-native English language learners. The proposed architecture integrates virtual environments into the Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language…

  20. Constraint, Intelligence, and Control Hierarchy in Virtual Environments. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to deal directly with the question of what makes virtual actors and objects that are experienced in virtual environments seem real. (The term virtual reality, while more common in public usage, is an oxymoron; therefore virtual environment is the preferred term in this paper). Reality is difficult topic, treated for centuries in those sub-fields of philosophy called ontology- "of or relating to being or existence" and epistemology- "the study of the method and grounds of knowledge, especially with reference to its limits and validity" (both from Webster s, 1965). Advances in recent decades in the technologies of computers, sensors and graphics software have permitted human users to feel present or experience immersion in computer-generated virtual environments. This has motivated a keen interest in probing this phenomenon of presence and immersion not only philosophically but also psychologically and physiologically in terms of the parameters of the senses and sensory stimulation that correlate with the experience (Ellis, 1991). The pages of the journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments have seen much discussion of what makes virtual environments seem real (see, e.g., Slater, 1999; Slater et al. 1994; Sheridan, 1992, 2000). Stephen Ellis, when organizing the meeting that motivated this paper, suggested to invited authors that "We may adopt as an organizing principle for the meeting that the genesis of apparently intelligent interaction arises from an upwelling of constraints determined by a hierarchy of lower levels of behavioral interaction. "My first reaction was "huh?" and my second was "yeah, that seems to make sense." Accordingly the paper seeks to explain from the author s viewpoint, why Ellis s hypothesis makes sense. What is the connection of "presence" or "immersion" of an observer in a virtual environment, to "constraints" and what types of constraints. What of "intelligent interaction," and is it the intelligence of the

  1. Experiments with microcomputer-based artificial intelligence environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summers, E.G.; MacDonald, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been experimenting with the use of relatively inexpensive microcomputers as artificial intelligence (AI) development environments. Several AI languages are available that perform fairly well on desk-top personal computers, as are low-to-medium cost expert system packages. Although performance of these systems is respectable, their speed and capacity limitations are questionable for serious earth science applications foreseen by the USGS. The most capable artificial intelligence applications currently are concentrated on what is known as the "artificial intelligence computer," and include Xerox D-series, Tektronix 4400 series, Symbolics 3600, VAX, LMI, and Texas Instruments Explorer. The artificial intelligence computer runs expert system shells and Lisp, Prolog, and Smalltalk programming languages. However, these AI environments are expensive. Recently, inexpensive 32-bit hardware has become available for the IBM/AT microcomputer. USGS has acquired and recently completed Beta-testing of the Gold Hill Systems 80386 Hummingboard, which runs Common Lisp on an IBM/AT microcomputer. Hummingboard appears to have the potential to overcome many of the speed/capacity limitations observed with AI-applications on standard personal computers. USGS is a Beta-test site for the Gold Hill Systems GoldWorks expert system. GoldWorks combines some high-end expert system shell capabilities in a medium-cost package. This shell is developed in Common Lisp, runs on the 80386 Hummingboard, and provides some expert system features formerly available only on AI-computers including frame and rule-based reasoning, on-line tutorial, multiple inheritance, and object-programming. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Experiments with microcomputer-based artificial intelligence environments

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, E.G.; MacDonald, R.A.

    1988-11-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been experimenting with the use of relatively inexpensive microcomputers as artificial intelligence (AI) development environments. Several AI languages are available that perform fairly well on desk-top personal computers, as are low-to-medium cost expert system packages. Although performance of these systems is respectable, their speed and capacity limitations are questionable for serious earth science applications foreseen by the USGS. The most capable artificial intelligence applications currently are concentrated on what is known as the artificial intelligence computer, and include Xerox D-series, Tektronix 4400 series, Symbolics 3600, VAX, LMI, and Texas Instruments Explorer. The artificial intelligence computer runs expert system shells and Lisp, Prolog, and Smalltalk programming languages. However, these AI environments are expensive. Recently inexpensive 32-bit hardware has become available for the IBM/AT microcomputer. USGS has acquired and recently completed Beta-testing of the Golf Hill Systems 80386 Hummingboard, which runs Common Lisp on an IBM/AT microcomputer. Hummingboard appears to have the potential to overcome many of the speed/capacity limitations observed with AI-applications on standard personal computers. USGS is a Beta-test site for the Gold Hill Systems GoldWorks expert system. GoldWorks combines some high-end expert system shell capabilities in a medium-cost package. This shell is developed in Common Lisp, runs on the 80386 Hummingboard, and provides some expert system features formerly available only on AI-computers including frame and rule-based reasoning, on-line tutorial, multiple inheritance, and object-programming.

  3. Collective intelligence in medical diagnosis systems: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chan, Gandhi S; Ceh-Varela, Edgar Eduardo; Sanchez-Cervantes, Jose L; Villanueva-Escalante, Marisol; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosing a patient's condition is one of the most important and challenging tasks in medicine. We present a study of the application of collective intelligence in medical diagnosis by applying consensus methods. We compared the accuracy obtained with this method against the diagnostics accuracy reached through the knowledge of a single expert. We used the ontological structures of ten diseases. Two knowledge bases were created by placing five diseases into each knowledge base. We conducted two experiments, one with an empty knowledge base and the other with a populated knowledge base. For both experiments, five experts added and/or eliminated signs/symptoms and diagnostic tests for each disease. After this process, the individual knowledge bases were built based on the output of the consensus methods. In order to perform the evaluation, we compared the number of items for each disease in the agreed knowledge bases against the number of items in the GS (Gold Standard). We identified that, while the number of items in each knowledge base is higher, the consensus level is lower. In all cases, the lowest level of agreement (20%) exceeded the number of signs that are in the GS. In addition, when all experts agreed, the number of items decreased. The use of collective intelligence can be used to increase the consensus of physicians. This is because, by using consensus, physicians can gather more information and knowledge than when obtaining information and knowledge from knowledge bases fed or populated from the knowledge found in the literature, and, at the same time, they can keep updated and collaborate dynamically. PMID:27177267

  4. Artificial intelligence and the space station software support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlowe, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    In a software system the size of the Space Station Software Support Environment (SSE), no one software development or implementation methodology is presently powerful enough to provide safe, reliable, maintainable, cost effective real time or near real time software. In an environment that must survive one of the most harsh and long life times, software must be produced that will perform as predicted, from the first time it is executed to the last. Many of the software challenges that will be faced will require strategies borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI is the only development area mentioned as an example of a legitimate reason for a waiver from the overall requirement to use the Ada programming language for software development. The limits are defined of the applicability of the Ada language Ada Programming Support Environment (of which the SSE is a special case), and software engineering to AI solutions by describing a scenario that involves many facets of AI methodologies.

  5. Human Collective Intelligence under Dual Exploration-Exploitation Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate “information scroungers” may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a “multi-armed bandit” problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental “dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas” successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence. PMID:24755892

  6. Intelligent tutoring in the spacecraft command/control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.

    1988-01-01

    The spacecraft command/control environment is becoming increasingly complex. As we enter the era of Space Station and the era of more highly automated systems, it is evident that the critical roles played by operations personnel in supervising the many required control center system components is becoming more cognitively demanding. In addition, the changing and emerging roles in the operations picture have far-reaching effects on the achievement of mission objectives. Thus highly trained and competent operations personnel are mandatory for success. Keeping pace with these developments has been computer-aided instruction utilizing various artificial intelligence technologies. The impacts of this growing capability on the stringent requirements for efficient and effective control center operations personnel is an area of much concentrated study. Some of the research and development of automated tutoring systems for the spacecraft command/control environment is addressed.

  7. High Temperature Electronics for Intelligent Harsh Environment Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of intelligent instrumentation systems is of high interest in both public and private sectors. In order to obtain this ideal in extreme environments (i.e., high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation), both sensors and electronics must be developed concurrently in order that the entire system will survive for extended periods of time. The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. The advantages of SiC over conventional materials include its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical properties in harsh environments, and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  8. Collective Intelligence Meets Medical Decision-Making: The Collective Outperforms the Best Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    While collective intelligence (CI) is a powerful approach to increase decision accuracy, few attempts have been made to unlock its potential in medical decision-making. Here we investigated the performance of three well-known collective intelligence rules (“majority”, “quorum”, and “weighted quorum”) when applied to mammography screening. For any particular mammogram, these rules aggregate the independent assessments of multiple radiologists into a single decision (recall the patient for additional workup or not). We found that, compared to single radiologists, any of these CI-rules both increases true positives (i.e., recalls of patients with cancer) and decreases false positives (i.e., recalls of patients without cancer), thereby overcoming one of the fundamental limitations to decision accuracy that individual radiologists face. Importantly, we find that all CI-rules systematically outperform even the best-performing individual radiologist in the respective group. Our findings demonstrate that CI can be employed to improve mammography screening; similarly, CI may have the potential to improve medical decision-making in a much wider range of contexts, including many areas of diagnostic imaging and, more generally, diagnostic decisions that are based on the subjective interpretation of evidence. PMID:26267331

  9. Collective intelligence meets medical decision-making: the collective outperforms the best radiologist.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Max; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Kurvers, Ralf H J M

    2015-01-01

    While collective intelligence (CI) is a powerful approach to increase decision accuracy, few attempts have been made to unlock its potential in medical decision-making. Here we investigated the performance of three well-known collective intelligence rules ("majority", "quorum", and "weighted quorum") when applied to mammography screening. For any particular mammogram, these rules aggregate the independent assessments of multiple radiologists into a single decision (recall the patient for additional workup or not). We found that, compared to single radiologists, any of these CI-rules both increases true positives (i.e., recalls of patients with cancer) and decreases false positives (i.e., recalls of patients without cancer), thereby overcoming one of the fundamental limitations to decision accuracy that individual radiologists face. Importantly, we find that all CI-rules systematically outperform even the best-performing individual radiologist in the respective group. Our findings demonstrate that CI can be employed to improve mammography screening; similarly, CI may have the potential to improve medical decision-making in a much wider range of contexts, including many areas of diagnostic imaging and, more generally, diagnostic decisions that are based on the subjective interpretation of evidence. PMID:26267331

  10. Algorithmic requirements for swarm intelligence in differently coupled collective systems.

    PubMed

    Stradner, Jürgen; Thenius, Ronald; Zahadat, Payam; Hamann, Heiko; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Swarm systems are based on intermediate connectivity between individuals and dynamic neighborhoods. In natural swarms self-organizing principles bring their agents to that favorable level of connectivity. They serve as interesting sources of inspiration for control algorithms in swarm robotics on the one hand, and in modular robotics on the other hand. In this paper we demonstrate and compare a set of bio-inspired algorithms that are used to control the collective behavior of swarms and modular systems: BEECLUST, AHHS (hormone controllers), FGRN (fractal genetic regulatory networks), and VE (virtual embryogenesis). We demonstrate how such bio-inspired control paradigms bring their host systems to a level of intermediate connectivity, what delivers sufficient robustness to these systems for collective decentralized control. In parallel, these algorithms allow sufficient volatility of shared information within these systems to help preventing local optima and deadlock situations, this way keeping those systems flexible and adaptive in dynamic non-deterministic environments. PMID:23805030

  11. Algorithmic requirements for swarm intelligence in differently coupled collective systems

    PubMed Central

    Stradner, Jürgen; Thenius, Ronald; Zahadat, Payam; Hamann, Heiko; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Swarm systems are based on intermediate connectivity between individuals and dynamic neighborhoods. In natural swarms self-organizing principles bring their agents to that favorable level of connectivity. They serve as interesting sources of inspiration for control algorithms in swarm robotics on the one hand, and in modular robotics on the other hand. In this paper we demonstrate and compare a set of bio-inspired algorithms that are used to control the collective behavior of swarms and modular systems: BEECLUST, AHHS (hormone controllers), FGRN (fractal genetic regulatory networks), and VE (virtual embryogenesis). We demonstrate how such bio-inspired control paradigms bring their host systems to a level of intermediate connectivity, what delivers sufficient robustness to these systems for collective decentralized control. In parallel, these algorithms allow sufficient volatility of shared information within these systems to help preventing local optima and deadlock situations, this way keeping those systems flexible and adaptive in dynamic non-deterministic environments. PMID:23805030

  12. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    PubMed

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health. PMID:26469375

  13. Smart displays in intelligent environments: a vision for Europe 2007+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2005-07-01

    Future electronic systems will create "ambient intelligence": environments that recognise us, applications which can be used intuitively. Displays will always be a key part of such systems, because visual information provides a densely packed fast link to our brain. European researchers and suppliers are global drivers in display innovation - on the other hand Europe is a major influence on the market for display applications. However, today displays are produced in Asia, European research and development is scattered, and lacks both collaboration and a strong production base. That is why adria, a European network for the displays community, has been formed: Its goal is to substantially enhance the standing of the displays industry in Europe by creating a common knowledge base, by generating a common vision for a display future in Europe and by establishing appreciated services for a future association that will serve as a "one-stop-shop" for the community. To effectively start the discussion, a vision paper1 has been compiled including inputs from 95 individuals from 17 European countries. It describes the state displays research and industry are in today and estimates future developments displays will take towards intelligent systems in the next decade and beyond. Recommendations are made to reinforce the displays industry in a sustainable way building on existing strengths in research, as well as in the materials and equipment sectors. The adria network, its roadmapping approach as well as key projections and findings of the vision paper are described here, going beyond the topic of Organic Light Emitting Diodes alone.

  14. Intelligent Agents for Design and Synthesis Environments: My Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norvig, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This presentation gives a summary of intelligent agents for design synthesis environments. We'll start with the conclusions, and work backwards to justify them. First, an important assumption is that agents (whatever they are) are good for software engineering. This is especially true for software that operates in an uncertain, changing environment. The "real world" of physical artifacts is like that: uncertain in what we can measure, changing in that things are always breaking down, and we must interact with non-software entities. The second point is that software engineering techniques can contribute to good design. There may have been a time when we wanted to build simple artifacts containing little or no software. But modern aircraft and spacecraft are complex, and rely on a great deal of software. So better software engineering leads to better designed artifacts, especially when we are designing a series of related artifacts and can amortize the costs of software development. The third point is that agents are especially useful for design tasks, above and beyond their general usefulness for software engineering, and the usefulness of software engineering to design.

  15. OPUS One: An Intelligent Adaptive Learning Environment Using Artificial Intelligence Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzoli, Attilio

    2010-06-01

    AI based Tutoring and Learning Path Adaptation are well known concepts in e-Learning scenarios today and increasingly applied in modern learning environments. In order to gain more flexibility and to enhance existing e-learning platforms, the OPUS One LMS Extension package will enable a generic Intelligent Tutored Adaptive Learning Environment, based on a holistic Multidimensional Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), allowing AI based tutoring and adaptation functionality to existing Web-based e-learning systems. Relying on "real time" adapted profiles, it allows content- / course authors to apply a dynamic course design, supporting tutored, collaborative sessions and activities, as suggested by modern pedagogy. The concept presented combines a personalized level of surveillance, learning activity- and learning path adaptation suggestions to ensure the students learning motivation and learning success. The OPUS One concept allows to implement an advanced tutoring approach combining "expert based" e-tutoring with the more "personal" human tutoring function. It supplies the "Human Tutor" with precise, extended course activity data and "adaptation" suggestions based on predefined subject matter rules. The concept architecture is modular allowing a personalized platform configuration.

  16. Space Environment Modelling with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, H.; Wintoft, P.; Wu, J.-G.; Gleisner, H.; Dovheden, V.

    1996-12-01

    Space based technological systems are affected by the space weather in many ways. Several severe failures of satellites have been reported at times of space storms. Our society also increasingly depends on satellites for communication, navigation, exploration, and research. Predictions of the conditions in the satellite environment have therefore become very important. We will here present predictions made with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and hybrids of AT methods. We are developing a space weather model based on intelligence hybrid systems (IHS). The model consists of different forecast modules, each module predicts the space weather on a specific time-scale. The time-scales range from minutes to months with the fundamental time-scale of 1-5 minutes, 1-3 hours, 1-3 days, and 27 days. Solar and solar wind data are used as input data. From solar magnetic field measurements, either made on the ground at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford, or made from space by the satellite SOHO, solar wind parameters can be predicted and modelled with ANN and MHD models. Magnetograms from WSO are available on a daily basis. However, from SOHO magnetograms will be available every 90 minutes. SOHO magnetograms as input to ANNs will therefore make it possible to even predict solar transient events. Geomagnetic storm activity can today be predicted with very high accuracy by means of ANN methods using solar wind input data. However, at present real-time solar wind data are only available during part of the day from the satellite WIND. With the launch of ACE in 1997, solar wind data will on the other hand be available during 24 hours per day. The conditions of the satellite environment are not only disturbed at times of geomagnetic storms but also at times of intense solar radiation and highly energetic particles. These events are associated with increased solar activity. Predictions of these events are therefore

  17. Development of a Real-Time Intelligent Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordonov, Anatoliy; Kress, Michael; Klibaner, Roberta

    This paper presents a model of an intelligent computer network that provides real-time evaluation of students' performance by incorporating intelligence into the application layer protocol. Specially designed drills allow students to independently solve a number of problems based on current lecture material; students are switched to the most…

  18. Connecting Multiple Intelligences through Open and Distance Learning: Going towards a Collective Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros Vieira, Leandro Mauricio; Ferasso, Marcos; Schröeder, Christine da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical essay is a learning approach reflexion on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the possibilities provided by the education model known as open and distance learning. Open and distance learning can revolutionize traditional pedagogical practice, meeting the needs of those who have different forms of cognitive…

  19. Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners' Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuro, Maina Elizaphan; Oboko, Robert; Wagacha, Waiganjo Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent grouping…

  20. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time. PMID:27019718

  1. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time. PMID:27019718

  2. Examining the Relationship between Collective Teacher Efficacy and the Emotional Intelligence of Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Education research has established a significant relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. This study considered the relationship between emotional intelligence of elementary school principals and collective teacher efficacy as perceived by teachers' and principals' self-report. Study findings suggest that…

  3. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    The volume 2 proceedings from the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology are presented. Topics discussed include intelligent computer assisted training (ICAT) systems architectures, ICAT educational and medical applications, virtual environment (VE) training and assessment, human factors engineering and VE, ICAT theory and natural language processing, ICAT military applications, VE engineering applications, ICAT knowledge acquisition processes and applications, and ICAT aerospace applications.

  4. Business Intelligence: The Smart Way to Track Academic Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debra

    2005-01-01

    University collections are a vital source of knowledge for researchers and often a source of pride for universities. Without an effective way to manage and query them, however, collections often go underutilized. Parts of a collection can remain untapped for years, and the larger it grows, the more difficult management becomes. Unfortunately,…

  5. Multiple Intelligences to Promote Metacognition in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    This representative embedded study embraced hermeneutic qualitative methods and was grounded in the constructivist paradigm. The study explored how Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI), promoted metacognition leading to self-efficacy in online learning. The number of colleges offering online courses has grown tremendously,…

  6. Authoring Tools for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Sewall, Jonathan; Ringenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Authoring tools have been shown to decrease the amount of time and resources needed for the development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Although collaborative learning has been shown to be beneficial to learning, most of the current authoring tools do not support the development of collaborative ITSs. In this paper, we discuss an extension…

  7. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  8. An intelligent learning environment for advanced cardiac life support.

    PubMed Central

    Eliot, C. R.; Williams, K. A.; Woolf, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    Resuscitation from clinical cardiac arrest is complex and often takes several years to learn. This paper describes an intelligent simulation-based tutor for ACLS which increases students' opportunity to practice before, during and after the ACLS course, thus bridging the gap between studying theory and didactic textbook material and working with patients. Sophisticated reasoning about student performance, compared to an expert model, distinguishes this system from other computerized instruction systems. Intelligence in the tutor allows the system to make the simulation dynamically adaptive to focus on areas where the student's learning needs are greatest. A formative evaluation with two classes of fourth year medical students suggested that the tutor was helpful, realistic and effective. Positive reactions and strong student involvement with the simulation suggest that this simulation-based tutor may improve learning and retention while decreasing anxiety for most students. PMID:8947617

  9. Is Collective Intelligence (Mostly) the General Factor of Personality? A Comment on Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi and Malone (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Michael A.; Bell, Edward

    2011-01-01

    A recent paper [Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone. (2010). "Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups." "Science", 330, 686-688] presents evidence for the existence of a general collective intelligence factor, "c," which may undergird performance on a variety of group tasks. This factor appears to…

  10. Multimodal Interaction in Ambient Intelligence Environments Using Speech, Localization and Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    An Ambient Intelligence Environment is meant to sense and respond to the presence of people, using its embedded technology. In order to effectively sense the activities and intentions of its inhabitants, such an environment needs to utilize information captured from multiple sensors and modalities. By doing so, the interaction becomes more natural…

  11. Agent Prompts: Scaffolding for Productive Reflection in an Intelligent Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Longkai; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of reflection for students in intelligent learning environments. This study tries to investigate whether agent prompts, acting as scaffolding, can promote students' reflection when they act as tutor through teaching the agent tutee in a learning-by-teaching environment. Two types of agent prompts are…

  12. An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2008-02-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible. PMID:17959222

  13. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-03-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  14. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  15. Collective intelligence for control of distributed dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, D. H.; Wheeler, K. R.; Tumer, K.

    2000-03-01

    We consider the El Farol bar problem, also known as the minority game (W. B. Arthur, The American Economic Review, 84 (1994) 406; D. Challet and Y. C. Zhang, Physica A, 256 (1998) 514). We view it as an instance of the general problem of how to configure the nodal elements of a distributed dynamical system so that they do not "work at cross purposes", in that their collective dynamics avoids frustration and thereby achieves a provided global goal. We summarize a mathematical theory for such configuration applicable when (as in the bar problem) the global goal can be expressed as minimizing a global energy function and the nodes can be expressed as minimizers of local free energy functions. We show that a system designed with that theory performs nearly optimally for the bar problem.

  16. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  17. The Insensitive Ruins It All: Compositional and Compilational Influences of Social Sensitivity on Collective Intelligence in Groups.

    PubMed

    Meslec, Nicoleta; Aggarwal, Ishani; Curseu, Petru L

    2016-01-01

    A group's collective intelligence reflects its capacity to perform well across a variety of cognitive tasks and it transcends the individual intelligence of its members. Previous research shows that group members' social sensitivity is a potential antecedent of collective intelligence, yet it is still unclear whether individual or group-level indices are responsible for the positive association between social sensitivity and collective intelligence. In a comprehensive manner, we test the extent to which both compositional (lowest and highest individual score) and compilational aspects (emergent group level) of social sensitivity are associated with collective intelligence. This study has implications for research that explores groups as information processors, and for group design as it indicates how a group should be composed with respect to social sensitivity if the group is to reach high levels of collective intelligence. Our empirical results indicate that collectively intelligent groups are those in which the least socially sensitive group member has a rather high score on social sensitivity. Differently stated, (socially sensitive) group members cannot compensate for the lack of social sensitivity of the other group members. PMID:27242590

  18. The Insensitive Ruins It All: Compositional and Compilational Influences of Social Sensitivity on Collective Intelligence in Groups

    PubMed Central

    Meslec, Nicoleta; Aggarwal, Ishani; Curseu, Petru L.

    2016-01-01

    A group's collective intelligence reflects its capacity to perform well across a variety of cognitive tasks and it transcends the individual intelligence of its members. Previous research shows that group members' social sensitivity is a potential antecedent of collective intelligence, yet it is still unclear whether individual or group-level indices are responsible for the positive association between social sensitivity and collective intelligence. In a comprehensive manner, we test the extent to which both compositional (lowest and highest individual score) and compilational aspects (emergent group level) of social sensitivity are associated with collective intelligence. This study has implications for research that explores groups as information processors, and for group design as it indicates how a group should be composed with respect to social sensitivity if the group is to reach high levels of collective intelligence. Our empirical results indicate that collectively intelligent groups are those in which the least socially sensitive group member has a rather high score on social sensitivity. Differently stated, (socially sensitive) group members cannot compensate for the lack of social sensitivity of the other group members. PMID:27242590

  19. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or reading between the lines? Theory of Mind predicts collective intelligence equally well online and face-to-face.

    PubMed

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X; Chabris, Christopher F; Malone, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called "collective intelligence") predicted a group's performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members' ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called "Theory of Mind" or "ToM"). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to "read" the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  20. Collection Development in the Cooperative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, William J.; Sanders, Nancy P.

    1991-01-01

    As prices for library materials rise and budgets shrink, cooperative collection development is becoming increasingly important. In light of the necessity for resource sharing, libraries are being forced to balance issues of access for local users vs. access to other libraries. OhioLINK is described as a model for cooperative collection…

  1. Not All Wizards Are from Oz: Iterative Design of Intelligent Learning Environments by Communication Capacity Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikis, Manolis; Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of intelligent learning environments. We recognise that in the educational technology field, theory development and system-design should be integrated and rely on an iterative process that addresses: (a) the difficulty to elicit precise, concise, and operationalized knowledge from "experts" and (b)…

  2. The Time Factor: Leveraging Intelligent Agents and Directed Narratives in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Greg; Warren, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Using video games, virtual simulations, and other digital spaces for learning can be a time-consuming process; aside from technical issues that may absorb class time, students take longer to achieve gains in learning in virtual environments. Greg Jones and Scott Warren describe how intelligent agents, in-game characters that respond to the context…

  3. Innovative Socio-Technical Environments in Support of Distributed Intelligence and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, G; Konomi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Individual, unaided human abilities are constrained. Media have helped us to transcend boundaries in thinking, working, learning and collaborating by supporting "distributed intelligence". Wireless and mobile technologies provide new opportunities for creating novel socio-technical environments and thereby empowering humans, but not without…

  4. The Social Semantic Web in Intelligent Learning Environments: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Torniai, Carlo; Bateman, Scott; Hatala, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Today's technology-enhanced learning practices cater to students and teachers who use many different learning tools and environments and are used to a paradigm of interaction derived from open, ubiquitous, and socially oriented services. In this context, a crucial issue for education systems in general, and for Intelligent Learning Environments…

  5. Dynamic Cultural Contextualisation of Educational Content in Intelligent Learning Environments Using ICON

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Phaedra; Mohan, Permanand

    2015-01-01

    Cultural awareness, when applied to Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs), contours the overall appearance, behaviour, and content used in these systems through the use of culturally-relevant student data and information. In most cases, these adaptations are system-initiated with little to no consideration given to student-initiated control…

  6. Towards an intelligent hospital environment: OR of the future.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jeffrey V; van den Heuvel, Willem-Jan; Ganous, Tim; Burton, Matthew M; Kumar, Animesh

    2005-01-01

    Patients, providers, payers, and government demand more effective and efficient healthcare services, and the healthcare industry needs innovative ways to re-invent core processes. Business process reengineering (BPR) showed adopting new hospital information systems can leverage this transformation and workflow management technologies can automate process management. Our research indicates workflow technologies in healthcare require real time patient monitoring, detection of adverse events, and adaptive responses to breakdown in normal processes. Adaptive workflow systems are rarely implemented making current workflow implementations inappropriate for healthcare. The advent of evidence based medicine, guideline based practice, and better understanding of cognitive workflow combined with novel technologies including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), mobile/wireless technologies, internet workflow, intelligent agents, and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) opens up new and exciting ways of automating business processes. Total situational awareness of events, timing, and location of healthcare activities can generate self-organizing change in behaviors of humans and machines. A test bed of a novel approach towards continuous process management was designed for the new Weinburg Surgery Building at the University of Maryland Medical. Early results based on clinical process mapping and analysis of patient flow bottlenecks demonstrated 100% improvement in delivery of supplies and instruments at surgery start time. This work has been directly applied to the design of the DARPA Trauma Pod research program where robotic surgery will be performed on wounded soldiers on the battlefield. PMID:16301787

  7. Microfabricated environments to study collective cell behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Ravasio, Andrea; Anon, Ester; Chen, Tianchi; Peyret, Grégoire; Ashraf, Mohammed; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated cell movements in epithelial layers are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Microfabrication techniques have proven to be very useful for studies of collective cell migration in vitro. In this chapter, we briefly review the use of microfabricated substrates in providing new insights into collective cell behaviors. We first describe the development of micropatterned substrates to study the influence of geometrical constraints on cell migration and coordinated movements. Then, we present an alternative method based on microfabricated pillar substrates to create well-defined gaps within cell sheets and study gap closure. We also provide a discussion that presents possible pitfalls and sheds light onto the important parameters that allow the study of long-term cell culture on substrates of well-defined geometries. PMID:24484669

  8. SHARED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR COLLECTIVE TRAINING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen

    2000-01-01

    Historically NASA has trained teams of astronauts by bringing them to the Johnson Space Center in Houston to undergo generic training, followed by mission-specific training. This latter training begins after a crew has been selected for a mission (perhaps two years before the launch of that mission). While some Space Shuttle flights have included an astronaut from a foreign country, the International Space Station will be consistently crewed by teams comprised of astronauts from two or more of the partner nations. The cost of training these international teams continues to grow in both monetary and personal terms. Thus, NASA has been seeking alternative training approaches for the International Space Station program. Since 1994 we have been developing, testing, and refining shared virtual environments for astronaut team training, including the use of virtual environments for use while in or in transit to the task location. In parallel with this effort, we have also been preparing applications for training teams of military personnel engaged in peacekeeping missions. This paper will describe the applications developed to date, some of the technological challenges that have been overcome in their development, and the research performed to guide the development and to measure the efficacy of these shared environments as training tools.

  9. Emerging CAE technologies and their role in Future Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Dramatic improvements are on the horizon in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and various simulation technologies. The improvements are due, in part, to the developments in a number of leading-edge technologies and their synergistic combinations/convergence. The technologies include ubiquitous, cloud, and petascale computing; ultra high-bandwidth networks, pervasive wireless communication; knowledge based engineering; networked immersive virtual environments and virtual worlds; novel human-computer interfaces; and powerful game engines and facilities. This paper describes the frontiers and emerging simulation technologies, and their role in the future virtual product creation and learning/training environments. The environments will be ambient intelligence environments, incorporating a synergistic combination of novel agent-supported visual simulations (with cognitive learning and understanding abilities); immersive 3D virtual world facilities; development chain management systems and facilities (incorporating a synergistic combination of intelligent engineering and management tools); nontraditional methods; intelligent, multimodal and human-like interfaces; and mobile wireless devices. The Virtual product creation environment will significantly enhance the productivity and will stimulate creativity and innovation in future global virtual collaborative enterprises. The facilities in the learning/training environment will provide timely, engaging, personalized/collaborative and tailored visual learning.

  10. Enhancing Computer Science Education with a Wireless Intelligent Simulation Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Diane J.; Huber, Manfred; Yerraballi, Ramesh; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a unique simulation environment that can be used to increase students' interest and expertise in Computer Science curriculum. Hands-on experience with physical or simulated equipment is an essential ingredient for learning, but many approaches to training develop a separate piece of equipment or software for…

  11. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  12. Challenges and Limitations of Intelligent Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichert, Reiner

    As a result of changing demographics, residing and being cared for in one's own familiar environment versus in an institutionalised inpatient setting is becoming the more attractive alternative for an ever increasing portion of the population. Despite its tremendous market potential, the AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) branch is still on the cusp of a mainstream breakthrough. A lack of viable business models is considered almost unanimously to be the greatest market obstacle to a broad implementation of innovative AAL systems. This paper highlights possible explanations for this deficit and shows why the AAL community has yet to arrive at joint solutions based on a unified AAL reference platform. Furthermore, this paper describes the enormous potential of AmI and AAL, as the first real opportunity for their success is provided through universAAL and AALOA.

  13. Using Rules in an `Intelligent' Information Retrieval Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    The availability of a powerful ‘rule system' is an essential requirement for any implemented methodology intended to make use of querying/inferencing techniques according to a knowledge-based approach. In this chapter, we will supply some information about the rule system of NKRL; NKRL (Narrative Knowledge Representation Language) is a powerful information retrieval environment designed to deal with non-fictional ‘narratives' of an economic interest. Rules in this context correspond to high-level reasoning paradigms like the search for causal relationships or the use of analogical techniques. Given (i) the conceptual complexity of these paradigms and (ii) the sophistication of the underlying representation language, these rules cannot be implemented in a (weak) ‘inference by inheritance' style but must follow a powerful ‘inference by resolution' approach.

  14. Swarm intelligence for detecting interesting events in crowded environments.

    PubMed

    Kaltsa, Vagia; Briassouli, Alexia; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Strintzis, Michael Gerasimos

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on detecting and localizing anomalous events in videos of crowded scenes, i.e., divergences from a dominant pattern. Both motion and appearance information are considered, so as to robustly distinguish different kinds of anomalies, for a wide range of scenarios. A newly introduced concept based on swarm theory, histograms of oriented swarms (HOS), is applied to capture the dynamics of crowded environments. HOS, together with the well-known histograms of oriented gradients, are combined to build a descriptor that effectively characterizes each scene. These appearance and motion features are only extracted within spatiotemporal volumes of moving pixels to ensure robustness to local noise, increase accuracy in the detection of local, nondominant anomalies, and achieve a lower computational cost. Experiments on benchmark data sets containing various situations with human crowds, as well as on traffic data, led to results that surpassed the current state of the art (SoA), confirming the method's efficacy and generality. Finally, the experiments show that our approach achieves significantly higher accuracy, especially for pixel-level event detection compared to SoA methods, at a low computational cost. PMID:25769154

  15. Intelligent sensing and wireless communications in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos M.; Mattice, Michael S.; Testa, Robert C.

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to focus on recent efforts to test and characterize the performance of MEMS inertial sensors and the characterization of battery-free embedded sensors in munitions. This paper will also discuss the need to implement and integrate internal wireless communications in conjunction with smart electronics and smart materials in innovative microelectronics designs with built in capability of duplex wireless communications between sensors and telemetry. Embedded wireless telemetry will eliminate wires and the stress on long wire runs between MEMS sensor and processing microelectronics in harsh environments. Further advancements in this wireless area will facilitate the integration of smart sensing, control and actuation with unprecedented capability to permanently embed telemetry as a part of the standard munition components. The embedded wireless telemetry would have built in capability for smart munitions stockpile surveillance, in-flight duplex communication and the capability to communicate to a ground station. Future telemetry links for munitions will have a significant multi-use capability, designed to measure, maintain reliability, predictive surveillance, actuation and remote control functionality.

  16. An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

  17. Effect of Gender and Sound Spatialization on Speech Intelligibility in Multiple Speaker Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Iyer, M.; Gupta, N.; Barreto, A.

    In multiple speaker environments such as teleconferences we observe a loss of intelligibility, particularly if the sound is monaural in nature. In this study, we exploit the "Cocktail Party Effect", where a person can isolate one sound above all others using sound localization and gender cues. To improve clarity of speech, each speaker is assigned a direction using Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) which creates an auditory map of multiple conversations. A mixture of male and female voices is used to improve comprehension.

  18. Sensor Web in Antarctica: Developing an Intelligent, Autonomous Platform for Locating Biological Flourishes in Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, K. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Chabot, N. A.; Jackson, S. P.; Adams, Mike; Johnson, D. W.; Britton, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    The most rigorous tests of the ability to detect extant life will occur where biotic activity is limited by severe environmental conditions. Cryogenic environments are among the most severe-the energy and nutrients needed for biological activity are in short supply while the climate itself is actively destructive to biological mechanisms. In such settings biological activity is often limited to brief flourishes, occurring only when and where conditions are at their most favorable. The closer that typical regional conditions approach conditions that are actively hostile , the more widely distributed biological blooms will be in both time and space. On a spatial dimension of a few meters or a time dimension of a few days, biological activity becomes much more difficult to detect. One way to overcome this difficulty is to establish a Sensor Web that can monitor microclimates over appropriate scales of time and distance, allowing a continuous virtual presence for instant recognition of favorable conditions. A more sophisticated Sensor Web, incorporating metabolic sensors, can effectively meet the challenge to be in "the right place in the right time". This is particularly of value in planetary surface missions, where limited mobility and mission timelines require extremely efficient sample and data acquisition. Sensor Webs can be an effective way to fill the gap between broad scale orbital data collection and fine-scale surface lander science. We are in the process of developing an intelligent, distributed and autonomous Sensor Web that will allow us to monitor microclimate under severe cryogenic conditions, approaching those extant on the surface of Mars. Ultimately this Sensor Web will include the ability to detect and/or establish limits on extant microbiological activity through incorporation of novel metabolic gas sensors. Here we report the results of our first deployment of a Sensor Web prototype in a previously unexplored high altitude East Antarctic Plateau

  19. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  20. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  1. The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

  2. Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment, held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, September 16-17, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of intelligent agents technology and to identify the potential of software agents for use in future design and synthesis environment. The presentations covered the current status of agent technology and several applications of intelligent software agents. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  3. Fluid Intelligence and Cognitive Reflection in a Strategic Environment: Evidence from Dominance-Solvable Games

    PubMed Central

    Hanaki, Nobuyuki; Jacquemet, Nicolas; Luchini, Stéphane; Zylbersztejn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Dominance solvability is one of the most straightforward solution concepts in game theory. It is based on two principles: dominance (according to which players always use their dominant strategy) and iterated dominance (according to which players always act as if others apply the principle of dominance). However, existing experimental evidence questions the empirical accuracy of dominance solvability. In this study, we study the relationships between the key facets of dominance solvability and two cognitive skills, cognitive reflection, and fluid intelligence. We provide evidence that the behaviors in accordance with dominance and one-step iterated dominance are both predicted by one's fluid intelligence rather than cognitive reflection. Individual cognitive skills, however, only explain a small fraction of the observed failure of dominance solvability. The accuracy of theoretical predictions on strategic decision making thus not only depends on individual cognitive characteristics, but also, perhaps more importantly, on the decision making environment itself. PMID:27559324

  4. Fluid Intelligence and Cognitive Reflection in a Strategic Environment: Evidence from Dominance-Solvable Games.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Nobuyuki; Jacquemet, Nicolas; Luchini, Stéphane; Zylbersztejn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Dominance solvability is one of the most straightforward solution concepts in game theory. It is based on two principles: dominance (according to which players always use their dominant strategy) and iterated dominance (according to which players always act as if others apply the principle of dominance). However, existing experimental evidence questions the empirical accuracy of dominance solvability. In this study, we study the relationships between the key facets of dominance solvability and two cognitive skills, cognitive reflection, and fluid intelligence. We provide evidence that the behaviors in accordance with dominance and one-step iterated dominance are both predicted by one's fluid intelligence rather than cognitive reflection. Individual cognitive skills, however, only explain a small fraction of the observed failure of dominance solvability. The accuracy of theoretical predictions on strategic decision making thus not only depends on individual cognitive characteristics, but also, perhaps more importantly, on the decision making environment itself. PMID:27559324

  5. Collective Intelligence and Three Aspects of Planning in Organizations: A NASA Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For many complex sociotechnical systems, planning seems to require explicit coordination; certainly, in executing a plan the activities of different actors must be tightly coupled. However, distributing the needed planning information can be very burdensome and error prone, because different groups need different collections of information, updated or kept current on different time cycles. Further, the information needed to form successful plans is often highly distributed, and while feedback about the success of prior plans may exist, it may not be available to those in a position of using this to improve plans or to detect and resolve other problems in the system (Weick, 1995). Tools to support various aspects of planning have been developed, and can provide a huge benefit to the individuals working on that aspect. To be tractable, most solutions address a quite bounded slice of work, isolating it from the larger context. Prospective planning takes place over multiple, nested cycles of decision making. This builds a plan that specifies activities of different granularity. "Subplans" may specify multiple parallel activities by different groups and individuals, as well as sequential, nested actions by a single actor. Planning produces valuable, sharable, external, representations: in addition to prospective use, plans support retrospective assessment and also action in the present. Viewing planning in a larger context - both temporal and organizational -- enables noticing what one does not know and generating more systemic and effective solutions. Viewing a problem as one of collective intelligence invites thinking about the larger organizational context. Many approaches to supporting collective intelligence do not support execution of highly contingent actions, distributed across many players, and hence provide incomplete support for planning. However, CI technology maybe helpful in managing the processes of gathering information for decision making in planning

  6. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  7. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations. PMID:26630107

  8. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart. PMID:22746221

  9. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  10. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  11. The expert surgical assistant. An intelligent virtual environment with multimodal input.

    PubMed

    Billinghurst, M; Savage, J; Oppenheimer, P; Edmond, C

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality has made computer interfaces more intuitive but not more intelligent. This paper shows how an expert system can be coupled with multimodal input in a virtual environment to provide an intelligent simulation tool or surgical assistant. This is accomplished in three steps. First, voice and gestural input is interpreted and represented in a common semantic form. Second, a rule-based expert system is used to infer context and user actions from this semantic representation. Finally, the inferred user actions are matched against steps in a surgical procedure to monitor the user's progress and provide automatic feedback. In addition, the system can respond immediately to multimodal commands for navigational assistance and/or identification of critical anatomical structures. To show how these methods are used we present a prototype sinus surgery interface. The approach described here may easily be extended to a wide variety of medical and non-medical training applications by making simple changes to the expert system database and virtual environment models. Successful implementation of an expert system in both simulated and real surgery has enormous potential for the surgeon both in training and clinical practice. PMID:10172851

  12. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  13. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  14. Decision Support System Based on Computational Collective Intelligence in Campus Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshihito; Matsuo, Tokuro

    Education institutions such as universities have a lot of information including book information, equipment administrative information, student information, and several others. The institutions also have multiple information in time series. As collective intelligence in campus, integrating and reusing these preserved information regarding career and taking a class, university can effectively support students' decision making of their getting jobs and subjects choice. Our purpose of support is to increase student's motivation. In this paper, we focus on course record and job information included in students' information, and propose the method to analyze correlation between a pattern of taking class and job lined up. Afterwards, we propose a support system regarding getting a job and taking class by using our proposed method. For a student who has his/her favorite job to get, the system supports his/her decision making of lecture choice by recommending a set of appropriate lecture groups. On another hand, for a student who does not have favorite job to get, the system supports his/her decision making of getting job by presenting appropriate job families related with lecture group in which he/she has ever taken. The contribution of this paper is showing a concrete method to reuse the campus collective information, implementing a system, and user perspectives.

  15. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    PubMed Central

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  16. Home Environment and Maternal Intelligence as Predictors of Verbal Intelligence: A Comparison of Preschool and School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Dubow, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data on 2,000 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggests that maternal intelligence is a significant predictor of scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. The HOME Inventory short forms used in the study are appended. (LB)

  17. Intelligent behaviors for a convoy of indoor mobile robots operating in unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, Nathan M.; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek

    2004-12-01

    Intelligent behaviors allow a convoy of small indoor robots to perform high-level mission tasking. These behaviors include various implementations of map building, localization, obstacle avoidance, object recognition, and navigation. Several behaviors have been developed by SSC San Diego, with integration of other behaviors developed by open-source projects and a technology transfer effort funded by DARPA. The test system, developed by SSC San Diego, consists of ROBART III (a prototype security robot), serving as the master platform, and a convoy of four ActivMedia Pioneer 2-DX robots. Each robot, including ROBART III, is equipped with a SICK LMS 200 laser rangefinder. Using integrated wireless network repeaters, the Pioneer 2-DX robots maintain an ad hoc communication link between the operator and ROBART III. The Pioneer 2-DX robots can also act as rear guards to detect intruders in areas that ROBART III has previously explored. These intelligent behaviors allow a single operator to command the entire convoy of robots during a mission in an unknown environment.

  18. Implementation of Wireless and Intelligent Sensor Technologies in the Propulsion Test Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Junell, Justin C.; Shumard, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    From the first Saturn V rocket booster (S-II-T) testing in 1966 and the routine Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing beginning in 1975, to more recent test programs such as the X-33 Aerospike Engine, the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program, and the Hybrid Sounding Rocket (HYSR), Stennis Space Center (SSC) continues to be a premier location for conducting large-scale propulsion testing. Central to each test program is the capability for sensor systems to deliver reliable measurements and high quality data, while also providing a means to monitor the test stand area to the highest degree of safety and sustainability. As part of an on-going effort to enhance the testing capabilities of Stennis Space Center, the Test Technology and Development group is developing and applying a number of wireless and intelligent sensor technologies in ways that are new to the test existing test environment.

  19. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

  20. Using an Agent-Supported Simulation Environment for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Nancy; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    The manufacturing field is an area where the application of simulation is an essential tool for validating methods and architectures before applying them on the factory floor. Multiagent System technology has demonstrated its utility in manufacturing system modeling and implementation. Agenthood features such as proactivity, reactivity, and sociability may also be useful for associating them with the specific simulation needs of the new manufacturing requirements. In this paper, we present an Agent-supported Simulation Tool (tool uses both events and discrete time to control agent tasks) for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems applied to a real manufacturing enterprise case study. The main goal is to provide a flexible simulation tool that can be adapted to solve the new manufacturing requirements that appear in a real environment allowing the experts of manufacturing domains to optimize the resource usage and to have enough data to make decisions.

  1. Ongoing research using HERMIES: The Hostile Environment Robotic Machine Intelligence Experiment Series

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Spelt, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to test and validate the hardware and software developed in the research activities of CESAR (Center of Engineering Systems Advanced Research) a series of mobile autonomous robotic vehicles are being assembled named HERMIES (Hostile Environment Robotic Machine Intelligence Experiment Series). The current experimental test bed HERMIES-IIB, is the third in the series. A description of the earlier HERMIES robots and research activities may be found in the literature. HERMIES-IIB has been operational for more than a year and is described in detail in this article and elsewhere. In addition to a description of the robot, this article details some of the experiments under way utilizing HERMIES-IIB. The fourth robot in the series, HERMIES-III, is currently being assembled and should be available for experiments during the fall of 1988. This robot and initial experiments planned for it are also briefly described in this paper. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  2. A hardware/software environment to support R D in intelligent machines and mobile robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) serves as a focal point at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for basic and applied research in intelligent machines. R D at CESAR addresses issues related to autonomous systems, unstructured (i.e. incompletely known) operational environments, and multiple performing agents. Two mobile robot prototypes (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES-III) are being used to test new developments in several robot component technologies. This paper briefly introduces the computing environment at CESAR which includes three hypercube concurrent computers (two on-board the mobile robots), a graphics workstation, VAX, and multiple VME-based systems (several on-board the mobile robots). The current software environment at CESAR is intended to satisfy several goals, e.g.: code portability, re-usability in different experimental scenarios, modularity, concurrent computer hardware transparent to applications programmer, future support for multiple mobile robots, support human-machine interface modules, and support for integration of software from other, geographically disparate laboratories with different hardware set-ups. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Measurement realities of current collection in dynamic space plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.

    1990-01-01

    Theories which describe currents collected by conducting and non-conducting bodies immersed in plasmas have many of their concepts based upon the fundamentals of sheath-potential distributions and charged-particle behavior in superimposed electric and magnetic fields. Those current-collecting bodies (or electrodes) may be Langmuir probes, electric field detectors, aperture plates on ion mass spectrometers and retarding potential analyzers, or spacecraft and their rigid and tethered appendages. Often the models are incomplete in representing the conditions under which the current-voltage characteristics of the electrode and its system are to be measured. In such cases, the experimenter must carefully take into account magnetic field effects and particle anisotropies, perturbations caused by the current collection process itself and contamination on electrode surfaces, the complexities of non-Maxwellian plasma distributions, and the temporal variability of the local plasma density, temperature, composition and fields. This set of variables is by no means all-inclusive, but it represents a collection of circumstances guaranteed to accompany experiments involving energetic particle beams, plasma discharges, chemical releases, wave injection and various events of controlled and uncontrolled spacecraft charging. Here, an attempt is made to synopsize these diagnostic challenges and frame them within a perspective that focuses on the physics under investigation and the requirements on the parameters to be measured. Examples include laboratory and spaceborne applications, with specific interest in dynamic and unstable plasma environments.

  4. Home Environment, Nutritional Status, and Maternal Intelligence as Determinants of Intellectual Development in Rural Philippine Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships among home environment, nutritional status, maternal intelligence, and intellectual development were investigated for 177 5- and 6-year-old children in the Philippines using culture-relevant scales. Results support the generalizability to the Philippine cultural setting of relationships among these factors found in American settings.…

  5. Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

  6. Nature vs. Nurture: Which Is More Important to Intelligence: Genes or Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2000-01-01

    This brief article reviews the literature on the relative importance of genetic or environmental influences on intelligence. It concludes that: (1) giftedness has various expressions; (2) intelligence encompasses a wide range of human abilities; (3) both subjective and objective assessment techniques should be used; and (4) all ethnicities have…

  7. ISS Propulsion Module Crew Systems Interface Analysis in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Di-Wen

    1999-01-01

    ERGO, a human modeling software for ergonomic assessment and task analysis, was used for the crew systems interface analysis of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module (PM). The objective of analysis was to alleviate passageway size concerns. Three basic passageway configuration concepts: (1) 45" clear passageway without centerline offset (2) 50" clear passageway, 12" centerline offset, (3) 50" clear passageway, no centerline offset, and were reviewed. 95 percentile male and female models which were provided by the software performed crew system analysis from an anthropometric point of view. Four scenarios in which the crew floats in microgravity through a 50" no-offset passageway as they carry a 16" x 20" x 30" avionics box were simulated in the 10-weeks of intensive study. From the results of the analysis, concept (3) was the preferred option. A full scale, three-dimensional virtual model of the ISS Propulsion Module was created to experience the sense of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment and to evaluate the usability and applicability of the software.

  8. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings are organized in the same manner as the conference's contributed sessions, with the papers grouped by topic area. These areas are as follows: VE (virtual environment) training for Space Flight, Virtual Environment Hardware, Knowledge Aquisition for ICAT (Intelligent Computer-Aided Training) & VE, Multimedia in ICAT Systems, VE in Training & Education (1 & 2), Virtual Environment Software (1 & 2), Models in ICAT systems, ICAT Commercial Applications, ICAT Architectures & Authoring Systems, ICAT Education & Medical Applications, Assessing VE for Training, VE & Human Systems (1 & 2), ICAT Theory & Natural Language, ICAT Applications in the Military, VE Applications in Engineering, Knowledge Acquisition for ICAT, and ICAT Applications in Aerospace.

  9. Cognitive "Habitus" and Collective Intelligence: Concepts for the Explanation of Inequality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Roy

    2005-01-01

    'Intelligence' has long been a problematic concept for educational policy-makers. Sociologists of education concerned to explain social inequalities in educational attainment have suggested that, despite the through-going criticism of the classical IQ concept, teachers continue to maintain practices which ensure that their taken-for-granted ideas…

  10. Hospital-Based Nurses’ Perceptions of the Adoption of Web 2.0 Tools for Knowledge Sharing, Learning, Social Interaction and the Production of Collective Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P < .05). Behavioral intention was positively correlated with attitude (r = .72, P < .05), perceived behavioral control (r = .58, P < .05), and subjective norm (r = .45, P < .05). In their decomposed constructs, perceived usefulness (r = .7, P < .05), relative advantage (r = .64, P < .05), and compatibility (r = .60, P < .05) were positively correlated with attitude, but perceived ease of use was not significantly correlated (r = .004, P < .05) with it. Peer (r = .47, P < .05), senior management (r = .24, P < .05), and hospital (r = .45, P < .05) influences had positive correlations with subjective norm. Resource (r = .41, P < .05) and technological (r = .69, P < .05) conditions were positively correlated with perceived behavioral control. Conclusions The identified behavioral perceptions may further health policy makers’ understanding of nurses

  11. Nurture net of nature: Re-evaluating the role of shared environments in academic achievement and verbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2015-07-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods - that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471

  12. Nurture Net of Nature: Re-Evaluating the Role of Shared Environments in Academic Achievement and Verbal Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods – that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471

  13. Intelligent buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The term intelligent buildings refers to today's sophisticated living environments that must support communication, energy, fire and security protection systems. This book examines a variety of topics including building automation, information technology, and systems and facilities management.

  14. Distributed Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed intelligence occurs when people in an organization take responsibility for creating innovations, solving problems, and making decisions. Organizations that have it excel in their markets and the global environment. (Author/JOW)

  15. Efficient High Performance Collective Communication for Distributed Memory Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Qasim

    2009-01-01

    Collective communication allows efficient communication and synchronization among a collection of processes, unlike point-to-point communication that only involves a pair of communicating processes. Achieving high performance for both kernels and full-scale applications running on a distributed memory system requires an efficient implementation of…

  16. The "Intelligent Classroom": Changing Teaching and Learning with an Evolving Technological Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Laura R.; Cooperstock, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and use of the Intelligent Classroom collaborative project at McGill University that explored technology use to improve teaching and learning. Explains the hardware and software installation that allows for the automated capture of audio, video, slides, and handwritten annotations during a live lecture, with subsequent…

  17. Model of human collective decision-making in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Giannoccaro, Ilaria

    2015-12-01

    A continuous-time Markov process is proposed to analyze how a group of humans solves a complex task, consisting in the search of the optimal set of decisions on a fitness landscape. Individuals change their opinions driven by two different forces: (i) the self-interest, which pushes them to increase their own fitness values, and (ii) the social interactions, which push individuals to reduce the diversity of their opinions in order to reach consensus. Results show that the performance of the group is strongly affected by the strength of social interactions and by the level of knowledge of the individuals. Increasing the strength of social interactions improves the performance of the team. However, too strong social interactions slow down the search of the optimal solution and worsen the performance of the group. In particular, we find that the threshold value of the social interaction strength, which leads to the emergence of a superior intelligence of the group, is just the critical threshold at which the consensus among the members sets in. We also prove that a moderate level of knowledge is already enough to guarantee high performance of the group in making decisions.

  18. Guidelines for Intelligence Personnel. Criminal Justice Research. Prevention and Control of Collective Violence, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, W. Thomas; Knoblauch, Richard L.

    The objective of this study is to provide local law enforcement agencies with guidelines for the collection and dissemination of elements of information required for sound decision making in response to the threat or actual initiation of collective violence. Informal, semi-structured interviews in fourteen selected cities and six State police…

  19. How to improve WEEE management? Novel approach in mobile collection with application of artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Król, Aleksander; Nowakowski, Piotr; Mrówczyńska, Bogna

    2016-04-01

    In global demand of improvement of electrical and electronic waste management systems, stakeholders look for effective collection systems that generate minimal costs. In this study we propose a novel model for application in mobile collection schemes - on demand that waste be taken back from household residents. This type of the waste equipment collection is comfortable for residents as they can indicate day and time windows for the take-back. Collecting companies are interested in lowering operational costs required for service. This lowering includes selection of a sufficient number of vehicles and employees, and then minimising the routes' length in order to achieve savings in fuel consumption, and lowering of emissions. In the proposed model we use a genetic algorithm for optimisation of the route length and number of vehicles and fuzzy logic for representation of the household residents' satisfaction on the take-back service provided by collection companies. Also, modern communication channels like websites or mobile phone applications can be used to send the waste equipment take-back request from the household, so it has the potential to be developed in future applications. The operation of the model has been presented in the case study of a city in southern Poland. The results can be useful for collecting companies and software producers for preparation of new applications to be used in waste collection. PMID:26944864

  20. Automated mainframe data collection in a network environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The progress and direction of the computer industry have resulted in widespread use of dissimilar and incompatible mainframe data systems. Data collection from these multiple systems is a labor intensive task. In the past, data collection had been restricted to the efforts of personnel specially trained on each system. Information is one of the most important resources an organizations has. Any improvement in an organization's ability to access and manage that information provides a competitive advantage. This problem of data collection is compounded at NASA sites by multi-center and contractor operations. The Centralized Automated Data Retrieval System (CADRS) is designed to provide a common interface that would permit data access, query, and retrieval from multiple contractor and NASA systems. The methods developed for CADRS have a strong commercial potential in that they would be applicable for any industry that needs inter-department, inter-company, or inter-agency data communications. The widespread use of multi-system data networks, that combine older legacy systems with newer decentralized networks, has made data retrieval a critical problem for information dependent industries. Implementing the technology discussed in this paper would reduce operational expense and improve data collection on these composite data systems.

  1. Participatory Learning Environments and Collective Meaning Making Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin B.

    2011-01-01

    The new media literacies (NMLs) are a set of social skills and cultural competencies that students and teachers need to acquire in order to fully participate in the new media environment. NMLs shift the focus of traditional literacy from individual expression to community involvement. They offer ways of both thinking and doing that recruit the…

  2. Practical intelligence at work: relationship between aging and cognitive efficiency among managers in a bank environment.

    PubMed

    Colonia-Willner, R

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine which better predicts performance among bank managers: tacit practical knowledge as assessed by the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Managers (TKIM) or 2 psychometric measures of reasoning, the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (Raven's) and the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). Two hundred bank managers (43 experts and 157 nonexperts), ages 24-59 years old, participated. Increased age was associated with lower performance in Raven's and the DAT but less so in the TKIM; best performing older managers on average had high levels of tacit knowledge, although they scored lower on psychometric reasoning measures; TKIM predicted managerial skill; DAT and Raven's did not. These results suggest that stabilization of some aspects of intelligence may occur in old age. Implications of the findings for the study of practical intelligence, expertise, and compensatory abilities are discussed. PMID:9533189

  3. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Toni; Zamora, Jordi; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena. PMID:27093274

  4. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Toni; Zamora, Jordi; Eguíluz, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena. PMID:27093274

  5. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This... of the information to be collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the use of...

  6. 'My Virtual Dream': Collective Neurofeedback in an Immersive Art Environment.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Natasha; Ritter, Petra; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony Randal

    2015-01-01

    While human brains are specialized for complex and variable real world tasks, most neuroscience studies reduce environmental complexity, which limits the range of behaviours that can be explored. Motivated to overcome this limitation, we conducted a large-scale experiment with electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology as part of an immersive multi-media science-art installation. Data from 523 participants were collected in a single night. The exploratory experiment was designed as a collective computer game where players manipulated mental states of relaxation and concentration with neurofeedback targeting modulation of relative spectral power in alpha and beta frequency ranges. Besides validating robust time-of-night effects, gender differences and distinct spectral power patterns for the two mental states, our results also show differences in neurofeedback learning outcome. The unusually large sample size allowed us to detect unprecedented speed of learning changes in the power spectrum (~ 1 min). Moreover, we found that participants' baseline brain activity predicted subsequent neurofeedback beta training, indicating state-dependent learning. Besides revealing these training effects, which are relevant for BCI applications, our results validate a novel platform engaging art and science and fostering the understanding of brains under natural conditions. PMID:26154513

  7. Evaluation of distinct input methods of an intelligent wheelchair in simulated and real environments: a performance and usability study.

    PubMed

    Faria, Brígida Mónica; Vasconcelos, Sérgio; Reis, Luís Paulo; Lau, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evaluating the usability of an intelligent wheelchair (IW) in both real and simulated environments. The wheelchair is controlled at a high-level by a flexible multimodal interface, using voice commands, facial expressions, head movements and joystick as its main inputs. A quasi-experimental design was applied including a deterministic sample with a questionnaire that enabled to apply the system usability scale. The subjects were divided in two independent samples: 46 individuals performing the experiment with an IW in a simulated environment (28 using different commands in a sequential way and 18 with the liberty to choose the command); 12 individuals performing the experiment with a real IW The main conclusion achieved by this study is that the usability of the IW in a real environment is higher than in the simulated environment. However, there were not statistical evidences to affirm that there are differences between the real and simulated wheelchairs in terms of safety and control. Also, most of users considered the multimodal way of driving the wheelchair very practical and satisfactory. Thus, it may be concluded that the multimodal interfaces enables very easy and safe control of the IW both in simulated and real environments. PMID:23923691

  8. 76 FR 13204 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial...: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. ] This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the use of automated collection techniques or the...

  9. 75 FR 50745 - Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE) AGENCY... the Environment. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before October 18, 2010 to be... the Environment. OMB Number: 0596-0127. Expiration Date of Approval: 1/31/11. Type of...

  10. Role of information in collective action in dynamic disaster environments.

    PubMed

    Celik, Suleyman; Corbacioglu, Sitki

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the major issues facing collective response operations after destructive earthquakes. The small-n case study design employs qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate the decision-making process in a context of seismic risk to exemplify how public managers can utilise information and communication systems to ensure collaborative actions in managing an extreme event. Fifty-eight semi-structured interviews with 39 key decision-makers and researchers and content analyses of daily reports from Cumhuriyet comprise the main data sources. The study compares and contrasts the Turkish disaster management system following the Marmara and Duzce earthquakes of 1999. It addresses whether the use of information and communication technologies significantly affected its performance. The study's findings reveal that difficulties in accessing and exchanging timely and accurate disaster-relevant information inhibited coordination during the Marmara response while increased communication functions improved coordination and search-and-rescue activities during the Duzce response. PMID:19682005

  11. The rules of information aggregation and emergence of collective intelligent behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Bettencourt, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Information is a peculiar quantity. Unlike matter or energy, the aggregation of knowledge from many individuals can in fact produce more (or less) information than the sum of its parts. We use the formalism of information theory to derive general principles of information aggregation and collective organization under which information pooling can be synergetic or to identify when it will be redundant. We then show how several problems of collective cognition and coordination can be understood in terms of the conditions that allow for the minimization of uncertainty (maximization of predictability) under information pooling over many individuals. We discuss in some detail how collective coordination in swarms, markets, language processing and collaborative filtering may be guided by the optimal aggregation of information over many sources and identify circumstances when these processes fail, leading e.g. to inefficient markets. The contrast to approaches to understand coordination and collaboration via traditional decision and game theory is discussed as well as the incentives to individuals and groups to find optimal information aggregation mechanisms.

  12. Swarm Intelligence in Animal Groups: When Can a Collective Out-Perform an Expert?

    PubMed Central

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.; King, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their ‘collective cognition’, or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific ‘leaders’, those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions – where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes – the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated. PMID:21124803

  13. Image restoration in multisensor missile seeker environments for design of intelligent integrated processing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshan, Malur K.; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Amphay, Sengvieng A.; Sundstrom, Bryce M.

    1997-10-01

    Two major factors that could limit successful implementations of image restoration and superresolution algorithms in missile seeker applications are, (i) lack of accurate knowledge of sensor point spread function (PSF) parameters, and (ii) noise-induced artifacts in the restoration process. The robustness properties of a recently developed blind iterative Maximum Likelihood (ML) restoration algorithm to inaccuracies in sensor PSF are established in this paper. Two modifications to this algorithm that successfully equip it to suppress artifacts resulting from the presence of high frequency noise components are outlined. Performance evaluation studies with 1D and 2D signals are included to demonstrate that these algorithms have superresolution capabilities while possessing also attractive robustness and artifact suppression properties. The algorithms developed here hence contribute to efficient designs of intelligent integrated processing architectures for smart weapon applications.

  14. The effect of three variables on synthetic speech intelligibility in noisy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munlin, Joyce C.

    1990-03-01

    Military Command and Control (C2) requires easy access to information needed for the commander's situation assessment and direction of troops. Providing this information via synthetic speech is a viable alternative, but additional information is required before speech systems can be implemented for C2 functions. An experiment was conducted to study several factors which may affect the intelligibility of synthetic speech. The factors examined were: (1) speech rate; (2) synthetic speech messages presented at lower, the same, and higher frequencies than background noise frequency; (3) voice richness; and (4) interactions between speech rate, voice fundamental frequency, and voice richness. Response latency and recognition accuracy were measured. Results clearly indicate that increasing speech rate leads to an increase latency and a decrease in recognition accuracy, at least for the novice user. No effect of voice fundamental frequency or richness was demonstrated.

  15. Smart Collections: Can Artificial Intelligence Tools and Techniques Assist with Discovering, Evaluating and Tagging Digital Learning Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibbrandt, Richard; Yang, Dongqiang; Pfitzner, Darius; Powers, David; Mitchell, Pru; Hayman, Sarah; Eddy, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a joint proof of concept project undertaken by researchers from the Flinders University Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in partnership with information managers from the Education Network Australia (edna) team at Education Services Australia to address the question of whether artificial intelligence techniques could be…

  16. Information flow, opinion polling and collective intelligence in house-hunting social insects.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Pratt, Stephen C; Mallon, Eamonn B; Britton, Nicholas F; Sumpter, David J T

    2002-11-29

    The sharing and collective processing of information by certain insect societies is one of the reasons that they warrant the superlative epithet 'super-organisms' (Franks 1989, Am. Sci. 77, 138-145). We describe a detailed experimental and mathematical analysis of information exchange and decision-making in, arguably, the most difficult collective choices that social insects face: namely, house hunting by complete societies. The key issue is how can a complete colony select the single best nest-site among several alternatives? Individual scouts respond to the diverse information they have personally obtained about the quality of a potential nest-site by producing a recruitment signal. The colony then deliberates over (i.e. integrates) different incoming recruitment signals associated with different potential nest-sites to achieve a well-informed collective decision. We compare this process in honeybees and in the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Notwithstanding many differences - for example, honeybee colonies have 100 times more individuals than L. albipennis colonies - there are certain similarities in the fundamental algorithms these societies appear to employ when they are house hunting. Scout honeybees use the full power of the waggle dance to inform their nest-mates about the distance and direction of a potential nest-site (and they indicate the quality of a nest-site indirectly through the vigour of their dance), and yet individual bees perhaps only rarely make direct comparisons of such sites. By contrast, scouts from L. albipennis colonies often compare nest-sites, but they cannot directly inform one another of their estimation of the quality of a potential site. Instead, they discriminate between sites by initiating recruitment sooner to better ones. Nevertheless, both species do make use of forms of opinion polling. For example, scout bees that have formerly danced for a certain site cease such advertising and monitor the dances of others at random. That is

  17. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. Objective The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. Methods We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. Results We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. Conclusions We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems. PMID:26952574

  18. iPixel: a visual content-based and semantic search engine for retrieving digitized mammograms by using collective intelligence.

    PubMed

    Alor-Hernández, Giner; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto A

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, traditional search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing facilitate the retrieval of information in the format of images, but the results are not always useful for the users. This is mainly due to two problems: (1) the semantic keywords are not taken into consideration and (2) it is not always possible to establish a query using the image features. This issue has been covered in different domains in order to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The expert community has focussed their attention on the healthcare domain, where a lot of visual information for medical analysis is available. This paper provides a solution called iPixel Visual Search Engine, which involves semantics and content issues in order to search for digitized mammograms. iPixel offers the possibility of retrieving mammogram features using collective intelligence and implementing a CBIR algorithm. Our proposal compares not only features with similar semantic meaning, but also visual features. In this sense, the comparisons are made in different ways: by the number of regions per image, by maximum and minimum size of regions per image and by average intensity level of each region. iPixel Visual Search Engine supports the medical community in differential diagnoses related to the diseases of the breast. The iPixel Visual Search Engine has been validated by experts in the healthcare domain, such as radiologists, in addition to experts in digital image analysis. PMID:22656866

  19. Fuzzy Cognitive and Social Negotiation Agent Strategy for Computational Collective Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohra, Amine; Madani, Kurosh; Kanzari, Dalel

    Finding the adequate (win-win solutions for both parties) negotiation strategy with incomplete information for autonomous agents, even in one-to-one negotiation, is a complex problem. Elsewhere, negotiation behaviors, in which the characters such as conciliatory or aggressive define a 'psychological' aspect of the negotiator personality, play an important role. The aim of this paper is to develop a fuzzy cognitive and social negotiation strategy for autonomous agents with incomplete information, where the characters conciliatory, neutral, or aggressive, are suggested to be integrated in negotiation behaviors (inspired from research works aiming to analyze human behavior and those on social negotiation psychology). For this purpose, first, one-to-one bargaining process, in which a buyer agent and a seller agent negotiate over single issue (price), is developed for a time-dependent strategy (based on time-dependent behaviors of Faratin et al.) and for a fuzzy cognitive and social strategy. Second, experimental environments and measures, allowing a set of experiments, carried out for different negotiation deadlines of buyer and seller agents, are detailed. Third, experimental results for both time-dependent and fuzzy cognitive and social strategies are presented, analyzed, and compared for different deadlines of agents. The suggested fuzzy cognitive and social strategy allows agents to improve the negotiation process, with regard to the time-dependent one, in terms of agent utilities, round number to reach an agreement, and percentage of agreements.

  20. An Intelligent and Interactive Simulation and Tutoring Environment for Exploring and Learning Simple Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep

    Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to

  1. Activity Inference for Ambient Intelligence Through Handling Artifacts in a Healthcare Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco E.; González-Fraga, Jose Ángel; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    2012-01-01

    Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important elements of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (artifact-behavior modeling, event interpretation and context extraction). The framework extends the roaming beat (RB) concept by obtaining the representation using three kinds of technologies for activity inference. The RB is based on both analysis and recognition from artifact behavior for activity inference. A practical case is shown in a nursing home where a system affording 91.35% effectiveness was implemented in situ. Three examples are shown using RB representation for activity representation. Framework description, RB description and CALog system overcome distinct problems such as the feasibility to implement AmI systems, and to show the feasibility for accomplishing the challenges related to activity recognition based on artifact recognition. We discuss how the use of RBs might positively impact the problems faced by designers and developers for recovering information in an easier manner and thus they can develop tools focused on the user. PMID:22368512

  2. Artificial intelligence environment for the analysis and classification of errors in discrete sequential processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    The study evolved over two phases. First, an existing artificial intelligence technique, heuristic state space search, was used to successfully address and resolve significant issues that have prevented automated error classification in the past. A general method was devised for constructing heuristic functions to guide the search process, which successfully avoided the combinatorial explosion normally associated with search paradigms. A prototype error classifier, SLIPS/I, was tested and evaluated using both real-world data from a databank of speech errors and artificially generated random errors. It showed that heuristic state space search is a viable paradigm for conducting domain-independent error classification within practical limits of memory space and processing time. The second phase considered sequential error classification as a diagnostic process in which a set of disorders (elementary errors) is said to be a classification of an observed set of manifestations (local differences between an intended sequence and the errorful sequence) it if provides a regular cover for them. Using a model of abductive logic based on the set covering theory, this new perspective of error classification as a diagnostic process models human diagnostic reasoning in classifying complex errors. A high level, non-procedural error specification language (ESL) was also designed.

  3. Data Management in an Intelligent Environment for Cognitive Disabled and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loniewski, Grzegorz; Ramon, Emilio Lorente; Walderhaug, Ståle; Martinez Franco, Sixto; Cubillos Esteve, Juan Jose; Marco, Eduardo Sebastian

    Recently intelligent and personalized medical systems tend to be one of the most important branches of the health-care domain, playing a great role in improving the quality of life of people that want to feel safe and to be assisted not regarding the place they are. This paper presents an innovative way of data management based on a middleware platform providing services for fast and easy creation of applications dealing with the problems of taking care of patients in their homes. The work was carried out as a part of the MPOWER project, funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme, and carried out by a multinational development team. The project focuses on supporting activities of daily living and provides services for elderly and cognitive disabled, e.g. people with dementia. The MPOWER platform is designed to facilitate rapid development of a variety of applications and adopt them to specific users’ needs. The paper introduces the whole platform, its functionality and principal goals along with the architectural background of data management, focusing on the different types of data that the system has to manage and analyze. The last section concludes the work done on the project.

  4. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13204) on March 10, 2011... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Commercial Environment Trade...

  5. Fungal intelligence; Or on the behaviour of microorganisms in confined micro-environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, M.; Edwards, C.; Nicolau, D. V.

    2009-07-01

    Filamentous fungi are very successful in colonising various microconfined environments, but their behaviour is usually tested on flat surfaces. This contribution presents the design, the fabrication and the use of microstructures, made of a biocompatible polymer (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS) for studying the dynamic micro-scale behaviour of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. The proposed methodology is simple to implement and uses low cost fabrication methods. The observations of the fungus growing through a variety of fabricated micro-environments revealed distinct structure-dependent and structure-induced responses. Generalising the proposed methodology we propose a tool for high-throughput studies of numerous fungal species.

  6. Progressions of Qualitative Models as a Foundation for Intelligent Learning Environments. Report No. 6277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Y.; Frederiksen, John R.

    This report discusses the importance of presenting qualitative, causally consistent models in the initial stages of learning so that students can gain an understanding of basic electrical circuit concepts and principles that builds on their preexisting ways of reasoning about physical phenomena, and it argues that tutoring environments must help…

  7. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  8. Intelligent Instruction by Computer: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Marshall J., Ed.; Psotka, Joseph, Ed.

    The essays collected in this volume are concerned with the field of computer-based intelligent instruction. The papers are organized into four groups that address the following topics: particular theoretical approaches (3 titles); the development and improvement of tools and environments (3 titles); the power of well-engineered implementations and…

  9. Some strategies to address the challenges of collecting observational data in a busy clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; McDonald, Glenda; Luck, Lauretta; Waine, Melissa; Wilkes, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Studies drawing on observational methods can provide vital data to enhance healthcare. However, collecting observational data in clinical settings is replete with challenges, particularly where multiple data-collecting observers are used. Observers collecting data require shared understanding and training to ensure data quality, and particularly, to confirm accurate and consistent identification, discrimination and recording of data. The aim of this paper is to describe strategies for preparing and supporting multiple researchers tasked with collecting observational data in a busy, and often unpredictable, hospital environment. We hope our insights might assist future researchers undertaking research in similar settings. PMID:27188039

  10. Towards Intelligent Environments: An Augmented Reality–Brain–Machine Interface Operated with a See-Through Head-Mount Display

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain–machine interface (BMI) or brain–computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR–BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR–BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  11. Towards intelligent environments: an augmented reality-brain-machine interface operated with a see-through head-mount display.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain-machine interface (BMI) or brain-computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR-BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR-BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  12. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

  13. Lévy-like behaviour in deterministic models of intelligent agents exploring heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, D.; Miramontes, O.; Larralde, H.

    2009-10-01

    Many studies on animal and human movement patterns report the existence of scaling laws and power-law distributions. Whereas a number of random walk models have been proposed to explain observations, in many situations individuals actually rely on mental maps to explore strongly heterogeneous environments. In this work, we study a model of a deterministic walker, visiting sites randomly distributed on the plane and with varying weight or attractiveness. At each step, the walker minimizes a function that depends on the distance to the next unvisited target (cost) and on the weight of that target (gain). If the target weight distribution is a power law, p(k) ~ k-β, in some range of the exponent β, the foraging medium induces movements that are similar to Lévy flights and are characterized by non-trivial exponents. We explore variations of the choice rule in order to test the robustness of the model and argue that the addition of noise has a limited impact on the dynamics in strongly disordered media.

  14. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Automated Guided Vehicle Systems in Changing Logistics Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, L.; Behling, S.; Buhrs, S.

    2008-06-01

    The usage of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) is growing. This has not always been the case in the past. A new record of the sells numbers is the result of inventive developments, new applications and modern thinking. One market that AGVS were not able to thoroughly conquer yet were rapidly changing logistics environments. The advantages in recurrent transportation with AGVS used to be hindered by the needs of flexibility. When nowadays managers talk about Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) there is no reason not to consider AGVS. Fixed guidelines, permanent transfer stations and static routes are no necessity for most AGVS producers. Flexible Manufacturing Systems can raise profitability with AGVS. When robots start saving billions in production costs, the next step at same plants are automated materials handling systems. Today, there are hundreds of instances of computer-controlled systems designed to handle and transport materials, many of which have replaced conventional human-driven platform trucks. Reduced costs due to damages and failures, tracking and tracing as well as improved production scheduling on top of fewer personnel needs are only some of the advantages.

  15. Ambient Intelligence in Multimeda and Virtual Reality Environments for the rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Attila; Cecilia, Sik Lanyi

    This chapter presents a general overview about the use of multimedia and virtual reality in rehabilitation and assistive and preventive healthcare. This chapter deals with multimedia, virtual reality applications based AI intended for use by medical doctors, nurses, special teachers and further interested persons. It describes methods how multimedia and virtual reality is able to assist their work. These include the areas how multimedia and virtual reality can help the patients everyday life and their rehabilitation. In the second part of the chapter we present the Virtual Therapy Room (VTR) a realized application for aphasic patients that was created for practicing communication and expressing emotions in a group therapy setting. The VTR shows a room that contains a virtual therapist and four virtual patients (avatars). The avatars are utilizing their knowledge base in order to answer the questions of the user providing an AI environment for the rehabilitation. The user of the VTR is the aphasic patient who has to solve the exercises. The picture that is relevant for the actual task appears on the virtual blackboard. Patient answers questions of the virtual therapist. Questions are about pictures describing an activity or an object in different levels. Patient can ask an avatar for answer. If the avatar knows the answer the avatars emotion changes to happy instead of sad. The avatar expresses its emotions in different dimensions. Its behavior, face-mimic, voice-tone and response also changes. The emotion system can be described as a deterministic finite automaton where places are emotion-states and the transition function of the automaton is derived from the input-response reaction of an avatar. Natural language processing techniques were also implemented in order to establish highquality human-computer interface windows for each of the avatars. Aphasic patients are able to interact with avatars via these interfaces. At the end of the chapter we visualize the

  16. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Application to Use the Automated... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14535) on March 12, 2012, allowing for...

  17. Intelligence supportability in future systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Brian; Watson, Mariah; Vayette, Corey; Fiduk, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community (IC) is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportabilitiy requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it. The Air Force Material Command (AFMC) has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis (ISA) process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies. Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost, schedule and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will also influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements.

  18. How much benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: an analysis of its potential contribution to safety and environment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank; Carsten, Oliver; Tate, Fergus

    2012-09-01

    The UK Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project produced a rich database with high-resolution data on driver behaviour covering a comprehensive range of road environment. The field trials provided vital information on driver behaviour in the presence of ISA. The purpose of this paper is to exploit the information gathered in the field trials to predict the impacts of various forms of ISA and to assess whether ISA is viable in terms of benefit-to-cost ratio. ISA is predicted to save up to 33% of accidents on urban roads, and to reduce CO(2) emissions by up to 5.8% on 70 mph roads. In order to investigate the long-term impacts of ISA, two hypothetical deployment scenarios were envisaged covering a 60-year appraisal period. The results indicate that ISA could deliver a very healthy benefit-to-cost ratio, ranging from 3.4 to 7.4, depending on the deployment scenarios. Under both deployment scenarios, ISA has recovered its implementation costs in less than 15 years. It can be concluded that implementation of ISA is clearly justified from a social cost and benefit perspective. Of the two deployment scenarios, the Market Driven one is substantially outperformed by the Authority Driven one. The benefits of ISA on fuel saving and emission reduction are real but not substantial, in comparison with the benefits on accident reduction; up to 98% of benefits are attributable to accident savings. Indeed, ISA is predicted to lead to a savings of 30% in fatal crashes and 25% in serious crashes over the 60-year period modelled. PMID:22664669

  19. Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns—Validation on the Intelligent Sensor Example Designed for Mine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the security issues of intelligent sensors that are able to measure and process data and communicate with other information technology (IT) devices or systems. Such sensors are often used in high risk applications. To improve their robustness, the sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way to provide them with assurance. One of assurance creation methodologies is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408), used for IT products and systems. The contribution of the paper is a Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for the intelligent sensors security development. The paper concisely presents this method and its evaluation for the sensor detecting methane in a mine, focusing on the security problem of the intelligent sensor definition and solution. The aim of the validation is to evaluate and improve the introduced method. PMID:22399888

  20. An investigation of artificial-intelligence methods for use in programming environments: The inclusion of an expert programmer in the SLAW

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Structured Language Algorithm Writer (SLAW) has been developed at Tulane University for use on IBM-PC's over the past several years. The environment, currently in its third generation, allows for the creation and editing of a structure chart with automatic translation of the algorithm into Pascal, FORTRAN and BASIC code. The scope of this research has centered around the artificial intelligence methods and techniques necessary to include an expert tutor into the SLAW environment. The main aid provided by this expert tutor is assisting the user in the creation of valid algorithms and acquiring certain algorithm design concepts. The main tasks which were necessary to accomplish these goals have been the ability of the tutor to understand the goal of the algorithms and also the proper creation and use of a knowledge base of algorithms. The overall focus of the environment, which differs from other programming environments, is that it centers upon the design phase, rather than programming coding and syntax. By focusing on design it leads to developing problem solving skills rather than programming skills, which are the underlying basis of computer science and all sciences. Thus the objective of the research has been to investigate the marriage of software engineering and artificial intelligence into a useful teaching tool focusing on design rather than coding skills.

  1. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  2. World-Wide Intelligent Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…

  3. RECIPROCAL RELATION BETWEEN POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT: INNOVATIONS ON FLORA DATA COLLECTION.

    PubMed

    Dangol, D R

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social and natural scientists have gained interest in understanding reciprocal relations between human populations and the environment. Research methods have been developed for investigating the secrets of interations of human and environment. This paper describes the flora data collection methods used in a longitudinal research project "Reciprocal Relation Between Population and the Environment" and highlights how the research sites were selected, how the research plots were designed in each site and how the qualitative and quantitative data of flora found in each research plot were recorded. This paper also discusses how the flora data can be linked with sociodemographic data and how the data can be used to unfold the effect of human activities on flora diversity and/or the effect of flora on the life of the human population in the study area. PMID:22923985

  4. Intelligibility, subjective ratings and completion time scores using the FAAF test with hearing-impaired subjects and noisy reverberant environments.

    PubMed

    Shields, P W; Campbell, D R

    2001-08-01

    A series of experiments have been performed with the primary aim of assessing the performance of a signal-processing algorithm for a possible future hearing aid application. As part of this work the four alternative auditory feature (FAAF) test was used to obtain a quantitative assessment of speech intelligibility and a subjective assessment of speech quality. This paper reports results of experiments using normal hearing (NH) subjects that provide partial verification of the FAAF test originators' prior work. Also reported are intelligibility score, mean opinion score (MOS) and completion time data obtained by use of the PMID:11694098

  5. The Spacecraft Materials Selector: An Artificial Intelligence System for Preliminary Design Trade Studies, Materials Assessments, and Estimates of Environments Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Woll, S. L. B.

    2000-01-01

    Institutions need ways to retain valuable information even as experienced individuals leave an organization. Modern electronic systems have enough capacity to retain large quantities of information that can mitigate the loss of experience. Performance information for long-term space applications is relatively scarce and specific information (typically held by a few individuals within a single project) is often rather narrowly distributed. Spacecraft operate under severe conditions and the consequences of hardware and/or system failures, in terms of cost, loss of information, and time required to replace the loss, are extreme. These risk factors place a premium on appropriate choice of materials and components for space applications. An expert system is a very cost-effective method for sharing valuable and scarce information about spacecraft performance. Boeing has an artificial intelligence software package, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), to construct and operate knowledge bases to selectively recall and distribute information about specific subjects. A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft has been developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described. The knowledge base is a backward-chaining, rule-based system. The user answers a sequence of questions, and the expert system provides estimates of optical and mechanical performance of selected materials under specific environmental conditions. The initial operating capability of the system will include data for Kapton, silverized Teflon, selected paints, silicone-based materials, and certain metals. For situations where a mission profile (launch date, orbital parameters, mission duration, spacecraft orientation) is not precisely defined, the knowledge base still attempts to provide qualitative observations about materials performance and likely

  6. Designing EvoRoom: An Immersive Simulation Environment for Collective Inquiry in Secondary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Michelle Mei Yee

    This dissertation investigates the design of complex inquiry for co-located students to work as a knowledge community within a mixed-reality learning environment. It presents the design of an immersive simulation called EvoRoom and corresponding collective inquiry activities that allow students to explore concepts around topics of evolution and biodiversity in a Grade 11 Biology course. EvoRoom is a room-sized simulation of a rainforest, modeled after Borneo in Southeast Asia, where several projected displays are stitched together to form a large, animated simulation on each opposing wall of the room. This serves to create an immersive environment in which students work collaboratively as individuals, in small groups and a collective community to investigate science topics using the simulations as an evidentiary base. Researchers and a secondary science teacher co-designed a multi-week curriculum that prepared students with preliminary ideas and expertise, then provided them with guided activities within EvoRoom, supported by tablet-based software as well as larger visualizations of their collective progress. Designs encompassed the broader curriculum, as well as all EvoRoom materials (e.g., projected displays, student tablet interfaces, collective visualizations) and activity sequences. This thesis describes a series of three designs that were developed and enacted iteratively over two and a half years, presenting key features that enhanced students' experiences within the immersive environment, their interactions with peers, and their inquiry outcomes. Primary research questions are concerned with the nature of effective design for such activities and environments, and the kinds of interactions that are seen at the individual, collaborative and whole-class levels. The findings fall under one of three themes: 1) the physicality of the room, 2) the pedagogical script for student observation and reflection and collaboration, and 3) ways of including collective

  7. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ronfani, Luca; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Mariuz, Marika; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Ferluga, Valentina; Knowles, Alessandra; Montico, Marcella; Barbone, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. Methods The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III). Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale), with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables. Results Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found. Conclusions Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development

  8. Neurobiology of intelligence: Health implications?

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy R; Thompson, Paul M

    2004-06-01

    Extract: Understanding the neurobiology of intelligence may, in turn, help illuminate the complex relationships between intelligence and health. There is strong evidence that the lateral prefrontal cortex and possibly other brain areas support intelligent behavior. Variations in intelligence and brain structure are heritable, but are also influenced by factors such as education, family environment, and environmental hazards. These exciting scientific advances encourage renewed responsiveness to the social and ethical dimensions of such research, including its health-relevance. PMID:20704978

  9. An Intelligent Tutoring System on the WWW Supporting Interactive Simulation Environment with a Multimedia Viewer Control Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Mina; Koike, Yoshimasa; Fukuhara, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Yukihiro

    This paper describes the features of the 1996 version of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) called CALAT. The architecture of CALAT is an extension of conventional World Wide Web systems, consisting of an ITS kernel on the server side and a multimedia viewer on the client side. The viewer control system is designed to achieve both educationally…

  10. Cognitive Task Analysis and Intelligent Computer-Based Training Systems: Lessons Learned from Coached Practice Environments in Air Force Avionics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Sandra N.; Hall, Ellen; Lesgold, Alan

    This paper describes some results of a collaborative effort between the University of Pittsburgh and the Air Force to develop advanced troubleshooting training for F-15 maintenance technicians. The focus is on the cognitive task methodology used in the development of three intelligent tutoring systems to inform their instructional content and…

  11. Trends in the salience of data collected in a multi user virtual environment: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane

    In this study, by exploring patterns in the degree of physical salience of the data the students collected, I investigated the relationship between the level of students' tendency to frame explanations in terms of complex patterns and evidence of how they attend to and select data in support of their developing understandings of causal relationships. I accomplished this by analyzing longitudinal data collected as part of a larger study of 143 7th grade students (clustered within 36 teams, 5 teachers, and 2 schools in the same Northeastern school district) as they navigated and collected data in an ecosystems-based multi-user virtual environment curriculum known as the EcoMUVE Pond module (Metcalf, Kamarainen, Tutwiler, Grotzer, Dede, 2011) . Using individual growth modeling (Singer & Willett, 2003) I found no direct link between student pre-intervention tendency to offer explanations containing complex causal components and patterns of physical salience-driven data collection (average physical salience level, number of low physical salience data points collected, and proportion of low physical salience data points collected), though prior science content knowledge did affect the initial status and rate of change of outcomes in the average physical salience level and proportion of low physical salience data collected over time. The findings of this study suggest two issues for consideration about the use of MUVEs to study student data collection behaviors in complex spaces. Firstly, the structure of the curriculum in which the MUVE is embedded might have a direct effect on what types of data students choose to collect. This undercuts our ability to make inferences about student-driven decisions to collect specific types of data, and suggests that a more open-ended curricular model might be better suited to this type of inquiry. Secondly, differences between teachers' choices in how to facilitate the units likely contribute to the variance in student data collection

  12. Intelligent Tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  13. Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.

    PubMed

    Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

  14. Modeling and analysis of collective cell migration in an in vivo three-dimensional environment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Danfeng; Dai, Wei; Prasad, Mohit; Luo, Junjie; Gov, Nir S; Montell, Denise J

    2016-04-12

    A long-standing question in collective cell migration has been what might be the relative advantage of forming a cluster over migrating individually. Does an increase in the size of a collectively migrating group of cells enable them to sample the chemical gradient over a greater distance because the difference between front and rear of a cluster would be greater than for single cells? We combined theoretical modeling with experiments to study collective migration of the border cells in-between nurse cells in the Drosophila egg chamber. We discovered that cluster size is positively correlated with migration speed, up to a particular point above which speed plummets. This may be due to the effect of viscous drag from surrounding nurse cells together with confinement of all of the cells within a stiff extracellular matrix. The model predicts no relationship between cluster size and velocity for cells moving on a flat surface, in contrast to movement within a 3D environment. Our analyses also suggest that the overall chemoattractant profile in the egg chamber is likely to be exponential, with the highest concentration in the oocyte. These findings provide insights into collective chemotaxis by combining theoretical modeling with experimentation. PMID:27035964

  15. A stochastic vision-based model inspired by zebrafish collective behaviour in heterogeneous environments

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Bertrand; Séguret, Axel; Halloy, José

    2016-01-01

    Collective motion is one of the most ubiquitous behaviours displayed by social organisms and has led to the development of numerous models. Recent advances in the understanding of sensory system and information processing by animals impels one to revise classical assumptions made in decisional algorithms. In this context, we present a model describing the three-dimensional visual sensory system of fish that adjust their trajectory according to their perception field. Furthermore, we introduce a stochastic process based on a probability distribution function to move in targeted directions rather than on a summation of influential vectors as is classically assumed by most models. In parallel, we present experimental results of zebrafish (alone or in group of 10) swimming in both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. We use these experimental data to set the parameter values of our model and show that this perception-based approach can simulate the collective motion of species showing cohesive behaviour in heterogeneous environments. Finally, we discuss the advances of this multilayer model and its possible outcomes in biological, physical and robotic sciences. PMID:26909173

  16. A stochastic vision-based model inspired by zebrafish collective behaviour in heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Bertrand; Séguret, Axel; Halloy, José

    2016-01-01

    Collective motion is one of the most ubiquitous behaviours displayed by social organisms and has led to the development of numerous models. Recent advances in the understanding of sensory system and information processing by animals impels one to revise classical assumptions made in decisional algorithms. In this context, we present a model describing the three-dimensional visual sensory system of fish that adjust their trajectory according to their perception field. Furthermore, we introduce a stochastic process based on a probability distribution function to move in targeted directions rather than on a summation of influential vectors as is classically assumed by most models. In parallel, we present experimental results of zebrafish (alone or in group of 10) swimming in both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. We use these experimental data to set the parameter values of our model and show that this perception-based approach can simulate the collective motion of species showing cohesive behaviour in heterogeneous environments. Finally, we discuss the advances of this multilayer model and its possible outcomes in biological, physical and robotic sciences. PMID:26909173

  17. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  18. Pathogen intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  19. Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

  20. Collective odor source estimation and search in time-variant airflow environments using mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots' search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot's detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection-diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

  1. Collective Odor Source Estimation and Search in Time-Variant Airflow Environments Using Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots’ search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot’s detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection–diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

  2. A Study on the Process Development of Collective Intelligence for Utilization of Unused Space of Abandoned Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Uk; Yang, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    Living conditions and social environment are changing through time, and recently schooling population is diminishing in Korea. Thus the number of abandoned schools has increased. In order to utilize unused space a mechanism is required for the exchange of various ideas. However, there is little effort to provide a platform for this purpose. This…

  3. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences. PMID:19169835

  4. Preliminary flight prototype waste collection subsystem. [performance of waste disposal system in weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swider, J. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The zero gravity test program demonstrated the feasibility and practicability of collecting urine from both male and female crew members in a zero gravity environment in an earthlike manner not requiring any manual handling of urine containers. In addition, the testing demonstrated that a seat which is comfortable in both regimes of operation could be designed for use on the ground and in zero-gravity. Further, the tests showed that the vortex liquid/air separator is an effective liquid/air separation method in zero gravity. Visual observations indicate essentially zero liquid carry over. The system also demonstrated its ability to handle post elimination wipes without difficulty. The designs utilized in the WCS were verified as acceptable for usage in the space shuttle or other space vehicles.

  5. A Mathematical Model of Collective Cell Migration in a Three-Dimensional, Heterogeneous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stonko, David P.; Manning, Lathiena; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle; Peercy, Bradford E.

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is essential in animal development, homeostasis, and disease progression, but many questions remain unanswered about how this process is controlled. While many kinds of individual cell movements have been characterized, less effort has been directed towards understanding how clusters of cells migrate collectively through heterogeneous, cellular environments. To explore this, we have focused on the migration of the border cells during Drosophila egg development. In this case, a cluster of different cell types coalesce and traverse as a group between large cells, called nurse cells, in the center of the egg chamber. We have developed a new model for this collective cell migration based on the forces of adhesion, repulsion, migration and stochastic fluctuation to generate the movement of discrete cells. We implement the model using Identical Math Cells, or IMCs. IMCs can each represent one biological cell of the system, or can be aggregated using increased adhesion forces to model the dynamics of larger biological cells. The domain of interest is filled with IMCs, each assigned specific biophysical properties to mimic a diversity of cell types. Using this system, we have successfully simulated the migration of the border cell cluster through an environment filled with larger cells, which represent nurse cells. Interestingly, our simulations suggest that the forces utilized in this model are sufficient to produce behaviors of the cluster that are observed in vivo, such as rotation. Our framework was developed to capture a heterogeneous cell population, and our implementation strategy allows for diverse, but precise, initial position specification over a three- dimensional domain. Therefore, we believe that this model will be useful for not only examining aspects of Drosophila oogenesis, but also for modeling other two or three-dimensional systems that have multiple cell types and where investigating the forces between cells is of interest. PMID:25875645

  6. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  7. A Study on Intelligence Sharing using the Support System for Disaster Information Collection with Information and Communication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Akihiro; Hisada, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Masahiro; Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Takizawa, Osamu; Noda, Itsuki; Sekizawa, Ai; Suematsu, Takashi; Ohgai, Akira

    We have developed a support system to facilitate the rapid and effective collection of disaster information. We have improved the system to make the investigation efficiency. As the method of improving the efficiency of the investigation, two developments of the investigator's coordinated function using an ad hoc communication and the coordinated function of the simulation to aim at investigator's security. We applied the system to an experiment in Toyohashi City in Japan, and confirmed its validity and effectiveness.

  8. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

  9. Intelligent Agents as Cognitive Tools for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational potential for intelligent agents as cognitive tools. Discusses the role of intelligent agents: managing large amounts of information (information overload), serving as a pedagogical expert, and creating programming environments for the learner. (AEF)

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  11. 78 FR 5504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of Information Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). ACTION: Notice and comment... are directly related to responsibilities assigned to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI)...

  12. Mining the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  14. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  16. Wireless intelligent monitoring and analysis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Nina; Djordjevich, Donna; Ko, Teresa; Coburn, Ben; Elliott, Stephen; Tsudama, Brett; Whitcomb, Melissa

    2004-04-01

    The wireless intelligent monitoring and analysis systems is a proof-of-concept directed at discovering solution(s) for providing decentralized intelligent data analysis and control for distributed containers equipped with wireless sensing units. The objective was to embed smart behavior directly within each wireless sensor container, through the incorporation of agent technology into each sensor suite. This approach provides intelligent directed fusion of data based on a social model of teaming behavior. This system demonstrates intelligent sensor behavior that converts raw sensor data into group knowledge to better understand the integrity of the complete container environment. The emergent team behavior is achieved with lightweight software agents that analyze sensor data based on their current behavior mode. When the system starts-up or is reconfigured the agents self-organize into virtual random teams based on the leader/member/lonely paradigm. The team leader collects sensor data from their members and investigates all abnormal situations to determine the legitimacy of high sensor readings. The team leaders flag critical situation and report this knowledge back to the user via a collection of base stations. This research provides insight into the integration issues and concerns associated with integrating multi-disciplinary fields of software agents, artificial life and autonomous sensor behavior into a complete system.

  17. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. PMID:19204482

  18. The Typologies of Successful and Unsuccessful Students in the Core Subjects of Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences in a High School Environment in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wade; Odhiambo, Eucabeth; El Khateeb, Hebatella

    The purpose of this research was to use a Tennessee high school as a research site to assess the impact of H. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI) on students' academic successes in 10th grade English, social studies, mathematics, and science classes. The research used a two-part minimally intrusive data collection protocol. The student…

  19. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Geraldo P. R.; Guidoni, Daniel L.; Pessin, Gustavo; Villas, Leandro A.; Ueyama, Jó

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i) high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii) a reduction in average trip time, (iii) a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv) reduced CO emissions PMID:27526048

  20. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments.

    PubMed

    Meneguette, Rodolfo I; Filho, Geraldo P R; Guidoni, Daniel L; Pessin, Gustavo; Villas, Leandro A; Ueyama, Jó

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i) high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii) a reduction in average trip time, (iii) a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv) reduced CO emissions. PMID:27526048

  1. Intelligent Portfolios for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L.; And Others

    The intelligent electronic portfolio goes beyond assessment of teachers to a method of strengthening their professional development in the classroom. Adopted for teachers in a 3-year doctoral program, the intelligent electronic portfolio is a collection of artifacts, indicating competencies and skills, a place to showcase accomplishments and…

  2. Exploring Relations among College Students' Prior Knowledge, Implicit Theories of Intelligence, and Self-Regulated Learning in a Hypermedia Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Robertson, Jane; Pan, Yi; Deekens, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and educators continue to explore how to assist students in the acquisition of conceptual understanding of complex science topics. While hypermedia learning environments (HLEs) afford unique opportunities to display multiple representations of these often abstract topics, students who do not engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) with…

  3. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  4. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  5. Intelligent Membranes: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent materials are claimed to overcome current drawbacks associated with the attainment of high standards of life, health, security and defense. Membrane-based sensors represent a category of smart systems capable of providing a large number of benefits to different markets of textiles, biomedicine, environment, chemistry, agriculture, architecture, transport and energy. Intelligent membranes can be characterized by superior sensitivity, broader dynamic range and highly sophisticated mechanisms of autorecovery. These prerogatives are regarded as the result of multi-compartment arrays, where complementary functions can be accommodated and well-integrated. Based on the mechanism of "sense to act", stimuli-responsive membranes adapt themselves to surrounding environments, producing desired effects such as smart regulation of transport, wetting, transcription, hydrodynamics, separation, and chemical or energy conversion. Hopefully, the design of new smart devices easier to manufacture and assemble can be realized through the integration of sensing membranes with wireless networks, looking at the ambitious challenge to establish long-distance communications. Thus, the transfer of signals to collecting systems could allow continuous and real-time monitoring of data, events and/or processes. PMID:26791465

  6. Applying an intelligent and automated emissions measurement system to characterize the RF environment for supporting wireless technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Keebler, P. F.; Phipps, K. O.

    2006-07-01

    overview of wireless emissions sources, the need for EMC characterization of power and signal cables with exposure to wireless devices, and an intelligent and automated emissions measurement system. Such a system can be used in nuclear power plants to determine the spectral quality of the wireless band, the EMC characterization of power and signal cables, and if wireless technologies can be collocated in plants while reducing the risk of interference with I and C systems. (authors)

  7. Employment Law, Negotiation, and the Business Environment: A Cooperative Collective Bargaining Negotiation of the National Hockey League Lockout of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocchetti, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    Employment law is a "must-cover" subject in business environment courses. Comparing the plethora of topics requiring coverage with the limited time devoted to employment law during a typical academic term, other important employment subjects--such as negotiation and collective bargaining--commonly receive short shrift. This article offers a…

  8. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  9. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  10. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.